Science.gov

Sample records for eastern indian coast

  1. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  2. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  3. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  4. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  5. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  6. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  7. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  8. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  9. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  10. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  11. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  12. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  13. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  14. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  15. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  16. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  17. Age of the floor of the eastern Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Heirtzler, J R; Veevers, J V; Bolli, H M; Carter, A N; Cook, P J; Krasheninnikov, V A; McKnight, B K; Proto-Decima, F; Renz, G W; Robinson, P T; Rocker, K; Thayer, P A

    1973-06-01

    Deep sea drilling in the eastern Indian Ocean shows that the oceanic crust off Western Australia is approximately 140 million years old and becomes younger to the west; this dates the initial opening of the Indian Ocean.

  18. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  19. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  20. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660.706 Section 660.706 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  1. Tsunami Hazards along the Eastern Australian Coast from Potential Earthquakes: Results from Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Ding, R. W.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Australia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and, thus, may suffer from tsunamis due to its proximity to the subduction earthquakes around the boundary of Australian Plate. Potential tsunami risks along the eastern coast, where more and more people currently live, are numerically investigated through a scenario-based method to provide an estimation of the tsunami hazard in this region. We have chosen and calculated the tsunami waves generated at the New Hebrides Trench and the Puysegur Trench, and we further investigated the relevant tsunami hazards along the eastern coast and their sensitivities to various sea floor frictions and earthquake parameters (i.e. the strike, the dip and the slip angles and the earthquake magnitude/rupture length). The results indicate that the Puysegur trench possesses a seismic threat causing wave amplitudes over 1.5 m along the coast of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, and even reaching over 2.6 m at the regions close to Sydney, Maria Island, and Gabo Island for a certain worse case, while the cities along the coast of Queensland are potentially less vulnerable than those on the southeastern Australian coast.

  2. Mesoscale circulation along the Sakhalin Island eastern coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2017-02-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of mesoscale circulation along the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea is investigated using the AVISO velocity field and oceanographic data for the period from 1993 to 2016. It is found that mesoscale cyclones with the horizontal dimension of about 100 km occur there predominantly during summer, whereas anticyclones occur predominantly during fall and winter. The cyclones are generated due to a coastal upwelling forced by northward winds and the positive wind stress curl along the Sakhalin coast. The anticyclones are formed due to an inflow of low-salinity Amur River waters from the Sakhalin Gulf intensified by southward winds and the negative wind stress curl in the cold season. The mesoscale cyclones support the high biological productivity at the eastern Sakhalin shelf in July- August.

  3. Tsunami Intensity Mapping Along the Coast of Tamilnadu (India) During the Deadliest Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, J. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Maheshwari, B. K.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents tsunami intensity mapping and damage patterns along the surveyed coast of Tamilnadu (India) of the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. The tsunami caused severe damage and claimed many victims in the coastal areas of eleven countries bordering the Indian Ocean. A twelve-stage tsunami intensity scale proposed by Papadopoulos and Imamura (2001) was followed to assign the intensity at the visited localities. Along the coast of the Indian mainland, tsunami damage sustained exclusively. Most severe damage was observed in Nagapattinam Beach, Nabiyarnagar, Vellaipalyam, and the Nagapattinam Port of Nagapattinum District on the east coast and Keelamanakudy village of Kanyakumari District on the western coast of Tamilnadu. The maximum assigned tsunami intensity was X+ at these localities. Minimum intensity V+ was received along the coast of Thanjavur, Puddukkotai and Ramnathpuram Districts in Palk Strait. The general observation reported by many people was that the first arrival was a tsunami crest. The largest tsunami waves were first arrivals on the eastern coast and the second arrivals on the western coast. Along the coast, people were unaware of the tsunami, and no anomalous behavior of ocean animals was reported. Good correlation was observed between the severity of damage and the presence of shadow zone of Sri Lanka, reflected waves from Sri Lanka and the Maldives Islands, variation in the width of the continental shelf, elevation of the coast and the presence of breakwaters. The presence of medu (naturally elevated landmass very close to the sea shore and elongated parallel to the coast) reduced the impact of the tsunami on the built environment.

  4. 78 FR 17422 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated... Band of Cherokee Indians resulting from severe storms, flooding, landslides, and mudslides during...

  5. Impact of Climate change in the Mangrove Distribution across the Indian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, P.; Gouda, K. C.; Bhat, N.; Goswami, P.

    2015-12-01

    India is a tropical country surrounded by oceans in three sides i.e. Bay of Bengal in east, Arabian Sea in west, north Indian Ocean in south and by the large mountain system the Himalayas in north. Due to large coast line there is wide range of Mangroves in the coastal India. Mangroves are generally salt tolerant as well as rainfall and temperature dependent, so in this study an approach is being made for the trend analysis of the coastal weather parameters like Temperature, Rainfall, wave pattern and tide in the coastal region of India to understand the climate variability both in multiple spatial and temporal scale and also to correlate the impact of climate change on the Mangrove distribution. The weather parameters from multiple sources like satellite and reanalysis data are being analyzed in terms of the inter annual variability and trend analysis. The corresponding mangrove distribution also monitored and the correlation analysis of the weather parameters and the mangrove population are presented. The study is being carried out in country as a whole as well as along the state coast lines. Comparison of the distribution of mangrove as well as the associated parameters along the eastern and western coast are compared and it is found that there is higher variability in the mangrove distribution.

  6. Tectonic boundaries of the eastern Gulf Coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, C. Jr.; Phillips, R.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Two Precambrian extensional fault episodes, recorded in mapping from central Arkansas across Mississippi, central Alabama, southern Georgia, and into the Atlantic Ocean affected later Pennsylvanian and Triassic tectonics. This interpretation is from magnetic anomaly data and is supported by seismic, gravity, core, and well-log data. The fault system was first suspected from an anomalous magnetic high, representing a feature that affected tectonism during the Ouachita and the Alleghenian orogenies of the eastern Gulf Coast and southeastern United States. The northernmost upthrown block is considered part of an ancient passive continental margin developed during the late Precambrian. The southern downthrown block is deformed by left-lateral transverse faults active during the Ouachita Orogeny. The Ouachita Orogeny may have deformed terrain farther east than the Black Worrior basin. These transverse fault blocks were buttressed by the footwall of the extensional fault system. These left-lateral faults extending from Florida and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and southern Arkansas.

  7. Erodibility of permafrost exposures in the coasts of Eastern Chukotka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslakov, Alexey; Kraev, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    Coastal retreat caused by coastal erosion decreases the territory of Russia by 50 km2 annually. Erosion of the Arctic coasts composed by fine-grained permafrost turns coastlines into badlands dozens of meters wide and is harmful to the coastal infrastructure. Regional-level variations in the coastal retreat rate in the Arctic tend to follow the climate change dynamics and its consequences, mainly the shrinkage of the perennial sea ice area. This study considers the lower level local-scale variability linked to permafrost features, lithology, and morphology of the coasts in the remote region on the western shore of the Bering Sea within Lorino settlement (Chukotka, Russia). The coastal dynamics was tracked by means of geodesy and remote sensing in 2012-14, and the archival engineering survey data available since 1967. We have derived the erodibility of sediments from the conventional soil properties measured by engineers, and linked the coastal retreat rates to erodibility of the sediments, so that it could be extrapolated to other coastal areas of Eastern Chukotka with similar sediment structure.

  8. Assessment of coastal erosion along Indian coast on 1 : 25, 000 scaleusing satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajawat, A. S.; Chauhan, H. B.; Ratheesh, R.; Rhode, S.; Bhanderi, R. J.; Mahapatra, M.; Kumar, M.; Yadav, R.; Abraham, S. P.; Singh, S. S.; Keshri, K. N.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    The long stretch of coastline on the either side of Indian peninsula is subjected to varied coastal processes and anthropogenic pressures, which makes the coast vulnerable to erosion. There is no systematic inventory of shoreline changes occurring along the entire Indian coast on 1:25, 000 scale, which is required for planning measures to be taken up for protecting the coast at national level. It is in this context that shoreline change mapping on 1:25, 000 scale for the entire Indian coast based on multidate satellite data in GIS environment has been carried out for 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. The paper discusses salient observations and results from the shoreline change inventory. The results show that 3829 km (45.5 %) of the coast is under erosion, 3004 km (35.7 %) of the coast is getting accreted, while 1581 km (18.8 %) of the coast is more or less stable in nature. Highest percentage of the shoreline under erosion is in Nicobar Islands (88.7 %), while percentage of accreting coastline is highest for Tamil Nadu (62.3 %) and the state of Goa has highest percentage of stable shoreline (52.4 %). The analysis shows that the Indian coast has lost a net area of about 73 sq km during 1989-91 and 2004-06 time frame. In Tamilnadu, a net area of about 25.45 sq km have increased due to accretion, while along Nicobar Island about 93.95 sq km is lost due to erosion. The inventory has been used to prepare "Shoreline Change Atlas of the Indian Coast", brought out as Six Volumes for the entire Indian coast.

  9. 78 FR 15797 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster #NC-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Disaster NC-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Areas: Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Associated...

  10. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  11. Teleseismic receiver functions modeling of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    We estimate receiver functions (RFs) through the time-domain deconvolution using three-component broadband data of 100 teleseismic events (30° ⩽ ∧ ⩽ 90°) from 15 seismographs in the eastern Indian craton. Estimated radial RFs show a positive phase at 4.6-5.8 s delay time corresponding to the crustal thicknesses of 37-46 km. Through the differential evolution (DE) waveform inversion modeling of radial receiver functions, we delineate the crustal structure at 15 broadband stations. On an average, the Archean Singhbhum Odisha Craton (SOC) is characterized by a thick crust of 43 ± 3 km in comparison to a relatively thin crust of 41 ± 1 km underlying the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic terrain (CGGT). While, a thin crust of 38 ± 1 km characterizes the younger Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The main results of our modeling reveal a 46 km thick Archean crust underlying the Singhbhum granite (SG) of 3.6 Ga, which is characterized by a 3 km crustal thickening probably resulted from the Archean subduction process. Our modeling also detects a 2-3 km crustal thinning with the thinnest crust of 37 km below the region near South Singhbhum Shear Zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. Our modeling also led to the delineation of a crustal thinning of 2-3 km underlying the region in EGMB, which was influenced by a much younger (∼117 Ma) Rajmahal magmatism associated with the Gondwana break-up episode. However, our study could not detect any age-dependent variation of crustal thicknesses in the eastern Indian craton. The main result of our modeling suggests a two-phase crustal evolution process for the SOC viz. older E-W crustal thickening due to E-W plate compression and later crustal thinning episodes associated with the Dalma volcanism in the north and the Rajmahal volcanism in the South.

  12. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  13. MAGSAT anomaly profiles of the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V. (Principal Investigator); Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground tracks from SEASAT were used in an effort to develop qualititative relationships between the gravity field and MAGSAT magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean. Investigation of data quality led to analyses of the average value (over 80 vector data points, or approximately 36 km intervals) and of the standard deviation of this average, as a mean of identifying noisy portions of the data. It was discovered that the plots of the average value minus the individual (measured) point value are most useful for identifying noisy areas and data spikes. Spectrum analysis using edited (spikes removed) data show that the noise floor is less than 1 nT and the slope of the spectrum in the region of wavelengths between 1200 km and 250 km is approximately -3. Consequently the estimated resolution limit improved from approximately 360 km to approximately 250 km.

  14. Coral records of interannual, century and millenium scale climate dynamics in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N. J.; Gagan, M. K.; Chappell, J.; McCulloch, M. T.; Hantoro, W. S.

    2003-04-01

    Climate in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean is dominated by the Asian monsoon but is also strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is the core area of activity for the Indian Ocean Dipole. We examined the interaction of these climate systems over the past 7000 years using the δ18O and Sr/Ca records of 5 modern and 33 fossil corals from the Mentawai Islands, southwest Sumatra, Indonesia. The mean δ18O and Sr/Ca values of the fossil corals define a maxima in sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity at 6.5 ka, which was followed by cooling and freshening to 4.5 ka. On the seasonal scale this cooling/freshening trend is manifest as an increase in the annual SST cycle and an increase in the frequency of Indian Ocean Dipole events. This suggests a stronger southeast Monsoon causing increased Ekman upwelling along the Sumatran coast. The fossil corals record rapid warming and drying from 4.5 to 4ka. The peak of this event corresponds to the timing of a major drought recorded in African lake levels and ice cores. The period around 2ka is characterised by rapid fluctuations in mean SST but relatively stable salinity at values close to the present day warm pool conditions. This variability in SST may reflect an increase in the strength of the ENSO system after 4ka. Changes in SST and salinity recorded by the fossil corals over the past 1000 years closely match variations in solar activity, with a distinct cool and fresh period between 0.5ka and 0.4ka that corresponds with the Sp&{uml;o}rer solar minima, as well as with high lake levels in Africa. High-resolution coral records for the past 150 years allow for a detailed examination of the interactions between the Asian Monsoon, ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole climate systems since 1857. This record shows that large Indian Ocean Dipole events, such as observed in 1994 and 1997, have been infrequent with only two other similar-scale events recorded since 1857. More frequent and stronger Indian

  15. Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Strata comprising most of the upper Paleocene in eastern North America are divided into two new pollen zones, the Carya and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Pollen data have proven to be important for correlations between Alabama-western Georgia and eastern Mississippi and between the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia. Migration of tropical plant taxa from the Caribbean to the Gulf Coast began at least 4 m.y. before the end of the Paleocene. The Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event, accompanied by a distinct pulse of plant immigration from Europe, began several hundred thousand years before the end of the Paleocene.

  16. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  17. POSSIBLE TSUNAMI ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF THE UNITED STATES INFERRED FROM INDIAN TRADITIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, Thomas H.; Snavely, Parke D.

    1985-01-01

    There is no direct geologic or historical evidence presently available to confirm that great shallow subduction earthquakes have occurred along the coast of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. However, there are reports describing Indian legends of great sea-level disturbances that may be related to large nearby earthquakes. In this letter, we briefly review the history of exploration and settlement of this region by nonnative people and then discuss legends from Indians in northern Washington and northern California. Refs.

  18. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Awarded 2015 EPA Region 4 Rain Catcher Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians with the regional 2015 EPA Rain Catcher Award in the Tribal Category for the Native Plant Facility project in western North Carolina. The award was g

  19. 77 FR 5265 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians-Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of Alcoholic Beverages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... publishes the Amendment to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians--Cherokee Code Chapter 18B, Regulation of... Ordinance No. 768 (2011) which amended Cherokee Code Chapter 18B. This notice is published in...

  20. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean.

  1. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  2. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Sager, William W.; Handschumacher, David W.

    1989-03-01

    Over 9700 km of new aeromagnetic data were acquired off the northwest coast of Australia and combined with existing magnetic data to map magnetic isochrons in the eastern Indian Ocean. The isochrons were used to constrain a tectonic model of the evolution of the seafloor in the Argo, Cuvier, and Gascoyne abyssal plains. A complete set of anomalies, from M26 through M16, was found in the Argo Abyssal Plain, trending generally N70°E. Spreading commenced in the center of the basin at or prior to M26 and propagated outward until at least M24 time. Anomalies M10-MO, recording the separation of Australia and India, were found in the Cuvier and Gascoyne abyssal plains, with a trend of about N30°E. A significant crustal age discontinuity occurs in the vicinity of the Joey Rise where the two lineation sets converge. Because there appears to be no overlap of isochron ages in the two groups, it is not necessary to postulate that a triple junction existed off northwest Australia as has been previously suggested. At M4-M5 time a 10° clockwise change in spreading direction occurred on the Cuvier-Gascoyne spreading system. This event triggered ridge jumps that transferred two pieces of the Indian plate to the Australian plate. Overlapping spreading on the forming and dying ridges, curved fracture zones and lineations, as well as fanned lineation trends, suggest that the ridge jumps occurred by ridge propagation and that the transferred lithospheric blocks behaved as microplates for a brief interval of approximately 1-2 m.y.

  3. Does the Maritime Continent region affect sea level change of the eastern Indian Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, W.; Lee, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent region, in particular, the Indonesian Sea, regulates the oceanic communication between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Previous studies suggest that the freshwater transported from the South China Sea to the Indonesian Sea affects the magnitude and structure of the Indonesian throughflow, and the strong tidal mixing in the Indonesian Sea alters the time mean vertical structure of the water mass carried from the Pacific to the Indian Oceans. Sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean is known to be affected by those in the northwestern Pacific via coastal Kelvin wave propagation through the Indonesian Sea. However, whether the Maritime Continent region influences sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean has not been investigated. In this study, we used Argo floats and satellite altimeter data to study the near decadal change of sea level during the 2005-2013 period. We found that the steric sea level change in eastern Indian Ocean cannot be fully explained by either local forcing or the transmission of steric signal from the western Pacific. This implicates the potential role of the Maritime Continent region in regulating sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean.

  4. The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies. Volume 3, Great Basin/Plateau Indian Catalog, Northwest Coast/Arctic Indian Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Judith A., Ed.

