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Sample records for eastern indian coast

  1. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  2. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  3. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  4. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  5. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal consensus. (e) Identification. A valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  6. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  7. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  8. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  9. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  10. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  11. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the...) of this section. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines for commercial harvests of black rockfish... measures. Pacific Coast treaty Indians fishing for black rockfish in these areas under these...

  12. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the...) of this section. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines for commercial harvests of black rockfish... measures. Pacific Coast treaty Indians fishing for black rockfish in these areas under these...

  13. Intraseasonal variability of upwelling in the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Shinoda, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    By analyzing satellite observations and conducting a series of ocean general circulation model experiments, this study examines the physical processes that determine intraseasonal variability (ISV) of the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling for the 2001-2011 period. The ISV of EIO upwelling—as indicated by sea level, thermocline depth, and sea surface temperature (SST)—is predominantly forced by atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs), and shows larger amplitudes during winter-spring season (November-April) when atmospheric ISOs are stronger than summer-fall (May-October). The chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration, another indicator of upwelling, however reveals its largest intraseasonal variability during May-October, when the mean thermocline is shallow and seasonal upwelling occurs. For both winter-spring and summer-fall seasons, the ISV of EIO sea level and thermocline depth is dominated by remote forcing from the equatorial Indian Ocean wind stress, which drives Kelvin waves that propagate along the equator and subsequently along the Sumatra-Java coasts. Local wind forcing within the EIO plays a secondary role. The ISV of SST, however, is dominated by upwelling induced by remote equatorial wind only during summer-fall, with less contribution from surface heat fluxes for this season. During winter-spring, the ISV of SST results primarily from shortwave radiation and turbulent heat flux induced by wind speed associated with the ISOs, and local forcing dominates the SST variability. In this season, the mean thermocline is deep in the warm pool and thus thermocline variability decouples from the ISV of SST. Only in summer-fall when the mean thermocline is shallow, upwelling has important impact on SST.

  14. 78 FR 15797 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster #NC-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster NC-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... Assistance Only for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated 03/01/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Areas: Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Associated...

  15. Impact of Climate change in the Mangrove Distribution across the Indian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, P.; Gouda, K. C.; Bhat, N.; Goswami, P.

    2015-12-01

    India is a tropical country surrounded by oceans in three sides i.e. Bay of Bengal in east, Arabian Sea in west, north Indian Ocean in south and by the large mountain system the Himalayas in north. Due to large coast line there is wide range of Mangroves in the coastal India. Mangroves are generally salt tolerant as well as rainfall and temperature dependent, so in this study an approach is being made for the trend analysis of the coastal weather parameters like Temperature, Rainfall, wave pattern and tide in the coastal region of India to understand the climate variability both in multiple spatial and temporal scale and also to correlate the impact of climate change on the Mangrove distribution. The weather parameters from multiple sources like satellite and reanalysis data are being analyzed in terms of the inter annual variability and trend analysis. The corresponding mangrove distribution also monitored and the correlation analysis of the weather parameters and the mangrove population are presented. The study is being carried out in country as a whole as well as along the state coast lines. Comparison of the distribution of mangrove as well as the associated parameters along the eastern and western coast are compared and it is found that there is higher variability in the mangrove distribution.

  16. Tectonic boundaries of the eastern Gulf Coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, C. Jr.; Phillips, R.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Two Precambrian extensional fault episodes, recorded in mapping from central Arkansas across Mississippi, central Alabama, southern Georgia, and into the Atlantic Ocean affected later Pennsylvanian and Triassic tectonics. This interpretation is from magnetic anomaly data and is supported by seismic, gravity, core, and well-log data. The fault system was first suspected from an anomalous magnetic high, representing a feature that affected tectonism during the Ouachita and the Alleghenian orogenies of the eastern Gulf Coast and southeastern United States. The northernmost upthrown block is considered part of an ancient passive continental margin developed during the late Precambrian. The southern downthrown block is deformed by left-lateral transverse faults active during the Ouachita Orogeny. The Ouachita Orogeny may have deformed terrain farther east than the Black Worrior basin. These transverse fault blocks were buttressed by the footwall of the extensional fault system. These left-lateral faults extending from Florida and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and southern Arkansas.

  17. 78 FR 17422 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated... Band of Cherokee Indians resulting from severe storms, flooding, landslides, and mudslides during...

  18. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  19. Assessment of coastal erosion along Indian coast on 1 : 25, 000 scaleusing satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajawat, A. S.; Chauhan, H. B.; Ratheesh, R.; Rhode, S.; Bhanderi, R. J.; Mahapatra, M.; Kumar, M.; Yadav, R.; Abraham, S. P.; Singh, S. S.; Keshri, K. N.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    The long stretch of coastline on the either side of Indian peninsula is subjected to varied coastal processes and anthropogenic pressures, which makes the coast vulnerable to erosion. There is no systematic inventory of shoreline changes occurring along the entire Indian coast on 1:25, 000 scale, which is required for planning measures to be taken up for protecting the coast at national level. It is in this context that shoreline change mapping on 1:25, 000 scale for the entire Indian coast based on multidate satellite data in GIS environment has been carried out for 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. The paper discusses salient observations and results from the shoreline change inventory. The results show that 3829 km (45.5 %) of the coast is under erosion, 3004 km (35.7 %) of the coast is getting accreted, while 1581 km (18.8 %) of the coast is more or less stable in nature. Highest percentage of the shoreline under erosion is in Nicobar Islands (88.7 %), while percentage of accreting coastline is highest for Tamil Nadu (62.3 %) and the state of Goa has highest percentage of stable shoreline (52.4 %). The analysis shows that the Indian coast has lost a net area of about 73 sq km during 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. In Tamilnadu, a net area of about 25.45 sq km have increased due to accretion, while along Nicobar Island about 93.95 sq km is lost due to erosion. The inventory has been used to prepare "Shoreline Change Atlas of the Indian Coast", brought out as Six Volumes for the entire Indian coast.

  20. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  1. Teleseismic receiver functions modeling of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    We estimate receiver functions (RFs) through the time-domain deconvolution using three-component broadband data of 100 teleseismic events (30° ⩽ ∧ ⩽ 90°) from 15 seismographs in the eastern Indian craton. Estimated radial RFs show a positive phase at 4.6-5.8 s delay time corresponding to the crustal thicknesses of 37-46 km. Through the differential evolution (DE) waveform inversion modeling of radial receiver functions, we delineate the crustal structure at 15 broadband stations. On an average, the Archean Singhbhum Odisha Craton (SOC) is characterized by a thick crust of 43 ± 3 km in comparison to a relatively thin crust of 41 ± 1 km underlying the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic terrain (CGGT). While, a thin crust of 38 ± 1 km characterizes the younger Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The main results of our modeling reveal a 46 km thick Archean crust underlying the Singhbhum granite (SG) of 3.6 Ga, which is characterized by a 3 km crustal thickening probably resulted from the Archean subduction process. Our modeling also detects a 2-3 km crustal thinning with the thinnest crust of 37 km below the region near South Singhbhum Shear Zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. Our modeling also led to the delineation of a crustal thinning of 2-3 km underlying the region in EGMB, which was influenced by a much younger (∼117 Ma) Rajmahal magmatism associated with the Gondwana break-up episode. However, our study could not detect any age-dependent variation of crustal thicknesses in the eastern Indian craton. The main result of our modeling suggests a two-phase crustal evolution process for the SOC viz. older E-W crustal thickening due to E-W plate compression and later crustal thinning episodes associated with the Dalma volcanism in the north and the Rajmahal volcanism in the South.

  2. Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Strata comprising most of the upper Paleocene in eastern North America are divided into two new pollen zones, the Carya and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Pollen data have proven to be important for correlations between Alabama-western Georgia and eastern Mississippi and between the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia. Migration of tropical plant taxa from the Caribbean to the Gulf Coast began at least 4 m.y. before the end of the Paleocene. The Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event, accompanied by a distinct pulse of plant immigration from Europe, began several hundred thousand years before the end of the Paleocene.

  3. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  4. POSSIBLE TSUNAMI ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF THE UNITED STATES INFERRED FROM INDIAN TRADITIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, Thomas H.; Snavely, Parke D.

    1985-01-01

    There is no direct geologic or historical evidence presently available to confirm that great shallow subduction earthquakes have occurred along the coast of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. However, there are reports describing Indian legends of great sea-level disturbances that may be related to large nearby earthquakes. In this letter, we briefly review the history of exploration and settlement of this region by nonnative people and then discuss legends from Indians in northern Washington and northern California. Refs.

  5. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  6. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....706 Section 660.706 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds...

  7. Heavy metals in different fishes from the middle eastern coast in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza-Chaffai, A.; Romeo, M.; Abed, E.A.

    1996-05-01

    Considerable information has been reported on trace metal concentrations of various fishes in the Mediterranean area, but there is a lack of data in the concentrations of trace metals in fishes from the southern Mediterranean. For this reason, work was done to establish a baseline of heavy metal concentrations on fishes from the coast of Sfax (middle eastern coast of Tunisia). This coast has been industrialized for many years. Nevertheless, touristic activities have been developing for the last years. This study examines the accumulation pattern of copper, cadmium, and zinc in individual organs (muscle, liver and gonad) of fishes. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. 77 FR 5265 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians-Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... publishes the Amendment to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... Ordinance No. 768 (2011) which amended Cherokee Code Chapter 18B. This notice is published in...

  9. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean.

  10. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean. PMID:26511767

  11. Tropical cyclone track Analysis over Indian Coast Using Spatio-Temporal data-mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Gyanendranath; Manjunath, Swetha; Behera, Sasmita; Mohanty, Pratap Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are a natural hazard which largely affects the lives and property with its destructive wind and heavy rainfall. Fluctuations in the frequency and intensity complicate the detection of long-term trends and play an important role in the global climate system; therefore understanding and predicting tropical cyclones track, intensity, and landfall location is of both societal and scientific significance. In this study a data-mining approach is being used to analyze the tropical cyclone track both in the temporal and spatial scale. Basically, the Indian coast line is divided into four zones viz. north east, south east in the eastern side adjoining Bay of Bengal and North west and south west in the western side adjoining Arabian sea as these coastal areas are very much vulnerable for disaster due to maximum number of landfall of Tropical Cyclones. The track and landfall associated with all the cyclones are clustered based on their intensity (Severe, moderate and low) and landfall location. The analyses are carried out for landfall location and the extent of track separately for the events happening in two seasons i.e. pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period. Along with categorization of intensity, trend analysis of track and the targeted zone of maximum damage also been studied. Algorithms are being developed for potential resilient and impact assessment of the parameters associated with cyclone disaster in the coastal region of India. One of the important objectives of this present work is also the identification of most disaster prone coastal area and becoming a part of the information support system during the cyclone period. Based on the statistics like mean, Standard Deviation, regression and correlation analysis, an index is developed which determines the level of damage and vulnerability along the coastal region. This index can be used for the early warning system of particular coastal areas for the preparedness and mitigation of future cyclone

  12. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  13. The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies. Volume 3, Great Basin/Plateau Indian Catalog, Northwest Coast/Arctic Indian Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Judith A., Ed.

    Two catalogs inventory wax cylinder collections, field recorded among Native American groups, 1890-1942. The catalog for Great Basin and Plateau Indian tribes contains entries for 174 cylinders in 7 collections from the Flathead, Nez Perce, Thompson/Okanagon, Northern Ute, and Yakima tribes. The catalog for Northwest Coast and Arctic Indian tribes…

  14. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  15. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    PubMed

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  16. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015. PMID:27211094

  17. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  18. Indian Education in Eastern Oklahoma. A Report of Fieldwork Among the Cherokee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Murray L.; And Others

    A field study of Cherokee Indians in Eastern Oklahoma revealed the following information: (1) educators were ignorant of and indifferent to the language, values, and cultural traditions of the Tribal (rural) Cherokee; (2) the Tribal Cherokees were an impoverished people; (3) both adults and children were educationally disadvantaged; and (4) Tribal…

  19. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013.

  20. Population genetic structure of Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps along Indian coast.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sandhya; Sebastian, Wilson; Gopalakrishnan, A

    2016-01-15

    Genetic stock structure and historical demography of Indian oil sardine, a commercially and ecologically important small pelagic fish, was studied using mitochondrial control region and Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) sequences. A 758 bp portion of the control region in 287 individuals and a 576 bp portion of the COI gene in 291 individuals from 10 locations along the distribution range were amplified resulting in 236 and 84 haplotypes, respectively. The high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity values (0.99 and 0.19 for control region and 0.85 and 0.004 for COI, respectively) are characteristic of populations having undergone a demographic expansion. Genetic differentiation, ΦST, was low and insignificant between populations using both control region and COI gene markers. Mismatch analysis showed a recent demographic and spatial expansion coinciding with the late Pleistocene epoch. Mantel tests revealed the lack of isolation by distance which is attributable either to high levels of migration overriding the effect of genetic drift or to insufficient time for accomplishing a balance between migration and drift after a recent range expansion.

  1. Eastern Indian Ocean microcontinent formation driven by plate motion changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, J. M.; Williams, S. E.; Halpin, J. A.; Wild, T. J.; Stilwell, J. D.; Jourdan, F.; Daczko, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The roles of plate tectonic or mantle dynamic forces in rupturing continental lithosphere remain controversial. Particularly enigmatic is the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, with plume-driven thermal weakening commonly inferred to facilitate calving. However, a role for plate tectonic reorganisations has also been suggested. Here, we show that a combination of plate tectonic reorganisation and plume-driven thermal weakening were required to calve the Batavia and Gulden Draak microcontinents in the Cretaceous Indian Ocean. We reconstruct the evolution of these two microcontinents using constraints from new paleontological samples, 40Ar/39Ar ages, and geophysical data. Calving from India occurred at 101-104 Ma, coinciding with the onset of a dramatic change in Indian plate motion. Critically, Kerguelen plume volcanism does not appear to have directly triggered calving. Rather, it is likely that plume-related thermal weakening of the Indian passive margin preconditioned it for microcontinent formation but calving was triggered by changes in plate tectonic boundary forces.

  2. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  3. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  4. Utilization of Estuarine Organisms by the Indians. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 210. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This unit provides a number of activities for students in grades 6-8. Emphasis is on the use of marine organisms and the marine environment by American Indians. While many of the examples relate to the Middle Atlantic Coast, they could be adapted to other areas of the country. Included in the document are evaluation materials and student…

  5. Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present. Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference (5th, Pensacola, Florida, February 7-9, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, John K., Ed.

    A product of the 1974 Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, this compilation of 13 essays on American Indians of the South includes the following sections and titles: (1) Teaching the Indian Past in History Courses ("The Southeastern Indian Oral History Program at the University of Florida"; "Notes on the Literature of the Gulf…

  6. More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Weller, Evan; Cai, Wenju; Min, Seung-Ki; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean exhibits strong interannual variability, often co-occurring with positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. During what we identify as an extreme ITCZ event, a drastic northward shift of atmospheric convection coincides with an anomalously strong north-minus-south sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Such shifts lead to severe droughts over the maritime continent and surrounding islands but also devastating floods in southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Understanding future changes of the ITCZ is therefore of major scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we find a more-than-doubling in the frequency of extreme ITCZ events under greenhouse warming, estimated from climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that are able to simulate such events. The increase is due to a mean state change with an enhanced north-minus-south SST gradient and a weakened Walker Circulation, facilitating smaller perturbations to shift the ITCZ northwards.

  7. Vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen off the eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Harriss, Robert C.; Levine, Joel S.; Edahl, Robert A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical distributions of molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were determined during spiraling maneuvers from aircraft off the eastern coast of the United States and over the Gulf of Mexico. H2 was always at its lowest levels in the boundary layer, averaging about 500 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). H2 mixing ratios determined in the free troposphere were typically higher (600-700 ppbv), and often suggested a small progressive increase with altitude. Several large free-tropospheric H2 plumes (mixing ratios as high as 1-2 parts per million by volume) were implied by the data. These H2 plumes were not always accompanied by corresponding increases in CO mixing ratios. This result is most difficult to explain when it is noted that the primary atmospheric sources for molecular H2 are considered to be combustion and photochemistry, both of which should be strong CO sources also.

  8. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources. PMID:27053053

  9. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  10. In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

    2014-05-01

    Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II

  11. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems.

  12. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean.

  13. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  14. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. PMID:20547419

  15. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  16. The role of Equatorial Undercurrent in sustaining the Eastern Indian Ocean upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Shu, Yeqiang; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    By combining volume transport and salinity analysis from 1958 to 2014, this paper investigates how the transient Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sustains the summer-fall equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling. On seasonal time scales, the EIO upwelling is mainly supplied by the salty water from the western basin through a buffering process: The winter-spring EUC carries the salty water from the western basin eastward, induces downwelling in the EIO, and pushes portion of the salty water below the central thermocline, which subsequently upwells to the central thermocline during summer-fall and sustains the EIO upwelling. On interannual time scales, enhanced upwelling occurs during positive Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD) years. The strong summer-fall EUC associated with the +IOD supplies water for the intensified upwelling. This research provides new knowledge for basin-scale mass and property exchanges associated with the EIO upwelling, contributing to our understanding of three-dimensional ocean circulation and climate variability.

  17. Evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean since the Late Cretaceous - Constraints from Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, Jean-Yves; Sandwell, David T.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the tectonic evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the present is constructed. Reinterpretations of seafloor magnetic anomalies are used to place constraints on spreading rates and the timing of major reorganizations. Vertical deflection profiles from 22 repeat cycles of Geosat altimeter data are used to determine the tectonic fabric associated with fracture zones. The Geosat data place constraints on paleospreading directions. Consideration is given to the implications of the model for the relative motions between India, Australia, and Antarctica.

  18. Post Tyrrhénian deformation analysis in the Sahel coast (Eastern Tunisia): seismotectonic events implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejrei, H.; Ghribi, R.; Bouaziz, S.; Balescu, S.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern coast of Tunisia is characterized by Pleistocene coastal deposits considered as a reference of interglacial high sea levels. In this region, the stratigraphy of Tunisian Pleistocene deposits was first established on the basis of geomorphological, lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic criteria and U/Th data. They have been subdivided into three superimposed formations, from the oldest to the recent "Douira, Rejiche and Chebba" including coastal marine (Strombus bubonius), lagoonal and eolian sediments. These marine formations are organized into parallel bars to the actual shoreline overlaying unconformably the Mio-Pliocene and "Villafranchian" deposits. A luminescence dating method IRSL applied to alkali feldspar grains from the two sandy marines units of the Douira formation demonstrate for the first time the presence of two successive interglacial high sea level events correlative of MIS 7 and MIS 9. These sandy marine units are separated by a major erosional surface and by a continental pedogenised loamy deposit related to a low sea level event which might be assigned to MIS 8. Variations in the height of these marine unit (+13 to +32m) in the Sahel coast reflect a significant tectonic deformations and show precious geomorphological and tectonic markers. An extensive brittle deformations analysis has been carried out in several sites. A detailed analysis of fracturing is based on studies of fault-slip data population and of joint sets. It allows reconstructions of post Tyrrhenian stress regimes which are characterized by N170-016 compression and N095-100 extension. In this paper we present, the combination of IRSL data applied to these raised marine deposits and a reconstruction of tectonic evolution in term of stress pattern evolution since the Tyrrhenian allowed us to assign an accurate the recent tectonic calendar. These reconstituted events will be replaced and will be discussed in the regional setting of sismotectonic activities of the north

  19. Three new species of Ammonicera from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America, with redescriptions and comments on other species of Omalogyridae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Bieler, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    The family Omalogyridae comprises some of the smallest known marine snails. Like all micromolluscs, they have been historically neglected and are underrepresented in faunistic surveys. Based on a few focused studies of the family, 15 valid omalogyrid species were previously recognised in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. To these, we add 3 new species based on a morphological analysis of material in the dry collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, applying light and scanning electron microscopies. The new species, Ammonicera mcleani, A. mexicana and A. sleursi, are the first omalogyrid species described from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America. Redescriptions of the Australian omalogyrids Ammonicera sucina (Laseron, 1954) and Omalogyra liliputia (Laseron, 1954) are also presented, detailing for the first time ultrastructural aspects of their shell morphology. Additionally, we present here the first record of Ammonicera binodosa Sleurs, 1985b in Sri Lanka, introduce the new combination Ammonicera vangoethemi (Sleurs, 1985c) for Omalogyra vangoethemi, and formally remove Transomalogyra Palazzi & Gaglini, 1979 from Omalogyridae by fixing its type species as Homalogyra densicostata Jeffreys, 1884. Finally, we present lists, geographic records and a bibliography of all currently recognised omalogyrid species in the Indian, Pacific and Antarctic Oceans, as well as an update to a previously published compilation of the Atlantic and Mediterranean representatives of the family. PMID:25544067

  20. Molecular phylogeny of commercially important lobster species from Indian coast inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeena, N S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Radhakrishnan, E V; Kizhakudan, Joe K; Basheer, V S; Asokan, P K; Jena, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lobsters constitute low-volume high-value crustacean fishery resource along Indian coast. For the conservation and management of this declining resource, accurate identification of species and larvae is essential. The objectives of this work were to generate species-specific molecular signatures of 11 commercially important species of lobsters of families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae and to reconstruct a phylogeny to clarify the evolutionary relationships among genera and species included in this study. Partial sequences were generated for all the candidate species from sampling sites along the Indian coast using markers like Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16SrRNA, 12SrRNA, and 18SrRNA genes, and analyzed. The genetic identities of widely distributed Thenus species along the Indian coast to be Thenus unimaculatus and the sub-species of Panulirus homarus to be P. homarus homarus were confirmed. Phylogeny reconstruction using the individual gene and concatenated mtDNA data set were carried out. The overall results suggested independent monophyly of Scyllaridae and Stridentes of Palinuridae. The interspecific divergence was found to be highest for the 12SrRNA compared with other genes. Significant incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear 18SrRNA gene tree topologies was observed. The results hinted an earlier origin for Palinuridae compared with Scyllaridae. The DNA sequence data generated from this study will aid in the correct identification of lobster larvae and will find application in research related to larval transport and distribution.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of commercially important lobster species from Indian coast inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeena, N S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Radhakrishnan, E V; Kizhakudan, Joe K; Basheer, V S; Asokan, P K; Jena, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lobsters constitute low-volume high-value crustacean fishery resource along Indian coast. For the conservation and management of this declining resource, accurate identification of species and larvae is essential. The objectives of this work were to generate species-specific molecular signatures of 11 commercially important species of lobsters of families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae and to reconstruct a phylogeny to clarify the evolutionary relationships among genera and species included in this study. Partial sequences were generated for all the candidate species from sampling sites along the Indian coast using markers like Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16SrRNA, 12SrRNA, and 18SrRNA genes, and analyzed. The genetic identities of widely distributed Thenus species along the Indian coast to be Thenus unimaculatus and the sub-species of Panulirus homarus to be P. homarus homarus were confirmed. Phylogeny reconstruction using the individual gene and concatenated mtDNA data set were carried out. The overall results suggested independent monophyly of Scyllaridae and Stridentes of Palinuridae. The interspecific divergence was found to be highest for the 12SrRNA compared with other genes. Significant incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear 18SrRNA gene tree topologies was observed. The results hinted an earlier origin for Palinuridae compared with Scyllaridae. The DNA sequence data generated from this study will aid in the correct identification of lobster larvae and will find application in research related to larval transport and distribution. PMID:26065848

  2. Sediment sources and distribution near Hualien city and adjacent coast, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Yen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Chisintan embayment is the shoreline near Hualien city of eastern Taiwan. The embayed coast is bordered by the Liwu river to the north and Mugua river to the south. The Pleistocene Milun Conglomerates sits in between two major rivers and is the most prominent landform of the coastline. In order to determine the contributions of the beach sediments and factors controlling the sediment dynamics and dispersal paths, beach profiles, sediment grain sizes, and sediment compositions are measured and investigated. From the beach profiles during our investigation, beach profiles are steeper near the rivers and gentler in the middle of embayment where no major river to provide sediment input. Winter monsoon in the study area built the lower beach berm, whereas typhoon built higher beach berm. Although many pebbles cover the beach, the majority are sand-sized sediments. The grain sizes increase northward, indicating the sediments are from the norther rivers and probably dispersing southward. We are currently investigating the sediment compositions to evaluate the influence of sediments from southern river and the Milun Conglomerates.

  3. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  4. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  5. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevik, Cem; Yokes, Mehmet Baki; Cavas, Levent; Erkol, Levent Itri; Derici, Osman Baris; Verlaque, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Since its first accidental introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has spread to six Mediterranean countries and has become a major ecological problem. On the basis of morphological and molecular studies (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)), we report for the first time C. taxifolia on the Levantine coast (Gulf of Iskenderun, SE Turkey). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iskenderun isolate differs from the invasive aquarium strain first observed in Monaco, and falls in another SW Pacific clade (NE Australia, New Caledonia). The introduction in Turkey by shipping (ballast waters or anchor gears of oil tankers) is possible because C. taxifolia was found in the Gulf of Iskenderun, which is a major Eastern Mediterranean petrochemical region. On the other hand, C. taxifolia strains are available in aquarium shops in Turkey, suggesting aquarium dumping as another possible cause. As far as the intense maritime traffic of the region is concerned, further dispersals of this exotic C. taxifolia strain in the Mediterranean Sea are to be expected.

  6. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  7. Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the Maldives-Laccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6-20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of 'reef rock' has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge.

  8. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-01

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P < 0.05) with mean elemental concentrations (in µg g(-1), dry weight) being: Ca (29 260), Mg (6 279), Fe (1 086), Cu (145.9), Mn (48.32), As (24.29), Zn (15.65), Ni (9.83), Cr (5.78), Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element. PMID:27153179

  9. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-01

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P < 0.05) with mean elemental concentrations (in µg g(-1), dry weight) being: Ca (29 260), Mg (6 279), Fe (1 086), Cu (145.9), Mn (48.32), As (24.29), Zn (15.65), Ni (9.83), Cr (5.78), Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element.

  10. Phosphorus speciation and availability in sediments off the eastern coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Su-Mei; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Surface and core sediments were collected off the eastern coast of Hainan Island (South China Sea), and a sequential extraction method (SEDEX) was used to separate and quantify five sedimentary phosphorus (P) reservoirs: exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ex-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic P (Ca-P), detrital P (De-P) and organic P (OP). Total P (TP) in the surface and core sediments ranged from 7.96 to 22.34 μmol g-1, and was dominated by inorganic P (IP). De-P and Ca-P were the main chemical species of P in surface and core sediments. The distribution of the P species in surface and core sediments was governed by various factors, including terrigenous input, biological processes, Fe oxides/hydroxides, organic matter degradation, and sediment grain size. The organic carbon (OC)/OP ratio ranged from 37 to 293 (average, 107±58) in surface sediments, suggesting that the organic matter in sediments had been subject to degradation and comprised mostly refractory compounds. The OC/Preactive ratio (37-69) was relatively low in the core sediments, suggesting an excess of sedimentary reactive P compared with OC. The Fe/P ratio ranged from 2 to 19 in surface and core sediments, which indicates that the higher proportions of the crystalline phases occurred in estuarine areas relative to the offshore areas. The potential bioavailable P accounted for 20.3-54.2% of TP in the surface and core sediments.

  11. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-05-26

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  12. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  13. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  14. Distinctive mutation spectrum of the HBB gene in an urban eastern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Subhransu Sekhar; Biswal, Sebaranjan; Dixit, Manjusha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell anemia (or Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val]) impose a major health burden in the Indian population. To determine the frequencies of the HBB gene mutations in eastern Indian populations and to compare with the available data, a comprehensive molecular analysis of the HBB gene was done in the normal Odisha State population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and DNA sequencing techniques, β-thal and sickle cell anemia mutations were characterized in 267 healthy individuals. Entire HBB gene sequencing showed 63 different mutations including 11 new ones. The predominant mutation HBB: c.9T > C was observed at a high frequency (19.57%) in the normal population. In the urban population of Odisha State, India, carrier frequency of hemoglobinopathies was found to be 18.48%, and for β-thal, the carrier rate was 14.13%, which is very high indeed. In the absence of a complete cure by any expensive treatment and drug administration, this information would be helpful for planning a population screening program and establishing prenatal diagnosis of β-thal in order to reduce the burden of such a genetic disease. PMID:24099628

  15. MAGSAT investigation of crustal magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies in a region of the eastern Indian Ocean were studied using data from NASA's MAGSAT mission. The investigation region (0 deg to 50 deg South, 75 to 125 deg East) contains several important tectonic features, including the Broken Ridge, Java Trench, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Southeast Indian Ridge. A large positive magnetic anomaly is associated with the Broken Ridge and smaller positive anomalies correlate with the Ninetyeast Ridge and western Australia. Individual profiles of scalar data (computed from vector components) were considered to determine the overall data quality and resolution capability. A set of MAGSAT ""Quiet-Time'' data was used to compute an equivalent source crustal magnetic anomaly map of the study region. Maps of crustal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility were computed from the equivalent source dipoles. Gravity data were used to help interpretation, and a map of the ratio of magnetization to density contrasts was computed using Poisson's relation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of induced magnetization of a crustal layer having varying thickness and composition.

  16. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  17. The Mamook Book: Activities for Learning About the Northwest Coast Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sharon; And Others

    A student activity book about the Northwest Coast provides "to-do" activities, such as reading, coloring, cutting out and putting together, while learning about the Northwest Coast tribes, their language, legends, clothing and ways of living. A map identifies the tribes and their location along the shores of Alaska, British Columbia, western…

  18. Hysterothylacium aduncum, the only anisakid parasite of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern and eastern coasts of Spain.

    PubMed

    Rello, Francisco Javier; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Valero, Adela

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out on the anisakids in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern (Atlantic and Mediterranean) and eastern coasts of Spain. Length of fish was from 12.2-21.0 cm. The anisakids found were identified as the third larval stage (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum, with a total prevalence of 11.85%. Prevalence within the host was 9.64% in viscera and 4.69 % in muscle. The highest infection parameters were found in fish from the east coast (western Balearic Sea) with prevalence of 25.21%, mean intensity of 2.10, and mean abundance of 0.52. No worms of the genus Anisakis were found in the 359 sardines analyzed. PMID:18784942

  19. Complex Indian subduction style with slab fragmentation beneath the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis revealed by teleseismic P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Miao; Jiang, Mei; Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhu, Lupei; Chan, Winston; Chen, Youlin; Wang, Youxue; Yu, Changqing; Lei, Jianshe; Zhang, Lishu; Li, Qingqing; Xu, Lehong

    2016-01-01

    On the eastern margin of the Himalayan orogenic belt, the rapid uplift of the Namche Barwa metamorphic terrane and significant bending of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone occur. The formation mechanism and dynamics of the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis (EHS) is still debated. In order to better understand the deep structures beneath the EHS, we deployed 35 broadband seismic stations around the Namche Barwa Mountain. The data were integrated with existing datasets for a 3-D teleseismic P-wave tomography. The results demonstrate complex deep structures and significantly contrasting Indian subduction styles in the eastern Himalaya. In the western region of the EHS, the Indian slab flatly subducts under southern Tibet and might extend to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. In contrast, a (north)eastward steep subduction occurred in the eastern region of EHS. The contrasting subduction styles result in tearing and fragmentation of the Indian lithosphere between the flat and steep subducting slabs beneath the EHS. Consequently, the hot asthenospheric mantle may rise through the slab window, which might further lead to the rapid uplift of Namche Barwa and the formation of EHS. The lateral variation in subduction/collision mode and slab tearing induced asthenospheric mantle upwelling is similar to that observed in the Hellenide and Anatolide domains of the Tethyan orogen.

  20. Geochemistry and mineralogy of REY-rich mud in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Liu, Hanjie; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Machida, Shiki; Haraguchi, Satoru; Ishii, Teruaki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Deep-sea sediments in parts of the Pacific Ocean were recently found to contain remarkably high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY) of possible economic significance. Here we report similar REY-rich mud in a core section from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 213 in the eastern Indian Ocean. The sediments consist mainly of siliceous ooze, with subordinate zeolitic clay that contains relatively high REY concentrations. The maximum and average total REY (ΣREY) contents of this material are 1113 and 629 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those reported from the Pacific Ocean. The REY-rich mud at Site 213 shows enrichment in heavy rare-earth elements, negative Ce anomalies, and relatively low Fe2O3/ΣREY ratios, similar to those in the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the major-element composition of the Indian Ocean REY-rich mud indicates slight enrichment in lithogenic components, which probably reflects a contribution from southern African eolian dust. A volcaniclastic component from neighboring mid-ocean ridges or intraplate volcanoes is also apparent. Elemental compositions and X-ray diffraction patterns for bulk sediment, and microscopic observation and elemental mapping of a polished thin section, demonstrate the presence of phillipsite and biogenic apatite, such as fish debris, in the REY-rich mud. The strong correlation between total REY content and apatite abundance implies that apatite plays an important role as a host phase of REY in the present deep-sea sediment column. However, positive correlations between ΣREY and elements not present in apatite (e.g., Fe2O3, MnO, and TiO2) imply that the REY-rich mud is not formed by a simple mixture of REY-enriched apatite and other components.

  1. Transpressional tectonics vs. superposed deformation in the Rengali Province, eastern Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saibal; Misra, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    A primary concern in ancient transpressional shear zones is to demonstrate that the shortening and strike-slip components of deformation operated simultaneously. In the eastern Indian shield, ultrahigh grade granulite terrane of the Eastern Ghats Belt collided with the Archaean Indian craton around ~ 1 Ga. Subsequently, the northern boundary of the granulite belt was affected by a dextral strike-slip system that juxtaposed it against the Singhbhum Province. The strike-slip system is characterized by two WNW-ESE trending strands that enclose a multiply deformed (D1 to D3) intervening domain that is referred to as the Rengali Province. D1 and D2 represent a deformation continuum that operated under granulite / amphibolite facies conditions. Available zircon ages from amphibolite facies gneisses within the province indicate a late Archaean age for the D1-D2 deformation. In a granulite lens in the central part of the province, an early fabric-forming deformation (Dgr) is represented by cylindrical D1-D2 folding. D3 shortening was superimposed on D1-D2 folds in the surrounding lithologies of the province, generating complex non-cylindrical geometries. However, there is no evidence of D3 shortening strain within the granulites. Microstructures in the province-bounding D3 strike-slip shear zones indicate that mylonitization and dynamic recrystallization was associated with greenschist facies metamorphism. In quartzite bands within these shear zones, syn-D3 folds can be correlated with rotation of D1-D2 structures through the shortening zone of bounding dextral shears. Strain analyses and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility studies in these quartzites indicate that post-D2 strain ellipsoids are characterized by sub-vertical axial planes and extrusion directions consistent with crustal shortening. Samples from high D3 strain zones are associated with sub-horizontal extrusion parallel to the inferred direction of strike-slip shearing, and have kinematic vorticity numbers

  2. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast: Upper Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (> 100 km) has occurred along lower Tertiary sands. The framework of crude oil generation and migration onshore has important implications with respect to origin of crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  4. Crystallization history of a massif anorthosite in the eastern Indian shield margin based on borehole lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipankar; Ghose, Naresh C.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2005-04-01

    The Bengal anorthosite occurs as a large tadpole-shaped pluton (250 km 2) in the granulite facies terrain of the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Gneiss Granulite Complex at the northeastern edge of the Indian peninsular shield. Its axis of elongation conforms to the general strike (ENE-WSW) of the country rocks. It is bounded by a (Gondwana) basin margin fault in the north and it shows an interfingering contact with the country rocks at its eastern and western edges. Deep drilling, attaining a maximum depth of 622.85 m, reveals a cyclic order of grey, white and mottled anorthosites of variable thickness. The possibility of anorthosite extending further below contradicts the 200 m thickness of anorthosite previously estimated from gravity modeling. Chemical data also indicate a cyclic variation of elemental concentrations and their ratios with depth. In each chemical cycle, the grey plagioclase megacrysts apparently floated over a relatively denser white granular plagioclase with higher anorthite contents. The base of a chemical cycle also contains higher concentrations of transition elements—a feature arising plausibly by sinking of Fe-Ti oxides. The chemical cyclicity possibly indicates derivation of melt in batches and emplacement of the crystal laden-melt by impulses. Minor presence of orthopyroxene in the anorthosite suggests a tholeiitic source.

  5. East African pigs have a complex Indian, Far Eastern and Western ancestry.

    PubMed

    Noce, A; Amills, M; Manunza, A; Muwanika, V; Muhangi, D; Aliro, T; Mayega, J; Ademun, R; Sànchez, A; Egbhalsaied, S; Mercadé, A; Masembe, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have characterized the mitochondrial diversity of 81 swine from Uganda. Median-joining network analysis of D-loop sequences from these individuals and others characterized in previous studies allowed us to determine that Ugandan pigs cluster with populations from the West (Europe/North Africa), Far East and India. In addition, partial sequencing of the Y-chromosome UTY locus in 18 Ugandan domestic pigs revealed the segregation of a single HY1 lineage that has a cosmopolitan distribution. A Western and Far Eastern ancestry for East African pigs had been already reported, but this is the first study demonstrating an additional contribution from the Indian porcine gene pool. This result is consistent with the high frequency of zebuine alleles in cattle from East Africa. The geographic coordinates of East Africa, at the crossroads of many trading routes that, through the ages, linked Europe, Africa and Asia, might explain the rich and complex genetic heritage of livestock native to this area. PMID:26011180

  6. Exploring socioeconomic vulnerability of anaemia among women in eastern Indian States.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (<7.0 g/dl). Protective factors include frequent consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits and fish, educational attainment, mass media exposure and high socioeconomic status. Urban poor women and adolescent ever-married women had very high odds of being anaemic. New programme strategies are needed, particularly those that improve iron storage and enhance the overall nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.

  7. A new species of Neenchelys (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae: Myrophinae) from the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hibino, Yusuke; Satapoomin, Ukkrit; Kimura, Seishi

    2015-01-01

    A new worm eel, Neenchelys andamanensis, is described based on a single specimen collected from a depth of 520-531 m, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean. The new species is similar to N. daedalus, N. nudiceps, and N. similis in its total vertebral count and slender body, however, it differs from the latter three in having a shorter tail (60% TL vs. 70-76%), more numerous preanal vertebrae (77 vs. 59-71), and shorter pectoral fins (2.4% HL vs. 21-27%). Although the new species resembles N. mccoskeri in some proportional characters, the former species is distinguishable from the latter by its higher total vertebral count (221 vs. 172-184), position of the dorsal-fin origin (horizontal distance from the origin to a vertical through mid-anus 65% of trunk length vs. 46-59%) and width of the interorbital region (4.5% of head length vs. 8.2-16%). A revised key to the species of Neenchelys is provided. PMID:26701591

  8. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera]. PMID:27394461

  9. Atmospheric deposition—Another source of nutrients enhancing primary productivity in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during positive Indian Ocean Dipole phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Eko

    2015-07-01

    This study used in situ and multisensor satellite data and combinations of various primary productivity (PP) and surface nitrate models to assess the contributions of upwelling and atmospheric deposition to modulating PP in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) during positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD). Surprisingly, atmospheric deposition of nutrients from wildfires accounted for a higher portion of enhanced PP during +IODs than wind-driven nutrient upwelling. Substantial atmospheric nutrient deposition likely also maintains high PP postupwelling and postwildfire. Multiple regression analysis further supported the importance of atmospheric deposition in determining ETIO PP with a significantly large partial regression coefficient for aerosol optical thickness. It is possible that aerosols from major wildfire areas worldwide contribute nutrients that also nontrivially modulate PP in the oceans' main upwelling systems.

  10. Coral radiocarbon records of Indian Ocean water mass mixing and wind-induced upwelling along the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N. S.; Abram, N. J.; Beck, J. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Gagan, M. K.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hantoro, W. S.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2004-05-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess 14C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean 14C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of 14C/12C ratios (Δ14C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0°S, 98°E) and Watamu, Kenya (3°S, 39°E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the 14C zonal gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in Δ14C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral Δ14C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral Δ14C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains 14C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-produced 14C by the surface ocean. Bimonthly AMS Δ14C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral Δ14C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. These results lend support to the concept that interannual variability in Indian Ocean upwelling and sea surface temperatures is related to ENSO-like teleconnections over the Indo-Pacific basin.

  11. High Resolution Quaternary and Neogene Reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge and Rifting in Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.; Merkuryev, S. A.; Calais, E.; Sauter, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) south of Africa is a critical link in plate circuits between the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins and between the Nubia and Somalia plates. Detailed reconstructions of its seafloor spreading history are challenging due to the low fidelity of its magnetic anomalies, which were mostly created at slow to ultraslow spreading rates, and gaps in data coverage for some areas of the ridge. Here, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of Quaternary/Neogene SWIR plate kinematics based on nearly 5000 identifications that we made of magnetic reversals C1n (0.78 Ma) to C6no (19.7 Ma) and ~6000 crossings of 21 fracture zones and transform faults that offset the ridge. We also outline the implications for estimates of motion between the Nubia and Somalia plates since 20 Ma across rifts in eastern Africa. Searches for the Nubia-Lwandle and Lwandle-Somalia plate boundaries north of the SWIR with our new data corroborate previous evidence for respective locations near the Andrew Bain transform fault at ~30°E and at ~50°E. Inversions of the abundant new data to find best-fitting rotations at ~1 Myr intervals since 20 Ma reveal a previously unknown, ~20% deceleration of seafloor spreading rates at 7.2±1 Ma everywhere along the SWIR. Motion since 7 Ma has remained remarkably steady and agrees within uncertainties with GPS estimates that are based on more than 100 continuous GPS sites on the Nubia, Somalia, and Antarctic plates. The consistency of the geodetic and geologic estimates validates both and also supports evidence we will describe for anomalously wide outward displacement west of ~30E. Nubia-Somalia rotations determined from our new model indicate that the two plates have undergone steady relative motion since at least 19 Ma. Our new rotation for C5n.2 predicts ~70% less opening across the East Africa rift since 11 Ma than the most recently published kinematic estimate, in better accord with at least one geologically

  12. Paleoseismic Records of 1762 and Similar Prior Earthquakes Along the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Gurung, D.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Saha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The great 1762 Arakan earthquake caused subsidence and uplift along 700km of the Arakan coast, and is thought to derive from a huge megathrust rupture reaching northward onto the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. Paleoseismic investigations were conducted in that area to document effects of that and prior earthquakes. U/Th ages obtained from isochron analysis of uplifted dead coral heads of the Poritesspecies, collected along a south to north transect from the islands east coast reveal at least three growth interruptions caused by abrupt relative sea-level changes within the past 1300 years that we interpret to be associated with megathrust ruptures. The ages show distinct events approximately 250, 900 and 1300 years ago. The youngest of these events corresponds to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. The two prior events at ~1100 and 700 AD, suggest an average recurrence interval of 400-600 years. Along the coast of Teknaf, we mapped a ~2m uplifted terrace. Marine shells on top of the terrace dated with C-14 at 1695-1791 AD link the uplift to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. Based on this evidence and previous work (Wang et al., 2013 and Aung et al., 2008), we estimated the 1762 rupture to be at least 700 km long, from Chebuda Island to the Sitakund anticline encompassing the Teknaf Peninsula. Considering 14 mm/yr convergence rate and 400-600 yrs recurrence interval, this rupture zone has now accumulated elastic deformation to generate a M~8.4 earthquake, close to the M8.8 estimated by Cummins (2007) for the 1762 earthquake. Published recurrence intervals based on C-14 ages along the Myanmar coast ~90 km south of Bangladesh reveal three ruptures within the last 3400 years with an average recurrence interval of 1000-2000 years (Aung et al., 2008). While the 1762 rupture reached across both areas, some of the prior ruptures may be confined to one or the other of these areas, with a smaller magnitude. Our precise U-Th ages provide evidence of recurrence intervals of

  13. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Kevin; Bradley, Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  14. [Determination of vanadium concentration in foods produced on the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo].

    PubMed

    Tudares, C M; Villalobos, H D

    1998-04-01

    In the northeastern coast of Lake Maracaibo it has been reported some years ago a high incidence of congenital malformations of the Central Nervous Systems (Neural Tube Defects Type). This epidemiological problem is present in other countries too (Ireland and New Zealand) and has been associated with oil activities. In fact, some experimental works inform about the vanadium compounds cellular toxic effects mainly in the Central Nervous System of mammals. The main goal of this work is to measure the vanadium content in foods produced in the northeastern coast of Lake Maracaibo. Lagunillas, Valmore Rodriguez, and Baralt were the districts selected for the work. The digestion of the samples achieved by the methodology reported by Myron et al., with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption. The amounts of vanadium in the different foods analized were higher than the controls in the bibliographic reports. At this moment, there is not definitive proofs that vanadium compounds are the etiological agents of the Neural Tube Defects, but, these compounds are presents in foods produced in the northeastern coast of Lake Maracaibo.

  15. Antarctic-type blue whale calls recorded at low latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Kathleen M.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tolstoy, Maya; Chapp, Emily; Mellinger, David K.; Moore, Sue E.

    2004-10-01

    Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, were once abundant around the Antarctic during the austral summer, but intensive whaling during the first half of the 20th century reduced their numbers by over 99%. Although interannual variability of blue whale occurrence on the Antarctic feeding grounds was documented by whalers, little was known about where the whales spent the winter months. Antarctic blue whales produce calls that are distinct from those produced by blue whales elsewhere in the world. To investigate potential winter migratory destinations of Antarctic blue whales, we examined acoustic data for these signals from two low-latitude locales: the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Antarctic-type blue whale calls were detected on hydrophones in both regions during the austral autumn and winter (May-September), with peak detections in July. Calls occurred over relatively brief periods in both oceans, suggesting that there may be only a few animals migrating so far north and/or producing calls. Antarctic blue whales appear to use both the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans concurrently, indicating that there is not a single migratory destination. Acoustic data from the South Atlantic and from mid-latitudes in the Indian or Pacific Oceans are needed for a more global understanding of migratory patterns and destinations of Antarctic blue whales.

  16. Modeling of storm-induced deformations of a sandy coast (based on the example of the eastern Gulf of Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'yev, I. O.; Ryabchuk, D. V.; Sergeev, A. Yu.

    2015-02-01

    An improved version of the CROSS-P model for the simulation of storm-induced deformations in coastal profiles is suggested. It is shown that the model reproduces the formation of the erosion profile adequately both in the laboratory and field conditions. Though the main features of the accretion profile are also reflected in the model, further testing based on more relevant data is needed. The profile types predicted by the model agree with the well-known empirical criterion. An important new step is that the foredune overflow effect caused by storm surges is also included into the model. The model is applied to the coasts of the eastern Gulf of Finland exposed to high storm surges. This makes it possible to present the coast change as a result of a conveyor delivering sand material from the foredune to the beach under the impact of extreme storms. During the periods of low wave activity, this conveyor transports the beach material to the underwater slope. The sediment conveyer works only in one direction; thus, the losses of the dune material turn out to be irreversible. Modeling shows that, during the foredune overflow process (typical for the southern segment of the studied area), a certain amount of sediments is carried on to the rear dune slope, and the dune belt gradually moves inland simultaneously decreasing in height. It is expected that the destructive trends in the coastal evolution will continued within the nearest decades.

  17. A Recent Study on 137Cs Activities in Surface Soils over the Eastern Part of the Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, S.; Gueray, R. T.; Yalcin, C.; Oezkan, N.

    2007-04-23

    In this study, 137Cs specific activities were measured in surface soil samples collected from undisturbed areas over the eastern part of the Black Sea coast line of Turkey, between Trabzon and Hopa, in August 2004 and January 2005. A total number of 41 surface soil samples were counted using an HpGe spectrometer system. The results indicate that 137Cs levels show a large variation over the coast ranging between 10 Bq/kg and 1000 Bq/kg. The soil activities are generally higher in the eastern part of the coast. Exposure rates above the ground surface due to 137Cs activity in soil estimated to vary between 0.1mR/s and 9 mR/s.

  18. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  19. Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern Africa, but could be Mitigated by Agricultural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  20. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Inferences Based on Historical, Archeological and Geological Evidence From the Indian Coast and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Machado, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami is an unprecedented event in the Indian Ocean. Never in the recent or distant history of the region has such a transoceanic event of devastating proportion is known to have been reported. Obviously, apparent lack of historical references in the culturally ancient Southeast Asian region suggests rarity of such events. Therefore, a major question that has been posed since the 2004 tsunami is whether similar events have occurred in the region in the past. If there are predecessors, what is the frequency of such events? Resolving this question is of crucial importance in developing the recurrence history of megathrust earthquakes and assessing the tsunami hazard of the region. Our strategy has been to tackle this problem using historical and archeological data, combined with geological investigations in the affected regions of the Indian coast, including the Andaman- Nicobar Islands. Citations from south India on ancient tsunami include classic Tamil texts, which mention about a devastating sea surge around A.D. 950 in the southeastern coast of India. Our studies were focused on two ancient port cities on the east coast of India: Mammallapuram and Kaveripattinam, the latter being a major township during the first millennium. The 2004 tsunami had scoured Mammallapuram beach exposing the basements of older temples. We have identified a discordant sand deposit sandwiched between two bricklayers at a site where the ruins of different generations of temples have been excavated. The radiocarbon dates suggest that this was deposited during 955+/-30 yr B.P., close to the historically documented period of devastation of this site by a sea surge. Excavations at Kaveripattinam, located 200 km to the south, revealed a widely distributed occupation horizon of A.D. 8-10 century, marked by a superjacent sand layer. We suspect that this layer represents the A.D. 950- sea incursion mentioned in the in the classic Tamil texts, also in line with the archeological

  1. [Relationships between pollutants discharge and red tide occurrence in Shenzhen eastern coast].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tian-jiu; Niu, Tao; Ying, Wen-ye

    2007-05-01

    The study on the effects of pollutants discharge on red tide occurrence in eastern sea area of Shenzhen showed that the occurrence frequency of dinoflagellate red tide had significant positive correlations with the net discharge of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as well as the N/P ratio of the discharge. The thresholds of net discharged TN and TP were estimated to be 3.917 x 10(3) t and 2.123 x 10(4) t, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between diatom red tide and alongshore pollutants discharge. An example was given to illustrate the means of pollutants discharge control.