    Two catalogs inventory wax cylinder collections, field recorded among Native American groups, 1890-1942. The catalog for Great Basin and Plateau Indian tribes contains entries for 174 cylinders in 7 collections from the Flathead, Nez Perce, Thompson/Okanagon, Northern Ute, and Yakima tribes. The catalog for Northwest Coast and Arctic Indian tribes…

  5. Eastern Oklahoma Johnson-O'Malley Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Shirley

    Intended as a guide and reference for persons involved in local administration of the Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Indian Education program, the handbook contains basic information about the program and the roles and responsibilities of school administrators, JOM personnel, and local and state Indian Education Committees (IECs). Beginning with a history…

  6. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  7. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  8. 78 FR 32414 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of.... SUMMARY: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA... Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), in a letter to W. Craig Fugate,...

  9. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    PubMed

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  10. PROFILE: Marine Protected Areas and Dugong Conservation Along Australia's Indian Ocean Coast

    PubMed

    Preen

    1998-03-01

    / The coastal zone of the Indian Ocean is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Australia may be one of the few countries in this region that can afford to take adequate conservation measures in the near future. As it also has one of the longest Indian Ocean coastlines, Australia has the opportunity, and responsibility, to make a meaningful contribution to the conservation of Indian Ocean biodiversity. Threatened species, including marine turtles, inshore dolphins, and dugongs are an important component of that biodiversity. The dugong has been exterminated from several areas in the Indian Ocean, and it appears to be particularly threatened by mesh netting andhunting. Its long-term survival may depend on adequate protection in Australia, which contains the largest known Indian Ocean populations. This protection will require, in part, an appropriate system of marine protected areas (MPAs). This paper examines the adequacy of MPAs along Australia's Indian Ocean coast. Dugongs occur in two MPAs in Western Australia. The proposed expansion of the system of marine reserves is based primarily on representative samples of ecosystems from each biogeographic region. It is inadequate because it does not take into account the distribution and relative abundance of threatened species. If the conservation of biodiversity is to be maximized, the system of MPAs should incorporate both representativeness and the needs of threatened species. The level of protection provided by MPAs in Western Australia is low. Under current government policy potentially damaging activities, including commercial fishing, seismic surveys, and oil and gas drilling are permitted in protected areas.KEY WORDS: Marine protected areas; Dugongs; Western Australia; Indian Ocean; Conservation; Biodiversity

  11. Geochemical characterization of soils of the eastern coast of the Northern Sakhalin Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharikova, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) were determined in soils of the eastern coast of the Northern Sakhalin Lowland. The total contents of HMs and their distribution in the studied soils differed from those in the world soils. Thus, barium and mercury concentrations exceeded clarke values for the world soils. The reserves of mobile forms of microelements were found to be low. Significant biogenic accumulation in organic soil horizons in the process of soil formation was found for copper, arsenic, and barium.

  12. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  13. On the weak impact of the 26 December Indian Ocean tsunami on the Bangladesh coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioualalen, M.; Pelinovsky, E.; Asavanant, J.; Lipikorn, R.; Deschamps, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged severely most of the Gulf of Bengal's coastal areas, but the coast of Bangladesh which stands at the edge of an extraordinarily extended continental shelf. This latter feature has been built through huge discharges of river sediments along the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers. As a result of this enormous discharge, another interesting feature of the area is the deep underwater Canyon, connected with the estuaries, running NE-SW from 25 km off the coast towards the continental slope. We investigate here how these two geological features may have modified/perturbed the Indian ocean tsunami propagation and impact on the Coast of Bangladesh. For that purpose we have realized an ensemble of numerical simulations based on Funwave Boussinesq numerical model and a validated coseismic source. It is found, at first order, that the extended shallow bathymetric profile of the continental shelf plays a key role in flattening the waveform through a defocussing process while the Canyon delays the process. The wave evolution seems to be related at first order to the bathymetric profile rather than to dynamical processes like nonlinearity, dispersion or bottom friction.

  14. Eastern Indian Ocean microcontinent formation driven by plate motion changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, J. M.; Williams, S. E.; Halpin, J. A.; Wild, T. J.; Stilwell, J. D.; Jourdan, F.; Daczko, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The roles of plate tectonic or mantle dynamic forces in rupturing continental lithosphere remain controversial. Particularly enigmatic is the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, with plume-driven thermal weakening commonly inferred to facilitate calving. However, a role for plate tectonic reorganisations has also been suggested. Here, we show that a combination of plate tectonic reorganisation and plume-driven thermal weakening were required to calve the Batavia and Gulden Draak microcontinents in the Cretaceous Indian Ocean. We reconstruct the evolution of these two microcontinents using constraints from new paleontological samples, 40Ar/39Ar ages, and geophysical data. Calving from India occurred at 101-104 Ma, coinciding with the onset of a dramatic change in Indian plate motion. Critically, Kerguelen plume volcanism does not appear to have directly triggered calving. Rather, it is likely that plume-related thermal weakening of the Indian passive margin preconditioned it for microcontinent formation but calving was triggered by changes in plate tectonic boundary forces.

  15. Diurnal Convection Peaks over the Eastern Indian Ocean over Sumatra during Different MJO Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, M.; Nasuno, T.; Yoneyama, K.

    2015-12-01

    The diurnal convection peak characteristics over the eastern Indian Ocean over the island of Sumatra during different phases of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) were investigated. During MJO phases 2 to 3 (P2 and P3) defined by Wheeler and Hendon (2004), prominent diurnal variation in convection was observed by satellites when moderate low-level westerly winds were dominant over the eastern Indian Ocean. The diurnal convection peaks were prominent over the island of Sumatra in the evening, while migrations of the convection toward the Indian Ocean were observed in the early morning. By using the Global Positioning System around the western region offshore of Sumatra, a significant reduction in water vapor was observed from evening until midnight, compensating for the upward motion over the island. During midnight to early morning, the water vapor increased in the western offshore region as the convections migrated from the island. During P2 to P3, the atmosphere over the eastern Indian Ocean contains abundant water vapor, while the Maritime Continent is fairly well heated by solar radiation under calm conditions. This situation should be favorable for the development of two diurnal convection peaks: the evening convection over the land induced by solar radiative heating and the midnight convection over the ocean triggered by convergence of the low-level westerly wind and the land breeze.

  16. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013.

  17. Importance of the Indian Ocean for simulating rainfall anomalies over eastern and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Lisa; Graham, Nicholas E.

    1999-08-01

    The relative contributions of the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to the rainfall variability over eastern central, and southern Africa during the austral spring-summer are examined. The variability of African rainfall is statistically related to both oceans, but the variability in the two oceans is also related. To separate the effects of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, a suite of numerical model simulations is presented: GOGA, the atmosphere is forced by observed SSTs globally; IOGA, the atmosphere is forced by observed SSTs only in the Indian Ocean basin; and POGA, the atmosphere is forced by observed SSTs only in the tropical Pacific basin. While the SST variability of the tropical Pacific exerts some influence over the African region, it is the atmospheric response to the Indian Ocean variability that is essential for simulating the correct rainfall response over eastern, central, and southern Africa. Analyses of the dynamical response(s) seen in the numerical experiments and in the observations indicate that the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a competing influence over the Indian Ocean/African region. This competition is related to the influence of the two oceans on the Walker circulation and the consequences of that variability on low-level fluxes of moisture over central and southern Africa. Finally, given the high correlation found between SST variability in the Indian and Pacific Oceans with the Pacific leading by ˜3 months, we speculate on an approach to long-lead dynamical climate prediction over central-east and southern Africa.

  18. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  19. More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Evan; Cai, Wenju; Min, Seung-Ki; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean exhibits strong interannual variability, often co-occurring with positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. During what we identify as an extreme ITCZ event, a drastic northward shift of atmospheric convection coincides with an anomalously strong north-minus-south sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Such shifts lead to severe droughts over the maritime continent and surrounding islands but also devastating floods in southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Understanding future changes of the ITCZ is therefore of major scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we find a more-than-doubling in the frequency of extreme ITCZ events under greenhouse warming, estimated from climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that are able to simulate such events. The increase is due to a mean state change with an enhanced north-minus-south SST gradient and a weakened Walker Circulation, facilitating smaller perturbations to shift the ITCZ northwards. PMID:25124737

  20. More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Weller, Evan; Cai, Wenju; Min, Seung-Ki; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean exhibits strong interannual variability, often co-occurring with positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. During what we identify as an extreme ITCZ event, a drastic northward shift of atmospheric convection coincides with an anomalously strong north-minus-south sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Such shifts lead to severe droughts over the maritime continent and surrounding islands but also devastating floods in southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Understanding future changes of the ITCZ is therefore of major scientific and socioeconomic interest. Here we find a more-than-doubling in the frequency of extreme ITCZ events under greenhouse warming, estimated from climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that are able to simulate such events. The increase is due to a mean state change with an enhanced north-minus-south SST gradient and a weakened Walker Circulation, facilitating smaller perturbations to shift the ITCZ northwards.

  1. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of neodymium in the eastern Indian Ocean and Indonesian straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandel, Catherine; Thouron, Danièle; Fieux, Michèle

    1998-08-01

    Four profiles of Nd concentration and isotopic composition were determined at two stations in the eastern Indian Ocean along a north/south section between Bali and Port-Hedland and at two others in the Timor and Sumba straits. Neodymium concentrations increase with depth, between 7.2 pmol/L at the surface to 41.7 pmol/L close to the bottom. The ɛ Nd of the different water masses along the section are -7.2 ± 0.2 for the Indian Bottom Waters and -6.1 ± 0.2 for the Indian Deep Waters. The intermediate and thermocline waters are less radiogenic at st-10 than at st-20 (-5.3 ± 0.3 and -3.6 ± 0.2, respectively). In the Timor Passage and Sumba Strait, ɛ Nd of the Indonesian waters is -4.1 ± 0.2 and that of the North Indian Intermediate Waters is -2.6 ± 0.3. These distinct isotopic signals constrain the origins of the different water masses sampled in the eastern Indian Ocean. They fix the limit of the nonradiogenic Antarctic and Indian contributions to the southern part of the section whereas the northern part is influenced by radiogenic Indonesian flows. In addition, the neodymium isotopic composition suggests that in the north, deep waters are influenced by a radiogenic component originating from the Sunda Arch Slope flowing deeper than 1200 m, which was not documented previously. Mixing calculations assess the conservativity of ɛ Nd on the scale of an oceanic basin. The origin of the surprising radiogenic signal of the NIIW is discussed and could result from a remobilization of Nd sediment-hosted on the Java shelf, requiring important dissolved/particulate exchange processes. Such processes, occurring in specific areas, could play an important role in the world ocean Nd budget.

  2. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  3. Sedimentation along the Eastern Chenier Plain Coast: Down Drift Impact of a Delta Complex Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar K.; Walker, Nan D.; Moeller, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The Mississippi River Chenier Plain is a shore parallel landform (down-drift from the Atchafalaya distributary of the Mississippi River) consisting of an alternating series of transgressive sand-shell ridges and regressive, progradational mudflats. The late 1940s shift of 1/3 of the flow of the Mississippi to the newly developing Atchafalaya delta complex to the west has resulted in injection of the river waters and suspended sediment into the westward flowing currents of the coastal current system. This has reactivated the dormant processes of mud accumulation along this coast. These environmental circumstances have provided the opportunity to: (1) investigate the depositional processes of the prograding, fine grained, mud flat facies of the open Chenier main coast and (2) to test the hypothesis that the impacts of the frequent cold front passages of fall, winter and spring exceed those of the occasional and more localized hurricane in shaping the coast and powering the dominant sedimentary processes. We conducted field investigations with the benefit of multi - scale, time series environmental surveillance by remote sensing systems, including airborne and satellite sensors. These systems provided invaluable new information on areal geomorphic patterns and the behavior of the coastal waters. This is a classic case of weather impacting inner shelf waters and sediments and causing the development of a new landform. It is clear that mud flats of the eastern chenier plain are prograding seaward, as well as progressively growing in a westerly direction.

  4. The Previous Occurrence of Indian Ocean Tsunami- Geological Evidence from the Southeastern Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasalu, S.; Rajendran, K.; Kumar, S.

    2008-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami is generally considered to be an event without any historical precedence. No known historical record exists on similar sized prior event of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami magnitude. However, a closer look at the "Manimekhalai" an ancient Tamil literature from South India reveal references to a sea surge event around A.D. 1000 that may have affected the town of Pumbuhar (a ~2000 year old historical port town also known as Kaveripattinam), located at southeastern coast of India. The literary references, however, cannot be taken as historical facts unless geological evidence supports them. With this in mind, we had trenched some selected sites in the southeast Indian coastal village of Vanagiri located near Pumbuhar (Kaveripattinam). Our shallow trench sites placed roughly 1 km from present coastal margin exposed parallel laminated paleobeach facies at base of the trench overlain by relatively thick low-angle cross-bedded sand sheets sandwiched between clayey beds followed by thick soil horizon that forms the present day surface. The cross-bedded sand sheet units are bounded by fining upward transitional contact on top and an erosional contact at the bottom and is characterized by presence of heavy mineral lamination, rip-up clay clasts, contortions, occasional mud drapes and rare pottery shards. The sand sheet units are typically thick towards sea and pinches out landward forming a wedge-shaped body. The grain size and micro faunal analyses of sand sheets indicate bimodal grain size distribution and presence of foraminifera, respectively. Preliminary thermal luminescence ages obtained from the pottery shards preserved in units from below and above the sand sheets bracket age of the event between 1836+/-172 and 1017+/-168 ybp, which roughly corresponds to the age of sea surge referenced in "Manimekhalai". Further work is underway to understand geometry, fauna, lithology, age, sedimentary and chemistry of this candidate paleo tsunami deposits.

  5. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  6. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems.

  7. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean.

  8. Nature of ophiolite occurrences along the eastern margin of the Indian plate and their tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Ray, K. K.; Acharyya, S. K.; de Smeth, J. B.

    1990-05-01

    Upper Mesozoic to lower Eocene ophiolitic rocks occur in two parallel belts along the eastern margin of the Indian plate. The eastern belt passes through central Burma, Sumatra, and Java, and coincides with a zone of gravity highs resulting from steeply dipping mafic rocks. It denotes the locus of the subduction where these ophiolites were accreted just prior to middle Eocene time. In contrast, the western belt, which passes through Nagaland, Manipur, western Burma, and Andaman, is flanked to the east by a negative gravity anomaly zone. In it the ophiolites occur as rootless, subhorizontal bodies, tectonically overlying Eocene-Oligocene flysch sedimentary rocks. They are inferred to be nappes that propagated westward from the eastern belt during late Oligocene terminal collision of the Indian and Eurasian continental blocks. Ophiolite occurrences in Andaman and Mentawai islands belonging to the western belt are generally linked with active subduction west of the island arc. This subduction began only in late Miocene time, and thus it could not have produced the ophiolites, which had been emplaced on land much earlier.

  9. Evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean since the Late Cretaceous - Constraints from Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royer, Jean-Yves; Sandwell, David T.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the tectonic evolution of the eastern Indian Ocean from the Late Cretaceous to the present is constructed. Reinterpretations of seafloor magnetic anomalies are used to place constraints on spreading rates and the timing of major reorganizations. Vertical deflection profiles from 22 repeat cycles of Geosat altimeter data are used to determine the tectonic fabric associated with fracture zones. The Geosat data place constraints on paleospreading directions. Consideration is given to the implications of the model for the relative motions between India, Australia, and Antarctica.

  10. Spatial Patterns of Ichthyoplankton Assemblages Along the Eastern English Channel French Coast during Spring 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grioche, A.; Koubbi, P.; Harlay, X.

    1999-07-01

    Two surveys were conducted during April and May 1995 along the French coast of the eastern English Channel. They aimed to describe the influence of environmental features-water advection through the Straits of Dover and the hydrological coastal front-on ichthyoplankton assemblages. Multivariate analysis, using the non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and based on the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index, was associated with multiple regression to characterize the spatial larval distribution and to relate it to the environmental factors. During the April survey only young larvae were found. They were separated into a coastal larvae assemblage, characterized by high water temperature and fluorescence of chlorophyll a and two offshore assemblages limited to high salinity water. During the May survey, young larvae were mainly located in offshore waters, in the south of the Picarde Bay and in the Straits, where high offshore chlorophyll a fluorescence was found. In contrast old larvae were found along the coast, near estuaries. This pattern shows a spatial segregation of developmental stages of larvae in this area due to adult spawning migration, larval drift and ontogentic migration. Larval distributions can be explained by salinity, temperature and concentration of chlorophyll a, but the spatial evolution of those parameters during spring have also to be taken into account for the comparison of the distributions between both surveys.