  2. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  3. Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Maxime M.; Measures, Christopher I.; Hatta, Mariko; Hiscock, William T.; Buck, Clifton S.; Landing, William M.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important but still poorly constrained source of trace micronutrients to the open ocean because of the dearth of in situ measurements of total deposition (i.e., wet + dry deposition) in remote regions. In this work, we discuss the upper ocean distribution of dissolved Fe and Al in the eastern Indian Ocean along a 95°E meridional transect spanning the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal. We use the mixed layer concentration of dissolved Al in conjunction with empirical data in a simple steady state model to produce 75 estimates of total dust deposition that we compare with historical observations and atmospheric model estimates. Except in the northern Bay of Bengal where the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume contributes to the inventory of dissolved Al, the surface distribution of dissolved Al along 95°E is remarkably consistent with the large-scale gradients in mineral dust deposition and multiple-source regions impacting the eastern Indian Ocean. The lowest total dust deposition fluxes are calculated for the Southern Ocean (66 ± 60 mg m-2 yr-1) and the highest for the northern end of the south Indian subtropical gyre (up to 940 mg m-2 yr-1 at 18°S) and in the southern Bay of Bengal (2500 ± 570 mg m-2 yr-1). Our total deposition fluxes, which have an uncertainty on the order of a factor of 3.5, are comparable with the composite atmospheric model data of Mahowald et al. (2005), except in the south Indian subtropical gyre where models may underestimate total deposition. Using available measurements of the solubility of Fe in aerosols, we confirm that dust deposition is a minor source of dissolved Fe to the Southern Ocean and show that aeolian deposition of dissolved Fe in the southern Bay of Bengal may be comparable to that observed underneath the Saharan dust plume in the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Wave climate and trends along the eastern Chukchi Arctic Alaska coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Jensen, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Due in large part to the difficulty of obtaining measurements in the Arctic, little is known about the wave climate along the coast of Arctic Alaska. In this study, numerical model simulations encompassing 40 years of wave hind-casts were used to assess mean and extreme wave conditions. Results indicate that the wave climate was strongly modulated by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and that mean and extreme wave heights and periods exhibited increasing trends in both the sea and swell frequency bands over the time-period studied (1954-2004). Model simulations also indicate that the upward trend was not due to a decrease in the minimum icepack extent. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  5. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-12-09

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent.

  6. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-01-01

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent. PMID:25544525

  7. Five Indian Tribes of Eastern Oklahoma: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Dorothy; Bland, Anna

    The 18 lessons in this unit of study are intended to promote an awareness of the contribution of the American Indian to the development of Oklahoma and to preserve the culture and heritage of the American Indians of the state. Each lesson includes a concept (one-sentence statement of the main idea), background information, learning activities…

  8. Early Holocene catastrophic mass-wasting event and fan-delta development on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Liew, Ping-Mei; Chen, Hua-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Landslides and debris flows rarely occurred during historical times in the tectonically active Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan. This topographic stability, however, contrasts greatly with the widespread existence of terraced alluvial fans and fan-deltas on the Hua-tung coast which fringes the range. This study focuses on the two largest fan-terrace systems on the Hua-tung coast, both of which consist of alluvial fans (plane-view areas up to 8 km 2) larger than their contributing catchments. Stratigraphic data show that both systems were in sandy, wave-dominated settings during de-glacial times. The systems were then disturbed by a catastrophic landslide/debris-flow event (or events), which brought enormous amounts of gravel (Facies Gm) into the systems, deforming previously-deposited marine sands (Facies Sm) and shallowing the seafloor. The combined Gm/Sm complex yields multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 11.3 to 8.3 ka cal BP, with a cluster around 8.6 ka cal BP. This mass-wasting event has been unique since the emergence of its contributing catchment 0.2-0.3 Ma ago. The low frequency of such an event could reflect the great resistance of rock mass in the source areas to weathering and erosion. The common blockage of valley floors by giant-boulder piles, which limits channel incision and sediment transport, could also increase the apparent stability of the mountain. The trigger of landslides in the Coastal Range has been linked to large earthquakes. Additionally, we propose that the great magnitude and duration of the observed early Holocene event were caused by the contemporaneous prolonged rainfall (and/or high frequency of typhoons) associated with the East Asian summer monsoon maximum.

  9. Re-assessment of tick control after immunization against East Coast fever in the Eastern Province of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Berkvens, D L

    1991-01-01

    East Coast Fever, caused by the protozoon Theileria parva and transmitted by the ixodid tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is one of the most important cattle diseases in east and central Africa, responsible for considerable direct losses and necessitating expensive control measures. Traditionally, the disease was controlled by means of intensive tick control. The Belgian Animal Disease Control Project was requested to study the disease epizootiology and vector ecology in order to formulate and implement a control program adapted to the requirements and capabilities of the cattle owners in the Eastern Province of Zambia. The weaknesses of a rigorous tick control program were demonstrated. It was decided to initiate an immunization program in the enzootic areas. The overall calf mortality rate was lowered by 90% and it was shown that none of the other tick-borne diseases caused significant problems in the absence of tick control. The tick ecology studies had indicated that the climatic conditions in the area were so unfavourable that the important vector species (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus microplus and R. appendiculatus) would not attain problem levels. It was therefore recommended to suspend all tick control in the area. Control of East Coast Fever in the epizootic and disease-free areas is still a more complex issue. It appears unlikely that the latter will remain disease-free, because of the proximity of the enzootic areas and because of considerable cattle movement in the province. Given the advantages of control by immunization, it can be argued that a longterm solution should be based on this approach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  11. [Presence of red tides along the eastern coast of the Gulf of California].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Altamirano, R; Manrique, F A; Luna-Soria, R

    1995-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of red tides during the last 24 years in Guaymas and for the last 16 years in Mazatlán, on the coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico are presented here. The results indicate the presence of 4 dominant species in 34 red tides in Guaymas and 9 dominant species in 60 red tides in Mazatlán. The most common species is Mesodinium rubrum, while the toxic one is Gymnodinium catenatum. Noctiluca scintillans and Gonyaulax sp. were also present in Guaymas. In Mazatlán Scrippsiella trocoidea, Prorocentrum dentatum, Ceratium tripos var. ponticum, C. furca, Gymnodinium splendens and Gonyaulax triacantha were also present. Red tides occur frequently during winter in Guaymas and during the late winter and early spring in Mazatlán. Both periods coincide with the upwelling season in the region. The absence of the red tides is related to the "El Niño" phenomenon, which is significant in the Mazatlán area. Ciliates decrease 11.4%, while dinoflagellates increase from 1.6 to 3.8%. The duration period of red tides increase (5.6%) from 3 to 6 days, as compared with the records between 1979 and 1990. PMID:8900569

  12. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast – discriminant function analysis of humeri

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Methods Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. Results The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (P < 0.001). Discriminant function for sex determination indicated that as much as 85% of cases could be properly categorized, with better results in men (86%) than women (80%). Furthermore, the comparison of the medieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. Conclusion The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well. PMID:23771758

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  14. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  15. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-12

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  16. Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

    2014-09-18

    A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.

  17. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-07-01

    Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2° and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7°. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U

  19. Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  20. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  1. Coastal aquaculture development in eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: prospects and problems for food security and local economies.

    PubMed

    Rönnback, Patrik; Bryceson, Ian; Kautsky, Nils

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region.

  2. Anisakid parasites of two forkbeards (Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis) from the eastern Mediterranean coasts in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Blel, Hager; Amor, Nabil; Said, Khaled

    2006-12-01

    Two gadiform species with a successive bathymetric and an ecological and economical importance in the Mediterranean fishing industry, Phycis blennoides and Phycis phycis, were selected for the present study. A total of 592 fresh specimens belonging to the Gadiformes genus were obtained from local commercial fisheries. The investigation was centred on anisakid parasites of 272 specimens of the greater forkbeard (P. blennoides) and 320 of the forkbeard (P. phycis) captured off the Mediterranean coasts of Tunisia (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Four species of nematodes were identified: Anisakis simplex s.1., Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Hysterothylacium fabri. The total prevalence was 53.75% in the forkbeard and 51.47% in the greater forkbeard. The highest values of prevalence (38.75%, 2-14), mean intensity (6.74+/-3.4) and mean abundance (2.61) were all obtained for H. fabri L4 in the forkbeard. The most frequent parasite in the greater forkbeard was H. aduncum L3 with 32.35% (1-3) prevalence and values of 1.21+/-0.58 and 0.39 for mean intensity and mean abundance, respectively. The infestation parameters were also analysed according to the host length, and prevalence was highest in P. blennoides longer than 35 cm in respect of all anisakid species. Whilst in P. phycis, the highest prevalence, conditioned by H. fabri parasitisation, was found in fish with length reaching a maximum of more than 40 cm. When the data were grouped seasonally, clear patterns were observed for P. blennoides and P. phycis species, with prevalence and mean intensity of all the anisakid species peaking in spring and summer. PMID:16847607

  3. Long-term trends of benzo(a)pyrene concentration on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milukaite, Audrone R.

    Concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was investigated in atmospheric air at Preila background station located on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in 1980-2002. A significant difference in daily concentration of benzo(a)pyrene, reaching more than two orders of magnitude, was determined during the period of investigation. The variability of benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration was considered. The main part of extreme benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration of over 5 ng m -3 was related to the air masses coming to the background site from W-SW to N-NW over the period of 1980-1994. Owing to the variability of benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration, the monthly concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric air of the background site varied from 0.18 to 3.30 ng m -3 in cold season and from 0.02 to 1.72 ng m -3 in warm season. A slowly decreasing trend of benzo(a)pyrene monthly concentration was determined in both seasons during the whole period of investigation. Comparison of B(a)P monthly concentration determined at Preila background station with that in other countries since 1994 (according to the EMEP program) has shown that monthly concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is nearly of the same level in the Czech Republic and it is by one order of magnitude higher than at Scandinavian background stations. The course of carcinogen concentration at Preila background station is similar to that of Swedish stations with tendency to decrease from 1999.

  4. Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Menezes, M R; Kumar, G; Kunal, S P

    2012-05-01

    Genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian region was investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region. A total of 315 individuals were sampled from six major fishing grounds around the east and west coasts of India including the Andaman (Port Blair) and Lakshadweep (Minicoy) Islands. Nucleotide and gene diversities were high in all the sample collections. Significant genetic heterogeneity was observed for the mtDNA sequence data among sites (φ(ST) = 0·0273, P < 0·001). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant genetic variation among four groups (φ(CT) = 0·0261, P < 0·05) which was also supported by spatial AMOVA results. The null hypothesis of single panmictic population of K. pelamis along the Indian coast can thus be rejected. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA sequence data showed the presence of four clades of K. pelamis in the Indian waters. There was no clear pattern, however, of haplotypes and geographic location among samples. The results of this study suggest the occurrence of four genetically differentiated groups of K. pelamis across the coastal waters of India.

  5. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the

  6. Three Plate Reconstruction in the Eastern Indian Ocean: New Constraints on Wharton and Australian-Antarctic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J.; Dyment, J.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the continuous seismicity and repeated occurrence of major earthquakes in Sumatra and the neighboring area requires detailed constrains on the subducting plate. In this study we analyze the past plate kinematics evolution of the Wharton basin, eastern Indian Ocean through a three plate reconstruction involving Australia (AUS), Antarctica (ANT), and India (IND). We compile marine magnetic identifications in the Australian-Antarctic Basin [1,2], the Crozet and Central Indian basins (Yatheesh et al, in prep.) and the Wharton Basin [3]. The Wharton Basin is characterized by an extinct spreading center dated by anomaly 18 (38 Ma). The southern flank of the basin exhibits a continuous sequence of anomalies 20n (42 Ma) to 34n (84 Ma), whereas the northern flank lacks some of the older anomalies because a significant part has been subducted in the Sunda Trench. The three-plate reconstructions have provided set of rotation parameters describing the evolution of IND-AUS. Using these parameters, we have reconstructed the missing isochrons of the northern flank and the detailed geometry of the subducted part of the Wharton basin. Such an exercise provides useful constraints on the age and structure of the plate in subduction under Indonesia. As a byproduct, the three plate reconstruction provided set of rotation parameters for AUS-ANT as well, which constrains the conjugate fit between the basins. Previous studies [1,2,4,5] have achieved such a fit on the base of ill-defined fracture zones. We consider the well-defined fracture zones from the Crozet, Central Indian, and Wharton basins, but avoid using the poor fracture zone imprints from the Australian-Antarctic Basin. As a result from this approach, we conclude that the relative motion of AUS with respect to ANT initially followed a north-south direction, then changed to northwest-southeast at anomaly 32ny, and reverted to northeast southwest at anomaly 24no prior to the establishment of the Southeast Indian

  7. Eastern Indian 3800-million-year-old crust and early mantle differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Ray, S.L.; Saha, A.K.; Sarkar, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Samarium-neodymium data for nine granitic and tonalite gneisses occurring as remnants within the Singhbhum granite batholith in eastern India define an isochron of age 3775 ?? 89 ?? 106 years with an initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.50798 ?? 0.00007. This age contrasts with the rubidium-strontium age of 3200 ?? 106 years for the same suite of rocks. On the basis of the new samarium-neodynium data, field data, and petrologic data, a scheme of evolution is proposed for the Archean crust in eastern India. The isotopic data provide evidence that parts of the earth's mantle were already differentiated with respect to the chondritic samarium-neodymium ratio 3800 ?? 106 years ago.

  8. Eastern Indian 3800-million-year-old crust and early mantle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Ray, S L; Saha, A K; Sarkar, S N

    1981-06-26

    Samarium-neodymium data for nine granitic and tonalite gneisses occurring as remnants within the Singhbhum granite batholith in eastern India define an isochron of age 3775 +/- 89 x 10(6) years with an initial (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio of 0.50798 +/- 0.00007. This age contrasts with the rubidium-strontium age of 3200 x 10(6) years for the same suite of rocks. On the basis of the new samarium-neodynium data, field data, and petrologic data, a scheme of evolution is proposed for the Archean crust in eastern India. The isotopic data provide evidence that parts of the earth's mantle were already differentiated with respect to the chondritic samarium-neodymium ratio 3800 x l0(6) years ago.

  9. Mercury distribution and methylmercury mobility in the sediments of three sites on the Lebanese coast, eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Abi-Ghanem, Carine; Nakhlé, Khaled; Khalaf, Gaby; Cossa, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in coastal sediments has been widely studied in clay deposits; however, equivalent results on carbonated sediments are scarce. This article aims to study Hg distribution in Lebanese carbonate coastal marine sediments (Eastern Mediterranean) in order to characterize their contamination level and to explore the postdepositional mobility of methylmercury (MeHg) in the deposits. Vertical distribution profiles of total (HgT) and MeHg have been established for the solid phase of sediment cores collected in various near-shore environments chosen for their hypothetical various degrees of anthropization. In addition, dissolved MeHg was determined in sediment pore waters to test its mobility and potential availability for biota. Three sites on the Lebanese coasts--Akkar, Dora, and Selaata--were selected. Akkar is far from any direct contamination source, whereas Dora, located near the Beirut harbor, is a heavily urbanized and industrialized zone including a huge dump site, and Selaata is near a chemical plant that produces phosphate fertilizers. Particulate HgT concentrations in the sediments varied between <0.04 and 0.65 μg/g, with a proportion of MeHg lower than 1%. Based on a sediment quality guideline (MacDonald et al. 2000), we concluded that Dora bay sediments are heavily contaminated by Hg, with concentrations exceeding the "consensus-based threshold effect" level (0.17 μg/g) and almost reaching the "effects range-medium" level (0.71 μg/g). In spite of the low HgT concentration in Akkar and Selaata sediment (similar to natural carbonated sediment: 0.04 μg/g according to Turekian and Wedephol (1961), a closer analysis of the sediment core vertical profile allows one to observe an anthropogenic impact. This impact might be toxicologically insignificant; however, it allows tracing the time increase of Hg diffuse deposition. On the other hand, dissolved MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.09 and from 0.04 to 8.76 ng/l in the Selaata

  10. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-03-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula.

  11. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations

    PubMed Central

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-01-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J*(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  12. Rift Structure along the Eastern Continental Margin of India - new constraints on style of breakup of the Indian landmass from the eastern Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K. S.; Karlapati, S.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI), a classical passive margin has evolved after breakup of the Indian landmass from the East Antarctica during the Early Cretaceous. Anomalous thick sediments and lack of cohesive magnetic signatures in the Bay of Bengal hampered delineation of rift-structure and age assignment for the continental breakup between India and East Antarctica. Further, absence of lithological and geochronological information and a few seismic profiles from the margin led to put forward several competing models for the rift initiation and evolution of the ECMI. Here, we analyze long streamer seismic reflection data and deep-water drill well information from the western Bay of Bengal to infer the buried rift structure, crustal architecture and stratigraphy along the ECMI. Following the structural pattern of the margin, the region is divided into four domains as decoupled, coupled, exhumed and oceanic, which in turn helped us to demarcate the variations in rift structure from south to north along the margin. The southern segment in the vicinity of Cauvery Basin consists of steep continental shelf associated with few major normal faults, which indicates that the segment was evolved as mix shear-rifted margin. The central segment off southern part of the Krishna-Godavari Basin is controlled by a series of fault-bounded half-graben structures and presence of thinned continental crust over the exhumed mantle body, revealing that the segment was formed under hyper-rifting process. While the northern segment extends up to Mahanadi Basin shows relatively less gradient continental slope with a few major faults, suggesting that the segment was evolved by hypo-extended process. Variable crustal architecture lying along the ECMI supports each segment of the margin formed in a specific rift process. A breakup unconformity considered as important geological constraint for completion of rift process between India and East Antarctica is clearly mapped on

  13. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  14. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) Promoter polymorphisms are well linked with lower stomach tumor formation in eastern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanjib; Ghosh, Nillu; Saha, Debjit; Kesh, Kousik; Gupta, Arnab; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), an interstitial collagenase, plays a major role in cellular invasion during development of gastric cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -1607 1G/2G site of the MMP-1 gene promoter has been reported to alter transcription level. While the importance's of other SNPs in the MMP-1 promoter have not yet been studied in gastric cancer, our aim was to investigate MMP-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility in eastern Indian population. A total of 145 gastric cancer patients and 145 healthy controls were genotyped for MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G (rs1799750) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), while MMP-1 -519 A/G (rs1144393), MMP-1 -422 T/A (rs475007), MMP-1 -340 T/C (rs514921) and MMP-1 -320 T/C (rs494379) were genotyped by DNA sequencing. A positive association was found with MMP-1 -422 T/A SNP that showed significant risk for regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021, Odd's ratio (OR) = 3.044, Confidence intervals (CI) = 1.187-7.807). In addition, we found a significant association with lower stomach tumor formation among gastric cancer patients for three adjacent polymorphisms near the transcriptional start sites of [MMP-1 -422 T/A (P = 0.043, OR = 2.182, CI = 1.03-4.643), MMP-1 -340 T/C (P = 0.075, OR = 1.97, CI = 0.94-4.158) and MMP-1 -320 T/C (P = 0.034, OR = 2.224, CI = 1.064-40731)]. MMP-1 level in patients' serum was correlated with MMP-1 promoter haplotypes conferring these three SNPs to evaluate the functional importance of these polymorphisms in lower stomach tumor formation and significant correlation was observed. Furthermore, MMP-1 -519 A/G polymorphism displayed poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.024, OR = 3.8, CI = 1.69-8.56) attributing a higher risk of cancer progression. In conclusion, MMP-1 proximal promoter SNPs are associated with the risk of lower stomach

  16. Amalgamating eastern Gondwana: The evolution of the Circum-Indian Orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Alan S.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2005-08-01

    The Neoproterozoic global reorganisation that saw the demise of Rodinia and the amalgamation of Gondwana took place during an incredibly dynamic period of Earth evolution. To better understand the palaeogeography of these times, and hence help quantify the interrelations between tectonics and other Earth systems, we here integrate Neoproterozoic palaeomagnetic solutions from the various blocks that made up eastern Gondwana, with the large amount of recent geological data available from the orogenic belts that formed as eastern Gondwana amalgamated. From this study, we have: (1) identified large regions of pre-Neoproterozoic crust within late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian orogenic belts that significantly modify the geometry and number of continental blocks present in the Neoproterozoic world; (2) suggested that one of these blocks, Azania, which consists of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust within the East African Orogen of Madagascar, Somalia, Ethiopia and Arabia, collided with the Congo/Tanzania/Bangweulu Block at ˜ 650-630 Ma to form the East African Orogeny; (3) postulated that India did not amalgamate with any of the Gondwana blocks until the latest Neoproterozoic/Cambrian forming the Kuunga Orogeny between it and Australia/Mawson and coeval orogenesis between India and the previously amalgamated Congo/Tanzania/Bangweulu-Azania Block (we suggest the name 'Malagasy Orogeny' for this event); and, (4) produced a palaeomagnetically and geologically permissive model for Neoproterozoic palaeogeography between 750 and 530 Ma, from the detritus of Rodinia to an amalgamated Gondwana.

  17. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments on the Exmouth Plateau, eastern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Siesser, W.G. ); Bralower, T.J. ); Carlo, E.H. de )

    1991-03-01

    Calcareous nannofossil assemblages enriched in Braarudosphaera occur in lower Oligocene to lower Miocene sediments at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 762 and 763 on the central Exmouth Plateau. Although beds of Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are well known in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic (the Braarudosphaera Chalk), this is the first published report of this phenomenon in the easter Indian Ocean. Braarudosphaerids appear rather abruptly in the lower Oligocene (in Zone NP 21) on the Exmouth Plateau. They reach their greatest numbers in the lower Oligocene (in Zones NP 22 and NP 23), where they comprise up to 10% of some samples. Braarudosphaera bigelowii is the overwhelmingly dominant species, occurring together with rare specimens of B. discula and Micrantholithus pinguis. The holococcoliths Peritrachelina joidesa and Lanternithus minutus are also associated with the Braarudosphaera enrichment. There are two populations of B. bigelowii: one of normal size (10-14 {mu}m) and one of large specimens (20-22 {mu}m). The larger braarudosphaerids are more common than the smaller forms. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are absent at the nearby Wombat Plateau sites during the same time interval. The authors attribute this to latitudinal control, since the Wombat sites are about 4{degree} north of the Central Exmout Plateau sites. The occurrence of braarudosphaerids on the Exmouth Plateau is related to an Oligocene to early Miocene oceanographic event. Stable-isotope and trace-element analyses suggest that upwelling of cool, low-salinity, nutrient-rich water along a Divergent Zone created the Braarudosphaera-rich sediments in the Indian Ocean.

  18. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  19. Agricultural fingerprints in salt-marsh sediments and adaptation to sea-level rise in the eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Artola, Ane; Cearreta, Alejandro; Irabien, María Jesús; Leorri, Eduardo; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Corbett, D. Reide

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy approach based on benthic foraminifera, sand content, short-lived radioisotope activities, heavy metal concentrations and aerial photography was developed to characterise the process of human disturbance on the intensely impacted eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain) over the last two centuries. Analysis of two 50 cm long sediment cores from different saltmarshes in the Santoña estuary and their comparison with previous results in nearby coastal areas defines criteria to identify records of agricultural activities in salt-marsh sediments. Agricultural occupation of saltmarshes and the later regeneration was recognised based on foraminifera and sand content. Saltmarshes in the eastern Cantabrian coast are expected to adapt to ongoing sea-level rise based on the high sedimentation rates (14-18 mm yr-1) observed during the regeneration process of previously reclaimed areas. These findings can potentially be useful in other temperate saltmarshes with abundant sediment input, as a cost-effective adaptation measure to counteract the effects of sea-level rise.

  20. Relative importance of the processes contributing to the development of SST anomalies in the eastern pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole and its implication for predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizaki, Chiho; Tozuka, Tomoki; Doi, Takeshi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    Using outputs from an ocean general circulation model, the relative importance of the processes contributing to the development of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is examined systematically based on two metrics. One metric quantifies the relative importance of the surface heat flux term against the oceanic terms, while the other metric compares the contribution from the horizontal advection and vertical diabatic terms. It is revealed that the anomalous cooling in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD varies with events and four representative events are investigated in more detail. During the 1991 IOD, the horizontal advection term made the largest contribution to the eastern cooling, and the vertical diabatic term was equally important in the early stage of the development. In the 1994 event, negative SST anomalies were generated by the surface heat flux term at first, and then matured by the vertical diabatic term. Anomalous cooling during the 1997 IOD was mainly produced by the vertical diabatic term. In 2012, anomalous surface heat flux and horizontal advection played the crucial role in the development of the eastern pole, but the vertical diabatic term opposed to the anomalous cooling. Furthermore, the dependence of the seasonal prediction skill by a global ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model on the generation mechanisms was examined. It is demonstrated that events with the vertical diabatic term playing a more important role in the development of the eastern pole are better predicted than those with the vertical diabatic term making relatively small contribution or opposing the occurrence.