  11. POP levels in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and edible fish from the eastern Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Serkan; Pazi, Idil

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides and Aroclors were measured in the muscle of two edible fish species (gray mullet, sea bream) and blue crab, collected from eastern Mediterranean coast in 2013. The concentration of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and Aroclors in biota samples which were collected at six sites ranged from 1.0-8.6 and 9-47.5 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. Total DDT concentrations in seafood samples were compared to tolerance level established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the concentrations were detected below the tolerence level. Health risk assessment was conducted related to the consumption of chemically contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intake of OCPs calculated by using the estimated daily fish consumption in Turkey was far below the acceptable daily intake as established by FAO/WHO. Our data indicated that consumption of blue crab, gray mullet, and sea bream collected from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey could pose "no risk" for human health in terms of OCPs.

  12. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  13. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolchi, S.; Furlani, S.; Antonioli, F.; Baldassini, N.; Causon Deguara, J.; Devoto, S.; Di Stefano, A.; Evans, J.; Gambin, T.; Gauci, R.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Monaco, C.; Scicchitano, G.

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated either by tsunamis or extreme storm events has been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the NE and E low-lying rocky coasts of Malta tens of large boulder deposits have been surveyed, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the seafloor and lowest parts of the coast by the action of sea waves. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few severe earthquakes and tsunamis are recorded in historical documents to have hit the Maltese archipelago, originated by seismicity activity related mainly to the Malta Escarpment, the Sicily Channel Rift Zone and the Hellenic Arc. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of the boulder accumulations along the eastern coast of Malta, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was devoted to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations. The axis sizes of blocks were measured with 3-D digital photogrammetric techniques and their densities were obtained throughout the use of a N-type Schmidt Hammer. Moreover, AMS ages were obtained from selected marine organisms encrusted on some of the boulders in various coastal sites. The combination of the results obtained by hydrodynamic equations and the radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders has been detached and moved by intense storm waves. Nonetheless, it is possible that some of them may have been transported by tsunami.

  14. An observational and numerical study of the sea breeze in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The sea breeze and its characteristics are well studied in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but not so in the Cantabrian coast, perhaps due to a lower prevalence of stable synoptic conditions during the summer period. However, it was found that the sea breeze was one of the main drivers of pollution episodes in the industrialised metropolitan area of Bilbao. In addition, an accurate prediction of this mesoscale phenomenon is fundamental for forecasting hot spells with predominant southerly gradient winds, especially in the eastern half of the Cantabrian Sea, during which can be recorded up to 40 °C close to the shore. In this work, an automated method is used for selecting sea breeze days [1], based in 6 filters that evaluate the observed synoptic and surface conditions in the Eastern Cantabrian, provided by the Basque and Spanish meteorological agencies. The main objective is to make an observational and numerical analysis of this phenomenon in the aforementioned region, focusing on the predictability of the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) [2] and the evolution of turbulent parameters such as the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Numerical simulations are performed using the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). The selection method fails filtering a non-sea-breeze day owing to a shift hint in the wind direction, which is predominantly southerly making temperature reach around 40 °C in one of the meteorological stations. This day is simulated both with and without updating the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The latter simulation leads to a more unrealistic situation. Furthermore, the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution given by the model is compared for a sea breeze and a non-sea-breeze day, concluding that the establishment of a maritime flux results in a lower diffusive capacity in the lower atmosphere, which would lead to a higher concentration of pollutants close to the surface. It is also found that the cause of the

  15. In situ observation of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Murakami, Hirishi; Miyamura, Kazuyoshi; Siawanto, Eko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Joji

    2014-05-01

    Oita coast, where is in the eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan, is a richly fish aquaculture area. However, sometimes harmful algal blooms occur in this region, especially harmful dinoflagellates blooms, and cultured fish mortality occurs. Ocean color remote sensing is expected as a useful tool to reduce the financial damage of harmful algal blooms. However, ocean color data is low accuracy in the coastal region because colored dissolved organic matter and suspended solid are dominant. More optical data of harmful algal blooms are required because there are few data in harmful algal blooms. The field observation was conducted to understand the inherent optical property of harmful dinoflagellate bloom in the eastern coast of Oita prefecture on April and August 2013. Chlorophyll-a maximum (>24 mg m^-3) was observed in the subsurface layer on April 2013. The dominant phytoplankton species in this chlorophyll-a maximum layer was dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (>300 cells ml^-1) and early stage of the bloom was formed. Peak of the remote sensing reflectance was near 565nm due to strong phytoplankton absorption within 400 ~ 500 nm domain from the subsurface bloom layer. Moreover, high phytoplankton absorption coefficient was observed at the shorter wavelength (< 400nm). This strong absorption might be due to mycosporine-like amino acids, which absorb the UV (Kahru and Mitchell, 1998). And this subsurface C. polykrikoides bloom was detected by using dinoflagellate bloom detection algorithm, which is a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based harmful algal blooms detection method for JAXA's GCOM-C/SGLI (Siswanto et al., 2013). However, detection of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi bloom by using the algorithm on August 2013 was difficult as colored dissolved organic matter and detritus absorptions were high. Although the algorithm could detect the early stage of C. polycrikoides bloom, the algorithm improvement to detect the harmful algal blooms in the case II

  16. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Baldassini, Niccoló; Causon Deguara, Joanna; Devoto, Stefano; Di Stefano, Agata; Evans, Julian; Gambin, Timothy; Gauci, Ritienne; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated by either tsunamis or extreme storm events have been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the eastern low-lying rocky coasts of Malta, five sites with large boulder deposits have been investigated, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the nearshore and the lowest parts of the coast by sea wave action. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few tsunamis have been recorded in historical documents to have reached the Maltese archipelago. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of these boulder accumulations, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport 77 coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was given to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations, such as size, density and distance from the coast. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages were determined from selected samples of marine organisms encrusted on some of the coastal boulders. The combination of the results obtained both by the hydrodynamic equations, which provided values comparable with those observed and measured during the storms, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders have been detached and moved by intense storm waves. These boulders testify to the existence of a real hazard for the coasts of Malta, i.e. that of very high storm waves, which, during exceptional storms, are able to detach large blocks of volumes exceeding 10 m3 from the coastal edge and the nearshore bottom, and also to transport them inland. Nevertheless, the occurrence of one or more tsunami events cannot be ruled out, since

  17. Anatomical variation of posterior slope of tibial plateau in adult Eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Medda, Shyamalendu; Kundu, Rajib; Sengupta, Sohini; Pal, Ananda Kisor

    2017-01-01

    Background: Upper surface of the proximal tibial end, tibial plateau, has a slope directed posteroinferiorly relative to the long axis of the middle of the shaft. It has important consideration in surgeries such as knee arthroplasty, high tibial osteotomy, and medical imaging of the knee joint. The aim of the present study was to estimate the tibial plateau angle (TPA) by plain radiograph in the adult Eastern Indian population as during literature review, we were unable to find any study, except one (without specific reference axis), on this variable among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A sample was taken from adult patients attending the outpatient department of orthopedics of the institute with minor knee problems. Measurement of the TPA was done in the true lateral radiographs of the knee joints of the selected subjects by a standardized method. Results: TPA varied widely from 6° to 24°, with the mean ± standard deviation value 13.6° ±3.5°. Student's unpaired t-test revealed no significant difference of TPA between left and right knees, both in male (P = 0.748) and female (P = 0.917) separately and in the entire study population irrespective of gender (P = 0.768). Comparison of TPA between male (13.3° ± 3.3°) and female (13.9° ± 3.4°) by Student's unpaired t-test showed no sexual dimorphism (P = 0.248). There were poor correlations of TPA with age and body mass index. Conclusion: The present study described the variations of the TPA in the adult Eastern Indian population (range 6°–24°, mean ± SD 13.6° ± 3.5°, no laterality, no sexual dimorphism, poor correlation with age and BMI). Knowledge of this study could be used in different orthopedic surgeries and imaging technique in or around the knee joint. PMID:28216753

  18. Molecular phylogeny of commercially important lobster species from Indian coast inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Jeena, N S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Radhakrishnan, E V; Kizhakudan, Joe K; Basheer, V S; Asokan, P K; Jena, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lobsters constitute low-volume high-value crustacean fishery resource along Indian coast. For the conservation and management of this declining resource, accurate identification of species and larvae is essential. The objectives of this work were to generate species-specific molecular signatures of 11 commercially important species of lobsters of families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae and to reconstruct a phylogeny to clarify the evolutionary relationships among genera and species included in this study. Partial sequences were generated for all the candidate species from sampling sites along the Indian coast using markers like Cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16SrRNA, 12SrRNA, and 18SrRNA genes, and analyzed. The genetic identities of widely distributed Thenus species along the Indian coast to be Thenus unimaculatus and the sub-species of Panulirus homarus to be P. homarus homarus were confirmed. Phylogeny reconstruction using the individual gene and concatenated mtDNA data set were carried out. The overall results suggested independent monophyly of Scyllaridae and Stridentes of Palinuridae. The interspecific divergence was found to be highest for the 12SrRNA compared with other genes. Significant incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear 18SrRNA gene tree topologies was observed. The results hinted an earlier origin for Palinuridae compared with Scyllaridae. The DNA sequence data generated from this study will aid in the correct identification of lobster larvae and will find application in research related to larval transport and distribution.

  19. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  20. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  1. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevik, Cem; Yokes, Mehmet Baki; Cavas, Levent; Erkol, Levent Itri; Derici, Osman Baris; Verlaque, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Since its first accidental introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has spread to six Mediterranean countries and has become a major ecological problem. On the basis of morphological and molecular studies (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)), we report for the first time C. taxifolia on the Levantine coast (Gulf of Iskenderun, SE Turkey). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iskenderun isolate differs from the invasive aquarium strain first observed in Monaco, and falls in another SW Pacific clade (NE Australia, New Caledonia). The introduction in Turkey by shipping (ballast waters or anchor gears of oil tankers) is possible because C. taxifolia was found in the Gulf of Iskenderun, which is a major Eastern Mediterranean petrochemical region. On the other hand, C. taxifolia strains are available in aquarium shops in Turkey, suggesting aquarium dumping as another possible cause. As far as the intense maritime traffic of the region is concerned, further dispersals of this exotic C. taxifolia strain in the Mediterranean Sea are to be expected.

  2. Isolation characterization and growth of locally isolated hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria (eastern Algerian coast).

    PubMed

    Feknous, N; Branes, Z; Rouabhia, K; Batisson, I; Amblard, C

    2017-01-01

    The Algerian coastline is being exposed to several types of pollution, including that of hydrocarbons. This environment rich in oil could be the source of proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. The objective of the study is to isolate and identify indigenous bacterial strains from marine waters of two ports in the eastern Algerian coast and to test their growth in the presence of hydrocarbons with and without biostimulation throughout the intake of nitrogen and phosphate. Results recorded the highest level of both total hydrocarbons and phosphates in the port of Annaba, followed by El-Kala station and then the control station, while that of total nitrogen was vice versa. Fifty-three bacterial strains were identified from which four were selected to perform the growth tests. Results showed that the growth and the biodegradation differ from one species to another. Thus, the strains tested (Halomonas venusta NY-8, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum NB11-3A, Vibrio alginolyticus Pb-WC11099, and Dietzia sp. CNJ898 PL04) seem very active, in which better growth was obtained with the last two strains during nitrogen and phosphate supplementation. Such strains are suggested to participate a lot in the biodegradation of oil at polluted sites.

  3. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  4. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  5. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-05-26

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  6. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  7. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-02

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P < 0.05) with mean elemental concentrations (in µg g(-1), dry weight) being: Ca (29 260), Mg (6 279), Fe (1 086), Cu (145.9), Mn (48.32), As (24.29), Zn (15.65), Ni (9.83), Cr (5.78), Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element.

  8. MAGSAT investigation of crustal magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies in a region of the eastern Indian Ocean were studied using data from NASA's MAGSAT mission. The investigation region (0 deg to 50 deg South, 75 to 125 deg East) contains several important tectonic features, including the Broken Ridge, Java Trench, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Southeast Indian Ridge. A large positive magnetic anomaly is associated with the Broken Ridge and smaller positive anomalies correlate with the Ninetyeast Ridge and western Australia. Individual profiles of scalar data (computed from vector components) were considered to determine the overall data quality and resolution capability. A set of MAGSAT ""Quiet-Time'' data was used to compute an equivalent source crustal magnetic anomaly map of the study region. Maps of crustal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility were computed from the equivalent source dipoles. Gravity data were used to help interpretation, and a map of the ratio of magnetization to density contrasts was computed using Poisson's relation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of induced magnetization of a crustal layer having varying thickness and composition.

  9. Evaluation of offshore wind energy resources for power generation based on scatterometer and SAR data along the Indian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, S. V. V.; Prajapati, Jagdish; Kumar, Raj

    2016-05-01

    India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world, mainly from onshore wind farms. As on today, there are no offshore wind power farms installed in the country. However, with the utilization of onshore and the proposed offshore wind farms, it is expected to reach 60,000 MW generation capacities by 2022. A large amount of data is necessary to assess the wind potential for these future wind farms. Offshore buoys and meteorological masts are both scarce and expensive. In the present study, we have utilized QuikSCAT (2000-2009), OSCAT (2010-2014), ASCAT (2012-2015) scatterometer and RISAT-1 SAR (2012-2014) data to evaluate the possible wind energy resources along the Indian coast. Orbit wise scatterometer wind products have been processed to generate long-term synoptic monthly means along the entire coast. The monthly average wind energy density (in W/m2) has been computed and extended up to 80 m height (standard wind turbine height) using power law. As scatterometer data are relatively coarser and unavailable near the coast, high resolution winds have been retrieved using RISAT-1 SAR data. However, due to inherent limitations of having lesser swath and data availability of SAR, presently the study has been conducted along Gujarat coast. Then, unit capacity of wind power was computed and potential sites are identified for the wind farms. The data is very useful in identifying potential sites of wind energy in the coastal and offshore regions. We are planning to extend this study for the entire Indian coast in the near future.

  10. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  11. Coseismic Deformation of the Great 1762 Arakan Subduction Earthquake Along South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Mortlock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Large subduction earthquakes and tsunamis along the India-Burma (Sunda) plate boundary were brought to the world's attention after the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra earthquake. Subduction and thus possible megathrust earthquakes are thought to continue north of the Bay of Bengal into the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. Here the delta is being subducted resulting in ongoing accretion that is manifested by a wide active fold belt. Bangladesh, with a population of ~160 million is crossed by this plate boundary. Yet, little is known about the hazard there from megathrust earthquakes. The one in 1762 ruptured the >600 km long Arakan segment of the northern Sunda megathrust, well into the shelf area of the delta, including SE Bangladesh. The event was estimated as Mw8.8 by Cummins (2007) based on observed uplift and subsidence. To begin documenting coseismic uplift and the consequences of the 1762 earthquake in southern Bangladesh, we conducted paleoseismological studies on Saint Martin's Island and the Teknaf coast, along the outer portion of the fold belt in southeastern Bangladesh. Our structural and age data indicate that the island of Saint Martin overlies an active anticline, thus uplift can be caused by both anticline growth and the megathrust. Present water depths on the shelf near Saint Martin are ~30 m, but the island was marine during mid- to late-Holocene, and during Oxygen Isotope Stage 5. Shoreline erosion along the southern tip of the island has uncovered the tilted limbs of the anticline. Evidence for the 1762 earthquake is manifested in uplifted coquina terraces dated through detailed radiocarbon studies at 1590-1680 cal yrs AD. Similar ages were obtained for uplifted terraces along the Teknaf coast. Dead corals of the massive species "porites" are exposed along the eastern and western parts of Saint Martin. Coastal emergence was measured by a Fast Static GPS relative to mean sea level using EGM96 geoid model to be 6.6 m for the coquina terraces and 2 m for the

  12. Terrain complexity characterization in the eastern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Flores, G.; Nava-Sanchez, E. H.; Segovia Zavala, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    Terrain complexity is an important feature for geomorphological analysis and characterization, since it is associated with processes that control the landscape evolution, giving rise to geological formations of varying topographic complexity. In the geometrical sense, the terrain complexity depicts the shape of the landform surface or cross section, such as rugosity, curvature, fractal dimension, slope, aspect, etc. Moreover, the coastline complexity or indentation index has been used as an auxiliary parameter in coastline characterization. Currently, there are a variety of terrain and shoreline complexity indexes, derived from digital elevation models and digital coastlines, respectively, which usually are evaluated and interpreted independently. In this work the evaluation of these indexes was implemented in twenty watersheds of the eastern coast of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. To evaluate the terrain complexity index, the slope, profile curvature and roughness were computed and weighted. For this purpose the digital elevation model of 30 m resolution, obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) was used. The coastline complexity was assessed based on the variability of angles of coastline segments, as are defined in the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database (GSHHG). Five classes were identified for each index, whose distribution was represented by digital cartography. In general, the gullies have the highest terrain complexity, while the lower values correspond to areas of alluvial fans and other areas of sedimentation close to the shoreline. The spatial distribution of these indexes could be useful to mapping terrain classification and as support to analyze geological and oceanographic processes that influence this region.