  1. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project. PMID:26054458

  2. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  3. Catecholaminergic Gene Variants: Contribution in ADHD and Associated Comorbid Attributes in the Eastern Indian Probands

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Bhaduri, Nipa; Sarkar, Keka; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2013-01-01

    Contribution of genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in various populations, and several genes were speculated to contribute small but additive effects. We have assessed variants in four genes, DDC (rs3837091 and rs3735273), DRD2 (rs1800496, rs1801028, and rs1799732), DRD4 (rs4646984 and rs4646983), and COMT (rs165599 and rs740603) in Indian ADHD subjects with comorbid attributes. Cases were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-TR after obtaining informed written consent. DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of ADHD probands (N = 170), their parents (N = 310), and ethnically matched controls (n = 180) was used for genotyping followed by population- and family-based analyses by the UNPHASED program. DRD4 sites showed significant difference in allelic frequencies by case-control analysis, while DDC and COMT exhibited bias in familial transmission (P < 0.05). rs3837091 “AGAG,” rs3735273 “A,” rs1799732 “C,” rs740603 “G,” rs165599 “G” and single repeat alleles of rs4646984/rs4646983 showed positive correlation with co-morbid characteristics (P < 0.05). Multi dimensionality reduction analysis of case-control data revealed significant interactive effects of all four genes (P < 0.001), while family-based data showed interaction between DDC and DRD2 (P = 0.04). This first study on these gene variants in Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands and associated co-morbid conditions indicates altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. PMID:24163823

  4. Potential contribution of dopaminergic gene variants in ADHD core traits and co-morbidity: a study on eastern Indian probands.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Subhamita; Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Ghosh, Paramita; Karmakar, Arijit; Bhattacharjee, Animesh; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2014-05-01

    Association of dopaminergic genes, mainly receptors and transporters, with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been investigated throughout the world due to the importance of dopamine (DA) in various physiological functions including attention, cognition and motor activity, traits. However, till date, etiology of ADHD remains unknown. We explored association of functional variants in the DA receptor 2 (rs1799732 and rs6278), receptor 4 (exon 3 VNTR and rs914655), and transporter (rs28363170 and rs3836790) with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, and co-morbid disorders in eastern Indian probands. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV was followed for recruitment of nuclear families with ADHD probands (N = 160) and ethnically matched controls (N = 160). Cognitive deficit and hyperactive traits were measured using Conner's parents/teachers rating scale. Peripheral blood was collected after obtaining informed written consent and used for genomic DNA isolation. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-based methods followed by population- as well as family-based statistical analyses. Association between genotypes and cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbidities was analyzed by the Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software. Case-control analysis showed statistically significant difference for rs6278 and rs28363170 (P = 0.004 and 1.332e-007 respectively) while family-based analysis exhibited preferential paternal transmission of rs28363170 '9R' allele (P = 0.04). MDR analyses revealed independent effects of rs1799732, rs6278, rs914655, and rs3836790 in ADHD. Significant independent effects of different sites on cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbid disorders were also noticed. It can be summarized from the present investigation that these gene variants may influence cognitive/hyperactive traits, thereby affecting the disease etiology and associated co-morbid features. PMID:24585059

  5. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  6. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2014-06-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) had a major impact on the geomorphology and sedimentology of the east coast of India. Estimation of the magnitude of the tsunami from its deposits is a challenging topic to be developed in studies on tsunami hazard assessment. Two core sediments (C1 and C2) from Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India were subjected to textural, mineral, geochemical and rock-magnetic measurements. In both cores, three zones (zone I, II and III) have been distinguished based on mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data. Zone II is featured by peculiar rock-magnetic, textural, mineralogical and geochemical signatures in both sediment cores that we interpret to correspond to the 2004 IOT deposit. Textural, mineralogical, geochemical and rock-magnetic investigations showed that the tsunami deposit is featured by relative enrichment in sand, quartz, feldspar, carbonate, SiO 2, TiO 2, K 2O and CaO and by a depletion in clay and iron oxides. These results point to a dilution of reworked ferromagnetic particles into a huge volume of paramagnetic materials, similar to what has been described in other nearshore tsunami deposits (Font et al. 2010). Correlation analysis elucidated the relationships among the textural, mineral, geochemical and magnetic parameters, and suggests that most of the quartz-rich coarse sediments have been transported offshore by the tsunami wave. These results agreed well with the previously published numerical model of tsunami induced sediment transport off southeast coast of India and can be used for future comparative studies on tsunami deposits.

  7. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  8. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mahu, Edem; Nyarko, Elvis; Hulme, Samuel; Coale, Kenneth H

    2015-09-15

    We present results of a preliminary geochemical assessment of Cd, Pb, V, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Fe in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana. Samples were taken along 4 regions G1, G2, G3 and G4 at approximately 25m, 100m, and 250m, 500m and 1000m depths. Elemental compositions were assessed through the estimation of Al-normalized enrichment factors and geochemical accumulation indices, and the concentrations determined to produce any potential toxic effects to biota. Significant enrichment of the bottom sediments with Cd, Ni and As were observed at some locations with sediments showing signs of heavy pollution with As at region G4. Apart from Ni, V and As which were beyond threshold effects levels at most regions, all other metals were below probable effect levels. Both natural and anthropogenic processes controlled trace metal accumulation and distribution in the Ghanaian coastal environment.

  9. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  10. Marine hazard evaluation for the coasts of Catania and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy, and implication for a local sea monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    A project for the planning of a coastal defense system for the provinces of Catania and Siracusa, in Sicily, is in the stage of feasibility analysis at the Building and Construction Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (CIRI), of the University of Bologna, with the focus on protection against extreme waves, such as tsunamis and storm waves. The eastern coast of Sicily, encompassing the coasts of Catania and Siracusa, is one of the most hazardous areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean as regards tsunamis, and it is also affected by extreme sea storms. The main goal of the project is to study the feasibility of a local Tsunami Warning System addressing near and far sources of seismic and landslide origin and to plan a sea-monitoring system capable to detect anomalous conditions for a wide spectral range of waves covering tsunamis as well as storms. The first phase of the project is the hazard assessment for extreme events, which is preparatory to the second phase, i.e. the feasibility study of a sea level and sea currents monitoring system based on new technologies. The coastal hazard assessment includes the identification of possible tsunami sources and the estimation of the tsunami threats, which allows one to recognize the most exposed coastal areas to tsunamis events. The identification of tsunami sources is made from literature and catalogs, while the use of numerical simulations of tsunamis is needed for tsunami hazard assessment and to evaluate the coastal inundation. The tsunami simulations are also a key information for the planning of the monitoring network, since it allows to characterize the signal that should be detected. As regards storm waves, we propose to extend the temporal base for the estimation of the significant wave height and other relevant statistics with the use of geophysical data, since recent works from literature suggest that the actual statistics for eastern Sicily might be underestimated.

  11. Geologic and geophysical maps of the eastern three-fourths of the Cambria 30' x 60' quadrangle, central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.; Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, M.A.; McDougall, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The Cambria 30´ x 60´ quadrangle comprises southwestern Monterey County and northwestern San Luis Obispo County. The land area includes rugged mountains of the Santa Lucia Range extending from the northwest to the southeast part of the map; the southern part of the Big Sur coast in the northwest; broad marine terraces along the southwest coast; and broadvalleys, rolling hills, and modest mountains in the northeast. This report contains geologic, gravity anomaly, and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of the eastern three-fourths of the 1:100,000-scale Cambria quadrangle and the associated geologic and geophysical databases (ArcMap databases), as well as complete descriptions of the geologic map units and the structural relations in the mapped area. A cross section is based on both the geologic map and potential-field geophysical data. The maps are presented as an interactive, multilayer PDF, rather than more traditional pre-formatted map-sheet PDFs. Various geologic, geophysical, paleontological, and base map elements are placed on separate layers, which allows the user to combine elements interactively to create map views beyond the traditional map sheets. Four traditional map sheets (geologic map, gravity map, aeromagnetic map, paleontological locality map) are easily compiled by choosing the associated data layers or by choosing the desired map under Bookmarks.

  12. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  13. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  14. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  15. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  16. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  17. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  18. Reproductive characteristics and population decline of four species of skate (Rajidae) off the eastern coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Mcphie, R P; Campana, S E

    2009-07-01

    Four of the most common species of skate (Rajidae) were studied off eastern Canada to determine if their reproductive characteristics were linked to their population trajectories. The fecundity of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata and the smooth skate Malacoraja senta averaged between 41 and 56 egg cases per year for each species. For all species but L. ocellata, males matured at larger sizes and at later ages than females. Theoretical rates of population increase for non-equilibrium populations of L. ocellata (c. 0.07), M. senta (c. 0.14) and L. erinacea and A. radiata (c. 0.20) were low compared to most fishes, indicating that north-west Atlantic skates are intrinsically unproductive, yet are theoretically capable of supporting low-level fisheries. Nevertheless, the results of 36 years of research surveys indicate that the abundance of mature L. ocellata, A. radiata and M. senta all decreased by >90% since 1970, indicating that past fishing mortality (both directed and undirected) has outstripped the net productivity of the skate populations on the eastern Scotian Shelf. The relationship between maximum age (t(max)) and age of maturity (t(mat)) was a better predictor of population growth rate than was body size, with the species exhibiting the highest ratios of t(mat) :t(max) (L. ocellata = 0.68, M. senta = 0.66) having the lowest predicted population growth rates. L. ocellata appears to have the lowest productivity and has experienced the greatest population decline, thus raising concerns over its future status.

  19. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  20. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  1. Distribution and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines from production vineyards along the eastern Adriatic coast.

    PubMed

    Likar, Matevž; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Regvar, Marjana

    2013-04-01

    The colonisation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on roots of grapevines were investigated in production vineyards located along a 500-km-long stretch of karst along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. AMF communities on roots of grapevines were analysed using temporal temperature gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the 18S and internal transcribed spacer segments of the rDNA operon. The AMF colonisation of these grapevines roots was consistent along the whole of this east Adriatic karst region, at 64 to 82% of fine roots. The comparison of the AMF communities on the roots of these grapevines showed that the fungal community associated with grapevine roots seems to be relatively stable, with inter-vineyard variability comparable to intra-vineyard variability. Some of the changes in the fungal communities were attributed to environmental factors (plant-available P) and location of the vineyard, although the latter could also have been influenced by an unmeasured environmental factor. A total of 27 taxa of fungi were identified, including taxa from Glomus group B, based on the sequencing of 18S rDNA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA yielded 30 different fungal taxa, which comprised eight different Glomeromycota taxa, including Glomus sinuosum and Glomus indicum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of grapevine colonisation by G. indicum.

  2. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: Possibility of founder mutation in CYP27A1 gene (c.526delG) in Eastern Indian and Surinamese population.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Atanu Kumar; Danda, Sumita; Muthusamy, Karthik; Alexander, Mathew; Sudhakar, Sniya Valsa; Hansdak, Samuel; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Bakhya Shree, G B; Rekha, L

    2015-06-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a lipid storage disease characterized by diarrhea, cataract, tendon xanthoma and neurological regression if untreated. CYP27A1 is the only gene in which mutations are known to cause Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. We report two Indian families from different regions of India who underwent molecular testing of CYP27A1. The first family from Eastern India consisting of two affected individuals was found to have the c.526delG homozygous mutation in exon 3, previously reported from our laboratory, also in a patient from Eastern India. However the second affected individual from Southern India that we studied and two previously reported cases from Northern India have different mutations. Interestingly the only previous report of c.526delG mutation was in a Surinamese individual from the Netherlands. To date most of the pathogenic mutations for Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis have been confined to single population except for R362C mutation which was reported from the Netherlands and the USA (Black). To our knowledge this is the second causal mutation for Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis which has been reported in two different populations. As human trading was prevalent from Eastern India to Surinam by the Dutch settlers this mutation might suggest a common founder mutation in these populations.

  3. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  4. Evidence for post last-glacial-maximum punctuated sea level rise found on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    The eustatic sea level curve for the eastern Mediterranean presents a general trend characterized by rapid post last-glacial-maximum rise (20,000 years ago), slowing approximately 6000 years ago and stabilizing at current sea-level 4000 years ago. Sea level evidence from portions of the Israeli coastline, suggest minimal to no hydro-glacio-isostatic influence on the local relative sea level curve, and no tectonic offsets for at least the past two thousand years. Recently, a submerged series of relict wave cut notches and erosional pits were identified along a sequence of coastal sites located approximately 20 km from one another (Michmoret, Olga, Caesarea, Dor) at 3 m and 6 m water depths. The features were carved into an upper-Pleistocene to Holocene eolianite sandstone, the age of which was previously constrained by OSL measurements to MIS 1-3. Elsewhere, similar features are widely used as sea-level markers. In this study, at some of the sites, we found a coinciding 3 m to 6 m submerged cliff with overhanging upper part, morphology that is comparable to the morphology of the modern coastal cliff. These submerged features should either suggest a tectonic offset, which is not favorable for the study area, or they might suggest that sea level rise has not been gradual, but rather punctuated, exhibiting pulses of sea level rise followed by periods of sea level stagnation. For the study site, the last stagnation took place at a few meters below current sea-level and enabled the development of the observed wave induced morphology within the eolianite. At present sea level, similar features exist and are being actively formed within the same host rock. At some of the sites, artificially-cut archaeological features from about the last 2000 years present with notches or erosional pits thereby providing insight into the period of time required for their creation due to their archaeological associations. Sea level rise might impacts the coastline significantly, with

  5. Changes in ecosystem components induced by climate variability off the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula during 1960 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Suam; Bae, Sang-Won

    2000-10-01

    To understand the variations of ecosystem components in response to changing environment, especially relating to a shift in the climate regime during mid 1970s, we analyzed the physical and biological time-series data collected from the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula during 1960-1990. The Northeast Pacific Pressure Index (NEPPI) in winter seasons showed a negative correlation ( r=-0.384, p<0.05) with SOI in summer. The standardized chronologies of tree ring-width showed high correlations with precipitation of Ulleung Island and Kangrung city ( r=0.408, p<0.05; r=0.410, p<0.05) and seawater temperatures ( r=0.407, p<0.05). Sharp increases in tree growth appeared in 1969, 1973, 1979, 1983, and 1987. Among these years, all except 1979 seem to have a close connection with the El Niño which had persisted more than five seasons. Air temperatures in spring at Ulleung Island and Kangrung area appeared comparatively higher during the intense Aleutian low period after 1976. The Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) was shallower (18.2 m) and less variable during 1961-1975 compared to that (26.1 m) of 1976-1990. The shallower MLD in spring during the earlier period resulted in the higher chl a concentration than in the later years. Consequently, estimated zooplankton biomass in spring tended to decrease from the 1960s to the late 1980s in accordance with the phytoplankton decreases. In the East Sea, composition changes in fish species as well as fish catches were observed. Catches of pollock, sardine, and saury had good correlations with annual NEPPI.

  6. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. Methods We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. Results The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. Conclusion This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences. PMID:26088847

  7. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  8. Heavy metals in four fish species from the French coast of the Eastern English Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Henry, F; Amara, R; Courcot, L; Lacouture, D; Bertho, M-L

    2004-07-01

    Shallow coastal waters act as nurseries for various fish species and have been recognized as essential fish habitat. We studied heavy metal concentrations in four fish species (plaice, dab, flounder and cod) as an indicator of large-scale habitat quality. The study took place along the French coasts between the Eastern English Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. All species show different concentrations of measured metals (e.g., Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb) in liver but not in muscle. The highest concentrations are found for the flounder and the lowest for cod which is consistent with their habitat and diet. Although our results do not highlight levels of appreciable pollution within the study area, inter-site differences are mainly observed in the muscle tissues and are generally in agreement with the known environmental data (e.g., anthropogenic pressure). However, in the Bay of Seine, one of the most contaminated estuaries in Europe, metal concentrations are in the same range or even lower than those found in fish collected from areas distant from any anthropogenic pressures. At one site, the comparisons of the Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations between healthy and diseased dabs have been carried out on the muscle and liver tissues. The results of this preliminary study show a relationship between metal concentrations and the pathological status of the fish. The use of fish health as indicator of habitat quality is discussed.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of long-range transport and aerosol concentration temporal variations at the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ovadnevaite, J; Kvietkus, K; Sakalys, J

    2007-09-01

    Ambient particles vary greatly in their ability to affect visibility, climate and human health. The fine fraction of aerosol is responsible for greater and wider effects on human health; thus, investigation of this fraction is very important. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 (particulate matter below 2.5 microm in size) concentrations at the Preila monitoring station started in 2003. During a period of 2 years, the episodes of high daily and semi-hourly concentrations of PM2.5 were measured. These episodes did not depend on the season or time of day. The substantial role of long-range transport of pollutants to these increases in concentration was shown using chemical and statistical analysis. It was found that most of the severe episodes occurred when air masses came from a specific site besides it was established that air masses of different origin were characterized by different mixing layer depth. Lower mixing depth was observed in air masses characterized by higher observed concentrations at the measuring site and vice versa. PM2.5 concentrations showed diurnal and seasonal variations whose pattern reflected the regional origin of the aerosol. The regional pollution level was evaluated by the statistical analysis of PM2.5 concentrations. The background annual average of PM2.5 mass concentration for the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea was 15.1 +/- 0.8 microg m(-3).

  10. Spatial-temporal trend and health implications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in resident oysters, South China Sea: A case study of Eastern Guangdong coast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Ling; Lin, Qin; Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia

    2016-09-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178ng/g with a mean concentration of 622ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P<0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%-88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5ng/g and 30ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were <10(-5), indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal. PMID:27345707

  11. Spatial-temporal trend and health implications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in resident oysters, South China Sea: A case study of Eastern Guangdong coast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Ling; Lin, Qin; Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia

    2016-09-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178ng/g with a mean concentration of 622ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P<0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%-88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5ng/g and 30ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were <10(-5), indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal.

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoling; Du, Jinzhou; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Fenfen; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale. In order to improve the understanding of origin, composition, and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas, dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, South China. Fulvic acids, humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS. Compared to the mangrove pore-water DHS, the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates, but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups. As for the three fractions of the two DHS, XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics, carbohydrates, carboxyl groups, and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids. Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.

  13. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mahu, Edem; Nyarko, Elvis; Hulme, Samuel; Coale, Kenneth H

    2015-09-15

    We present results of a preliminary geochemical assessment of Cd, Pb, V, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Fe in marine sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic, off the Coast of Ghana. Samples were taken along 4 regions G1, G2, G3 and G4 at approximately 25m, 100m, and 250m, 500m and 1000m depths. Elemental compositions were assessed through the estimation of Al-normalized enrichment factors and geochemical accumulation indices, and the concentrations determined to produce any potential toxic effects to biota. Significant enrichment of the bottom sediments with Cd, Ni and As were observed at some locations with sediments showing signs of heavy pollution with As at region G4. Apart from Ni, V and As which were beyond threshold effects levels at most regions, all other metals were below probable effect levels. Both natural and anthropogenic processes controlled trace metal accumulation and distribution in the Ghanaian coastal environment. PMID:26139460

  14. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  15. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  16. Gradual and small decrease of glacial sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casse, Marie; Malaize, Bruno; Bassinot, Franck; Caillon, Nicolas; Degaridel-Thoron, Thibault; Rebaubier, Hélène; Charlier, Karine; Caley, Thibaut; Marieu, Vincent; Beaufort, Luc; Rojas, Virginia; Meynadier, Laure; Valet, Jean Pierre; Reaud, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), between about 1.2 and 0.7 Ma, is characterized by the emergence of asymmetric, high-amplitude 100 ka cycles, which contrast with the low amplitude, 41 kyr cycles that dominate the early Pleistocene climate. Here, we study the sediment core MD12-3409, which spans the last ~ 1.75 Ma, to document hydrographic changes across the MPT in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. Stratigraphy is based on benthic foraminifera delta18O and we reconstruct Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) using the Mg/Ca ratio of Globigerinoides ruber, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera. Our results reveal a progressive cooling of glacial maxima across the MPT but no long-term trend in mean SST over the last 1.75 Ma. The main periodicity of the surface temperature signal shifts from 41 kyr before the MPT, to both 100 kyr and 41 kyr for the post MPT time period. Over the last 800 ka, the strong correlation between core MD12-3409 SST fluctuations and the atmospheric CO2 record suggests a global, greenhouse forcing for the tropical Indian SST over the post-MPT time period. Within the MPT, and for earlier time interval, changes in temperature gradients between our SST record and other temperature records in, or at the edge of, the Pacific Warm Pool, could suggest reorganizations of sea surface circulation and lateral heat exchanges. Since the MPT, the amplification of sea level lowering during glacial periods might have shoaled the Indonesian Through Flow (ITF) gateway, restricting hydrographic exchanges between Pacific and Indian oceans.

  17. Coastal flooding events on the French coast of the eastern English Channel: the result of a combination of meteorological, marine, and morphological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letortu, P.; Costa, S.; Cantat, O.; Levoy, F.; Dauvin, J. C.; De Saint-Léger, E.

    2012-04-01

    On account of increasing inhabitation and development of coastal areas, the economical stakes are high for forecasting and prevention of coastal flooding risk. Because of its exposure to prevailing Westerlies, morphological, and topographic features, low coastal areas on the French coast of the eastern English Channel are particularly sensitive to this natural risk. This sensitivity, that has always characterized this study area, is becoming worrying to politicians and inhabitants. The study aim is to identify, from 1949 to 2010, the possible increase of frequency and intensity of these meteorological and marine events, and their characteristics for forecasting objectives. The chosen approach is made up of three elements: 1) An analysis of strong west wind over the last decades has been implemented from Meteo-France data of Dieppe, reliable regional meteorological station. Beyond multi-annual random fluctuations, we have noticed a decrease in frequency and intensity of strong winds traditionally involved in flooding events. 2) An analysis of past events has been carried out from many information sources to warrant the accuracy of statements and their exhaustiveness. Thanks to this database, the main results are: i) the absence of increasing trend about frequency and intensity of coastal flooding events; ii) the cartography of coastal flooding risk for each urbanized area; iii) the definition of wind and tide level thresholds (7 m/s and 8.49 m at Dieppe) above which there is flooding. 3) A characterization, on the synoptic scale, of meteorological conditions ending in flooding has been performed. In matching this piece of information with the past events inventory, we have identified: firstly the two major types of low pressure trajectories that generated overflowing, so the two main atmospheric circulations prone to flooding, and secondly the fundamental meteorological aspect of the high north-west pressure gradient (≥ 20 hPa from "Pointe du Raz" (France) to

  18. Increased sea level promotes coral cover on shallow reef flats in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. E.; Dunne, R. P.; Phongsuwan, N.; Somerfield, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea level in the Indian Ocean is subject to considerable temporal and spatial variabilities. During the period 1960-2009 at Phuket, Thailand, in the NE Indian Ocean, mean sea level increased by 2.7 mm y-1. Regular monitoring of coral cover on fringing reef flats at Phuket since 1979 revealed a sensitive response of this habitat to both transient sea-level depressions and sea-level elevation. Since 1987 when more frequent sampling began, coral cover was positively correlated with the mean sea level experienced over the preceding months. Changing mean sea level explained a high proportion of the observed variation in cover, with overall increasing sea levels and a lack of negative sea-level anomalies promoting cover on the outer reef flats. Concomitantly, there have been no changes in reef community structure or any apparent shifts in zonation patterns across the reef. While future benefits of continued increases in mean sea level on reef flats in the region will be constrained by the frequency and intensity of sea-level depressions associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole, and bleaching events, the overall picture for these shallow reefs is a positive one as they respond to increasing sea level and show rapid recovery from environmental disturbances.

  19. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  20. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    The AKTAIA project aims at the production of new knowledge regarding the forms of manifestation of the climate change and its influence on the stability and evolution of the coastal landforms along the shoreline of eastern Crete (approximate length: 757 km), taking into account the various aspects of human intervention. Aerial photographs, satellite images and orthophotomaps have been used to produce a detailed coastline map and to study the morphological characteristics of the coastal zone of Eastern Crete. More than 100 beach zones have been visited during three field campaigns, which included geomorphological and human intervention mapping, topographic, meteorological and oceanographic measurements and sedimentological sampling and observations. In addition, two pilot sites (one in the north and one in the south part of Crete) are being monitored, via the installation of coastal video monitoring systems, shore-based meteorological stations and wave-tide recorders installed in the nearshore zone. Detailed seafloor mapping with the use of side scan sonar and scuba diving and bathymetric surveys were conducted in the two pilot sites. Meteorological and oceanographic data from all existing land-based meteorological stations, oceanographic buoys and the ERA-interim dataset are used to determine the wind and wave climate of each beach. The collected climatic, sedimentological and coastal environmental data are being integrated in a GIS database that will be used to forecast the climatic trends in the area of Crete for the next decades and to model the impact of the climatic change on the future evolution of the coastal zone. New methodologies for the continuous monitoring of land-sea interaction and for the quantification of the loss of sensitive coastal zones due to sea-level rise and a modified Coastal Vulnerability Index for a comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of the coasts are being developed. Numerical modelling of the nearshore hydrodynamics and the

  1. AMS 14 C dating controlled records of monsoon and Indonesian throughflow variability from the eastern Indian Ocean of the past 32,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Chen, M. T.; Shi, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Zi-Ye Li a, Min-Te Chen b, Hou-Jie Wang a, Sheng-Fa Liu c, Xue-Fa Shi ca College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, P.R. Chinab Institute of Applied Geosciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 20224, ROCc First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266100, P.R. China Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is one of the most important currents responsible for transporting heat and moisture from the western Pacific to the Indian Oceans. The ITF is also well-known as effectively in modulating the global climate change with the interactions among ENSO and Asian monsoons. Here we present an AMS 14C dating controlled sea surface temperature (SST) record from core SO184-10043 (07°18.57'S, 105°03.53'E), which was retrieved from 2171m water depth at a north-south depression located at the southeastern offshore area of Sumatera in the eastern Indian Ocean. Based on our high-resolution SST using Mg/Ca analyses based on planktonic foraminifera shells of Globigerinoides ruber and alkenone index, U k'37-SST, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and AMC 14C age-controls, our records show that, during the past 32,000 years, the SSTs were decreased which imply weaker ITF during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and 3. The weaker UTF may respond to strengthened northeast monsoon during the boreal winter. During 21 to 15ka, the southeast monsoon had been stronger and the northeast monsoon was relatively weaker. During 15 to 8ka, rapid sea level rising may allow the opening of the gateways in the Makassar Strait and Lombok Strait that may have further strengthened the ITF. During the early Holocene, the northeast and southeast monsoons seem to be both strengthened. We will discuss the implications of the hydrographic variability and their age uncertainties in this paper during the meeting.