  13. Geochemistry and mineralogy of REY-rich mud in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Liu, Hanjie; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Machida, Shiki; Haraguchi, Satoru; Ishii, Teruaki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Deep-sea sediments in parts of the Pacific Ocean were recently found to contain remarkably high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY) of possible economic significance. Here we report similar REY-rich mud in a core section from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 213 in the eastern Indian Ocean. The sediments consist mainly of siliceous ooze, with subordinate zeolitic clay that contains relatively high REY concentrations. The maximum and average total REY (ΣREY) contents of this material are 1113 and 629 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those reported from the Pacific Ocean. The REY-rich mud at Site 213 shows enrichment in heavy rare-earth elements, negative Ce anomalies, and relatively low Fe2O3/ΣREY ratios, similar to those in the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the major-element composition of the Indian Ocean REY-rich mud indicates slight enrichment in lithogenic components, which probably reflects a contribution from southern African eolian dust. A volcaniclastic component from neighboring mid-ocean ridges or intraplate volcanoes is also apparent. Elemental compositions and X-ray diffraction patterns for bulk sediment, and microscopic observation and elemental mapping of a polished thin section, demonstrate the presence of phillipsite and biogenic apatite, such as fish debris, in the REY-rich mud. The strong correlation between total REY content and apatite abundance implies that apatite plays an important role as a host phase of REY in the present deep-sea sediment column. However, positive correlations between ΣREY and elements not present in apatite (e.g., Fe2O3, MnO, and TiO2) imply that the REY-rich mud is not formed by a simple mixture of REY-enriched apatite and other components.

  14. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  15. Transpressional tectonics vs. superposed deformation in the Rengali Province, eastern Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Saibal; Misra, Surajit

    2014-05-01

    A primary concern in ancient transpressional shear zones is to demonstrate that the shortening and strike-slip components of deformation operated simultaneously. In the eastern Indian shield, ultrahigh grade granulite terrane of the Eastern Ghats Belt collided with the Archaean Indian craton around ~ 1 Ga. Subsequently, the northern boundary of the granulite belt was affected by a dextral strike-slip system that juxtaposed it against the Singhbhum Province. The strike-slip system is characterized by two WNW-ESE trending strands that enclose a multiply deformed (D1 to D3) intervening domain that is referred to as the Rengali Province. D1 and D2 represent a deformation continuum that operated under granulite / amphibolite facies conditions. Available zircon ages from amphibolite facies gneisses within the province indicate a late Archaean age for the D1-D2 deformation. In a granulite lens in the central part of the province, an early fabric-forming deformation (Dgr) is represented by cylindrical D1-D2 folding. D3 shortening was superimposed on D1-D2 folds in the surrounding lithologies of the province, generating complex non-cylindrical geometries. However, there is no evidence of D3 shortening strain within the granulites. Microstructures in the province-bounding D3 strike-slip shear zones indicate that mylonitization and dynamic recrystallization was associated with greenschist facies metamorphism. In quartzite bands within these shear zones, syn-D3 folds can be correlated with rotation of D1-D2 structures through the shortening zone of bounding dextral shears. Strain analyses and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility studies in these quartzites indicate that post-D2 strain ellipsoids are characterized by sub-vertical axial planes and extrusion directions consistent with crustal shortening. Samples from high D3 strain zones are associated with sub-horizontal extrusion parallel to the inferred direction of strike-slip shearing, and have kinematic vorticity numbers

  16. The Mamook Book: Activities for Learning About the Northwest Coast Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sharon; And Others

    A student activity book about the Northwest Coast provides "to-do" activities, such as reading, coloring, cutting out and putting together, while learning about the Northwest Coast tribes, their language, legends, clothing and ways of living. A map identifies the tribes and their location along the shores of Alaska, British Columbia,…

  17. Hysterothylacium aduncum, the only anisakid parasite of sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern and eastern coasts of Spain.

    PubMed

    Rello, Francisco Javier; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Valero, Adela

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out on the anisakids in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from the southern (Atlantic and Mediterranean) and eastern coasts of Spain. Length of fish was from 12.2-21.0 cm. The anisakids found were identified as the third larval stage (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum, with a total prevalence of 11.85%. Prevalence within the host was 9.64% in viscera and 4.69 % in muscle. The highest infection parameters were found in fish from the east coast (western Balearic Sea) with prevalence of 25.21%, mean intensity of 2.10, and mean abundance of 0.52. No worms of the genus Anisakis were found in the 359 sardines analyzed.

  18. Exploring socioeconomic vulnerability of anaemia among women in eastern Indian States.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (<7.0 g/dl). Protective factors include frequent consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits and fish, educational attainment, mass media exposure and high socioeconomic status. Urban poor women and adolescent ever-married women had very high odds of being anaemic. New programme strategies are needed, particularly those that improve iron storage and enhance the overall nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.

  19. The sea-floor spreading history of the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Thomas S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    1982-09-01

    The geologic history of the eastern Indian Ocean between northwest Australia and the Java Trench is known to involve two separate events of rifting and sea-floor spreading. Late Jurassic spreading in the Argo Abyssal Plain off northwest Australia was followed by Early Cretaceous spreading in the Cuvier and Perth Abyssal Plains off west Australia. However, the evolution and interaction of these events has not been clear. Mesozoic sea-floor spreading anomalies have been identified throughout the Argo Abyssal Plain that define a rifting event and subsequent northward spreading on the northwestern Australian margin at 155 m.y.b.p. Magnetic anomalies northwest of the Argo Abyssal Plain indicate a ridge jump to the south at about 130 m.y.b.p. that is approximately synchronous with east-west rifting along the southwestern Australian margin. The Joey Rise in the Argo Plain was probably formed by volcanism at the intersection of this new rift and the spreading ridge to the north. The southern and northern spreading systems were connected through the Exmouth Plateau which was stretched and faulted as spreading progressed. The RRR triple junction was formed at the intersection of the two spreading systems and appears to have migrated west along the northern edge of the Gascoyne Abyssal Plain. Spreading off northwest Australia cannot be easily related to simultaneous spreading in the west central Pacific via any simple tectonic scheme.

  20. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-16

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera].

  1. Atmospheric deposition—Another source of nutrients enhancing primary productivity in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during positive Indian Ocean Dipole phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Eko

    2015-07-01

    This study used in situ and multisensor satellite data and combinations of various primary productivity (PP) and surface nitrate models to assess the contributions of upwelling and atmospheric deposition to modulating PP in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) during positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD). Surprisingly, atmospheric deposition of nutrients from wildfires accounted for a higher portion of enhanced PP during +IODs than wind-driven nutrient upwelling. Substantial atmospheric nutrient deposition likely also maintains high PP postupwelling and postwildfire. Multiple regression analysis further supported the importance of atmospheric deposition in determining ETIO PP with a significantly large partial regression coefficient for aerosol optical thickness. It is possible that aerosols from major wildfire areas worldwide contribute nutrients that also nontrivially modulate PP in the oceans' main upwelling systems.

  2. Surface sediment dynamics along the Tunisian coast at Skhira (Gulf of Gabès, south-eastern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim, Mouldi; Abdelfattah, Atoui; Sammari, Chérif; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    An investigation was conducted in the summer of 2012 at 24 study stations along the Tunisian coast near Skhira (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) through high resolution of analyses, grain size and mineral composition of surface sediment. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Skhira's main coastal current to follow a direction 60°E, with its main axis south-west/north-east parallel to the coastline and its minor axis east-west. Current speeds were approximately 13 cm s-1 and 4.5 cm s-1 for the major and minor axes, respectively. Parallel to the coast, currents were generally mild to moderate, but often exceeded 20 cm s-1. An Argonaut meter recorded the dominant current direction as north/north-east with a speed not exceeding 18 cm s-1. Orthogonal Empirical Function analysis of tidal currents showed that the major axis velocity dispersion was north-east/south-west, the water mass flow parallel to the shoreline being almost unidirectional, driving littoral drift parallel to the coast. Spatial distribution of particle size, along with speed and current direction analysis, furnish an overview of the Skhira area's sediment dynamics and transport. Average sand grain size shows that the bottom consists of fine and especially of medium sands near the coast, with muddy sands offshore. The fine fraction percentage (<63 microns) as opposed to the coarse fraction (>63 microns) is higher at the two offshore study stations, 20 m deep. Fine particles are discharged into the sea by rip currents. Sediment dynamics along the Skhira coast are complex, being subject to the combined effect of swell and tide. Sediments are permanently re-suspended and in constant movement, especially during storms.

  3. High Resolution Quaternary and Neogene Reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge and Rifting in Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.; Merkuryev, S. A.; Calais, E.; Sauter, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) south of Africa is a critical link in plate circuits between the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins and between the Nubia and Somalia plates. Detailed reconstructions of its seafloor spreading history are challenging due to the low fidelity of its magnetic anomalies, which were mostly created at slow to ultraslow spreading rates, and gaps in data coverage for some areas of the ridge. Here, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of Quaternary/Neogene SWIR plate kinematics based on nearly 5000 identifications that we made of magnetic reversals C1n (0.78 Ma) to C6no (19.7 Ma) and ~6000 crossings of 21 fracture zones and transform faults that offset the ridge. We also outline the implications for estimates of motion between the Nubia and Somalia plates since 20 Ma across rifts in eastern Africa. Searches for the Nubia-Lwandle and Lwandle-Somalia plate boundaries north of the SWIR with our new data corroborate previous evidence for respective locations near the Andrew Bain transform fault at ~30°E and at ~50°E. Inversions of the abundant new data to find best-fitting rotations at ~1 Myr intervals since 20 Ma reveal a previously unknown, ~20% deceleration of seafloor spreading rates at 7.2±1 Ma everywhere along the SWIR. Motion since 7 Ma has remained remarkably steady and agrees within uncertainties with GPS estimates that are based on more than 100 continuous GPS sites on the Nubia, Somalia, and Antarctic plates. The consistency of the geodetic and geologic estimates validates both and also supports evidence we will describe for anomalously wide outward displacement west of ~30E. Nubia-Somalia rotations determined from our new model indicate that the two plates have undergone steady relative motion since at least 19 Ma. Our new rotation for C5n.2 predicts ~70% less opening across the East Africa rift since 11 Ma than the most recently published kinematic estimate, in better accord with at least one geologically

  4. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast: Upper Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (> 100 km) has occurred along lower Tertiary sands. The framework of crude oil generation and migration onshore has important implications with respect to origin of crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. The effect of ENSO to the variability of sea surface height in western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean and its connectivity to the Indonesia Throughflow (ITF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejeki, H. A.; Munasik; Kunarso

    2017-02-01

    The differences of altimetry in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean causes the Indonesia Throughflow or commonly called ITF. The altimerty will have variation when the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscilation) occur. The altimetry data from AVISO is used to find out how much the influence of ENSO to variations of that indicator in particular the altimetry difference between the western Pacific Ocean to the eastern Indian Ocean. When El Nino occured, the altimetry in the western Pacific Ocean will be lower than the altimetry of eastern Indian Ocean while the opposite condition occurs when the La Nina happened that the differences of altimetry in western Pacific Ocean higher than the altimetry in eastern Indian Ocean. These differences will affect the transport of ITF.

  6. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Pia; Howe, Henry F

    2009-06-01

    Hunting of hornbills by tribal communities is widespread in logged foothill forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We investigated whether the decline of hornbills has affected the dispersal and recruitment of 3 large-seeded tree species. We hypothesized that 2 low-fecundity tree species, Chisocheton paniculatus and Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) bearing arillate fruits, are more dispersal limited than a prolifically fruiting drupaceous tree Polyalthia simiarum (Annonaceae), which has potential dispersers other than hornbills. We estimated the abundance of large avian frugivores during the fruiting season along transects in 2 protected and 2 disturbed forests. We compared recruitment of the tree species near (<10 m) and far (10-40 m) from parent trees at protected and disturbed sites. Median abundance of Great (Buceros bicornis), Wreathed (Aceros undulatus), and Oriental Pied Hornbills (Anthracoceros albirostris) were significantly lower in disturbed forests, but sites did not differ in abundances of the Mountain Imperial Pigeon (Ducula badia). Overall, tree species showed more severely depressed recruitment of seedlings (77% fewer) and juveniles (69% fewer) in disturbed than in protected forests. In disturbed forests, 93% fewer seedlings of C. paniculatus were beyond parental crowns, and a high number of all seedlings (42%) accumulated directly under reproductive adults. In contrast, D. binectariferum and P. simiarum were recruitment rather than dispersal limited, with fewer dispersed seedlings surviving in disturbed than in protected forests. Results are consistent with the idea that disturbance disrupts mutualisms between hornbills and some large-seeded food plants, with the caveat that role redundancy within even small and specialized disperser assemblages renders other tree species less vulnerable to loss of regular dispersal agents.

  7. Antarctic-type blue whale calls recorded at low latitudes in the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Kathleen M.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tolstoy, Maya; Chapp, Emily; Mellinger, David K.; Moore, Sue E.

    2004-10-01

    Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, were once abundant around the Antarctic during the austral summer, but intensive whaling during the first half of the 20th century reduced their numbers by over 99%. Although interannual variability of blue whale occurrence on the Antarctic feeding grounds was documented by whalers, little was known about where the whales spent the winter months. Antarctic blue whales produce calls that are distinct from those produced by blue whales elsewhere in the world. To investigate potential winter migratory destinations of Antarctic blue whales, we examined acoustic data for these signals from two low-latitude locales: the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Antarctic-type blue whale calls were detected on hydrophones in both regions during the austral autumn and winter (May-September), with peak detections in July. Calls occurred over relatively brief periods in both oceans, suggesting that there may be only a few animals migrating so far north and/or producing calls. Antarctic blue whales appear to use both the Indian and eastern Pacific Oceans concurrently, indicating that there is not a single migratory destination. Acoustic data from the South Atlantic and from mid-latitudes in the Indian or Pacific Oceans are needed for a more global understanding of migratory patterns and destinations of Antarctic blue whales.

  8. Three-dimensional lithospheric mapping of the eastern Indian shield: A multi-parametric inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Kumar, Niraj; Zeyen, H.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed satellite gravity and geoid anomaly and topography data to determine the 3D lithospheric density structure of the Singhbhum Protocontinent. Our density model shows that distinct vertical density heterogeneities exist throughout the lithosphere beneath the Singhbhum Protocontinent. The crustal structure identified includes a lateral average crustal density variation from 2800 to 2890 kg/m3 as well as a relatively flat Moho at 35-40 km depth in Singhbhum Protocontinent and Bastar Craton. A similar Moho depth range is found for the Mahanadi, Damodar, and Bengal basins. In the northern part of the area, Moho undulates between more than 40 km under the confluence of Mahanadi-Damodar Gondwana basins and the Ganga foreland basin, and 36-32 km under the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt and finally reaches 24 km in the Bay of Bengal. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) across the Singhbhum Protocontinent is at a depth of about 130-140 km. In the regions of Bastar Craton and Bengal Basin, the LAB dips to about 155 ± 5 km depth. The confluence of Mahanadi and Damodar Gondwana basins toward the north-west and the foreland Ganga Basin toward the north are characterized by a deeper LAB lying at a depth of over 170 and 200 km, respectively. In the Bay of Bengal, the LAB is at a shallower depth of about 100-130 km except over the 85 0E ridge (150 km), and off the Kolkata coast (155 km). Significant density variation as well as an almost flat crust-mantle boundary indicates the effect of significant crustal reworking. The thin (135-140 km) lithosphere provides compelling evidence of lithospheric modification in the Singhbhum Protocontinent. Similarities between the lithospheric structures of the Singhbhum Craton, Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex, and Northern Singhbhum Mobile Belt confirm that the repeated thermal perturbation controlled continental lithospheric modification in the Singhbhum Protocontinent.

  9. Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern Africa, but could be Mitigated by Agricultural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  10. Dust deposition in the eastern Indian Ocean: The ocean perspective from Antarctica to the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Maxime M.; Measures, Christopher I.; Hatta, Mariko; Hiscock, William T.; Buck, Clifton S.; Landing, William M.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important but still poorly constrained source of trace micronutrients to the open ocean because of the dearth of in situ measurements of total deposition (i.e., wet + dry deposition) in remote regions. In this work, we discuss the upper ocean distribution of dissolved Fe and Al in the eastern Indian Ocean along a 95°E meridional transect spanning the Antarctic margin to the Bay of Bengal. We use the mixed layer concentration of dissolved Al in conjunction with empirical data in a simple steady state model to produce 75 estimates of total dust deposition that we compare with historical observations and atmospheric model estimates. Except in the northern Bay of Bengal where the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume contributes to the inventory of dissolved Al, the surface distribution of dissolved Al along 95°E is remarkably consistent with the large-scale gradients in mineral dust deposition and multiple-source regions impacting the eastern Indian Ocean. The lowest total dust deposition fluxes are calculated for the Southern Ocean (66 ± 60 mg m-2 yr-1) and the highest for the northern end of the south Indian subtropical gyre (up to 940 mg m-2 yr-1 at 18°S) and in the southern Bay of Bengal (2500 ± 570 mg m-2 yr-1). Our total deposition fluxes, which have an uncertainty on the order of a factor of 3.5, are comparable with the composite atmospheric model data of Mahowald et al. (2005), except in the south Indian subtropical gyre where models may underestimate total deposition. Using available measurements of the solubility of Fe in aerosols, we confirm that dust deposition is a minor source of dissolved Fe to the Southern Ocean and show that aeolian deposition of dissolved Fe in the southern Bay of Bengal may be comparable to that observed underneath the Saharan dust plume in the Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Kevin; Bradley, Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  12. Sponges and sediments as monitoring tools of metal contamination in the eastern coast of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Lee, On On; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-05-01

    Sediments and sponges were collected from various locations along the eastern coast of the Red Sea, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Total concentrations of Cd, Zn, Ag, Cu, Pb, As and Hg in the sediments were measured. Metal contamination was not significant in most of the studied sites and only one site was moderately polluted by Zn, Cu, and Pb. Sponges accumulated specific metals readily even though the metal exposure was low in the ambient environment. Contrasting interspecies differences in metal accumulation patterns were observed among the nine collected species of sponges. Significant positive correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the two species of sponges collected from the same sites. The strong ability to accumulate specific metals and the diversity of sponges that live in the Red Sea coastal areas make them a promising biomonitor of metal contamination in the areas.

  13. Paleoseismic Records of 1762 and Similar Prior Earthquakes Along the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Gurung, D.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Saha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The great 1762 Arakan earthquake caused subsidence and uplift along 700km of the Arakan coast, and is thought to derive from a huge megathrust rupture reaching northward onto the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. Paleoseismic investigations were conducted in that area to document effects of that and prior earthquakes. U/Th ages obtained from isochron analysis of uplifted dead coral heads of the Poritesspecies, collected along a south to north transect from the islands east coast reveal at least three growth interruptions caused by abrupt relative sea-level changes within the past 1300 years that we interpret to be associated with megathrust ruptures. The ages show distinct events approximately 250, 900 and 1300 years ago. The youngest of these events corresponds to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. The two prior events at ~1100 and 700 AD, suggest an average recurrence interval of 400-600 years. Along the coast of Teknaf, we mapped a ~2m uplifted terrace. Marine shells on top of the terrace dated with C-14 at 1695-1791 AD link the uplift to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. Based on this evidence and previous work (Wang et al., 2013 and Aung et al., 2008), we estimated the 1762 rupture to be at least 700 km long, from Chebuda Island to the Sitakund anticline encompassing the Teknaf Peninsula. Considering 14 mm/yr convergence rate and 400-600 yrs recurrence interval, this rupture zone has now accumulated elastic deformation to generate a M~8.4 earthquake, close to the M8.8 estimated by Cummins (2007) for the 1762 earthquake. Published recurrence intervals based on C-14 ages along the Myanmar coast ~90 km south of Bangladesh reveal three ruptures within the last 3400 years with an average recurrence interval of 1000-2000 years (Aung et al., 2008). While the 1762 rupture reached across both areas, some of the prior ruptures may be confined to one or the other of these areas, with a smaller magnitude. Our precise U-Th ages provide evidence of recurrence intervals of

  14. Subaqueous Tsunami Deposits from Ohtsuchi Bay of Sanriku Coast, North Eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, T.; Fujiwara, O.; Shimazaki, K.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene tsunami history was analyzed by using a drilling core obtained from the Ohtsuchi Bay on the Sanriku coast, Pacific side of NE Japan. The saw-tooth Sanriku coast line, facing the Japan Trench, is well known for repeated suffers from the historical great tsunamis. The worst tsunami damage in Japanese history, more than 20,000 fatalities, by the AD1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami (M 8 1/2) centered off Sanriku was recorded from this coast. However, the geological records of ancient tsunami such as tsunami deposits have been rarely reported from the Sanriku coast.Reconstruction of the pale-tsunami history including the recurrence interval is fundamental data for the tsunami disaster mitigation on the coast. The core, 24-meter long, obtained from a bay center of 10 m-deep is mainly composed of sandy mud excluding the basal gravel bed (core bottom reached SL-34 m). Sand and gravelly sand beds ranging from several to 200 cm-thick are intercalated in the core and denoted TS-22 to TS-1 in ascending order. Most of these coarse-grained beds have evidences of deposition from high-energy and density currents, basal erosion surface, rip-up clasts mixed mulluscan shells, inverse- and normal grading, and generally upward-fining sequence.Most likely origin of these event deposits is great tsunami, because the coring site is a deep and low energy bay floor isolated from major river mouth. Low sediment supply by river floods and small disturbance by wind waves at the drilling site are favorable for the preservation of tsunami deposits. Depositional ages of TS-1 to TS-22 were estimated from a depositional curve of the core based on ten 14C ages of marine shells. Recurrence interval of 13 sand and gravel beds in the lower part of the core, TS22 (ca. 7800 cal BP) to TS-10 (AD1660-1700), is 400 to 500 years.The number of event beds in the upper part of the core, deposited during the last 400 years (TS-9 to TS-1), approximates to that of historic large tsunamis recorded around the

  15. Lithospheric thinning in the Eastern Indian Craton: Evidence for lithospheric delamination below the Archean Singhbhum Craton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2017-02-01

    We herein present shear velocity structure extending down to 300 km depth below the Archean Singhbhum-Odisha Craton (SOC) and Proterozoic Chotanagpur granitic-gneissic terrain (CGGT), which has been obtained through the inversion modeling of P-receiver functions. We use three-component broadband recordings of 200 teleseismic earthquakes (30° ≤ ∆ ≤ 90°) from a 15 station seismic network that has been operational in the Eastern Indian shield since February 2013. We obtain the thinnest crust of 35 km overlying a thin lithosphere of 78 km, below the region near south Singhbhum shear zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. However, the thickest crust of 47 km overlying a thin lithosphere of 81 km is noticed below the region near the Singhbhum granite of 3.6 Ga. This thinning of lithosphere could be attributed to the delamination of lithospheric root due to the Himalayan orogeny with a shortening rate of 2 cm/year. This delamination model in SOC gets further support from the densification of the lower crust, which could result from repeated episodes of basaltic underplating associated with episodes related to Dalma ( 1.6 Ga) and Rajmahal ( 117 Ma) volcanisms. This led to relatively more mafic, heterogeneous and deformed crustal structure in SOC as well as EGMB (with an average crustal Vs of 4.0 km/s) in comparison to that in CGGT (with an average crustal Vs of 3.9 km/s), as seen through our modeling results. The thickest lithosphere of 100 km is observed in the southwestern SOC as well as northeastern CGGT. We also notice that a sharp and flat Moho in CGGT, which could be attributed to thermal reactivation and large volume melting of the mafic cratonic crust during the late Archean subduction process and associated volcanism episodes. This model gets further support from the estimated 169 km thick lower Vs zone in the upper mantle below CGGT. Our modeling results also support a northward subduction of Archean

  16. Seasonal phase-locking of peak events in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Yang, Song

    2007-09-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly of the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) exhibits cold anomalies in the boreal summer or fall during El Niño development years and warm anomalies in winter or spring following the El Niño events. There also tend to be warm anomalies in the boreal summer or fall during La Niña development years and cold anomalies in winter or spring following the La Niña events. The seasonal phase-locking of SST change in the EIO associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation is linked to the variability of convection over the maritime continent, which induces an atmospheric Rossby wave over the EIO. Local air-sea interaction exerts different effects on SST anomalies, depending on the relationship between the Rossby wave and the mean flow related to the seasonal migration of the buffer zone, which shifts across the equator between summer and winter. The summer cold events start with cooling in the Timor Sea, together with increasing easterly flow along the equator. Negative SST anomalies develop near Sumatra, through the interaction between the atmospheric Rossby wave and the underneath sea surface. These SST anomalies are also contributed to by the increased upwelling of the mixed layer and the equatorward temperature advection in the boreal fall. As the buffer zone shifts across the equator towards boreal winter, the anomalous easterly flow tends to weaken the mean flow near the equator, and the EIO SST increases due to the reduction of latent heat flux from the sea surface. As a result, wintertime SST anomalies appear with a uniform and nearly basin-wide pattern beneath the easterly anomalies. These SST anomalies are also caused by the increase in solar radiation associated with the anticyclonic atmospheric Rossby wave over the EIO. Similarly, the physical processes of the summer warm events, which are followed by wintertime cold SST anomalies, can be explained by the changes in atmospheric and oceanic fields with opposite signs to those

  17. Five Indian Tribes of Eastern Oklahoma: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Dorothy; Bland, Anna

    The 18 lessons in this unit of study are intended to promote an awareness of the contribution of the American Indian to the development of Oklahoma and to preserve the culture and heritage of the American Indians of the state. Each lesson includes a concept (one-sentence statement of the main idea), background information, learning activities…

  18. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Inferences Based on Historical, Archeological and Geological Evidence From the Indian Coast and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Machado, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami is an unprecedented event in the Indian Ocean. Never in the recent or distant history of the region has such a transoceanic event of devastating proportion is known to have been reported. Obviously, apparent lack of historical references in the culturally ancient Southeast Asian region suggests rarity of such events. Therefore, a major question that has been posed since the 2004 tsunami is whether similar events have occurred in the region in the past. If there are predecessors, what is the frequency of such events? Resolving this question is of crucial importance in developing the recurrence history of megathrust earthquakes and assessing the tsunami hazard of the region. Our strategy has been to tackle this problem using historical and archeological data, combined with geological investigations in the affected regions of the Indian coast, including the Andaman- Nicobar Islands. Citations from south India on ancient tsunami include classic Tamil texts, which mention about a devastating sea surge around A.D. 950 in the southeastern coast of India. Our studies were focused on two ancient port cities on the east coast of India: Mammallapuram and Kaveripattinam, the latter being a major township during the first millennium. The 2004 tsunami had scoured Mammallapuram beach exposing the basements of older temples. We have identified a discordant sand deposit sandwiched between two bricklayers at a site where the ruins of different generations of temples have been excavated. The radiocarbon dates suggest that this was deposited during 955+/-30 yr B.P., close to the historically documented period of devastation of this site by a sea surge. Excavations at Kaveripattinam, located 200 km to the south, revealed a widely distributed occupation horizon of A.D. 8-10 century, marked by a superjacent sand layer. We suspect that this layer represents the A.D. 950- sea incursion mentioned in the in the classic Tamil texts, also in line with the archeological

  19. Modeling meso- and sub-mesoscale circulation along the eastern Crimean coast using numerical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyshev, S. G.; Evstigneeva, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical experiment has been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters taking into account the real atmospheric forcing for the autumn season along the southern coast of the Crimean Peninsula. The studied part of the coast is situated at 44.25°N 33.95°E/44.72°N 34.55°E. High spatial resolution is used for modeling: 350 m in the horizontal plane with 38 layers in the vertical; the bottom topography is described in detail with 500 m resolution. Detected and studied meso- and sub-mesoscale structures in the current field agree well with the observational data, which is impossible or hard to identify in numerical experiments with coarser resolution. Their kinematic characteristics and the lifetime are defined and some mechanisms of their origin are suggested.

  20. Modeling of storm-induced deformations of a sandy coast (based on the example of the eastern Gulf of Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'yev, I. O.; Ryabchuk, D. V.; Sergeev, A. Yu.

    2015-02-01

    An improved version of the CROSS-P model for the simulation of storm-induced deformations in coastal profiles is suggested. It is shown that the model reproduces the formation of the erosion profile adequately both in the laboratory and field conditions. Though the main features of the accretion profile are also reflected in the model, further testing based on more relevant data is needed. The profile types predicted by the model agree with the well-known empirical criterion. An important new step is that the foredune overflow effect caused by storm surges is also included into the model. The model is applied to the coasts of the eastern Gulf of Finland exposed to high storm surges. This makes it possible to present the coast change as a result of a conveyor delivering sand material from the foredune to the beach under the impact of extreme storms. During the periods of low wave activity, this conveyor transports the beach material to the underwater slope. The sediment conveyer works only in one direction; thus, the losses of the dune material turn out to be irreversible. Modeling shows that, during the foredune overflow process (typical for the southern segment of the studied area), a certain amount of sediments is carried on to the rear dune slope, and the dune belt gradually moves inland simultaneously decreasing in height. It is expected that the destructive trends in the coastal evolution will continued within the nearest decades.

  1. Distribution of manganese along a section extending from the coast to offshore in the eastern North Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, P.; Blain, S.; Timmermans, K.; Debaar, H.

    2003-04-01

    In order to better understand and quantify the input of trace elements from the sediments in the water column, a detailed section from the coast to offshore has been studied in the eastern north Atlantic. The cruise took place in March 2002, on board R/V Pelagia, as part of the European Union project IRONAGES. This section, extended from a depth of 96 meter towards 4750 meter. Fifteen stations have been sampled intensively for several trace elements. The stations have been sampled for dissolved manganese, iron and major nutrients analyses. GoFlo bottles mounted on a kevlar cable were used for clean seawater sampling in the water column. Samples were filtered on-line through a 0.2 μm cartridge. The samples collected for the dissolved manganese analyses were acidified on board and stored for later analysis in the home laboratory. The dissolved manganese concentration were measured using FIA analysis with in-line preconcentration (onto 8 HQ resin) and colorimetric determination. Concentrations of dissolved manganese were elevated in surface waters and near the sediments. In addition, a gradient from coast to offshore was observed. Near shore dissolved manganese concentrations were higher than those offshore. These results corroborate previous surveys in which it was demonstrated that aelion input as well as benthic upwelling can cause elevated manganese concentrations. The results will be further discussed in the light of the dissolved iron and major nutrient analyses.

  2. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  3. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  4. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D; Michaelsen, Joel C; Verdin, James P; Brown, Molly E; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-08-12

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling "millions of undernourished people" as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  5. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  6. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ≈15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling “millions of undernourished people” as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. PMID:18685101

  7. Wave climate and trends along the eastern Chukchi Arctic Alaska coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Jensen, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Due in large part to the difficulty of obtaining measurements in the Arctic, little is known about the wave climate along the coast of Arctic Alaska. In this study, numerical model simulations encompassing 40 years of wave hind-casts were used to assess mean and extreme wave conditions. Results indicate that the wave climate was strongly modulated by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and that mean and extreme wave heights and periods exhibited increasing trends in both the sea and swell frequency bands over the time-period studied (1954-2004). Model simulations also indicate that the upward trend was not due to a decrease in the minimum icepack extent. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  8. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-12-09

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent.

  9. Early Holocene catastrophic mass-wasting event and fan-delta development on the Hua-tung coast, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Liew, Ping-Mei; Chen, Hua-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Landslides and debris flows rarely occurred during historical times in the tectonically active Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan. This topographic stability, however, contrasts greatly with the widespread existence of terraced alluvial fans and fan-deltas on the Hua-tung coast which fringes the range. This study focuses on the two largest fan-terrace systems on the Hua-tung coast, both of which consist of alluvial fans (plane-view areas up to 8 km 2) larger than their contributing catchments. Stratigraphic data show that both systems were in sandy, wave-dominated settings during de-glacial times. The systems were then disturbed by a catastrophic landslide/debris-flow event (or events), which brought enormous amounts of gravel (Facies Gm) into the systems, deforming previously-deposited marine sands (Facies Sm) and shallowing the seafloor. The combined Gm/Sm complex yields multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 11.3 to 8.3 ka cal BP, with a cluster around 8.6 ka cal BP. This mass-wasting event has been unique since the emergence of its contributing catchment 0.2-0.3 Ma ago. The low frequency of such an event could reflect the great resistance of rock mass in the source areas to weathering and erosion. The common blockage of valley floors by giant-boulder piles, which limits channel incision and sediment transport, could also increase the apparent stability of the mountain. The trigger of landslides in the Coastal Range has been linked to large earthquakes. Additionally, we propose that the great magnitude and duration of the observed early Holocene event were caused by the contemporaneous prolonged rainfall (and/or high frequency of typhoons) associated with the East Asian summer monsoon maximum.

  10. Exhumation history along the eastern Amundsen Sea coast, West Antarctica, revealed by low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, Julia; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Kleber, Michel; Lisker, Frank; Gohl, Karsten; Kuhn, Gerhard; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    West Antarctica experienced a complex tectonic history, which is still poorly documented, in part due to extensive ice cover. Here we reconstruct the Cretaceous to present thermotectonic history of Pine Island Bay area and its adjacent coasts, based on a combination of apatite and zircon fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology. In addition, we report petrographic information for the catchments of Pine Island, Thurston Island, and Thwaites glaciers. Our data suggest that the underlying bedrock of the Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier catchments are very different and vary from granitoids to (Cenozoic?) volcanogenic sequences and low-grade metamorphics. Our thermochronology data show that the upper crustal rocks of Pine Island Bay experienced very rapid cooling during the late Cretaceous. We attribute this rapid cooling of basement rocks and associated reduction in mean elevation to tectonic denudation driven by gravitational collapse of the Cretaceous orogen along the proto-Pacific Gondwana margin. Rapid Cretaceous crustal cooling was followed by very slow cooling during the Cenozoic, with no erosional response—within the limits of thermochronological methods—to the onset of glaciation and subsequent climatic changes. Cenozoic rifting within the West Antarctic Rift appears to have had little effect on erosion processes around Pine Island Bay; instead, our data suggest Cenozoic crustal tilting toward Pine Island Trough, a major geomorphic feature previously suggested to be a branch of the rift system.