  2. Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea and their linkage with the eastern Indian Ocean-western Pacific warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Yang, Yuxing; Huang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea (SCS) were investigated by a combined singular value decomposition (CSVD) analysis based on sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind stress (SWS) fields from SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) data spanning the period of 1950 1999. The coupled fields achieved the maximum correlation when the SST lagged SWS by one month, indicating that the SCS coupled system mainly reflected the response of the SST to monsoon forcing. Three significant coupled modes were found in the SCS, accounting for more than 80% of the cumulative squared covariance fraction. The first three SST spatial patterns from CSVD were: (I) the monopole pattern along the isobaths in the SCS central basin; (II) the north-south dipole pattern; and (III) the west-east seesaw pattern. The expansion coefficient of the SST leading mode showed interdecadal and interannual variability and correlation with the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), suggesting that the SCS belongs to part of the IPWP at interannual and interdecadal time scales. The second mode had a lower correlation coefficient with the warm pool index because its main period was at intra-annual time scales instead of the interannual and interdecadal scales with the warm pools. The third mode had similar periods to those of the leading mode, but lagged the eastern Indian Ocean warm pool (EIWP) and western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) by five months and one year respectively, implying that the SCS response to the warm pool variation occurred from the western Pacific to the eastern Indian Ocean, which might have been related to the variation of Indonesian throughflow. All three modes in the SCS had more significant correlations with the EIWP, which means the SCS SST varied much more coherently with the EIWP than the WPWP, suggesting that the SCS belongs mostly to part of the EIWP. The expansion coefficients of the SCS SST modes all had negative correlations with the Niño3 index, which they lag

  3. Thickness and grain-size distribution of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami deposits in Periya Kalapuwa Lagoon, eastern Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Dan; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Hirose, Takehiro; Gunatilake, Jagath; Wickramasooriya, Ashvin; DeLile, Jeffrey; Young, Sansfica; Rathnayake, Chaminda; Ranasooriya, Jay; Murayama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe the sedimentary characteristics of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami deposits in and around Periya Kalapuwa Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Periya Kalapuwa is a coastal lagoon of about 13 km 2 area and has an average depth of about 1 m. It is separated from the Indian Ocean by coastal barrier sand dunes of up to 9-m elevation through which two inlet channels open the lagoon to the ocean. This region was hit by three waves during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The second wave was largest (4-6 m) and entered the lagoon not only via the two inlet channels, but also by flowing over the sand dunes. Erosive scars were found on the sand dunes adjacent to the two inlets. Twenty-seven core samples, along with trenching and hand-auger data, show that the tsunami deposits are 9 cm thick on average (up to 35 cm in the lagoon and up to 66 cm on the shore) and are composed mainly of medium sand (mean grain size 1.06 φ) with low mud content (0.61 wt.%), which is similar to the composition of sand from near the erosive scars in the sand dunes (mean grain size 0.94 φ), but different from the lagoon deposits (mean grain size 1.68 φ; mud content 4.7 wt.%). The distribution of the tsunami deposits was limited to within about 1 km from each inlet. The tsunami deposits become thinner and finer grained with increasing distance from the inlets. Most of the tsunami deposits are massive, but some show sedimentary structures: single or multiple-graded bedding structures, parallel laminations defined by layers of heavy minerals, and muddy laminations. Our observations and analyses suggest that the tsunami deposits were formed mainly from sand eroded from sand dunes near the two inlets. We estimated the total volume of tsunami sediments to be 83 000 m 3. By assuming that the sediments of the tsunami deposits were supplied only by erosion of sand dunes from near the two inlets, this is equivalent to erosion of 83 m 3 of sand per meter of sand dune traversed by the tsunami wave.

  4. Increased frequency of extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events due to greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Weller, Evan; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Masumoto, Yukio; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-06-12

    The Indian Ocean dipole is a prominent mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, affecting the lives of millions of people in Indian Ocean rim countries. In its positive phase, sea surface temperatures are lower than normal off the Sumatra-Java coast, but higher in the western tropical Indian Ocean. During the extreme positive-IOD (pIOD) events of 1961, 1994 and 1997, the eastern cooling strengthened and extended westward along the equatorial Indian Ocean through strong reversal of both the mean westerly winds and the associated eastward-flowing upper ocean currents. This created anomalously dry conditions from the eastern to the central Indian Ocean along the Equator and atmospheric convergence farther west, leading to catastrophic floods in eastern tropical African countries but devastating droughts in eastern Indian Ocean rim countries. Despite these serious consequences, the response of pIOD events to greenhouse warming is unknown. Here, using an ensemble of climate models forced by a scenario of high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), we project that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase by almost a factor of three, from one event every 17.3 years over the twentieth century to one event every 6.3 years over the twenty-first century. We find that a mean state change--with weakening of both equatorial westerly winds and eastward oceanic currents in association with a faster warming in the western than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean--facilitates more frequent occurrences of wind and oceanic current reversal. This leads to more frequent extreme pIOD events, suggesting an increasing frequency of extreme climate and weather events in regions affected by the pIOD.

  5. Increased frequency of extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events due to greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Weller, Evan; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Masumoto, Yukio; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-06-12

    The Indian Ocean dipole is a prominent mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, affecting the lives of millions of people in Indian Ocean rim countries. In its positive phase, sea surface temperatures are lower than normal off the Sumatra-Java coast, but higher in the western tropical Indian Ocean. During the extreme positive-IOD (pIOD) events of 1961, 1994 and 1997, the eastern cooling strengthened and extended westward along the equatorial Indian Ocean through strong reversal of both the mean westerly winds and the associated eastward-flowing upper ocean currents. This created anomalously dry conditions from the eastern to the central Indian Ocean along the Equator and atmospheric convergence farther west, leading to catastrophic floods in eastern tropical African countries but devastating droughts in eastern Indian Ocean rim countries. Despite these serious consequences, the response of pIOD events to greenhouse warming is unknown. Here, using an ensemble of climate models forced by a scenario of high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), we project that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase by almost a factor of three, from one event every 17.3 years over the twentieth century to one event every 6.3 years over the twenty-first century. We find that a mean state change--with weakening of both equatorial westerly winds and eastward oceanic currents in association with a faster warming in the western than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean--facilitates more frequent occurrences of wind and oceanic current reversal. This leads to more frequent extreme pIOD events, suggesting an increasing frequency of extreme climate and weather events in regions affected by the pIOD. PMID:24919920

  6. Biology of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Carcharhinidae) in the eastern Indian Ocean, including an approach to estimating age when timing of parturition is not well defined.

    PubMed

    Hall, N G; Bartron, C; White, W T; Dharmadi; Potter, I C

    2012-04-01

    Biological data were recorded for 1265 silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis collected from fish landing sites in eastern Indonesia. These represented catches taken in most calendar months by gillnetting and longlining in the eastern Indian Ocean and contained individuals ranging from embryos to fully mature adults. The growth zones in centra, which were shown to form annually, were counted in the vertebrae in a sub-sample of 200 fish for ageing purposes. The embryo lengths in the 5 months for which there were such data, and the presence of neonates in virtually all months, however, indicated that birth occurs throughout the year and thus there was no well-defined birth date for ageing individual fish. The approximate birth date of each individual was thus estimated from a combination of the total length (L(T) ) at capture and backcalculated L(T) at the formation of the birth zone and at the first and last growth zones in the vertebral centra, together with the period that had elapsed between the formation of those last two growth zones. The number of eggs or embryos in uteri ranged from two to 14, with a mean of 7·2. The estimated mean L(T) at birth of females (811 mm, range: 799-823 mm) and males (812 mm, range: 794-830 mm), derived from the backcalculations corresponding to the birth zones in the centra, were not significantly different (P > 0·05). The L(T) ranges in the catches of post-natal females (570-2592 mm) and males (553-2289 mm) taken by gillnetting were wider than those of the females (1177-2623 mm) and males (1184-2409 mm) taken by longlining. The oldest female and male were 19 and 20 years-old, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for the two sexes did not differ significantly. The growth coefficient, k, and the asymptotic length, L(T∞). were 0·066 year⁻¹ and 2994 mm for the curve fitted to the combined data for females and males. The lengths L(T50) and ages A(50) at which C. falciformis attained maturity were 2156 mm and 15 years

  7. Biology of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Carcharhinidae) in the eastern Indian Ocean, including an approach to estimating age when timing of parturition is not well defined.

    PubMed

    Hall, N G; Bartron, C; White, W T; Dharmadi; Potter, I C

    2012-04-01

    Biological data were recorded for 1265 silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis collected from fish landing sites in eastern Indonesia. These represented catches taken in most calendar months by gillnetting and longlining in the eastern Indian Ocean and contained individuals ranging from embryos to fully mature adults. The growth zones in centra, which were shown to form annually, were counted in the vertebrae in a sub-sample of 200 fish for ageing purposes. The embryo lengths in the 5 months for which there were such data, and the presence of neonates in virtually all months, however, indicated that birth occurs throughout the year and thus there was no well-defined birth date for ageing individual fish. The approximate birth date of each individual was thus estimated from a combination of the total length (L(T) ) at capture and backcalculated L(T) at the formation of the birth zone and at the first and last growth zones in the vertebral centra, together with the period that had elapsed between the formation of those last two growth zones. The number of eggs or embryos in uteri ranged from two to 14, with a mean of 7·2. The estimated mean L(T) at birth of females (811 mm, range: 799-823 mm) and males (812 mm, range: 794-830 mm), derived from the backcalculations corresponding to the birth zones in the centra, were not significantly different (P > 0·05). The L(T) ranges in the catches of post-natal females (570-2592 mm) and males (553-2289 mm) taken by gillnetting were wider than those of the females (1177-2623 mm) and males (1184-2409 mm) taken by longlining. The oldest female and male were 19 and 20 years-old, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for the two sexes did not differ significantly. The growth coefficient, k, and the asymptotic length, L(T∞). were 0·066 year⁻¹ and 2994 mm for the curve fitted to the combined data for females and males. The lengths L(T50) and ages A(50) at which C. falciformis attained maturity were 2156 mm and 15 years

  8. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  9. Evaluating the performance of selective-bred lines of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at different locations along the east coast of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of the economically important eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica have been severely affected in the last few decades by diseases such as Dermo, MSX, SSO, and ROD. As the demand for a fast-growing, disease-resistant oyster increases, so has the need for effective breeding programs that...

  10. Middle Miocene Climate Change and Carbon Cycle: Milankovitch Forcing and Deep Ocean circulation in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Schulz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relation of enhanced carbon burial, carbon isotope excursions and global cooling remains an unsolved problem in the Mesozoic and early Neogene climate history of the Earth. The enigmatic long-term positive carbon isotope excursion between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma ("Monterey excursion") coincided initially with a period of extreme warmth and high sea level (mid-Miocene climate optimum) and a subsequent increase in deep-water oxygen isotopic values, related to the cooling of deep water masses and growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. High resolution reconstruction of the succession of events reveals a complex relationship between orbital forcing, carbon burial and climate cooling, mediated by a major re-organization of ocean circulation patterns. We used high resolution benthic deep water oxygen and carbon isotopes in combination with new age models at critical locations in a West Pacific marginal basin (South China Sea, ODP Site 1146), in the eastern Indian Ocean (NW Australian margin, ODP Site 761) and in the tropical Pacific (Ontong Java Plateau, ODP Site 806) to investigate the frequency and amplitude of deep water isotope fluctuations during the middle Miocene. Benthic stable isotope records document complete recovery of the six main δ 13C maxima of the,Monterey Excursion" between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma and the characteristic stepped increase in δ 18O between 14.5 and 13.1 Ma. At Site 761, the δ 18O curve shows an excellent match with the global sea level curve between 11.5 and 15.1 Ma, and thus closely reflects changes in global ice volume. Prior to 15.1 Ma, the δ 18O curve is mainly driven by bottom water temperature. At Site 1146, a major increase in δ 18O and δ 13C values (1\\permil) at 14.0 Ma, indicates a radical change in the deep water circulation of this marginal West Pacific basin. Spectral analysis of benthic isotopes time series, combined with magnetic susceptibility and color reflectance records, indicate Milankovitch forcing on virtually all proxies

  11. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  12. 76 FR 11494 - List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Debolt, Nicholas D., University of Oklahoma...., Southwestern Community College, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina Sparks, Aaron D.,...

  13. Fault Model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto Earthquake Based on Newly Imaged Upper- Surface of Philippine Sea Plate, Coseismic Coastal Movements, and Tsunami Inundation Heights Along the Eastern Boso Coast, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namegaya, Y.; Shishikura, M.; Satake, K.

    2008-12-01

    We propose a fault model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake by using recently imaged shape of Philippine Sea Plate, distributions of coseismic coastal movements, and tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast. The Genroku Kanto earthquake occurred in southern Kanto, less than 100 km away from Tokyo, on December 31, 1703. Its magnitude is estimated to be 7.9-8.2 (Usami, 2003). The source is located on subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Several fault models have been proposed from distributions of the coseismic coastal vertical movements or tsunami inundated heights (e.g. Kasahara et al., 1973; Matsuda et al., 1978; Aida, 1991; Shishikura, 2003). Recently, upper-surface of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate has been imaged in detail by using deep seismic reflection profiling (e.g. Sato et al., 2005; Takeda et al., 2007; Tsumura et al., 2008). One of the features is low dip angle in the shallow region (Tsumura et al., 2008). In this study, we first compiled the above three images and estimated the shape of the plate. Next, 49 subfaults whose size is 10 km x 10 km are located on the upper surface of Philippine Sea Plate in such a way that they do not overlap with each other. Vertical movement on the coast from each subfault (Green functions) is calculated for a unit amount of slip. The slip amounts of each subfault are estimated by an inversion of measured vertical movement (Shishikura, 2000). As a result, the slip amount of more than 10 m is estimated on the plate surface in the south part of Boso peninsula and Miura peninsula, while small slip is estimated between two peninsulas. To discuss with tsunami inundation height, we next locate additional large two faults whose size is 30 km x 28 km and 50 km x 28 km off southern (S) and southeastern (SE) Boso peninsula, respectively. Tsunami inundation heights along the eastern Boso coast is calculated using the estimated slip distribution of the 49 subfaults and the additional two faults with slip amount of 7

  14. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle.

  15. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle. PMID:21966127

  16. Geochemical And Hydrodynamic Behavior Of The Karstic Aquifer System In The Portion Between Akumal And Boca Paila, In The South Eastern Coast Of The Yucatan Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez Oliman, G.; Leal Bautista, R. M.; Perry, E. C.; Carrol, M.; Wagner, N.; Castillo Oliman, P.

    2008-12-01

    We report here aspects of the geochemistry and hydrodynamics of a nearly 450 km2 area that constitutes part of the rapidly developing tourist corridor between Akumal and Boca Paila, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Some of the largest explored submerged cave systems in the world, including Nohoch Nah Chic and Dos Ojos, are within the study area. The presence of these and other highly permeable conduits highlights the importance of a better understanding of the aquifer system both to assess its vulnerability and to facilitate sustainable water management. This study focuses on major ion, trace element, and stable isotope geochemistry of groundwater and on monitoring system hydrodynamics through water levels measurements. Sampling along approximately 30 km of coast was accomplished by means of a network of 29 sampling sites arranged along three NW-SE transverse lines running approximately perpendicular to the coast and each extending about 16 km inland. To date 52 samples have been taken. In addition, vertical specific conductivity profiles have helped delineate the thickness of the freshwater lens, which has a maximum thickness of 33.5 m in the southwestern part of the study area, approximately 13.5 km from the coast. In the northeastern corner of the study area, 7.5 m of brackish water overlies sea water near the coast. Water level monitoring is by means of Schlumberger pressure transducers installed at 11 sites. Water table changes record tidal oscillation, confirming the interconnectedness of the system, an observation supported by conductivity measurements that indicate oscillatory vertical movement of the saline interface. (SO4/Cl) ratios, expressed as 1000(SO4/Cl) in meq/kg, are useful tracers of groundwater provenance. The ratio is approximately 100 for seawater and is much greater for groundwater in southern Quintana Roo that has dissolved evaporite (Perry et al, 2002). Ratios in the study area, which are 100 or less, indicate no contact with evaporite. Background

  17. Dissolved Fe and Al in the upper 1000 m of the eastern Indian Ocean: A high-resolution transect along 95°E from the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Maxime M.; Measures, Christopher I.; Hatta, Mariko; Hiscock, William T.; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Buck, Clifton S.; Barrett, Pamela M.; Resing, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution section of dissolved iron (dFe) and aluminum (dAl) was obtained along ~95°E in the upper 1000 m of the eastern Indian Ocean from the Antarctic margin (66°S) to the Bay of Bengal (18°N) during the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) CO2 Repeat Hydrography I08S and I09N sections (February-April 2007). In the Southern Ocean, low concentrations of dAl (<1 n M) reflect the negligible dust inputs impacting the water masses subducted in the circumpolar domain. The low dAl concentrations characterizing the Southern Ocean terminate near 45°S, probably because of the advection of subtropical water masses that received dust and sedimentary inputs in their formation region. Our subsurface dFe data near the southern Kerguelen Plateau were significantly higher than historical observations in other Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean. We surmise that the offshore advection of dFe-rich waters along the western flank of the southern Kerguelen plateau and enhanced vertical mixing could contribute to this elevated subsurface dFe inventory. Elevated subsurface particulate and dFe levels downstream of the northern Kerguelen Plateau may reflect long-range lateral transport from the plateau's sediments and/or remineralization inputs. At the northern edge of the south Indian subtropical gyre, the deposition of Australian dust, possibly combined with the advection of dAl-enriched waters from the Indonesian Throughflow, creates a region of elevated dAl in the upper 400 m but without a corresponding enrichment in dFe. In the northern Indian Ocean, the South Equatorial Current constitutes a remarkable biogeochemical front separating the oxygen-rich and dFe-poor subtropical gyre waters from the dFe-rich and oxygen-depleted waters of the northern Indian Ocean. By tracing the accumulation of macronutrients and dFe along the advective pathway of Indian Central Water, we show that the central waters of the northern Indian Ocean receive excess dFe in addition

  18. Future change of the Indian Ocean basin-wide and dipole modes in the CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jung-Eun; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Kim, Byeong-Hee; Chung, Chul Eddy

    2014-07-01

    The Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability has been represented with the two dominant variability modes: the Indian Ocean basin-wide (IOBW) and dipole (IOD) modes. Here we investigate future changes of the two modes together with mean state and El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) relationship under the anthropogenic global warming using 20 coupled models that participated in the phase five of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project by comparing the historical run from 1950 to 2005 and the RCP 4.5 run from 2050 to 2099. The five best models are selected based on the evaluation of the 20 models' performances in simulating the two modes and Indian Ocean basic state for the latest 56 years. They are capable of capturing the IOBW and IOD modes in their spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, major periodicity, and relationship with ENSO to some extent. The five best models project the significant changes in the Indian Ocean mean state and variability including the two dominant modes in the latter part of twenty-first century under the anthropogenic warming scenario. First, the annual mean climatological SST displays an IOD-like pattern change over the Indian Ocean with enhanced warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean and relatively weaker warming off the Sumatra-Java coast. It is also noted that the monthly SST variance is increased over the eastern and southwestern Indian Ocean. Second, the IOBW variability on a quasi-biennial time scale will be enhanced due to the strengthening of the ENSO-IOBW mode relationship although the total variance of the IOBW mode will be significantly reduced particularly during late summer and fall. The enhanced air-sea coupling over the Indian-western Pacific climate in response to El Nino activity in the future projection makes favorable condition for a positive IOD while it tends to derive relatively cold temperature over the eastern Indian Ocean. This positive IOD-like ENSO response weakens the relationship between the

  19. Microzooplankton diversity: relationships of tintinnid ciliates with resources, competitors and predators from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco to the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, J. R.; Claustre, H.; Carlotti, F.; Plounevez, S.; Moutin, T.

    2002-07-01

    We examined tintinnid (loricate ciliate microzooplankton) diversity using data from 11 stations between the Moroccan upwelling system and the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean. Taxonomic and morphological diversity of tintinnids was compared to phytoplankton distribution and size-structure, to the abundance of competitors in the form of oligotrich ciliates, and predators as copepods. Tintinnid taxonomic diversity was estimated as numbers of species and the Shannon Index, H'; morphological diversity was quantified by substituting size classes of lorica dimensions for species. Total chlorophyll was partitioned into micro-, nano- and pico-fractions using pigment data and a size-diversity was estimated by considering the 3 size classes as 3 species. Along a west-to-east gradient, average water column concentrations of most organism groups declined approximately an order of magnitude yielding tight correlations. However, tintinnid diversity, both taxonomic and morphological, increased from the Atlantic upwelling station into the western basin of the Mediterranean, and declined slightly towards the Eastern Mediterranean, paralleling shifts in the chlorophyll size-diversity estimate. Diversity varied with absolute or relative abundance of oligotrich or copepods, but different diversity metrics were significantly correlated only with phytoplankton size-diversity. We conclude that tintinnid diversity more closely reflects resource diversity than competitive interactions or predation.

  20. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  1. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  2. Trace metal enrichments in nearshore sediments and accumulation in mussels (Modiolus capax) along the eastern coast of Baja California, Mexico: environmental status in 1995.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barbosa, Albino; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-12-15

    The biogeochemistry of trace metals in nearshore sediments and mussel was studied at 15 stations along a 1000 km long transect paralleling the west coast of the Gulf of California (GOC). Total trace metal (Me) and enrichment factor (EF(Me)) values in sediments were low due to negligible anthropogenic influence in the region. Past copper mining, however, near Santa Rosalia caused concentrations of Pb, Mn, Co, Zn and Cu which were 10-3.3×10(3) times greater than the average for the rest of the transect. Mussels also showed relatively high trace metal concentrations at the Santa Rosalia stations, but the variability in the spatial distribution was low and had undefined trends. Our results show that, with the exception of Co and Cu, the contamination caused by the copper mine affected sediments to a greater extent than mussels.

  3. Indian Continental Rainfall and Indian Ocean SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, G. A.; Harrison, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    We here explore the spatial structure of the interannual variability of southwest monsoon precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, based on gridded precipitation over the period 1982-2001, and its association to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) structures. We find that India is dominated by two independent regions of strong mean and variance in precipitation: the Western Ghats and the central plains region. We explore statistical relationships of precipitation anomaly in these two regions and All-India Rainfall, with SSTA in the Indian Ocean. We are able to find strong (r ~0.6-0.7) simultaneous and lead correlations between distinct Indian Ocean SSTA patterns and precipitation anomaly in the two regions, but do not find similarly strong connections with All-India rainfall. June through September (JJAS) Western Ghats precipitation (WGP) is positively correlated with JJAS western Arabian Sea SSTA, and July through September (JAS) WGP is positively correlated with June western Arabian Sea SSTA.Meanwhile, JJAS Central Plains precipitation (CPP) is negatively correlated with JJAS SSTA off the coasts of Sumatra and Java, and JAS CPP is negatively correlated with June Sumatra and Java SSTA. We are also able to find significant correlations (r ~0.5-0.7) at longer leads, in which JJAS WGP is positively correlated with SSTA in the southwest Indian Ocean in the previous northeast monsoon, and JJAS CPP is negatively correlated with SSTA in the southern Indian Ocean. The correlations between each regional precipitation index and SSTA provides stronger statistical connections that examining the Indian subcontinent as a whole. These statistical connections could possibly be used in the statistical prediction of Indian southwest monsoon precipitation. Further, examination of the dynamics controlling interannual precipitation variability in the Indian subcontinent should likely be explored independently for each of these two regions, rather than for the Indian

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:27287864

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient.

  6. Refinement of Late Early to Middle Miocene Diatom Biostratigraphy for the Eastern Coast of the United States - Application to IODP 313 Coring on the New Jersey Shallow Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Miller, K. G.; Sugarman, P.; Scienceparty, E.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Leg 313

    2010-12-01

    Marine diatoms have been employed for biostratigraphic correlation of lower and middle Miocene sediments deposited on the Atlantic Coastal Plain between Florida and New Jersey for over 50 years. Biotratigraphic zonations developed during the 1970’s and early 1980’s by George W. Andrews and William H. Abbott relied primarily on benthic and shallow shelf-dwelling diatoms ( Actinoptychus, Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, Sceptroneis ) that are common in these deposits. Limited age control was provided by sporadic occurrences of oceanic planktonic diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, and planktonic foraminifera. The transect of holes cored on the shallow New Jersey shelf during IODP Leg 313 provided an opportunity to further develop this east coast diatom biostratigraphy and to refine its correlation with the geologic time scale. In particular, Hole M0029A, at 39°31.170500’N, 73°24.792500’W in 35.97 m of water recovered a nearly continuous sequence of diatom-rich sediments between ~695 and 325 m subbottom depth that preliminary strontium and planktonic microfossil assigned to the late early and middle Miocene. Detailed light microscope study of this sequence revealed the occurrence of numerous oceanic planktonic diatoms (species of Actinocyclus, Annellus, Azpeitia, Crucidenticula, Denticulopsis, Thalassiosira) that have been proven to be useful for diatom biostratigraphy in the equatorial and North Pacific during the past 30 years, where their datum levels (first and last occurrences) have been directly tied to paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Comparison of the stratigraphic positions of these diatom datum levels with calcareous nannofossil, planktonic foraminiferal, and strontium isotope stratigraphy results in a refined age model for Hole M0029A ranging in age between ~19.0 and 13.0 Ma. The continuous occurrence in Hole M0029A of an evolutionary sequence of diatom species of Delphineis (D. ovata, D. lineata, D. penelliptica, D. angustata, D. novacaesarae, D. biseriata) that

  7. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  8. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  9. Evolution of the net surface shortwave radiation over the Indian Ocean during summer MONEX (1979) - A satellite description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the net shortwave (NSW) radiation fields during the monsoon of 1979 was analyzed, using geostationary satellite data, collected before, during, and after the monsoon onset. It is seen, from the time sequence of NSW fields, that during the preonset phase the characteristics of the NSW field are dominated by a strong maximum in the entire Arabian Sea and by a strong minimum in the central and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, the minimum being associated with the intense convective activity occurring in that region. As the season evolves, the minima of NSW associated with the large scale convective activity propagate westward in the equatorial ocean. During the monsoon onset, there occurs an explosive onset of the convection activity in the Arabian Sea: the maximum has retreated towards the Somalia coast, and most of the sea then experiences a strong minimum of NSW associated with the intense precipitation occurring along the southwestern coast of the Indian subcontinent.