  11. Mercury content in shark species from the South-Eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Paraquetti, H H; Marins, R V; Rezende, C E; Zalmon, I R; Gomes, M P; Farias, V

    2000-11-01

    We present here the first results of Hg concentrations in three small shark species (Rhizoprionodon lalandei, R. porosus and Mustelus higmani) from the SE Brazilian coast. Mercury concentrations in R. lalandei ranged from 21.5 to 280.0 ng.g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (average 74.6 ng.g-1 d.w.; 17.9 ng.g-1 wet weight). In R. porosus, concentrations ranged from 7.6 to 90.5 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 42.2 ng.g-1 d.w., 9.4 ng.g-1 wet weight), whereas in M. higmani, concentrations ranged from 13.0 to 162.8 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 54.9 ng.g-1 d.w., 13.4 ng.g-1 wet weight). These concentration ranges are very low compared with values reported for other large shark species of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg concentrations and individual size, suggesting that biomagnification is occurring in these animals.

  12. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-12

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  13. Coastal aquaculture development in eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: prospects and problems for food security and local economies.

    PubMed

    Rönnback, Patrik; Bryceson, Ian; Kautsky, Nils

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region.

  14. Analysis of large boulders along the coast of south-eastern Sicily to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; Gerardi, Flavia

    2010-05-01

    We present a study to discriminate the kind of anomalous waves, storms or tsunamis, that were responsible for the large boulder accumulation in the Vendicari Reserve along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. These depositional and erosional indicators of the large wave impact have been already observed in some rocky coasts of the Mediterranean basin and associated to strong waves of tsunamigenic or meteorological origin. Distinguishing boulders deposited by tsunamis from that deposited by storms and determining the age of their deposition can help to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis and the hazard along the coast also regarding extraordinarily violent storms. The Sicilian Ionian coast has been affected in historical time by large destructive earthquake-related tsunamis (e.g. the 1169, 1693 and 1908) and it is exposed to an intense wave motion coming from a NNE- SSE span direction . In the rocky coastal area of Vendicari Reserve, three different GPS surveys (from September 2006 until April 2009) have been performed with the aim to observe the distance of each boulders with respect to the shoreline and if storms removed boulders or deposited new ones. A morphological analysis aiming to identify boulder shapes, measuring their volumes, elongation axis azimuth, pre-transport setting and the probable transport mechanism on the platform, was also carried out. The calcarenitic boulders (specific weight about 2,3 g/cm3), reaching about 20 tons and a distance up to 60m from the shoreline, are generally carved out from the supratidal or mid-sublittoral zone, showing widespread biogenic encrustations sometimes so fresh that suggest a recent deposition. The GPS surveys allowed us to observed that, after a strong storm during January 2009, several boulders were removed while new have been deposited on the platform by the storm waves. Hydrodynamic equations jointly to statistical analysis of sea storms have been used to determine the extreme event, geological or

  15. Numerical simulations of the North Gorringe Avalanche, Eastern Atlantic Ocean, and of the consequent tsunami impacting the Iberian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, F.; Lo Iacono, C.; Tinti, S.; Gracia, E.; Pagnoni, G.; Dañobeitia, J.; Lourenco, N.; Abreu, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Continental margins are commonly interested by mass movements caused by gravitational instability, usually triggered by sediment erosion and seismic shaking. Such events can involve considerable masses of sediments and rocks, that can reach high velocities due to the slope steepness and provoke huge tsunamis, even if their source is located in deep water and far from the coast. The continuous advances in bathymetric techniques allowed a detailed characterization of continental margin morphologies also in deep environments, thus unveiling mass failure features related to past events and improving the geohazard assessment of those areas most prone to sediment instability. An example of a huge mass failure in a seismically active area is the North Gorringe landslide. This landslide is located along the north-eastern flank of the Gorringe Bank, west of the Portuguese coasts in the Atlantic Ocean, where the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates occurs. Bathymetric data revealed the existence of a well defined headwall, 7 km large, at 2900 m sea depth, and of a depositional zone with massive rock blocks and debris avalanche material. The deposits cover a sub-horizontal area (average slope 1.5°) of almost 280 km2 at a depth of about 5100 m , for a maximum run-out of 27 km and a drop of 2200 m. The interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles and the reconstruction through bathymetric data lead us to estimate the volume of the mass failure to be around 70-80 km3. In order to assess the consequence of such event on the Iberian coasts, a scenario involving the North Gorringe landslide has been set up and explored by means of numerical simulation codes that study separately the slide dynamics and the tsunami generation and propagation. After reconstructing the initial slide geometry and position, the Lagrangian code UBO-BLOCK2, assuming the mass as partitioned into a matrix of interacting constant volume blocks, was applied to compute the time

  16. Sustainable oceans and coasts: Lessons learnt from Eastern and Western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, S.; Scheren, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems in Africa provide valuable cultural (recreational, spiritual), provisioning (such as food, timber and firewood) and regulatory (such as flood protection and climate regulation) services that are not only at the core of coastal ecosystem functioning, but are also an important basis for the economic livelihoods of over 120 million inhabitants living along the continent's coastal zone. However, these valuable ecosystems are being subjected to a range of human pressures, including overfishing and destructive fishing practices, pollution, including excess nutrients (causing eutrophication), loss and degradation of habitats, physical shoreline changes and disturbance of the hydrological regimes of rivers and estuarine systems, aggravated further by the effects of climate change. The effects of these pressures, often acting in cumulative and synergistic manners, readily affect the overall stability of the coastal ecosystems, threatening their resilience over the short- and long-term. This chapter highlights the challenges faced by the coastal states of Eastern and Western Africa in managing their coastal and marine resources for the sustainable benefits of their populations. Current mechanisms for the governance and management of the coastal and marine environment at national to regional scales are reviewed, and their effectiveness appraised, and recommendations for improved management and scientific support are made.

  17. Feeding biology of a guild of benthivorous fishes in a sandy shore on south-eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Zahorcsak, P; Silvano, R A; Sazima, I

    2000-08-01

    The feeding biology of eight species of benthivorous fishes was studied in a sandy shore at Anchieta Island, south-eastern Brazilian coast. The fishes fed mainly on Amphipoda and Mysidacea crustaceans. The diet of the most abundant species, the drum Umbrina coroides, was analyzed in three standard length classes (20-55, 56-90 and 91-135 mm). This sciaenid showed an ontogenetic diet shift from Mysidacea to Amphipoda. The feeding behaviour of the sciaenid U. coroides and the gerreid Eucinostomus gula was recorded while snorkeling. During their foraging both species uncovered small organisms buried in the sand. Notwithstanding general similarities in diet, U. coroides and E. gula presented differences in feeding behaviour and morphology. Two carangid species of the genus Trachinotus differed in diet composition and consumed a larger array of food items than the remaining fish species. Differences in diet and feeding activity between the remaining benthivorous species were noted. These differences possibly reduce overlap in resource use and favour the coexistence of guilds of benthivorous fishes on sandy shores.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission.

  19. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent.

  20. Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

    2014-09-18

    A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.

  1. Eastern Indian 3800-million-year-old crust and early mantle differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Ray, S.L.; Saha, A.K.; Sarkar, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Samarium-neodymium data for nine granitic and tonalite gneisses occurring as remnants within the Singhbhum granite batholith in eastern India define an isochron of age 3775 ?? 89 ?? 106 years with an initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio of 0.50798 ?? 0.00007. This age contrasts with the rubidium-strontium age of 3200 ?? 106 years for the same suite of rocks. On the basis of the new samarium-neodynium data, field data, and petrologic data, a scheme of evolution is proposed for the Archean crust in eastern India. The isotopic data provide evidence that parts of the earth's mantle were already differentiated with respect to the chondritic samarium-neodymium ratio 3800 ?? 106 years ago.

  2. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  3. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  4. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the

  5. Long-term trends of benzo(a)pyrene concentration on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milukaite, Audrone R.

    Concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was investigated in atmospheric air at Preila background station located on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in 1980-2002. A significant difference in daily concentration of benzo(a)pyrene, reaching more than two orders of magnitude, was determined during the period of investigation. The variability of benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration was considered. The main part of extreme benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration of over 5 ng m -3 was related to the air masses coming to the background site from W-SW to N-NW over the period of 1980-1994. Owing to the variability of benzo(a)pyrene daily concentration, the monthly concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric air of the background site varied from 0.18 to 3.30 ng m -3 in cold season and from 0.02 to 1.72 ng m -3 in warm season. A slowly decreasing trend of benzo(a)pyrene monthly concentration was determined in both seasons during the whole period of investigation. Comparison of B(a)P monthly concentration determined at Preila background station with that in other countries since 1994 (according to the EMEP program) has shown that monthly concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is nearly of the same level in the Czech Republic and it is by one order of magnitude higher than at Scandinavian background stations. The course of carcinogen concentration at Preila background station is similar to that of Swedish stations with tendency to decrease from 1999.

  6. Rift Structure along the Eastern Continental Margin of India - new constraints on style of breakup of the Indian landmass from the eastern Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K. S.; Karlapati, S.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI), a classical passive margin has evolved after breakup of the Indian landmass from the East Antarctica during the Early Cretaceous. Anomalous thick sediments and lack of cohesive magnetic signatures in the Bay of Bengal hampered delineation of rift-structure and age assignment for the continental breakup between India and East Antarctica. Further, absence of lithological and geochronological information and a few seismic profiles from the margin led to put forward several competing models for the rift initiation and evolution of the ECMI. Here, we analyze long streamer seismic reflection data and deep-water drill well information from the western Bay of Bengal to infer the buried rift structure, crustal architecture and stratigraphy along the ECMI. Following the structural pattern of the margin, the region is divided into four domains as decoupled, coupled, exhumed and oceanic, which in turn helped us to demarcate the variations in rift structure from south to north along the margin. The southern segment in the vicinity of Cauvery Basin consists of steep continental shelf associated with few major normal faults, which indicates that the segment was evolved as mix shear-rifted margin. The central segment off southern part of the Krishna-Godavari Basin is controlled by a series of fault-bounded half-graben structures and presence of thinned continental crust over the exhumed mantle body, revealing that the segment was formed under hyper-rifting process. While the northern segment extends up to Mahanadi Basin shows relatively less gradient continental slope with a few major faults, suggesting that the segment was evolved by hypo-extended process. Variable crustal architecture lying along the ECMI supports each segment of the margin formed in a specific rift process. A breakup unconformity considered as important geological constraint for completion of rift process between India and East Antarctica is clearly mapped on

  7. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  8. Group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2017-02-01

    In the past three years, a semi-permanent network of fifteen 3-component broadband seismographs has become operational in the eastern Indian shield region occupying the Archean (∼2.5-3.6 Ga) Singhbhum-Odisha craton (SOC) and the Proterozoic (∼1.0-2.5 Ga) Chotanagpur Granitic Gneissic terrane (CGGT). The reliable and accurate broadband data for the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence from 10 broadband stations of this network enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the region. First, we measure fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 7-70 s and then invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the eastern Indian craton (EIC). We observe that group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in SOC are relatively high in comparison to those of CGGT. This could be attributed to a relatively mafic-rich crust-mantle structure in SOC resulting from two episodes of magmatism associated with the 1.6 Ga Dalma and ∼117 Ma Rajmahal volcanisms. The best model for the EIC from the present study is found to be a two-layered crust, with a 14-km thick upper-crust (UC) of average shear velocity (Vs) of 3.0 km/s and a 26-km thick lower-crust (LC) of average Vs of 3.6 km/s. The present study detects a sharp drop in Vs (∼-2 to 3%) at 120-260 km depths, underlying the EIC, representing the probable seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 120 km depth. Such sharp fall in Vs below the LAB indicates a partially molten layer. Further, a geothermal gradient extrapolated from the surface heat flow shows that such a gradient would intercept the wet basalt solidus at 88-103 km depths, suggesting a 88-103 km thick thermal lithosphere below the EIC. This could also signal the presence of small amounts of partial melts. Thus, this 2-3% drop in Vs could be attributed to the presence of partial melts in the

  9. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanil Kumar, V.; George, Jesbin

    2016-10-01

    We assess the influence of monsoon variability on the surface waves using measured wave data covering 7 years and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2015 during the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) in the eastern Arabian Sea. The inter-annual comparison shows that the percentage of higher wave heights ( > 2.5 m) is higher ( ˜ 26%) in 2014 than in other years due to the higher monsoon wind speed (average speed ˜ 7.3 m s-1) in 2014. Due to the delayed monsoon, monthly average significant wave height (Hm0) of June was lowest (˜ 1.5 m) in 2009. The spectral peak shifted to lower frequencies in September due to the reduction of wind seas as a result of decrease in monsoon intensity. The study shows high positive correlation (r ˜ 0.84) between average low-level jet (LLJ) for the block 0-15° N, 50-75° E and Hm0 of eastern Arabian Sea in all the months except in August (r ˜ 0.66). The time series data on wave height shows oscillations with periods 5 to 20 days. Wavelet coherence analysis indicates that the LLJ and Hm0 are in-phase related (phase angle 0°) almost all the time and LLJ leads Hm0. The monsoon seasonal anomaly of Hm0 is found to have a negative relationship with the Oceanic Niño Index indicating that the monsoon average Hm0 is relatively low during the strong El Niño years.

  10. Sedimentary pigments and nature of organic matter within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (Indian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasiq, K. T.; Kurian, S.; Karapurkar, S. G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary pigments, carbon and nitrogen content and their stable isotopes were studied in three short cores collected from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS). Nine pigments including chlorophyll a and their degradation products were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Astaxanthin followed by canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin were the major carotenoids detected in these cores. The total pigment concentration was high in the core collected from 500 m water depth (6.5 μgg-1) followed by 800 m (1.7 μgg-1) and 1100 m (1.1 μgg-1) depths respectively. The organic carbon did not have considerable control on sedimentary pigments preservation. Pigment degradation was comparatively high in the core collected from the 800 m site which depended not only the bottom dissolved oxygen levels, but also on the faunal activity. As reported earlier, the bottom water dissolved oxygen and presence of fauna have good control on the organic carbon accumulation and preservation at Indian margin OMZ sediments. The C/N ratios and δ13C values for all the cores conclude the marine origin of organic matter and δ15N profiles revealed signature of upwelling associated denitrification within the water column.

  11. Catecholaminergic gene variants: contribution in ADHD and associated comorbid attributes in the eastern Indian probands.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Paramita; Sarkar, Kanyakumarika; Bhaduri, Nipa; Ray, Anirban; Sarkar, Keka; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2013-01-01

    Contribution of genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in various populations, and several genes were speculated to contribute small but additive effects. We have assessed variants in four genes, DDC (rs3837091 and rs3735273), DRD2 (rs1800496, rs1801028, and rs1799732), DRD4 (rs4646984 and rs4646983), and COMT (rs165599 and rs740603) in Indian ADHD subjects with comorbid attributes. Cases were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-TR after obtaining informed written consent. DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of ADHD probands (N = 170), their parents (N = 310), and ethnically matched controls (n = 180) was used for genotyping followed by population- and family-based analyses by the UNPHASED program. DRD4 sites showed significant difference in allelic frequencies by case-control analysis, while DDC and COMT exhibited bias in familial transmission (P < 0.05). rs3837091 "AGAG," rs3735273 "A," rs1799732 "C," rs740603 "G," rs165599 "G" and single repeat alleles of rs4646984/rs4646983 showed positive correlation with co-morbid characteristics (P < 0.05). Multi dimensionality reduction analysis of case-control data revealed significant interactive effects of all four genes (P < 0.001), while family-based data showed interaction between DDC and DRD2 (P = 0.04). This first study on these gene variants in Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands and associated co-morbid conditions indicates altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD.

  12. Relative importance of the processes contributing to the development of SST anomalies in the eastern pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole and its implication for predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizaki, Chiho; Tozuka, Tomoki; Doi, Takeshi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    Using outputs from an ocean general circulation model, the relative importance of the processes contributing to the development of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is examined systematically based on two metrics. One metric quantifies the relative importance of the surface heat flux term against the oceanic terms, while the other metric compares the contribution from the horizontal advection and vertical diabatic terms. It is revealed that the anomalous cooling in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD varies with events and four representative events are investigated in more detail. During the 1991 IOD, the horizontal advection term made the largest contribution to the eastern cooling, and the vertical diabatic term was equally important in the early stage of the development. In the 1994 event, negative SST anomalies were generated by the surface heat flux term at first, and then matured by the vertical diabatic term. Anomalous cooling during the 1997 IOD was mainly produced by the vertical diabatic term. In 2012, anomalous surface heat flux and horizontal advection played the crucial role in the development of the eastern pole, but the vertical diabatic term opposed to the anomalous cooling. Furthermore, the dependence of the seasonal prediction skill by a global ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model on the generation mechanisms was examined. It is demonstrated that events with the vertical diabatic term playing a more important role in the development of the eastern pole are better predicted than those with the vertical diabatic term making relatively small contribution or opposing the occurrence.

  13. Assessment of Climatological Trends of Sea Level over the Indian Coast Using Artificial Neural Network and Wavelet Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha Rani, N. N. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Bhaskaran, Prasad Kumar

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the variability of mean sea level (MSL) over east and west coast of India during 1973-2010. For this purpose, the monthly tide gauge data available over Kandla, Mumbai and Cochin along west coast and Diamond Harbour, Haldia, Visakhapatnam and Chennai along east coast obtained from PSMSL data archives has been considered. Sea level data from the tide gauge records show loss of data due to any disfunctioning of equipment or upgrade of the tide gauge resulting loss of data. It requires no gaps in the time series of MSL during the study period, and needs to be filled with better accuracy and hence artificial neural networks was implemented. To examine any periodicities of MSL variability, continuous wavelet analysis was conducted. The interrelationships between the stations in time-frequency space were examined, using cross and coherence wavelet analysis as well. The study reveals notable interannual variability of MSL. An observational analysis was done to understand the relation between inter-annual variability of MSL anomalies and ENSO. During positive (negative) SOI as associated with positive (negative) MSL anomaly was noticed significantly for the winter season over east (west) coast, where as during post-monsoon season this was observed for east coast and is less prevalent along the west coast. The observational analysis revealed that for the west (east) coast positive IOD showed significantly increased (decreased) MSL anomalies and negative IOD showed significantly decreased (increased) MSL anomalies. It is also found that the concurrent ENSO and IOD may have a different impact on MSL. The observations also reveal an increase of 1.353 mm/year on the east coast and observed a total 0.372 mm/year on the west coast.

  14. An epidemiological analysis of patients with abdominal trauma in an eastern Indian metropolitan city.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Halder, Sandip Kumar; Paira, Susil Kumar; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Kumar, Soumen Kanti; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The profile and pattern of abdominal trauma is changing with progressing civilisation. We are lacking epidemiological data from most parts of the world. This study was conducted to prepare a database in our set up and look into the pattern of abdominal trauma, make an aetiological correlation of abdominal trauma with the types of injuries, identify the preventable factors causing delay in intervention and, compare the data with the other available national and international data. This prospective, observational study was done in a teaching hospital in a metropolitan city of eastern India. Records of patients with abdominal trauma were collected in predesigned forms, from admission to discharge. Data were analysed applying standard statistical techniques. Males (87.3%) predominated with the age range between 21 and 30 years, and the majority (73.5%) had blunt abdominal trauma. Compression injury (57.3%) commonly caused blunt trauma and stab injuries caused majority of penetrating trauma. The commonest organ injured both in blunt and penetrating trauma was small bowel (30.7% and 33.3% respectively). It was found that prehospital trauma care is virtually non-existent in this region. We are lacking a uniform protocol for the management of abdominal trauma across the hospitals. With the availability of better investigational modalities we are moving more towards a conservative approach to the abdominal trauma patients, especially the blunt abdominal trauma patients with solid organ injuries.

  15. Mineral chemistry of tourmaline from Mashak Pahar, South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), eastern Indian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharjee, Santanu; Ray, Jyotisankar; Dey, Payel; Bhattacharyya, Debapriya; Banerjee, Mousumi; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Sengupta, Shyamal; Bhatt, A. K.; Chowdhury, D.; Dwivedi, A. K.; Mahato, Sanjoy; Jana, Arka Ranjan; Maithani, P. B.; Ramesh Babu, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    The area of investigation at and around Mashak Pahar, Bankura district, West Bengal, India comprises a number of rock types namely: granite gneiss, migmatized quartz tourmaline gneiss, quartz pebble conglomerate, ferruginous quartzite, quartz tourmaline veins (as veins) and graphite schists. Interestingly, the study area lies in the region extending South Purulia Shear Zone (˜Tamar-Porapahar Shear Zone) which marks the boundary between two contrasting tectonic blocks of eastern India, namely, the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Terrane (CGC) to the north and Singhbhum Group of rocks to the south. The rocks of the study area are poly-phasedly deformed by three phases of folding, namely, F1, F2 and F3. All the tourmalines are classified to be of `Alkali Group'. Chemistry of tourmalines from migmatized quartz tourmaline gneiss and those from quartz tourmaline veins are in conformity with their relation to (earthquake induced) shear system evolution in this terrain. In general, the compositional evolution of tourmaline during prograde metamorphism (˜400°-730°C) has been supported by both petrographic and chemical evidences. Assessment of mineral-chemical data of constituent tourmaline grains clearly suggests compositional variations across zonal boundaries within tourmaline that was controlled by changing metamorphic milieu in this terrane. Field and petrographic evidences clearly indicate activation of earlier and later shears in this region accompanied by infiltration of boron and formation of zoned tourmaline crystals.

  16. Agricultural fingerprints in salt-marsh sediments and adaptation to sea-level rise in the eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Artola, Ane; Cearreta, Alejandro; Irabien, María Jesús; Leorri, Eduardo; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Corbett, D. Reide

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy approach based on benthic foraminifera, sand content, short-lived radioisotope activities, heavy metal concentrations and aerial photography was developed to characterise the process of human disturbance on the intensely impacted eastern Cantabrian coast (N. Spain) over the last two centuries. Analysis of two 50 cm long sediment cores from different saltmarshes in the Santoña estuary and their comparison with previous results in nearby coastal areas defines criteria to identify records of agricultural activities in salt-marsh sediments. Agricultural occupation of saltmarshes and the later regeneration was recognised based on foraminifera and sand content. Saltmarshes in the eastern Cantabrian coast are expected to adapt to ongoing sea-level rise based on the high sedimentation rates (14-18 mm yr-1) observed during the regeneration process of previously reclaimed areas. These findings can potentially be useful in other temperate saltmarshes with abundant sediment input, as a cost-effective adaptation measure to counteract the effects of sea-level rise.

  17. Observations of organic trace gases during ITCT: Characterization of sources, background, and long-range transport to the US West coast and eastern Pacific atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Stroud, V.; Schauffler, S.; Johnson, K.; Schwaller, N.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) mission examined the processes that impact the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and along the West Coast of the United States. The mission took place during April - May, 2002, when long-range transport to the US West Coast from downwind sources in Asia and beyond is most favorable. As part of the atmospheric chemistry payload on the NOAA P3 aircraft, whole air samples were collected for analysis of a variety of organic trace gases, including methane, NMHC, halocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. Mission flight tracks were designed to examine regions characteristic of the background atmosphere, and regions impacted by specific point sources, larger urban sources, and long-range transport. In this presentation we summarize the organic trace gas measurements and relationships from the whole air samples, characterize signatures of emissions from the west coast urban areas, and identify signatures of long-range trans-Pacific transport.

  18. Hindcast, GIS and susceptibility modelling to assist oil spill clean-up and mitigation on the southern coast of Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    This study uses new oil-spill models, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of distinct oil spill scenarios on the southern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean. This approach results from the urgent need to predict oil spill dispersion after new oil terminals and depots were built at Vasilikos, southern coast of Cyprus. The terminals have been able to receive tankers with 500,000 deadweight tonnes from November 2014. The new geomorphological and geological data in this work show the shoreline of Cyprus to be of high susceptibility due to: (a) the presence of a narrow continental shelf capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons; (b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools forming natural traps for oil, and (c) the presence of important tourist and Natura 2000 sites. Under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, oil spills offshore Larnaca Bay will quickly spread and reach the shoreline 46 h after the initial accident. Significantly, the models in this paper show a reduction from 84% to 19% in the volume of oil trapped on the coast if dispersants are applied, with the latter 19% being potentially kept at bay using booms and mechanical removal techniques. Based on these results, we suggest the early use of dispersants, booms and mechanical removal procedures to prevent the spreading of oil spilt in the broad area of Larnaca Bay.

  19. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  20. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  1. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  2. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  3. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  4. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  5. Geologic and geophysical maps of the eastern three-fourths of the Cambria 30' x 60' quadrangle, central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.; Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, M.A.; McDougall, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The Cambria 30´ x 60´ quadrangle comprises southwestern Monterey County and northwestern San Luis Obispo County. The land area includes rugged mountains of the Santa Lucia Range extending from the northwest to the southeast part of the map; the southern part of the Big Sur coast in the northwest; broad marine terraces along the southwest coast; and broadvalleys, rolling hills, and modest mountains in the northeast. This report contains geologic, gravity anomaly, and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of the eastern three-fourths of the 1:100,000-scale Cambria quadrangle and the associated geologic and geophysical databases (ArcMap databases), as well as complete descriptions of the geologic map units and the structural relations in the mapped area. A cross section is based on both the geologic map and potential-field geophysical data. The maps are presented as an interactive, multilayer PDF, rather than more traditional pre-formatted map-sheet PDFs. Various geologic, geophysical, paleontological, and base map elements are placed on separate layers, which allows the user to combine elements interactively to create map views beyond the traditional map sheets. Four traditional map sheets (geologic map, gravity map, aeromagnetic map, paleontological locality map) are easily compiled by choosing the associated data layers or by choosing the desired map under Bookmarks.

  6. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  7. Vertical-Axis Rotations Within Columbia River Basalt Flows Define a Sharp Eastern Boundary of the Coast Range Block with Potentially Increased Seismic Risk for Portland, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.; Evarts, R. C.; Blakely, R. J.; Beeson, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northern Willamette Valley of Oregon was undertaken as part of a larger mapping and hydrogeologic investigation of the CRBG's internal stratigraphy and structure. Differences in paleomagnetic directions between flows due to geomagnetic reversals and paleosecular variation, in combination with geochemical data, provide the most reliable means of flow identification. In addition, vertical-axis rotations between CRBG sites in the Portland area and sampling localities within the same flow units on the relatively stable Columbia Plateau were calculated. Clockwise rotations for sites within the northern Willamette Valley are remarkably consistent and have a weighted mean of 29°±3° (N=94). Available paleomagnetic data from CRBG sites along the Oregon coast at Cape Lookout (19°±22°, N=4) and Cape Foulweather (29°±18°, N=4) show similar results. East of the Portland Hills fault zone along the Columbia River Gorge, however, clockwise rotations are much less averaging 12°±3° (N=15). North of Portland, the CRBG rotational values drop abruptly from ~29° to 6°±17° (N=3) across an unnamed fault near Woodland, WA, identified using aeromagnetic data; to the south, the values drop from ~29° to 18°±3° (N=6) across the Mt. Angel-Gales Creek fault zone east of Salem, OR. The eastern boundary of the Oregon Coast Range block is thus defined by three offset NW-trending fault segments, with the offsets corresponding to the Portland and Willamette pull-apart basins. North of the Coast Range block's northern boundary, which is roughly coincident with the Columbia River, CRBG rotations also are about half that (15°±3°, N=15) found within the block. Northward movement and clockwise rotation of the Oregon Coast Range block have previously been modeled as decreasing continuously eastward to the Columbia Plateau. Our new paleomagnetic data indicate an abrupt step down of rotational values by

  8. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  9. Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranding on the coast of Israel (eastern Mediterranean). Autopsy results and trace metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Amiel, Shlomi; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Kress, Nurit

    2002-08-05

    The stranding of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is reported in this study. High concentrations of trace metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Fe and Se) were found in the various tissues analyzed, while Cu and Mn concentrations were naturally low. The specimen was found alive, but died a day later. The cause of death was attributed to bacterial bronchopneumonia in combination with endotoxemia, resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Plastic bags found in its stomach contributed to the dolphin's poor physical condition. No connection was found between the high concentrations of trace metals in the internal organs and the cause of death. It is assumed that the high concentrations were a result of the high trophic level of this species, its diet and its advanced age. Anthropogenic influence could not be assessed due to the sparse database of trace metals for this species, in particular knowledge of the natural levels.

  10. Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Niazi, Saïda

    2008-04-01

    The eastern part of the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristic value. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation has been based on empirical approaches using a minimum inundation level of 2 m and a maximum inundation level of 7 m, where scenarios for future sea-level rise range from 200 to 860 mm, with a 'best estimate' of 490 mm. The socio-economic impacts have been based on two possible alternative futures: (1) a 'worst-case' scenario, obtained by combining the 'economic development first' scenario with the maximum inundation level; and (2) a 'best-case' scenario, by combining the 'sustainability first' scenario with the minimum inundation level. Inundation analysis, based on Geographical Information Systems and a modelling approach to erosion, has identified both locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to accelerated sea-level rise. Results indicate that 24% and 59% of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land, and the natural ecosystem. Shoreline erosion will affect 50% and 70% of the total area in 2050 and 2100, respectively. Potential strategies to ameliorate the impact of seawater inundation include: wetland preservation; beach nourishment at tourist resorts; and the afforestation of dunes. As this coast is planned to become one of the most developed tourist resorts in Morocco by 2010, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning and development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, are recommended for the region.

  11. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  12. Mesoproterozoic island arc magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian Plate: Evidence from geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages of mafic plutonic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Zhang, Ze-ming; Balaram, V.; Reddy, U. V. B.

    2016-11-01

    The Prakasam Igneous Province within the Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) preserves important imprints of mafic magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian plate. Here we report petrology, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb age data from three gabbro plutons namely Purimetla, Kanigiri and P C Palle which intruded into the high grade rocks of the region. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data on zircons from the three plutons reveal prominent late Mesoproterozoic ages of 1334 ± 15 Ma, 1338 ± 27 Ma and 1251.2 ± 9.4 Ma. The cumulative 207Pb/206Pb mean age of 1315 ± 11 Ma is interpreted to represent the timing of mafic magmatism in the Prakasam Igneous Province. These rocks show adcumulus to mesocumulus and poikilitic textures indicating fractional crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxenes in the Purimetla pluton whereas the Kanigiri and P C Palle intrusions possess hornblende and biotite suggesting the role of water during partial melting. The rocks show LREE enrichment (∑LREE/∑HREE = 2.2-15.0), marked Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.8-2.2) and fractionated patterns (LaN/YbN = 3-79). Primitive mantle normalised trace element spider diagrams indicate subduction modified arc signatures with LILE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ti and Zr relative to Th and La. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show arc magmatic affinities for the three gabbro plutons consistent with subduction zone setting. We propose a tectonic model involving intra oceanic island arc accretion during late Mesoproterozoic along the eastern margin of the Indian continent.

  13. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in retail raw oysters from the eastern coast of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changchai, Nuttawee; Saunjit, Sudarat

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence, population density and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in 240 retail raw oysters collected monthly between March 2010 and February 2011 from Ang Sila coast, Chon Buri Province, Thailand were determined using most probable number (MPN) multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR detected V. parahaemolyticus in 219 raw oyster samples, of which 29 samples contained the virulence tdh. MPN values for V. parahaemolyticus and pathogenic strains in most samples ranged from 10 to 10(2) and from 3 to 10 MPN/g, respectively. The presence of V. vulnificus was found in 53 oyster samples in amounts between 10 and 10(2) MPN/g. Of 1,087 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 14 and 2 isolates carried tdh and virulence trh, respectively but none with both genes. However, none of the presumptive isolates was shown to be V. vulnificus. The detection of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in raw oysters has rendered high awareness of risk in consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  14. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  15. Gradual and small decrease of glacial sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casse, Marie; Malaize, Bruno; Bassinot, Franck; Caillon, Nicolas; Degaridel-Thoron, Thibault; Rebaubier, Hélène; Charlier, Karine; Caley, Thibaut; Marieu, Vincent; Beaufort, Luc; Rojas, Virginia; Meynadier, Laure; Valet, Jean Pierre; Reaud, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), between about 1.2 and 0.7 Ma, is characterized by the emergence of asymmetric, high-amplitude 100 ka cycles, which contrast with the low amplitude, 41 kyr cycles that dominate the early Pleistocene climate. Here, we study the sediment core MD12-3409, which spans the last ~ 1.75 Ma, to document hydrographic changes across the MPT in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. Stratigraphy is based on benthic foraminifera delta18O and we reconstruct Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) using the Mg/Ca ratio of Globigerinoides ruber, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera. Our results reveal a progressive cooling of glacial maxima across the MPT but no long-term trend in mean SST over the last 1.75 Ma. The main periodicity of the surface temperature signal shifts from 41 kyr before the MPT, to both 100 kyr and 41 kyr for the post MPT time period. Over the last 800 ka, the strong correlation between core MD12-3409 SST fluctuations and the atmospheric CO2 record suggests a global, greenhouse forcing for the tropical Indian SST over the post-MPT time period. Within the MPT, and for earlier time interval, changes in temperature gradients between our SST record and other temperature records in, or at the edge of, the Pacific Warm Pool, could suggest reorganizations of sea surface circulation and lateral heat exchanges. Since the MPT, the amplification of sea level lowering during glacial periods might have shoaled the Indonesian Through Flow (ITF) gateway, restricting hydrographic exchanges between Pacific and Indian oceans.