  10. Plant invasion impacts on the gross and net primary production of the salt marsh on eastern coast of China: Insights from leaf to ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Guo, Hai-Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    exotic Spartina alterniflora from North America has been rapidly invading the entire Chinese coast, while the impacts of plant invasion on the gross (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) of the coastal salt marshes were less known. In this study, we investigated the photosynthetic performance, leaf characteristics, and primary production of the exotic C4 grass and the dominant native C3 grass (Phragmites australis) in two marsh mixtures (equipped with eddy covariance systems) in the Yangtze Estuary. The light-saturated photosynthetic rate and annual peak leaf area index (LAI) of S. alterniflora was higher than that of P. australis throughout the growing season. The leaf nitrogen content of P. australis declined sharper during the latter growing season than that of S. alterniflora. The leaf-to-canopy production model with species-specific (C3 and C4 types) parameterizations could reasonably simulate the daily trends and annual GPP amount against the 3 year flux measurements from 2005 to 2007, and the modeled NPP agreed with biomass measurements from the two species during 2012. The percentage contributions of GPP between S. alterniflora and P. australis were on average 5.82:1 and 2.91:1 in the two mixtures, respectively. The annual NPP amounts from S. alterniflora were higher by approximately 1.6 times than that from P. australis. Our results suggested that higher photosynthesis efficiency, higher LAI, and longer growing season resulted in greater GPP and NPP in the exotic species relative to the native species. The rapid expansion rate of S. alterniflora further made it the leading contributor of primary production in the salt marsh.

  11. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  12. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  13. Hanging by a coastal strand: breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Torres, Elena; Koptur, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Coastal development has led to extensive habitat destruction and the near extinction of the beach clustervine, Jacquemontia reclinata (Convolvulaceae), an endangered, perennial vine endemic to dune and coastal strand communities in south-eastern Florida. We examined the breeding system of this rare species, and observed visitors to its flowers, as part of a larger effort to document its status and facilitate its recovery. Methods Reproductively mature experimental plants were grown from seed collected from wild plants in two of the largest remaining populations. Controlled hand pollinations on potted plants were conducted to determine the level of compatibility of the species and to investigate compatibility within and between populations. Seeds from the hand pollinations were planted in soil, and they were monitored individually, recording time to seed germination (cotyledon emergence). Wild plants were observed in several of the remaining populations to determine which species visited the flowers. Key Results Hand pollination and seed planting experiments indicate that J. reclinata has a mixed mating system: flowers are able to set fruit with viable seeds with self-pollen, but outcross pollen produces significantly greater fruit and seed set than self-pollen (≥50 % for crosses vs. <25 % for self-pollinations). Visitors included a wide array of insect species, primarily of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All visitors captured and examined carried J. reclinata pollen, and usually several other types of pollen. Conclusions Remnant populations of beach clustervine will have greater reproductive success not only if floral visitor populations are maintained, but also if movement of either pollen or seed takes place between populations. Restoration efforts should include provisions for the establishment and maintenance of pollinator populations. PMID:19797424

  14. Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

  15. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  16. Satellite-Based Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature Tendency in the Tropical Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans for the 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The 1997/98 is a strong El Nino warm event, while the 1998/99 is a moderate La Nina cold event. We have investigated surface heat budgets and sea surface temperature (SST) tendency for these two events in the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans using satellite-retrieved surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. The radiative fluxes are taken from the Goddard Satellite-retrieved Surface Radiation Budget (GSSRB), derived from radiance measurements of the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The GSSRB covers the domain 40 deg S - 4 deg N, 90 deg E-17 deg W and a period from October 1997 to December 2000. The spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg lat-long and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The turbulent fluxes are taken from Version 2 of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF-2). The GSSTF-2 has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long over global Oceans and a temporal resolution of 1 day covering the period July 1987-December 2000. Daily turbulent fluxes are derived from the S S M (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) surface wind and surface air humidity, and the SST and 2-m air temperature of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a stability-dependent bulk flux algorithm. The changes of surface heat budgets, SST and tendency, cloudiness, wind speed, and zonal wind stress of the 1997/98 El Nino relative to the1998/99 La Nina for the northern winter and spring seasons are analyzed. The relative changes of surface heat budgets and SST tendency of the two events are quite different between the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. For the tropical western Pacific, reduced solar heating (more clouds) is generally associated with decreased evaporative cooling (weaker winds), and vise versa. The changes in evaporative cooling over-compensate that of solar heating and dominate the spatial variability of the changes in net surface heating. Both solar heating and evaporative cooling offset each other to reduce

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  19. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  20. [Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Changes in intensity of the regional Hadley cell in Indian Ocean and its impacts on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of changes in the intensity of the regional Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding regions are investigated during the period 1979-2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific region, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon-ENSO-Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM.

  2. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  3. Seasonal Characteristics of Circulation in the Southeastern Tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.; Meyers, G.

    2004-12-01

    The circulation in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean is studied using historical temperature and salinity data. A southward shift of the subtropical gyre at increasing depth dominates the structure of the annual mean circulation. Near the southern Indonesian coast, the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC) is at the sea surface and strongest near 10°-11°S, reflecting strong influence of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In latitudes 13°-25°S the SEC is a subsurface flow and its velocity core deepens toward the south, falling below 500 m at 25°S. The Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) is a surface flow overlying the SEC, associated with the meridional gradients of near-surface temperature and salinity. The ITF supplies water to the SEC mainly in the upper 400 m, and below that depth the flow is reversed along the coast of Sumatra and Java. Monsoon-winds strongly force the annual variation in circulation. Dynamic height at the sea surface has a maximum amplitude at 10°-13°S, and the maximum at deeper levels is located further south. Annual variation is also strong in the coastal wave guides, but is mainly confined to the near-surface layer. Although the South Java Current at the sea surface is not well resolved in the present dataset, semiannual variation is markedly evident at depth and tends to extend much deeper than annual variation along the coast of Sumatra and Java.

  4. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  5. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  6. Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert Proctor

    Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

  7. Education "for" American Indians: Threat or Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tax, Sol; Thomas, Robert K

    1969-01-01

    Results of this Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsored research project in literacy training among the Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma indicate that alienation rather than lack of opportunity is the chief difficulty in American Indian education. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue "Linguistic-Cultural Differences…

  8. Structural Evolution of the India-Arabia Plate Boundary from Miocene to Present-Day (NW Indian Ocean) and Comparison with the Dead Sea Fault (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen-Murray Ridge (OMR) for the India-Arabia plate boundary. This discrepancy between the age of the active strike-slip systems and the age of inception of strike-slip motion raises the question of the kinematic driver for the transition between successive generations of strike-slip faults. Using a recent mutibeam and seismic dataset crossing the OFZ and the OMR, we provide a new geodynamic framework for the Miocene to present-day structural evolution of the India-Arabia plate boundary, and highlight some similarities with the structural evolution of the DST. We first document a Late Miocene episode of uplift of the OMR uplift along the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary. The onset of this uplift is coeval with a plate reorganization event marked by the onset of intra-plate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The OFZ emplaced around 3 Ma, with major pull-apart basins opening (20°N Basin, Dalrymple Trough) dated at 2.4 Ma by far-field correlation with ODP Sites. The opening of pull-apart basins is coeval with the last structural reorganization of the Makran accretionnary wedge, marked by the regional M-unconformity, and with a major intensification of the Indian monsoon. A Late Miocene episode of folding is also recognized at the Lebanon ranges prior to the onset of the present-day DST, which occurred in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The similarities between the geological history of the India-Arabia plate boundary and the DST in the Late Miocene and the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene suggest that both plate boundaries recorded the same kinematic changes. Late Miocene (i.e. Tortonian) deformation is widely

  9. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  10. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  11. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2015-10-20

    Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)--the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal--led to two competing hypothesis of this group's geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20-40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India.

  12. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)—the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal—led to two competing hypothesis of this group’s geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20–40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India. PMID:26482917

  13. 33 CFR 167.153 - Off New York: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach. 167.153 Section 167.153 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.153 Off New York: Eastern approach. (a)...

  14. Cyanobacterial diversity shifts induced by butachlor in selected Indian rice fields in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Western Bihar analyzed with PCR and DGGE.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nidhi; Narayan, Om Prakash; Rai, Lal Chand

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of 30 mg/kg butachlor on the cyanobacterial diversity of rice fields in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Western Bihar in India. A total of 40 samples were grouped into three classes [(i) acidic, (ii) neutral, and (iii) alkaline soils], based on physicochemical and principle component analyses. Acidic soils mainly harbored Westillopsis, Trichormus, Anabaenopsis, and unicellular cyanobacteria; whereas Nostoc, Anabaena, Calothrix, Tolypothrix, and Aulosira were found in neutral and alkaline soils. Molecular characterization using 16S rRNA PCR and DGGE revealed the presence of 13 different phylotypes of cyanobacteria in these samples. Butachlor treatment of the soil samples led to the disappearance of 5 and the emergence of 2 additional phylotypes. A total of 40 DGGE bands showed significant reproducible changes upon treatment with butachlor. Phylogenetic analyses divided the phylotypes into five major clusters exhibiting interesting links with soil pH. Aulosira, Anabaena, Trichormus, and Anabaenopsis were sensitive to butachlor treatment, whereas uncultured cyanobacteria, a chroococcalean member, Westillopsis, Nostoc, Calothrix, Tolypothrix, Rivularia, Gloeotrichia, Fischerella, Leptolyngbya, and Cylindrospermum, appeared to be tolerant against butachlor at their native soil pH. Butachlor-induced inhibition of nitrogen fixation was found to be 65% (maximum) and 33% (minimum) in the soil samples of pH 9.23 and 5.20, respectively. In conclusion, low butachlor doses may prove beneficial in paddy fields having a neutral to alkaline soil pH.

  15. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  16. Europe's Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feest, Christian F.

    1990-01-01

    American Indians are regularly cited as models by and for Europeans. On closer examination, these "Indians" turn out to be a fictional assemblage fabricated over the past five centuries to serve specific cultural and emotional needs of its inventors. Studies changing representations of the Indian as used by European cultures. (AF)

  17. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  18. Seasonal and interannual variations of mixed layer salinity in the southeast tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningning; Feng, Ming; Du, Yan; Lan, Jian; Wijffels, Susan E.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, seasonal and interannual variations of the mixed layer salinity (MLS) in the southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) are analyzed using satellite observations, historical data sets, and data-assimilating ocean model outputs. On the seasonal cycle, the MLS in the SETIO becomes fresher in austral winter and saltier in austral summer: between the Java-Lesser Sunda coast and the South Equatorial Current (SEC, 12°S), where positive entrainment and fresh advections counterbalance each other, the annual cycle of the MLS closely follows the variation of the air-sea freshwater forcing; off the northwest and west Australian coasts, the MLS variations are influenced by the annual cycles of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and Leeuwin Current (LC) transports as well as the air-sea freshwater forcing, with eddy fluxes acting to freshen the MLS along the SEC, the Eastern Gyral Current, and the LC. On the interannual-scale, El Niño (La Niña) events are typically associated with saltier (fresher) MLS in the SETIO. Composite and budget analyses reveal that interannual variations in precipitations drive the MLS anomalies off the Java-Lesser Sunda coast; between 12°S and the northwest Australian coast, the MLS variations are influenced by both advection anomalies and local precipitation anomalies; whereas anomalous meridional currents contribute to the MLS variations off the west Australian coast. Both enhanced local precipitations and the ITF transport anomalies have substantial contributions to the drastic freshening of the Indonesian-Australian Basin between the Java-Lesser Sunda coast and the northwest Australian coast during the extended La Niña events in 1999-2001 and 2010-2012.

  19. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  20. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  1. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years.

    PubMed

    Simon, Margit H; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J C; Hall, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  2. Coral Radiocarbon Record of Interannual Variability in Wind-induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N. S.; Abram, N. J.; Beck, J. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Gagan, M. K.

    2002-12-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from annually banded corals have been shown to track radiocarbon levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surrounding surface water. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, production of excess radiocarbon has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean carbon-14 concentrations. The temporal evolution of this gradient in radiocarbon is preserved in a coral record from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0S, 98E), in the eastern Indian Ocean. During the southeast monsoon, alongshore winds generate Ekman upwelling along the Java-Sumatra coasts, which transports 14C-depleted thermocline water toward the surface-dwelling Mentawai corals. The strength of upwelling in the Mentawai Islands, which is characterized by lower sea surface temperatures, a shallower thermocline and lower sea surface height, reflects variability in the monsoon winds and is modulated by interannual atmosphere-ocean teleconnections. Bimonthly AMS-14C measurements on the Mentawai coral show that the seasonal radiocarbon signal is relatively weak, while the interannual signal is clearly marked by episodic depletions in radiocarbon levels. These events are most likely responding to a relaxation of the westerly trades and subsequent strengthening of the easterlies. Easterly anomalies are linked to a large scale adjustment of the sea surface height along the equator and a shallower eastern thermocline. Our results suggest that interannual climate variability is the dominant forcing mechanism with seasonal variability secondary. Together, bimonthly coral oxygen isotope and radiocarbon records capture variability in upwelling, and hence the strength of the southeast monsoon. Comparison with a coral radiocarbon record from the western Indian Ocean provides insights into oceanic processes across the Indian Ocean basin and the question of the existence of an Indian Ocean Dipole.

  3. Two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Satoru; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is known as a climate mode in the tropical Indian Ocean accompanied by negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the eastern (western) pole during its positive phase. However, the western pole of the IOD is not always covered totally by positive SST anomalies. For this reason, the IOD is further classified into two types in this study based on SST anomalies in the western pole. The first type (hereafter "canonical IOD") is associated with negative (positive) SST anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean. The second type (hereafter "IOD Modoki"), on the other hand, is associated with negative SST anomalies in the eastern and western tropical Indian Ocean and positive SST anomalies in the central tropical Indian Ocean. Based on composite analyses, it is found that easterly wind anomalies cover the whole equatorial Indian Ocean in the canonical IOD, and as a result, positive rainfall anomalies are observed over East Africa. Also, due to the basin-wide easterly wind anomalies, the canonical IOD is accompanied by strong sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. In contrast, zonal wind anomalies converge in the central tropical Indian Ocean in the IOD Modoki, and no significant precipitation anomalies are found over East Africa. Also, only weak SSH anomalies are seen, because equatorial downwelling anomalies induced by westerly wind anomalies in the west are counteracted by equatorial upwelling anomalies caused by easterly wind anomalies in the east.

  4. Immunoglobulin allotypes in Ecuadorian Cayapa Indians.

    PubMed

    Kron, M A; Gately, L; Pandey, J P; Jurado, M H; Rumbea Guzman, J

    1994-05-01

    Indigenous Indian groups comprise approximately 20% of Ecuador's population, the third largest percentage in all of Central or South America, yet immunogenetic data on these groups are lacking in the literature. In the course of population migration studies, sera collected from 65 Ecuadorians living in the northern province of Esmeraldas were typed for six GM and two KM markers. The study population consisted of 47 Cayapa Indians and 18 blacks of African origin, descendants of slaves imported into the area during the seventeenth century. The Cayapa demonstrated three GM phenotypes, two of which are common to other South American Indian tribes. The frequency of KM1 positive Cayapa Indians (63%) is similar to other South American Indian tribes, but is significantly greater than the Huaorani of eastern Ecuador (2%), the only other Ecuadorian Indian group for whom limited immunoglobulin allotype data are available (chi 2 = 35.8, P < 0.0001). PMID:8168827

  5. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  6. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  7. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  8. Interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon associated with the air-sea feedback in the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Huang, Bohua

    2016-03-01

    Using observation-based analyses, this study identifies the leading interannual pattern of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) independent of ENSO and examines the potential mechanisms of its formation. For this purpose, an objective procedure is used to isolate the variability of the summer precipitation associated with the contemporary ENSO state and in previous winter-spring, which influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region in opposite ways. It is shown that the leading pattern of these ENSO-related monsoon rainfall anomalies reproduces some major ISMR features and well represents its connections to the global-scale ENSO features in both lower and upper troposphere. On the other hand, the leading pattern derived from the precipitation anomalies with the ENSO component removed in the ISM and surrounding region also accounts for a substantial amount of the monsoon precipitation centered at the eastern coast of the subtropical Arabian Sea, extending into both the western Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. The associated atmospheric circulation change is regional in nature, mostly confined in the lower to mid troposphere centered in the Arabian Sea, with a mild connection to an opposite tendency centered at the South China Sea. Further analyses show that this regional pattern is associated with a thermodynamic air-sea feedback during early to mid summer season. Specifically, before the monsoon onset, an anomalous atmospheric high pressure over the Arabian Sea causes excessive shortwave radiation to the sea surface and increases SST in May. The warm SST anomalies peak in June and reduce the sea level pressure. The anomalous cyclonic circulation generates regional convection and precipitation, which also induces subsidence and anticyclonic circulation over the South China Sea. The combined cyclonic-anticyclonic circulation further transport moisture from the western Pacific into the Indian Ocean and causes its convergence into the Arabian Sea. As a

  9. Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lauren M; Goodman, Steven M; Nowak, Michael D; Weisrock, David W; Yoder, Anne D

    2011-03-21

    Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species.

  10. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  11. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  12. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  13. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  14. A review of the genus Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae: Odynerini) from the Indian subcontinent,with the description of a new species from the eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The genus Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970 is reviewed for the Indian subcontinent. A new species Paraleptomenes darugiriensis Kumar, Carpenter & Sharma, sp. nov. is described. The male of P. rufoniger Giordani Soika, 1994 is described for the first time. The distribution records of P. humbertianus (de Saussure, 1867), P. miniatus mephitis (Cameron, 1901), P. miniatus miniatus (de Saussure, 1855), and P. rufoniger Giordani Soika, 1994 in the Indian states are augmented. A key to species of the Indian subcontinent and a world checklist of species are provided. PMID:24870998

  15. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  16. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  17. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  18. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  19. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  20. 78 FR 9729 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey, North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey, North Carolina AGENCY: Bureau of Land...: Filing of Plats of Survey''. In said notice were plats of survey representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of the Qualla Indian Boundary, lands held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians,...

  1. Possible changes in the characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon under warmer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parth Sarthi, P.; Dash, S. K.; Mamgain, Ashu

    2012-07-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) spans four months starting from June and ending in September and produced wide spread rainfall over Indian continents mainly due to land-sea heating contrast between Indian Ocean and large Asian land mass. ISM is controlled by semi permanent features such as heat low over northwest sector of India, cross-equatorial flow and the low level westerly jet over the Arabian Sea at 850 hPa, the tropical easterly jet over the Indian Ocean at 200 hPa, Mascarene High, and anti-cyclone over the Tibet. Any fluctuation in Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) during ISM on intra seasonal to inter annual is manifestation of change in wind circulation and temperature distribution. Therefore, in order to understand the change in magnitude and pattern of ISMR under warmer climate, it is necessary to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the change in associated monsoon wind circulation and temperature distribution. The current study examines the changes in magnitude and spatial distribution of ISMR and associated change in wind circulation and temperature distribution under forced scenarios in selected climate models contributed to International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4). It is found that under A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios, future projected change in spatial distribution of ISMR shows deficit and excess of over the lower part of western and eastern coast of India in simulation of HadGEM1, ECHAM5, and MIROC (Hires) model which seems to be manifestation of anomalous anticyclonic flow at 850 hPa in Arabian Sea and anomalous westerly flow at 200 hPa

  2. Psychotherapy and Culture: Healing in the Indian Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakar, Sudhir

    The study of various Indian traditions for the healing of emotional disorders has clarified two issues: the universality of human concerns that underlie emotional illness and the relativity of all psychotherapeutic endeavors, Eastern and Western. It is increasingly evident that Indian patients--whether Hindu, Muslim, or tribal--are engaged in the…

  3. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  4. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  5. 33 CFR 167.154 - Off New York: South-eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: South-eastern approach. 167.154 Section 167.154 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.154 Off New York: South-eastern...

  6. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  7. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  8. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  9. The Use of Oral Literature to Provide Community Health Education on the Southern Northwest Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nile Robert; Sloat, C. Dale

    2004-01-01

    Among the American Indians of western Washington State and northwest Oregon, stories have served as educational tools by presenting lessons concerning the traditional culture. Several types of instruction have been noted in the oral literature of these Indians of the Southern Northwest Coast. Today these stories present another type of insight and…

  10. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Manganese and iron in Indian Ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Saager, P.M.; De Baar, H.J.W. ); Burkill, P.H. )

    1989-09-01

    The first vertical profiles of dissolved Mn and Fe for the (NW) Indian Ocean are reported. The area is characterized by seasonal upwelling and a broad oxygen minimum zone in intermediate waters. The dissolved Fe-profile exhibits a maximum (5.1 nM) in the oxygen minimum zone, with low values both in surface waters (0.3 nM) and deep waters (around 1 nM). Mn concentrations in the surface waters are elevated (2.0-4.3 nM), and decrease rapidly in an offshore direction. Below the first 25 m, concentrations decrease dramatically (0.5-1.3 nM), indicating removal by oxidation and particle scavenging. Further down, various Mn maxima are observed which can be related to hydrographic features. The include the facts that: intermediate water originating from the Red Sea lost its dissolved O{sub 2} while flowing northward along the Omani coast and exhibits a strong Mn maximum (4.6-6.5 nM) coincident with the deep O{sub 2} minimum; at the two inshore stations in the Gulf of Oman this is overlain by relatively modest Mn maxima ({plus minus}2.7 nM) related to Arabian Gulf overflow water; and the strong Mn maxima (4.4-5.6 nM) in the oxygen minimum zone at the two offshore stations are related to yet another watermass. Below these various maxima, concentrations decrease gradually to values as low as 90 pM at 2,000 meters depth. Towards the sea floor concentrations increase again, leading to a modest bottom water maximum (0.7-1.5 nM). The overall vertical distributions of Mn and Fe are strikingly similar, also in actual concentrations, to those previously reported for the eastern equatorial Pacific, an area also characterized by an extensive O{sub 2}-minimum zone.

  12. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  13. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  14. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  15. Indian summer.

    PubMed

    Rose, V

    1991-12-01

    Health visitor, Val Rose, won a Florence Nightingale memorial fund scholarship to travel to the Navajo Indian reservation in north America. The health problems of the Navajo are similar to those affecting the traveller population on her own caseload, forced by changing circumstances and legislation to settle on local authority sites in England. Here she describes some of the health problems arising from the settlement of nomadic people. PMID:1765529

  16. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

  17. Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 aerial view looking north, detail of eastern docking structure travel lift, boat house and station - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  18. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.21 Indian and Indian tribe. (a) Indian means an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe. (b) Indian tribe means any Federal or State Indian tribe,...

  19. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS captured this true-color image of clear skies over the eastern United States on December 22, 2001. To the northeast the country is blanketed with snow, but in this image only the higher elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in eastern West Virginia are dusted with white. Rod dots in Georgia indicate MODIS' detection of fires.

  20. 76 FR 64818 - Safety Zone; Truman-Hobbs Alteration of the Elgin Joliet & Eastern Railroad Drawbridge, Morris, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Truman-Hobbs Alteration of the Elgin Joliet & Eastern Railroad Drawbridge, Morris, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Illinois River near Morris,...

  1. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.21 Indian and Indian tribe. (a) Indian means an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe. (b) Indian tribe means any Federal...

  2. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  7. The Indian Wars Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Explains history of federal-Indian relationship and changing tribal sovereignty rights. Describes treaty disputes and Indian-non-Indian conflicts in Washington, Wisconsin, and Oklahoma. Describes general nature of Indian alliances and support networks. Discusses possible roles for social scientists and social-science studies to mitigate Indian…

  8. Indian Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Lu Celia, Ed.

    Designed in Oklahoma as a teaching aid for teachers in Indian education, this booklet is organized according to the subject areas of the curriculum. It provides a ready resource on Indian culture and should thus be of value to teachers who work with both Indian and non-Indian students. Guidelines for curriculum development in multicultural…

  9. Indian Ledger Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  10. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  11. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  12. Estimation of Fresh and Salt Water Fluxes and Transports in the Indian Ocean using satellite observations and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Subrahmanyam; Nyadjro, Ebenezer

    2014-05-01

    This study describes the fresh and salt water fluxes and transports in the Indian Ocean using satellite-derived salinity observations from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and Aquarius missions, and model outputs from the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) Re-analysis. Argo salinity data is used to validate the aforementioned salinity datasets. Salt budget estimations using SMOS salinity data show favorable comparisons with published results, with the potential for additional novel studies when more valid satellite-derived salinity data become available. On seasonal time scales, there is a considerable exchange of salt and fresh waters between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and vice versa. The pathways of the high/low salinity waters are identified using satellite observations. The Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) changes in the Southeastern Arabian Sea are as a result of the advection of low salinity waters from the BoB via coastal Kelvin waves. The long term mean salt transport shows seasonal reversals that are more pronounced in the northern Indian Ocean than in the southern Indian Ocean. Meridional salt transport is northward along the Somali Current (SC) in the Arabian Sea and the East India coastal Current (EICC) in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon season. The opposite holds during the northeast monsoon season. Mean zonal salt transport is of a higher magnitude than the meridional component and shows significant seasonal reversals in the equatorial region. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses of meridional salt transport show that the variability is primarily seasonally driven and is the result of seasonally reversing monsoonal winds and currents. The amplitudes of the EOFs suggest that the Indian Ocean dipole may also influence the variability. Spatially, the most variable regions are along the northeast African coast, and in the eastern Arabian Sea, the Bay of

  13. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Carton, X.; Louazel, S.; Boutin, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Persian Gulf produces a high salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter) flowing into the Sea of Oman, in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Past the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies with different thermohaline signatures and pathways depending of the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea an in the Sea of Oman. This study uses the results from the measurements to characterize the water masses, their thermohaline and dynamical signatures. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. This structure was present in 2011 and created a front between the eastern and western part of the basin. As well two energetic gyres were present along the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, injections of fresh and cold water are found in relation with the stirring of the eddies. The PGW observed below or between these eddies have a different dilution depending of the position and formation periods of the gyres. Furthermore, in the western Sea of Oman, the PGW is fragmented in filaments and submesoscale eddies. As well, recirculation of the PGW is observed, thus having the presence of salty nearby patches with two densities. Offshore, in the Arabian Sea, a submesoscale lens was recorded. The different mechanisms leading to its formation and presence are assessed here.

  14. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  15. In situ observations of mesoscale undercurrents off eastern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, Leandro; Aguiar-Gonzalez, Borja; Maas, Leo; van Aken, Hendrik; Nauw, Janine; Ridderinkhof, Herman

    2015-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) presents one of the most intriguing western boundary regions of all subtropical gyres. Unlike other gyres, in the SWIO the Madagascar island imposes a physical barrier to the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), which reaches the Madagascar coast between 17°S and 20°S. At this location, the SEC bifurcates into two branches: the poleward branch feeds into the East Madagascar Current (EMC), which further south will feed the Agulhas Current (AC); on the other hand, the poleward branch feeds into the North Madagascar Current (NMC), which turns around Cape Amber, at the northern tip of Madagascar, and continues westward towards the east coast of Africa. Besides the patterns of the boundary currents described above, undercurrents flowing opposite and beneath the mentioned surface currents are also reported to occur: the equatorward East Madagascar Undercurrent (EMUC) and the poleward North Madagascar Undercurrent (NMUC). This work is based on field studies of both undercurrents. We deployed a cross-slope array of five moorings at 23°S off eastern Madagascar, which was maintained from late 2010 till early 2013 (~2.5 years). A total of 6 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiles and 10 Recording Current Meters were coupled to the moorings. Direct measurements were made from near surface (~50 m) to deep in the water column (~4000 m). The observations reveal a recurring equatorward EMUC with its core hugging the continental slope, at a depth of 1260 m and at an approximate distance of 29 km from the coast. The core velocity has a mean value of 4.1 (±6.3) cm s-1, while maximum speeds reach up to 20 cm -1. The volume transport is estimated to be 1.33 (±1.14) Sv with maxima up to 6 Sv. At the northern tip of Madagascar, off Cape Ambar, we present the first observational evidence of a poleward NMUC. These results are based on a hydrographic cruise (March 2001), where vertical profiles of velocity were sampled across the continental

  16. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  17. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  18. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  19. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  20. Programs of Interest to Indians and Metis Administered by The Department of Regional Economic Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassirer, E.

    The primary objective of the report is to describe and clarify those departmental projects which help Indians and Metis move into the economic mainstream of Canadian life. More specifically, it examines programs used by Indians and Metis which are carried out in Western, Central, and Eastern Canada, under the Agricultural and Rural Development Act…

  1. Probabilistic Forecast of Tsunami Hazards along Chinese Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingchun; Shi, Yaolin; Sevre, Erik O. D.; Xing, Huilin; Yuen, David A.

    There is indeed a potential non-negligible threat for Chinese coast from tsunamogenic earthquakes originating at the neighboring subducting plate boundaries of Eurasian plate and Philippine sea plate: Manila trench and the Okinawa trough. This finding comes from our newly devised method for determining the probabilistic forecast of tsunami hazard (PFTH), which finds this probability distribution from direct numerical simulation of the waves excited by hypothetical earthquakes in these zones. There are significant differences in the bottom bathymetry between the South China Sea bordering the southern province of Guangdong and the East China Sea and Yellow Sea adjacent to the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shandong. We have verified that the linear shallow-water equations can be employed to predict with sufficient accuracy the travel time of tsunami waves in the South China Sea, while the nonlinear shallow-water equations must be used for the shallower seas next to the northern Chinese provinces. Distribution for the possibility of tsunami waves with above 2.0 m hitting the coast has been shown in eastern China sea area, the delta region of the Yangzi River, the north-eastern coast of Zhejiang province, and northern Taiwan island. The distribution has also been displayed in South China Sea area, along the southeastern coast of mainland and Southwestern Taiwan. In this century the probability of a wave with a height of over 2.0 m to hit Hong Kong and Macau is about 10.0%, 0.5% for Shanghai, 3.2% for Wenzhou, and 7.2% for Keelung. Cities on eastern Chinese coast are less vulnerable than those on the southern Chinese coast. We also have discussed the prospects of tsunamis coming from large earthquakes along the Manila trench and the Ryukyu-Kyushu arc region to the north, as they can impact many countries in Southeast Asia, besides China.

  2. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... guideline for black rockfish is provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Tribal fishery allocations for... and are specified here with the tribal allocations. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines...

  3. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... guideline for black rockfish is provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Tribal fishery allocations for... and are specified here with the tribal allocations. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines...

  4. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... guideline for black rockfish is provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Tribal fishery allocations for... and are specified here with the tribal allocations. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines...

  5. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in basalts from islands in the Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedge, C.E.; Watkins, N.D.; Hildreth, R.A.; Doering, W.P.

    1973-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of basalts from islands in the Indian Ocean (0.7040) are higher than those of basalts dredged from the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge (0.7034). The sources of the island basalts have apparently not been in equilibrium with the source of the ridge basalts for roughly 109 years. Both ridge and island basalts in the Indian Ocean are higher in 87Sr/86Sr than are rocks from similar settings in the eastern Pacific. ?? 1973.

  6. First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetmore, Ruth Y.

    Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

  7. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  8. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gullström, Martin; de la Torre Castro, Maricela; Bandeira, Salomão; Björk, Mats; Dahlberg, Mattis; Kautsky, Nils; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work

  9. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  10. Locus of Control in University Students From Eastern and Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Oscar A.; Schneider, John M.

    1974-01-01

    The Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control (I-E) Scale was used to evaluate male and female students in Eastern, Western and Middle Eastern societies. Results showed that Japanese students scored higher on external source control tests than students from other countries while Indian students scored lower on these tests. (EK)

  11. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  12. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiquie, H. N.; Gujar, A. R.; Hashimi, N. H.; Valsangkar, A. B.

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits The humid tropical climate of some of the land areas bordering the Indian Ocean accelerates weathering of the source rocks. This coupled with the large river runoff and wave and current conditions favour the formation of a variety of placer deposits. The beach and offshore placer deposits of the Indian Ocean may be some of the largest in the world. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow banks and on the continental shelves and the oozes in the deep sea. A study of these deposits is needed to acquire a better understanding of their formation, turnover, regeneration rates and sustainable yields. The anthigenic deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the phosphorites and the polymetallic nodules. Occurrences of phosphorite deposits have been found both along continental margins (South Africa and Western India) and around seamounts (Eastern and Western Indian Ocean). The continental margins of South Africa, East Africa, Southern Arabia, Western India and the Andamans are marked by strong upwelling and provide non-depositional environments which are conducive to the formation of phosphorite. The polymetallic nodules in the Indian Ocean cover an area of 10-15. 10 6 km 2 and the resources are estimated to be about 1.5 .10 11 tonnes. A study of over 900 chemical analyses from 350 stations shows that the deposits in most of the basins are submarginal; in the Central Indian Ocean they are paramarginal (Ni + Cu + Co > 2.4% and concentrations > 5 kg.m -2). Most of the exploration for minerals even on the continental margins of the Indian Ocean has been carried out by the developed countries from outside the region and little work has been carried out by the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The development of capabilities within the region for exploration of the mineral

  13. Variability of the southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Schouten, Mathijs W

    2005-01-15

    The variability in the southwest Indian Ocean is connected to the basin-scale and global-scale ocean circulation. Two bands of enhanced variability stretch across the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar around 12 degrees S and 25 degrees S, respectively. They mark the preferred routes along which anomalies, generated by varying forcing over the central basin, near the eastern boundary or in the equatorial region, propagate westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. Sea-surface height anomalies pass along the northern tip of Madagascar and are observed by satellite altimetry to propagate into the central Mozambique Channel. There, eddies are subsequently formed that propagate southward into the Agulhas retroflection region. The anomalies along the southern band trigger the formation of large dipolar vortex pairs in the separation region of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island. South of Africa these eddies and dipoles trigger the shedding of Agulhas Rings that feed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with warm, salty, Indian Ocean water. Interannual variability of the forcing over the Indian Ocean, such as that associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole/El Nino climate modes, propagates along these pathways and leads to associated modulations of the eddy transports into the South Atlantic. PMID:15598623

  14. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket. 167.152 Section 167.152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York:...

  15. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers:...

  16. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  17. American Indian Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajete, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides general insights into American Indian epistemologies that can assist student affairs professionals in their work and examines the shared understandings of American Indians with regard to tribal knowledge and education.

  18. Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sharon

    Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

  19. A Collection of Teaching Units in American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This collection of 11 teaching units was developed by elementary school teachers who attended the Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children, held at Eastern Montana College in June 1990. The first unit teaches the alphabet to kindergarten students using cultural activities related to English or Salish words that begin…

  20. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  1. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  2. Urban American Indian Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Josea

    This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

  3. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  4. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  5. 75 FR 9557 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... the of the Berkley (I-264) Bridge, at mile 0.4, across the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River... Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA, in the Federal Register (74 FR 52158). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth...

  6. 75 FR 19245 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... of the Berkley Bridge (I-264), across the Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, mile 0.4, at Norfolk, VA... March 3, 2010, 75 Fed. Reg. 9521. ] The Berkley Bridge (I-264) at mile 0.4, across the Elizabeth River... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch,...

  7. 33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. (a) A separation line is established connecting the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

  8. 33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. (a) A separation line is established connecting the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

  9. 33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. (a) A separation line is established connecting the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

  10. 33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. (a) A separation line is established connecting the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

  11. 33 CFR 167.202 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. (a) A separation line is established connecting the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay: Eastern approach. 167.202 Section 167.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

  12. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  13. Pirate attacks affect Indian Ocean climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Long, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia nearly doubled from 111 in 2008 to 217 in 2009 [International Maritime Bureau, 2009, International Maritime Bureau, 2010]. Consequently, merchant vessel traffic in the area around Somalia significantly decreased. Many of these merchant vessels carry instruments that record wind and other weather conditions near the ocean surface, and alterations in ship tracks have resulted in a hole sized at about 2.5 million square kilometers in the marine weather-observing network off the coast of Somalia. The data void exists in the formation region of the Somali low-level jet, a wind pattern that is one of the main drivers of the Indian summer monsoon. Further, a stable, multidecadal record has been interrupted, and consequently, long-term analyses of the jet derived from surface wind data are now showing artificial anomalies that will affect efforts by scientists to identify interannual to decadal variations in the climate of the northwestern Indian Ocean.

  14. Biology, fishery, conservation and management of Indian Ocean tuna fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai, N.; Satheeshkumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is to explore the recent trend of the world tuna fishery with special reference to the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries and its conservation and sustainable management. In the Indian Ocean, tuna catches have increased rapidly from about 179959 t in 1980 to about 832246 t in 1995. They have continued to increase up to 2005; the catch that year was 1201465 t, forming about 26% of the world catch. Since 2006 onwards there has been a decline in the volume of catches and in 2008 the catch was only 913625 t. The Principal species caught in the Indian Ocean are skipjack and yellowfin. Western Indian Ocean contributed 78.2% and eastern Indian Ocean 21.8% of the total tuna production from the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean stock is currently overfished and IOTC has made some recommendations for management regulations aimed at sustaining the tuna stock. Fishing operations can cause ecological impacts of different types: by catches, damage of the habitat, mortalities caused by lost or discarded gear, pollution, generation of marine debris, etc. Periodic reassessment of the tuna potential is also required with adequate inputs from exploratory surveys as well as commercial landings and this may prevent any unsustainable trends in the development of the tuna fishing industry in the Indian Ocean.

  15. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  16. The positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-01

    Climate models project a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD)-like SST response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming. By employing the Community Earth System Model and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component (version 2 of the Parallel Ocean Program), this study investigates the similarities and differences of the formation mechanisms for the changes in the tropical Indian Ocean during the pIOD versus global warming. Results show that their formation processes and related seasonality are quite similar; in particular, wind-thermocline-SST feedback is the leading mechanism in producing the anomalous cooling over the eastern tropics in both cases. Some differences are also found, including the fact that the cooling effect of the vertical advection over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is dominated by the anomalous vertical velocity during the pIOD but by the anomalous upper-ocean stratification under global warming. These findings are further examined through an analysis of the mixed layer heat budget.

  17. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  18. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  19. Anomalous Walker circulations associated with two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozuka, Tomoki; Endo, Satoru; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-05-01

    The Walker circulation is the key component of the atmospheric zonal circulation in the tropics. In this study, it is shown that anomalous Walker circulations associated with two types of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are remarkably different. During a positive canonical IOD with negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean, a single-cell anomalous Walker circulation forms over the Indian Ocean. On the other hand, a double-cell anomalous Walker circulation with a rising branch in the central Indian Ocean is formed during a positive IOD Modoki, which is associated with positive (negative) SST anomalies over the central (eastern and western) tropical Indian Ocean. The above anomalous Walker circulations are found to develop as part of positive ocean-atmosphere feedback. Furthermore, the above difference in the anomalous Walker circulation may affect the biennial tendency of the IOD.

  20. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  1. Unusual records of deepwater teleosteans trawled off the western coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz-Agüero, J; Moncayo-Estrada, R; Cota-Gómez, V M; Villalobos-Ortiz, H; Valdez-Pelayo, A

    2016-09-01

    The first records of three midwater species for the Mexican ichthyofauna (Holtbyrnia laticauda, Brama dussumieri and Cubiceps baxteri), caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, in mid 2014, are reported. As far as is known, they are the first verified specimens, geo-referenced and catalogued in a reference fish collection for the west coast of Mexico. The species' known distributions were extended northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean, ranging from 3495 to 8300 km. PMID:27458012

  2. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  3. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  4. Tsunami Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk assessment for the coast of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; MArtínez, Jara; Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Fernandez, Felipe; Medina, Raúl; Al-Yahyai, Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, and causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructures around the world. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of new methodologies in this field. This work presents the methodology that has been followed for developing the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment for the coast of Oman, including maps containing the results of the process. Oman is located in the south eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula and of the Arabian plate, in front of the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ), which is the major source of earthquakes in the eastern border of the Arabian plate and Oman (Al-Shaqsi, 2012). There are at least three historical tsunamis assigned to seismic origin in the MSZ (Heidarzadeh et al., 2008; Jordan, 2008). These events show the high potential for tsunami generation of the MSZ, being one of the most tsunamigenic zones in the Indian Ocean. For the tsunami hazard assessment, worst potential cases have been selected, as well as the historical case of 1945, when an 8.1 earthquake generated a tsunami affecting the coast of Oman, and prompting 4000 casualties in the countries of the area. These scenarios have been computationally simulated in order to get tsunami hazard maps, including flooding maps. These calculations have been carried out at national and local scale, in 9 municipalities all along the coast of Oman, including the cities of Sohar, Wudam, Sawadi, Muscat, Quriyat, Sur, Masirah, Al Duqm, and Salalah. Using the hazard assessment as input, this work presents as well an integrated framework for the tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment carried out in the Sultanate of Oman. This framework considers different dimensions (human, structural) and it is developed at two different spatial resolutions, national and local scale. The national

  5. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.; Skjoth Bruun, A.; Reid, I.; Chemia, Z.; Greschke, B.

    2011-12-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering the largest part of the land mass. Hence previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where little information about the continental part of the crust could be gained. To get insight into crustal thickness and composition below the Greenland ice sheet, the TopoGreenland project collects the first ever seismic data onshore Greenland. Wide-angle data was acquired along an EW-trending profile, extending 350 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund. Data is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice sheet and provide a link between the composition of the crust and the present-day topography of Greenland.

  6. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580..., Indian Fisheries. Dated: May 1, 2013. Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of...

  7. Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

  8. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  9. Rainfall variability over the East African coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamoyo, Majambo; Reason, Chris; Obura, David

    2015-04-01

    The coastal region of Kenya and Tanzania experiences two rainy seasons per year (October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM)) and has an economy that is highly dependent on and vulnerable to the amounts and timing of rainfall during these seasons. Most of the interannual variability in OND seasonal rainfall totals relate to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. While these relationships are fairly well documented and understood, there is a relatively poor understanding of the timing and intensity of the rainfall during ENSO/IOD seasons. In an attempt to improve understanding on this topic, daily rainfall station data, dekad and seasonal satellite rainfall estimates and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery are analyzed for two recent OND seasons with El Niño conditions. These are OND 2006 which was characterized by devastating floods over the region and 2009 when the magnitude and spatial extent of the above average rainfall patterns were smaller. Daily rainfall data for the Tanzanian coastal stations showed that Tanga and Dar es Salaam (north and central coast) experienced few dry spells and several relatively intense wet spells during OND 2006 whereas at Mtwara, on the south coast, there were two very intense wet spells and a number of dry spells during the season. In OND 2009, only the north coast (Tanga) experienced above average rainfall, comprised of three wet spells with the one about a month after the beginning of the season being very intense. These data highlight the complexity of the rainfall distributions in the coastal region. A shift of the Walker circulation over coastal East Africa with strong uplift there seemed to be responsible for the very wet conditions during OND 2006. The marine air mass being advected from the western tropical Indian Ocean towards East Africa contained more moisture than average. Similar, but weaker, horizontal circulation anomalies occurred in OND 2009

  10. PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS OF THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN THE UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY: A POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL FORECAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni cause devasting infections in populations of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, along the US Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Salinity and temperature are considered major controlling factors in the prevalence and infection i...

  11. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible...

  12. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible...

  13. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  14. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  15. A new species of Agelas from the Zanzibar Archipelago, western Indian Ocean (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Manconi, Renata; Pronzato, Roberto; Perino, Erica

    2016-01-01

    A new sponge species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the eastern coast of Unguja Island in the Zanzibar Archipelago. Agelas sansibarica sp. n. is compared to all other Agelas species described so far. The new species differs from its congeners mainly in its three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles, and acanthoxeas) and their sizes. Acanthostrongyles, well represented in the spicular complement, are an exclusive trait of the new species widening the morphological range of the genus. Summarizing on spicular complement and spicular morphotraits of 36 species belonging to the genus Agelas: i) 32 species show only acanthostyles from Indo-Pacific (n = 14), Atlantic (n = 17), and Mediterranean (n = 1); ii) three Indo-Pacific species show acanthostyles and acanthoxeas; iii) one species Agelas sansibarica sp. n. from the western Indian Ocean is characterised by the unique trait of three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles and acanthoxeas). A key for the Indo-Pacific species is supplied together with short descriptions, illustrations, and geographic range; literature on chemical bioprospecting of the genus Agelas is also provided.

  16. A new species of Agelas from the Zanzibar Archipelago, western Indian Ocean (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    PubMed Central

    Manconi, Renata; Pronzato, Roberto; Perino, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new sponge species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the eastern coast of Unguja Island in the Zanzibar Archipelago. Agelas sansibarica sp. n. is compared to all other Agelas species described so far. The new species differs from its congeners mainly in its three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles, and acanthoxeas) and their sizes. Acanthostrongyles, well represented in the spicular complement, are an exclusive trait of the new species widening the morphological range of the genus. Summarizing on spicular complement and spicular morphotraits of 36 species belonging to the genus Agelas: i) 32 species show only acanthostyles from Indo-Pacific (n = 14), Atlantic (n = 17), and Mediterranean (n = 1); ii) three Indo-Pacific species show acanthostyles and acanthoxeas; iii) one species Agelas sansibarica sp. n. from the western Indian Ocean is characterised by the unique trait of three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles and acanthoxeas). A key for the Indo-Pacific species is supplied together with short descriptions, illustrations, and geographic range; literature on chemical bioprospecting of the genus Agelas is also provided. PMID:26877669

  17. A new species of Agelas from the Zanzibar Archipelago, western Indian Ocean (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Manconi, Renata; Pronzato, Roberto; Perino, Erica

    2016-01-01

    A new sponge species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the eastern coast of Unguja Island in the Zanzibar Archipelago. Agelas sansibarica sp. n. is compared to all other Agelas species described so far. The new species differs from its congeners mainly in its three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles, and acanthoxeas) and their sizes. Acanthostrongyles, well represented in the spicular complement, are an exclusive trait of the new species widening the morphological range of the genus. Summarizing on spicular complement and spicular morphotraits of 36 species belonging to the genus Agelas: i) 32 species show only acanthostyles from Indo-Pacific (n = 14), Atlantic (n = 17), and Mediterranean (n = 1); ii) three Indo-Pacific species show acanthostyles and acanthoxeas; iii) one species Agelas sansibarica sp. n. from the western Indian Ocean is characterised by the unique trait of three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles and acanthoxeas). A key for the Indo-Pacific species is supplied together with short descriptions, illustrations, and geographic range; literature on chemical bioprospecting of the genus Agelas is also provided. PMID:26877669

  18. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  19. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  20. Indian and non-Indian water development. [Western US

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation contrasts the development of Indian and non-Indian water development. Indian water rights, although based upon long-standing legal principles, have had a minimal impact on the actual development of Indian water resources. As a result, Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water development has proceeded at a rapid pace. A tripartite alliance of congressional subcommittees, federal agencies, and water user interest groups have provided the political support for continued high-level funding for non-Indian water projects. In the American west, where water must be diverted to be used, Indians and non-Indians are competitors for both water and water projects. Until recently Indians could not compete effectively in the political milieu of water policy. However, changes in approach, methods, and political conditions have made Indian tribes more competitive in the struggle for water rights and water projects.

  1. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  2. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  3. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  4. Snake venom antibodies in Ecuadorian Indians.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D; Reid, H A; Larrick, J W; Kaplan, J; Yost, J A

    1981-10-01

    Serum samples from 223 Waorani Indians, a tribe in eastern Ecuador, were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to snake venom. Seventy-eight per cent were positive, confirming the highest incidence and mortality from snake bite poisoning yet recorded in the world. Most samples were positive for more than one venom antibody. Antibodies were found to venoms of Bothrops viper in 60% of positive cases, of Micrurus coral snake in 21%, and of the bushmaster, Lachesis muta, in 18%. Further studies are needed to determine whether high venom-antibody levels afford protection against further snake envenoming. PMID:7299877

  5. Geomorphic observations of rivers in the Oregon Coast Range from a regional reconnaissance perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, S.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in long profile, gradient, gradient index, pseudo-hypsometric integral, valley incision, and sinuosity fractal dimension for rivers in western Oregon were studied to determine their usefulness in assessing an hypothesis of differential uplift within the Coast Range. All data were gathered from topographic quadrangles and geologic maps, and so the results of this paper are limited to the description of river forms with only limited interpretations. Rivers were naturally divided into three groups, those in the western Coast Range, the eastern Coast Range, and the Klamath and Cascade Ranges, and differences in river morphometry were generalized. Rivers in the western Coast Range had more divergent characteristics, whereas those in the other groups were more similar within each group. For example, long profiles of western Coast Range rivers had diverse forms, but in the other groups, long profiles were similar within the group. Pseudo-hypsometric integrals had a wide scatter in the western Coast Range, but in the other ranges, the pseudo-hypsometric integral was more narrowly defined. Valley entrenchment and high sinuosity were common in the western Coast Range, and were less visible in the eastern Coast Range. These regional generalizations do not hold for the central Coast Range near 44.5??N where the Yaquina and Marys Rivers are located. In the eastern Coast Range, the Marys River is unique in that it has a convex bulge in its long profile, does not have an increasing valley-floor width to valley height ratio downstream, and has a high sinuosity fractal dimension. In the western Coast Range, the Yaquina River is unique in that it has a smoothly decreasing long profile, has a very low pseudo-hypsometric integral, and does not have a decreasing valley-floor width to valley height ratio downstream. There may be many explanations for these observations, but these observations are also consistent with tectonic interpretations that the central western Coast Range

  6. A coasting cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    A Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with energy density decreasing in expansion as 1/R-squared, where R is the Robertson-Walker scale factor, is studied. In such a model the universe expands with constant velocity; hence the term coasting cosmology. Observational consequences of such a model include the age of the universe, the luminosity distance-redshift relation (the Hubble diagram), the angular diameter distance-redshift relation, and the galaxy number count as a function of redshift. These observations are used to limit the parameters of the model. Among the interesting consequences of the model are the possibility of an ever-expanding closed universe, a model universe with multiple images at different redshifts of the same object, a universe with Omega - 1 not equal to 0 stable in expansion, and a closed universe with radius smaller than 1/H(0).

  7. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the coastal waters along the East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preethi Latha, T.; Rao, K. H.; Amminedu, E.; Nagamani, P. V.; Choudhury, S. B.; Lakshmi, E.; Sridhar, P. N.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Dhadwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Bay of Bengal (BOB) is a semi enclosed tropical basin located in the north eastern part of the Indian Ocean with high influence of fresh water discharge from major rivers and rainfall. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is highly influenced by monsoons and represents a natural laboratory to study the effect of fresh water fluxes on the marine ecosystem. Bay of Bengal (BOB) is very low in productivity often with the observations of Phytoplankton Blooms. Phytoplankton blooms are one of the prominent features of biological variability in the coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers with rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in the ocean. These blooms usually respond to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean like tides, currents and river runoff and to the atmospheric forcing like wind. These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. Bloom events and their variability on spatial & temporal scales monitoring through field measurements is difficult. Based on this key hypothesis an effort is made to understand the seasonal and spatial variability of Phytoplankton Blooms along the East Coast of India. In this paper we present the bloom dynamics in their context to the chlorophyll concentration along with species composition and abundance in estuarine and near shore coastal waters of Godavari basin using Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). The initial results revealed that the quasi permanent phytoplankton blooms initiates in the month of mid- February and evolves for a period of two months and then slowly starts decaying by the mid of May month. The results also stand as a base for the study of influence of Phytoplankton Blooms on the carbon flux estimations and bio-geo-chemical processes in the Bay of Bengal.

  8. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.

  9. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  10. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Olson, M

    1999-10-01

    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups <1-yr-old. The highest prevalence (50%) occurred in adult harp seals collected near the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown. PMID:10574540

  11. Contemporary American Indian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sidner

    2009-01-01

    In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

  12. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  13. Indians in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

    Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…

  14. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  15. Indians of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the American Indian in California from prehistoric to modern times indicates the hardships and economic disadvantages which the Indians have suffered in the acculturation process. Discussion of the treaties which were negotiated and the Federal legislation which was passed indicates an attempt on the part of modern day…

  16. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  17. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  18. Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

  19. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  20. The shear wave velocity of the upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, Northeast Indian Ocean from interstation phase velocities of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S. N.; Mitra, Supriyo; Suresh, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Bay of Bengal evolved along the eastern margin of the Indian subcontinent about 130 Ma with the breakup of India from eastern Gondwanaland. Since then the Indian lithospheric Plate has moved northward, along with the Bay of Bengal, and eventually collided with the Eurasian Plate. The age of the lithosphere beneath the central Bay of Bengal is ˜110 Ma. We evaluate the shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the central Bay through inversion of phase velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves along two wave paths: (i) between Port Blair (PBA) and VIS (Visakhapatnam) and (ii) between DGPR (Diglipur) and VIS. The seismological observatories PBA and DGPR are located on the Andaman Island and to the east of the Bay and the observatory at VIS in located on the eastern coast of India to the west of the Bay. Using broad-band records of earthquakes, which lie along the great circle arc joining each pair of observatories, we obtain phase velocities between 20 and 240 s periods for Rayleigh waves and between 23 and 170 s for Love waves. These phase velocities are inverted to find the S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle down to 400 km. The crustal structure is based on previous studies of the Bay and kept fixed in the inversion. We obtain a radially anisotropic upper-mantle structure, where the SH-wave velocity (VSH) is greater than the SV-wave velocity (VSV) down to 400 km. The S-wave velocity decreases sharply by ˜4.5 per cent for VSV and ˜1.5 per cent for VSH at a depth 110 km, which is considered as the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary (LAB), that is, the bottom of the mantle lid. Based on recent studies, such sharp fall of S-wave velocity below the mantle lid appears to indicate a partially molten thin layer (G-discontinuity) at this depth. The thickness of the mantle lid is intermediate between oceanic and continental regions. The lid is also characterized

  1. Red Women, White Policy: American Indian Women and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue

    This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…

  2. FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY AS IT AFFECTS LOCAL INDIAN AFFAIRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKINLEY, FRANCIS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN ADDRESS WHICH DISCUSSES THE PROBLEMS RELATED TO INDIAN EDUCATION AND SEVERAL PROGRAMS WHICH ATTEMPT TO OVERCOME THESE PROBLEMS. THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED INCLUDE THE INDIAN'S EXTREME POVERTY, HIS LOW ASPIRATION LEVEL, HIS SELF-IMAGE, INDIAN ACCULTURATION, AND SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE INDIAN. THE PROGRAMS DISCUSSED ARE--A…

  3. Hydrogeology of eastern Michaud Flats, Fort Hall Indian Reservation, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Michaud Flats, southeastern Idaho, is developed extensively for irrigation and industry. Extensive clay beds overlie the Bighole Basalt and Sunbeam Formation, which yield most of the water for irrigation and industrial wells; artesian aquifers in these rock units have heads below land surface and near those in the shallow water-table aquifer in the overlying Michaud Gravel. Transmissivities in artesian aquifers range from 19,6000 to 444,000 feet squared per day. High levels of arsenic were detected in groundwater in the Flats in 1972. During 1982, concentrations of arsenic twice exceeded the recommended drinking water limit of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of other chemical constituents were generally within drinking water limits. Stable-isotope data suggest more than one source of aquifer recharge and indicate some mixing between waters from industrial ponds and local groundwater. Management alternatives are being implemented by two industries for control of groundwater contamination. These include reduction of effluent, installation of liners and leachate recovery systems in ponds, and removal and reclamation of precipitates in old slurry and evaporation ponds. Six sites will be monitored through 1985 to determine changes in groundwater chemistry and migration of contaminants. (USGS)

  4. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

    2005-12-01

    In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to

  5. Subduction in eastern Indonesia: how many slabs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsom, John

    2001-08-01

    Seismicity associated with arc-continent collision in eastern Indonesia testifies to past north-directed subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere beneath the Banda Sea. The complex patterns of deep seismicity have been cited as evidence for simultaneous south-directed subduction at the northern margin of the sea but this interpretation has not been universally accepted. Recently available recomputations of hypocentre locations have provided increased resolution of eastern Indonesian Wadati-Benioff Zones (WBZs). Shallow to intermediate depth seismic activity around the Banda Arc appears to support models involving subduction of two separate and distinct lithospheric slabs, but between 150 and 500 km the WBZ has a continuous 'shoehorn' shape. This shape confirms the presence of subducted lithosphere beneath Seram, in the north, as well as beneath Timor, in the south, is incompatible with independent subduction of two unconnected plates and implies rapid eastwards retreat of the subduction trace across a now vanished northern spur of the Indian Ocean. This 'roll-back' is unlikely to have been driven by local gravitational forces alone and may have been sustained by injection behind the Banda slab of asthenospheric material escaping from the Molucca Sea arc-arc collision.

  6. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Class III Tribal-State Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Compact between the... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The duration of...

  7. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  8. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  9. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  10. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  11. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment changes the... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the 2010 Amendments...

  12. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  13. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Compact authorizes the... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the State of Oklahoma...

  14. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Compact authorizes the Kialegee Tribal Town of Oklahoma to engage in certain Class III gaming activities, provides for certain... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  16. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  17. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the 2010 Amendments...

  18. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  19. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  20. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  1. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approved Compact between... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact...

  2. Indian Students and College Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean

    A study examined the extent to which high schools are preparing American Indian students for college. Counselors were surveyed at 47 on- and off-reservation high schools serving Indian students in 16 states. Only 17 percent of Indian students in the schools were enrolling in college. Under 10 percent of Indian students were taking 4 years of…

  3. Indian Teachers and School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean

    2000-01-01

    Past failures in American Indian education are linked to lingering assimilationist practices, outdated curricula, and low expectations of Indian youth. A key to improving Indian education is changing school culture and increasing the numbers of Indian teachers and administrators. Elements of a model teacher education program are presented, and…

  4. Some Resources in Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Jack W.

    This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

  5. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  6. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  7. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  8. Mussel watch program for organic contaminants along the Korean coast, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2010-10-01

    The level and extent of organic contaminants along the Korean coast were estimated through the mussel watch program, established in 2001. Mussels and oysters were collected at 20 sites along the Korean coast in 2001 and at 25 sites from 2002 to 2007. The mussel tissues were analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine presticides, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs. PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs were ubiquitous contaminants along the Korean coast, showing mean detection frequencies of more than 95% over 7 years. The concentrations of organic contaminants in mussels along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. Concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs were below the action or maximum levels for humans established by USFDA and EU. Elevated concentrations above the 85th percentile were found for PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs at sites near industrial complexes or big harbors, for HCHs at sites near non-industrial complexes, and for DDTs at sites near both non-industrial and industrial complexes. Using two nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends, the Spearman test revealed that BTs and PCDD/Fs had significant decreasing trends at four sites (Gwangyang Bay, Cheonsu Bay, Garorym Bay, and the Incheon coast) and at six sites (Hupo coast, Guryongpo coast, eastern part of Geojedo, Gunsan coast, Garorym Bay, and Asan Bay), respectively.

  9. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  10. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  11. 25 CFR 502.13 - Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian tribe. 502.13 Section 502.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.13 Indian tribe. Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group...

  12. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  13. 25 CFR 502.13 - Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian tribe. 502.13 Section 502.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.13 Indian tribe. Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group...

  14. Heat flow measurements on the southeast coast of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, R.D.; Jaeger, J.C.; Sass, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    Three boreholes have been drilled for the Australian National University near the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. The heat flows found are 1.1, 1.0, and 1.3 ??cal/cm2sec. The errors resulting from the proximity of the sea and a lake, surface temperature change, conductivity structure and water flow have been examined. The radioactive heat production in some of the intrusive rocks of the area have also been measured. The heat flows are much lower than the values of about 2.0 found elsewhere in south eastern Australia. The lower values appear to be part of a distinct heat flow province in eastern Australia. ?? 1969.

  15. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  16. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  17. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  18. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  19. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  20. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  1. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  2. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  3. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

  4. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  5. Modulation of East African Precipitation by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Ahmed A.

    Tropical East Africa is influenced by two main rainy seasons, during autumn and spring. During autumn, tropical East African precipitation is clearly influenced by Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and/or ENSO. During spring, there is no clear SST pattern in the Indian Ocean. The association between El Nino and positive IOD phases is much stronger than the association between La Nina and negative IOD during October and November. During October, the association between El Nino and wet condition over tropical eastern Africa is stronger than association between La Nina and dry conditions. During November, the association between positive IOD and eastern African precipitation is stronger than the association between La Nina and dry conditions. During short wet phases (such as autumn) over eastern Africa, two anticyclones form in the lower troposphere with upper baroclinic structure. These anticyclones decay rapidly by December. These anticyclones are responsible for supplying East Africa with increased moisture. Most strong positive IOD events are associated with wet outcomes over eastern Africa. Not all strong El Nino events lead to wet outcomes. It is well known that during northern spring, precipitation over eastern Africa is not connected to any inter-annual SST modes of variability. During northern spring, SST in Indian Ocean is nearly always sufficiently high to sustain convection, however, convection is not always active. We found that precipitation over eastern Africa during spring is associated with a dipole pattern of outgoing longwave radiation anomaly (OLRA) not associated with SST variability.

  6. Contrasting Subduction Modes with Slab Tearing beneath Eastern Himalaya: Evidence from Teleseismic P-wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, M.; Jiang, M.; Li, Z. H.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Chan, W. W. W.; Wang, Y.; Yu, C.; Lei, J.

    2014-12-01

    On the eastern margin of the Himalayan orogenic belt, the rapid uplift of the Namche Barwa metamorphic terrane and the significant bending of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone occur. However, the formation mechanism and dynamics of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis is still debated. In order to better understand the deep structures beneath eastern Himalaya, we further deployed 35 broadband seismic stations (2010-2013) around the Namche Barwa Mountain, which is integrated with the existing Lehigh data sets of 45 stations (2003-2004). We totally selected 18,979 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 2,140 teleseismic events to image P-wave teleseismic tomography. The results demonstrate complex deep structures and significantly different subduction modes in the eastern Himalaya. In contrast to the steep subduction of the Indian lithosphere beneath the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, the Indian slab flatly subducted in the west, which might extend close to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then steeply sink and bend over. The contrasting subduction model results in the tearing and fragmentation of the Indian lithosphere in the transition zone between the flat and steep subduction. Consequently, the upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle may occur through the slab tear window, which might further lead to the rapid uplift of Namche Barwa and the formation of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. The lateral variation in subduction mode and slab tearing induced asthenospheric mantle upwelling is similar to that observed in the Hellenide and Anatolide domains of the Tethyan orogen.

  7. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  8. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  9. Irrigation water supply for the Yurok Indians, Resighini Rancheria, Klamath, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A required 1,100 gallons of water per minute for irrigating agricultural lands used by the Coast Indian Community on the Resighini Rancheria near Klamath, Calif., cannot be developed from wells. However, the required quantity of water might be developed from a trench installed in sand and gravel deposits that are hydraulically connected with the Klamath River. (USGS)

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis.

  11. Contribution of Indian Ocean SST to Regional Rainfall Variability: Mechanisms and Implications for Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, M. H.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2008-12-01

    The potential impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in modulating low- to mid- latitude precipitation around the Indian Ocean-rim countries is examined in a series of atmospheric general circulation model simulations. Two sets of integrations of opposite sign forced with a seasonally evolving pattern in Indian Ocean SST with characteristics of both the tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean dipoles are shown to induce precipitation changes around the adjacent land masses. In additional experiments, the relative importance of the various tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean SST poles, both individually and in combination, to regional precipitation changes is quantified. A mechanism explaining the modification in the rainfall is proposed, by which the SST anomalies induce a reorganization of the large-scale atmospheric circulation across the Indian Ocean basin. The pattern of large-scale circulation changes over the tropical Indian Ocean and adjacent land masses is consistent with an anomalous strengthening of the Walker cell. A reduction (increase) in sea level pressure over the western (eastern) half of the Indian Ocean and converging (diverging) wind anomalies over East Africa (the Indonesian Archipelago) lead to moisture convergence (divergence) and increased (reduced) convective activity over the region. In the simulations, enhancement of the East African rainy season is predominantly driven by the local warm SST anomalies in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, while the eastern cold pole of the tropical Indian Ocean dipole is of lesser importance. Over the mid-latitudes, the SST anomalies give rise to changes in the thermal properties of the atmosphere, meridional thickness gradient, subtropical jet, thermal wind, and baroclinicity. This leads to shifts in the precipitation over western and southern regions of Australia.

  12. Resources for Teaching About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Lists selected resources for teaching about American Indians available from the ERIC database. Topics of resources include Navajo history, Pacific Northwest history, Indians of Oklahoma, Indian traditions, Plains Indian culture, and Pawnee history. (AEM)

  13. Indian Control of Indian Education: A Burkian Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Applies Burke's concept of orientation (relationships developed by contingencies of experiences) to the place of Indians within the Canadian educational system, focusing upon the issues of band controlled schools, residential school systems, and Indian orientations to education. (NEC)

  14. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  15. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  16. Latitudinal gradients in tertiary molluscan faunas of the Pacific coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addicott, W.O.

    1970-01-01

    Tertiary molluscan faunas of the middle latitudes of the marginal eastern North Pacific are characterized by warm-water taxa whose descendants now live in more southerly latitudes. A series of profiles in which cumulative percentages of warm-water faunal elements are plotted against latitude show progressive northward decreases in the percentage of these elements in the faunas of Pacific coast Tertiary stages. Systematic changes in the relative position of these latitudinal gradients during the Middle and Late Tertiary are related to climatic change in the Pacific Basin. Widespread tropical marine climate in the middle latitudes of the eastern North Pacific during the Eocene is indicated by widespread faunal units characterized by high levels of taxonomic diversity. Succeeding Early Oligocene faunas are less diverse, suggesting cooler climatic conditions. Unusually low representations of warm-water genera characterize the molluscan faunas of the Acila shumardi Zone in central California (latitude 34??-37??N). The anomalously cool-water aspect of these faunas may record the occurrence of upwelling along a bold linear segment of the Pacific coast. During the Late Oligocene or the Early Miocene, they are replaced by faunas of unusually warm-water aspect resulting in positive anomalies in Miocene latitudinal faunal gradients in central California. The Miocene anomalies seem to result from the development of an irregular Neogene coastline with extensive, newly established shallow-water embayments. ?? 1970.

  17. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  18. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  19. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

  20. Mission Indians and Indians of California Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipek, Florence C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses California Indian Claims Cases, focussing on the Indians of California Case. Presents a background sketch of the major claims and the nature of influences determining the wording of petitions, particularly in the Missions Indian Claims Case in which anthropological misunderstanding of socio-political-territorial organizations created…

  1. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

  2. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  3. A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Saji, N H; Goswami, B N; Vinayachandran, P N; Yamagata, T

    1999-09-23

    For the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans, internal modes of variability that lead to climatic oscillations have been recognized, but in the Indian Ocean region a similar ocean-atmosphere interaction causing interannual climate variability has not yet been found. Here we report an analysis of observational data over the past 40 years, showing a dipole mode in the Indian Ocean: a pattern of internal variability with anomalously low sea surface temperatures off Sumatra and high sea surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean, with accompanying wind and precipitation anomalies. The spatio-temporal links between sea surface temperatures and winds reveal a strong coupling through the precipitation field and ocean dynamics. This air-sea interaction process is unique and inherent in the Indian Ocean, and is shown to be independent of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. The discovery of this dipole mode that accounts for about 12% of the sea surface temperature variability in the Indian Ocean--and, in its active years, also causes severe rainfall in eastern Africa and droughts in Indonesia--brightens the prospects for a long-term forecast of rainfall anomalies in the affected countries. PMID:16862108

  4. 78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Compact between the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians and the State of California taking effect. DATES... activities on Indian lands. The Compact between the State of California and the North Fork Rancheria of...

  5. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  6. Hamlin Garland and the Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Lonnie E.

    1974-01-01

    Written to stimulate interest in an evaluation of Hamlin Garland's total production of work on the American Indian, this article suggests a reevaluation of some of Garland's work in light of the current interest in American Indian studies. (JC)

  7. 78 FR 76829 - Approval of Application Submitted by Eastern Shoshone Tribe and Northern Arapaho Tribe for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This notice announces that the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 8 has approved the December 2008 application submitted by the Northern Arapaho Tribe and Eastern Shoshone Tribe (Tribes) of the Wind River Indian Reservation for treatment in a similar manner as a state (TAS) pursuant to the Clean Air Act and the EPA's implementing regulations for purposes of certain Clean Air Act provisions.......

  8. Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic, 1939-63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tester, Frank James; Kulchyski, Peter

    Between 1939 and 1963, the Canadian federal government embarked on a program of relocation and relief in the Eastern Arctic that dramatically altered the lives of Inuit living there. This book begins with an account of the debate over whether Inuit are Indians and, therefore, which branch of government should be responsible for them. It then…

  9. Indian womanhood: some psychological concepts.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined. PMID:25838719

  10. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Federal Register notice of approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  11. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Register notice of approved Tribal--State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  12. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming... Register notice of approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  13. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  14. QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, OMER C.

    FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

  15. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  16. Leadership Challenges in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry

    2002-01-01

    American Indian leaders must meld the holistic and cyclical world view of Indian peoples with the linear, rational world view of mainstream society. Tribal leaders need to be statesmen and ethical politicians. Economic and educational development must be based on disciplined long-range planning and a strong, Indian-controlled educational base.…

  17. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  18. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  19. Indian Youth Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, McClellan

    The Indian Youth Leadership Program and the Indian Youth Leadership Camp (IYLC) were created in 1981 in response to the need to develop specific skills in Indian youth who will assume leadership positions in the future at the family, school, community, tribal, and national level. Patterned after the National Youth Leadership Camp, the IYLC emerged…

  20. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  1. Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

  2. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. On the importance of Sri Lanka for sea-level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Pillathu Moolayil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies have illustrated the strong influence of remote forcing from the equator and the Bay of Bengal on the sea-level variability off the west coast of India, especially at the seasonal timescale. More recently, Suresh et al. [2013] demonstrated with a simple, linear, continuously-stratified (LCS) model that the equatorial zonal winds contribute to more than 60% of intraseasonal sea-level variability along the Indian west coast. In the present study, we quantify the contributions from various processes to the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at different timescales with the help of a LCS model through both idealized and realistic sensitivity experiments. We demonstrate that remote forcing dominates the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Sri Lanka and the southern tip of India play an important role on Indian west coast sea-level variability at all timescales for two reasons: First, the geometry of the coast favors a strong alongshore wind-stress forcing of coastal Kelvin waves across timescales there. Second, Sri Lanka interacts with low-order meridional mode equatorial Rossby waves forced by equatorial winds or southern Bay of Bengal wind- stress curl. This interaction of coastal waveguide with equatorial waveguide creates a new pathway for the equatorial signals to arrive at the west coast of India, alternative to the "classical" coastal waveguide around the rim of the Bay of Bengal. Reference: Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, and P. M. Muraleedharan (2013), Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.

  4. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  5. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  6. Igneous Rocks of the Indian Ocean Floor.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Fischer, R L; Engel, A E

    1965-10-29

    Four dredge hauls from near the crest and from the eastern flank of the seismically active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge at 23 degrees to 24 degrees S, at depths of 3700 to 4300 meters, produced only low-potassium tholeiitic basalt similar in chemical and mineralogic composition to basalts characteristic of ridges and rises in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A fifth haul, from a depth of 4000 meters on the lower flank of a seamount on the ocean side of the Indonesian Trench, recovered tholeiitic basalt with higher concentrations of K and Ti and slightly lower amounts of Si and Ca than the typical-oceanic tholeiite of the ridge. The last sample is vesicular, suggesting depression of the area since the basalt was emplaced. Many of the rocks dredged are variously decomposed and hydrated, but there is no evidence of important chemical modification toward conversion of the lava flows to spilite during extrusion or solidification.

  7. Igneous rocks of the Indian ocean floor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Fischer, R.L.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1965-01-01

    Four dredge hauls from near the crest and from the eastern flank of the seismically active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge at 23?? to 24??S, at depths of 3700 to 4300 meters, produced only low-potassium tholeiitic basalt similar in chemical and mineralogic composition to basalts characteristic of ridges and rises in the Atlantic and Pacific oceansA fifth haul, from a depth of 4000 meters on the lower flank of a seamount on the ocean side of the Indonesian Trench, recovered tholeiitic basalt with higher concentrations of K and Ti and slightly lower amounts of Si and Ca than the typical oceanic tholeiite of the ridgeThe last sample is vesicular, suggesting depression of the area since the basalt was emplacedMany of the rocks dredged are variously decomposed and hydrated, but there is no evidence of important chemical modification toward conversion of the lava flows to spilite during extrusion or solidification.

  8. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  9. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  10. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  11. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  12. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  13. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  14. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  15. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  16. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

  17. Indian Wisdom Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Jerry D.

    Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

  18. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  19. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  20. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  1. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  2. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  3. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  4. Indians of the Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  5. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  6. The Indian Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talapatra, Dipak C.

    1993-01-01

    The Indian Space program aimed at providing operation space services in communications and remote sensing and using state-of-the-art space technologies is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development and operation of satellites and launch vehicles for providing these space services.

  7. Tests for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The revised annotated bibliography describes 29 standardized tests appropriate for use with American Indians from preschool through high school levels, furnishing authors, copyright date, appropriate age level, physical format (microfiche), and publisher. A separate listing provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 11 major U.S.…

  8. Crustal Structure in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, A.; Thybo, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the centre of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately cancelled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 100 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on forward ray tracing and tomography modelling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland, which have

  9. 78 FR 49920 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the draw of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the broken tread plates and shimming the remaining tread plates to the proper elevation on the Norfolk Southern 5......

  10. 77 FR 74586 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the operation of the Norfolk Southern V2.8 Railroad Bridge across the Elizabeth River (Eastern Branch), mile 2.7, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing bearings on the Norfolk Southern V2.8 Railroad Bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the drawbridge......

  11. Designing and Building a Cardboard Chair: Children's Engineering at the TECA Eastern Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the 2006 Technology Education Collegiate Association (TECA) Eastern Regional elementary competition, wherein teams of technology education students from nine different universities designed and built cardboard chairs. The competition required the teams (four or five to a team) from universities up and down the East Coast to…

  12. 75 FR 47461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 52158). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River... temporarily changing the drawbridge operation regulations of the Berkley (I-264) Bridge, at mile 0.4,...

  13. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  14. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

  15. Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

  16. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  17. Summertime mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide over the Mediterranean as a footprint of Indian emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangah, Yannick; Ricaud, Philippe; Attié, Jean-Luc; Saitoh, Naoko; Hauglustaine, Didier; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Zbinden, Regina; Delon, Claire

    2016-04-01

    We used global scale thermal infrared measurements of mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and outputs from the 3D Chemical Transport Model LMDz-OR-INCA to assess the impact of the Indian subcontinent N2O emissions on the N2O field over the eastern Mediterranean Basin (MB) during summer. The use of nitrogen fertilizer coupled with high soil humidity during summer monsoon period produce high emissions of N2O in many south Asian countries and especially the Indian subcontinent. N2O is transported to the upper troposphere by updrafts associated to the monsoon and redistributed westward to the eastern Mediterranean via the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone. This summertime (June-July-August) enrichment in N2O in the eastern Mediterranean produces a maximum in the east-west difference of MB mid-to-upper tropospheric N2O anomaly representative for the period 2010-2013 with a maximum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~1.0 ± 0.3 ppbv observed by GOSAT consistently with LMDz-OR-INCA but less intense (~0.5 ppbv). This summertime enrichment of N2O over the eastern Mediterranean is consistent with the increase of the surface emissions and the convective precipitations over the Indian subcontinent during the summer monsoon period. N2O over the eastern Mediterranean can therefore be considered as a footprint of Indian summertime emissions.

  18. Pipeline hub project sets up gas service for U. S. West Coast markets

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, P.J. )

    1990-08-06

    This paper reports how a major reconfiguration of a West Texas pipeline hub will allow the operator significant flexibility in transporting natural gas either to U.S. West Coast markets or to similar pipeline hubs in central and East Texas for movement to midwestern or eastern U.S. markets. The pipeline system is configured to transport natural gas between three major pipeline hubs in Texas: Carthage (Panola County), Katy (Waller County), and Waha (Pecos County).

  19. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  20. First occurrence of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on off-coast fish farm cages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The non-indigenous caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836, native to the western Indian Ocean, was firstly recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 1994, and all Mediterranean populations discovered to date are related to shoreline areas. A total of ten fish farms were sampled off the coasts of Spain (4), Italy (1), Croatia (2), Greece (1) and Malta (2). This is the first time that C. scaura has been reported from off-coast areas. Reproducing populations have been detected in fouling communities of three tuna farms off the coast of Croatia and Malta, which also signifies the first confirmed record of this species in both countries. The occurrence of successfully established and thriving populations of C. scaura Templeton, 1836 at floating off-coast fish farms underlines the importance of these structures as stepping stones in the species.