  16. New records of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes) from the Pacific coast of lower Central America, with comments on the diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the Lampriformes in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López-Sánchez, Myrna I

    2017-02-23

    New records of occurrence for four species of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes; Desmodema polystictum, Regalecus russelii, Trachipterus fukuzakii and Zu cristatus) poorly known or previously unknown for the Pacific coast of lower Central America (Costa Rica-Panama) are herein reported. Museum specimens supporting such records are characterized and described. Comparative morphometric and meristic data on other collections and species of lampriforms, as well as distributional information, are provided and discussed. Diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the eastern Pacific species of the order also are briefly discussed. Finally, a key to the eastern Pacific species of the Lampriformes, based on our research and data available in the literature, is presented.

  17. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  18. Interannual and decadal variability of East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO detected in a 120-year coral record from the eastern coast of the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, A.; Kawahata, H.; Suzuki, A.; Kojima, K.; Okai, T.; Ishimura, T.; Siringan, F. P.

    2010-12-01

    Coral skeletal climatology has provided increasing knowledge of tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). On the other hand, there are only few studies regarding the Asian Monsoon although it also plays an important role in the global climate system. Here we present a 120-year Sr/Ca and δ18O of the coral (δ18Ocoral) record (1883-2002) from the eastern coast of the Philippines. Spectral analyses of both time series showed significant quasi-biennial periodicity, which indicated the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) related to the Monsoon system. The δ18Ocoral time series also identified interannual (3.8 and 8.2 years) and decadal (22 years) periodicity. The former indicated ENSO-related frequency. Our reconstruction revealed that winter sea surface temperature (SST) is significantly correlated with East Asian Winter Monsoon Index (WMI) especially within climatic regimes. Then, we showed that the intensity of EAWM had changed on the decadal scale using possible regime shift detection method based on the sequential t-test. This transition occurred around regime shift years. It is suggested that winter SST variability in this region reflects the change of the wind pattern related to the decadal variability often found in the mid-latitudes. Our results suggest the potential of Philippines’ coral for monitoring the large-scale climate variability on the decadal scale.

  19. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h(-1) The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for (226)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils.

  20. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  1. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. Methods We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. Results The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. Conclusion This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences. PMID:26088847

  2. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  3. Results of Environmental Measurements on the North-West Shelf and Eastern Indian Ocean (April-May 1979).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    Res. 8, 65-75. Godfrey, J. S. Jones, I.S.F., Maxwell, J. G. H. and Scott, B.D. (1980). "On the Winter Cascade from Bass Strait into the Tasman Sea ...the presence of small inversions at a height of approximately 100 m above the sea and showed that a sea -breeze at the coast was not felt 80 km or more...out to sea . Approved for Public Release. POSTAL ADDRESS: The Superintendent, RAN Research Laboratory P.O. Box 706, Darlinghurst N.S.W. 2010 DOCUMENT

  4. AMS 14 C dating controlled records of monsoon and Indonesian throughflow variability from the eastern Indian Ocean of the past 32,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Chen, M. T.; Shi, X.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Zi-Ye Li a, Min-Te Chen b, Hou-Jie Wang a, Sheng-Fa Liu c, Xue-Fa Shi ca College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, P.R. Chinab Institute of Applied Geosciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 20224, ROCc First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266100, P.R. China Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is one of the most important currents responsible for transporting heat and moisture from the western Pacific to the Indian Oceans. The ITF is also well-known as effectively in modulating the global climate change with the interactions among ENSO and Asian monsoons. Here we present an AMS 14C dating controlled sea surface temperature (SST) record from core SO184-10043 (07°18.57'S, 105°03.53'E), which was retrieved from 2171m water depth at a north-south depression located at the southeastern offshore area of Sumatera in the eastern Indian Ocean. Based on our high-resolution SST using Mg/Ca analyses based on planktonic foraminifera shells of Globigerinoides ruber and alkenone index, U k'37-SST, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and AMC 14C age-controls, our records show that, during the past 32,000 years, the SSTs were decreased which imply weaker ITF during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and 3. The weaker UTF may respond to strengthened northeast monsoon during the boreal winter. During 21 to 15ka, the southeast monsoon had been stronger and the northeast monsoon was relatively weaker. During 15 to 8ka, rapid sea level rising may allow the opening of the gateways in the Makassar Strait and Lombok Strait that may have further strengthened the ITF. During the early Holocene, the northeast and southeast monsoons seem to be both strengthened. We will discuss the implications of the hydrographic variability and their age uncertainties in this paper during the meeting.

  5. Archaea Dominate the Ammonia-Oxidizing Community in Deep-Sea Sediments of the Eastern Indian Ocean—from the Equator to the Bay of Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Kan, Jinjun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xuecheng; Qian, Gang; Miao, Yanyi; Leng, Xiaoyun; Sun, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia to nitrite, and therefore play essential roles in nitrification and global nitrogen cycling. To better understand the population structure and the distribution of AOA and AOB in the deep Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO), nine surface sediment samples (>3,300 m depth) were collected during the inter-monsoon Spring 2013. One sediment sample from the South China Sea (SCS; 2,510 m) was also included for comparison. The community composition, species richness, and diversity were characterized by clone libraries (total 1,238 clones), and higher diversity of archaeal amoA genes than bacterial amoA genes was observed in all analyzed samples. Real time qPCR analysis also demonstrated higher abundances (gene copy numbers) of archaeal amoA genes than bacterial amoA genes, and the ratios of AOA/AOB ranged from 1.42 to 8.49 among sites. In addition, unique and distinct clades were found in both reconstructed AOA and AOB phylogeny, suggesting the presence of niche-specific ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in the EIO. The distribution pattern of both archaeal and bacterial amoA genes revealed by NMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling) showed a distinct geographic separation of the sample from the SCS and most of the samples from the EIO following nitrogen gradients. Higher abundance and diversity of archaeal amoA genes indicated that AOA may play a more important role than AOB in the deep Indian Ocean. Environmental parameters shaping the distribution pattern of AOA were different from that of AOB, indicating distinct metabolic characteristics and/or adaptation mechanisms between AOA and AOB in the EIO, especially in deep-sea environments. PMID:28360898

  6. Increased frequency of extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events due to greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Weller, Evan; Wu, Lixin; Ashok, Karumuri; Masumoto, Yukio; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-06-12

    The Indian Ocean dipole is a prominent mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability, affecting the lives of millions of people in Indian Ocean rim countries. In its positive phase, sea surface temperatures are lower than normal off the Sumatra-Java coast, but higher in the western tropical Indian Ocean. During the extreme positive-IOD (pIOD) events of 1961, 1994 and 1997, the eastern cooling strengthened and extended westward along the equatorial Indian Ocean through strong reversal of both the mean westerly winds and the associated eastward-flowing upper ocean currents. This created anomalously dry conditions from the eastern to the central Indian Ocean along the Equator and atmospheric convergence farther west, leading to catastrophic floods in eastern tropical African countries but devastating droughts in eastern Indian Ocean rim countries. Despite these serious consequences, the response of pIOD events to greenhouse warming is unknown. Here, using an ensemble of climate models forced by a scenario of high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), we project that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase by almost a factor of three, from one event every 17.3 years over the twentieth century to one event every 6.3 years over the twenty-first century. We find that a mean state change--with weakening of both equatorial westerly winds and eastward oceanic currents in association with a faster warming in the western than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean--facilitates more frequent occurrences of wind and oceanic current reversal. This leads to more frequent extreme pIOD events, suggesting an increasing frequency of extreme climate and weather events in regions affected by the pIOD.

  7. An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the climate change impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean Sea (Project AKTAIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    The AKTAIA project aims at the production of new knowledge regarding the forms of manifestation of the climate change and its influence on the stability and evolution of the coastal landforms along the shoreline of eastern Crete (approximate length: 757 km), taking into account the various aspects of human intervention. Aerial photographs, satellite images and orthophotomaps have been used to produce a detailed coastline map and to study the morphological characteristics of the coastal zone of Eastern Crete. More than 100 beach zones have been visited during three field campaigns, which included geomorphological and human intervention mapping, topographic, meteorological and oceanographic measurements and sedimentological sampling and observations. In addition, two pilot sites (one in the north and one in the south part of Crete) are being monitored, via the installation of coastal video monitoring systems, shore-based meteorological stations and wave-tide recorders installed in the nearshore zone. Detailed seafloor mapping with the use of side scan sonar and scuba diving and bathymetric surveys were conducted in the two pilot sites. Meteorological and oceanographic data from all existing land-based meteorological stations, oceanographic buoys and the ERA-interim dataset are used to determine the wind and wave climate of each beach. The collected climatic, sedimentological and coastal environmental data are being integrated in a GIS database that will be used to forecast the climatic trends in the area of Crete for the next decades and to model the impact of the climatic change on the future evolution of the coastal zone. New methodologies for the continuous monitoring of land-sea interaction and for the quantification of the loss of sensitive coastal zones due to sea-level rise and a modified Coastal Vulnerability Index for a comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of the coasts are being developed. Numerical modelling of the nearshore hydrodynamics and the

  8. Effect of agro-ecological zone and grazing system on incidence of East Coast Fever in calves in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rubaire-Akiiki, Christopher M; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Musunga, David; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Vaarst, Mettee; Okello, David; Opolot, Charles; Bisagaya, A; Okori, C; Bisagati, C; Ongyera, S; Mwayi, M T

    2006-08-17

    Between May 2002 and February 2003 a longitudinal survey was carried out in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda to determine the influence of agro-ecological zones (AEZ) and grazing systems on tick infestation patterns and incidence of East Coast Fever (ECF) in bovine calves. The study area was stratified into AEZ (lowland, midland and upland) and grazing systems {zero grazing (ZG), restricted-outdoor grazing (ROG) and communal grazing (CG)}, whose strata had previously been shown to influence the prevalence of ECF, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. One hundred and eighty-five smallholder dairy farms with a total of 198 calves of both sexes, between the ages of 1 day and 6 weeks, were purposively selected from the AEZ-grazing system strata. Nine dynamic cohorts (11-51 calves in each) of these calves were examined and sampled monthly. Ticks infesting the calves were counted from one side of the animal body and categorized into the different species, sex and feeding status. Sera were collected at recruitment and monthly thereafter and antibodies against Theileria parva, T. mutans, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale were measured using ELISA. Tick challenge (total and specific) varied with AEZ and grazing system. The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the lowland zone compared to the upland zone (hazard ratio (HR)=2.59; 95% CI: 1.00-6.34). The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the CG system than the ZG system (HR=10.00; 95% CI: 3.61-27.92). The incidence risk for sero-conversion, over the 10 months study period, was 62, 16 and 9% in the lowland, midland and upland zones, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the calves in lowland-CG stratum sero-converted by the age of 6 months, while 56 and 8% did so in the lowland-ROG and the lowland-ZG stratum, respectively. The results of this study show the need to consider farm circumstances and the variation in ECF risk, both spatially and temporally when designing control strategies

  9. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  10. Pre-breakup continental extension in East Gondwanaland and the early opening of the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. McA.; Roots, S. R.; Veevers, J. J.

    1988-12-01

    Extension of continental crust by up to 360 km on a north-northeast azimuth in the Great Australian Bight occurred prior to the Middle Cretaceous (96 Ma) onset of seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica. This large amount of continental extension is constrained to the Late Jurassic (≈ 160 Ma)-Middle Cretaceous interval, about a pole estimated to lie about 40° southeastward of southeastern Australia. Using bathymetric data combined with seismic and magnetic determinations of the continent-ocean boundaries off Australia, India and Antarctica, we determine a revised fit of East Gondwanaland prior to continental extension, and at various stages thereafter. In the first stage from 160 to 132.5 Ma (≈ M11), India-Australia rotated from Antarctica with continental crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica and largely transform motion between the Coromandel Coast margin of India and the Kron Prins Olav Kyst margin of Antarctica. In the second stage, from 132.5 to 96 Ma, India rotated northwestward away from Australia-Antarctica, producing M10 and younger magnetic anomalies along the western margin of Australia. Continental extension was greatest between Australia and Antarctica during this stage. The newly determined 132.5-96 Ma rotation between India and Australia provides an improved fit between the orientation of observed M10-M0 magnetic anomalies and the southward decrease in spreading rate off the western Australian margin. Together with bathymetry, the new rotation parameters lead to identification of the abandoned 96 Ma spreading ridge along the Lost Dutchmen and Dirck Hartog ridges. The Naturaliste Fracture Zone is found to lie nearly parallel to the Early Cretaceous transform direction between India and Antarctica suggesting that slow seafloor spreading, required between Australia and Antarctica to accommodate the continental extension further east, occurred between Naturaliste Fracture Zone and the M4-M0 anomalies adjacent to the

  11. Latitudinal variation and residence time of (137)Cs in Indian coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Sartandel, S J; Jha, S K; Tripathi, R M

    2015-11-15

    Anthropogenic (137)Cs activity concentration, in surface sea water along the western and eastern coast of India has been estimated using the in-situ pre-concentration approach. Activity levels of (137)Cs ranges from 0.09-1.30Bqm(-3) with an overall mean of 0.69±0.29Bqm(-3). Latitudinal variation and higher depletion in activity concentration of (137)Cs at few locations were observed. Temporal change of (137)Cs in sea water along Indian coast unveils a lower effective half-life of 13.8±0.7y in comparison to Asia Pacific regional sea water. The results prevailed that the spatial distribution confers no fresh input of (137)Cs in Indian coastal region.

  12. Evaluating the performance of selective-bred lines of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at different locations along the east coast of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of the economically important eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica have been severely affected in the last few decades by diseases such as Dermo, MSX, SSO, and ROD. As the demand for a fast-growing, disease-resistant oyster increases, so has the need for effective breeding programs that...

  13. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  14. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  15. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle.

  16. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  17. Prehistoric "fish-eaters" along the eastern Arabian coasts: dental variation, morphology, and oral health in the Ra's al-Hamra community (Qurum, sultanate of Oman, 5th-4th millennia BC).

    PubMed

    Macchiarelli, R

    1989-04-01

    The Ra's al-Hamra prehistoric fishermen lived in isolation on the Qurum rocky promontorium in Oman during the 5th-4th millennia BC. To date, they represent the most ancient and numerous human fossil group excavated from the Arabian peninsula. Like other contemporaneous archaeologically documented small communities along the desert Arabian coasts, they intensively exploited ocean resources and collected molluscs from nearby mangrove swamps. The present study analyzes aspects of dental anthropology (including crown variation, morphology, dental wear, and oral health), in 600 permanent teeth from 49 individuals of both sexes excavated at the Mesolithic RH5-site by the Italian Archaeological Mission in Oman from 1981 to 1985. In association with a general low degree of morphometric variation, the Ra's al-Hamra dental crowns show low sexual dimorphism and are consistently reduced in size. These features are unexpected in a preagricultural population, especially when these data are compared to other eastern African and near Middle Eastern prehistoric populations. These data are discussed within the general context of human dental structural reduction occurring during the post-Pleistocene and are interpreted according to the "increasing population density effect" model. There are other significant differences that characterize the Ra's al-Hamra dentitions with respect to both eastern and western prehistoric human groups. The frequency of numerous nonmetric crown traits supports the hypothesis that a microdifferentiation phenomenon occurred in this marginal area. The preliminary skeletal analysis and the palaeodemographic profile show that the Omani prehistoric fishermen were affected by genetic isolation and inbreeding as well as strong environmental stress. Because of the grit assimilated with dried fish and the high shellfish consumption, dental wear was extreme in all age groups at Ra's al-Hamra and occasionally was responsible for serious hematogenously spread

  18. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  19. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  20. Structural and molecular characterization of Kudoa quraishii n. sp. from the trunk muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciforme, Scombridae) in Saudi Arabia coasts.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abd-Elkader, Omar H; Alwasel, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al Omar, Suliman Y

    2014-04-01

    A new Myxozoa, Kudoa quraishii n. sp., is reported in the striated muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. Mean prevalence of infection is about 20% and varies between localities. The parasite develops whitish and oval or rounded pseudocysts of 0.2-3 mm in the striated muscles of the body. Pseudocysts are filled with mature spores. Myxospores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges and ovoid in side view. Each spore is formed by four equal shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Polar capsules are pyriform in apical view and drop-like in side view. Myxospore measurements in micrometers are 6.14 (5.9-6.34) in width, 5.48 (5.3-5.71) in thickness, and 4.27 (4.1-4.42) in length. Polar capsule measurements in apical view in micrometers are 2.08 (1.88-2.28) and 1.31 (1.10-1.52) length by width. Molecular analysis based on SSU rDNA gene shows closest association with K. amamiensis and K. kenti with respectively 98 and 97.2% of similarities.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient.

  2. Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

  3. Crustal structure and magnetic lineation along two geo-traverses from western continental margin of India to Eastern Somali Basin, NW Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, A. K.; Anshu, A.; Sreejith, K.; Pandey, A.

    2012-12-01

    Shipborne gravity and magnetic data along two parallel geo-traverses spanning from western continental margin of India to off Seychelles are used to delineate crustal structure and magnetic pattern of major structural features - western continental margin of India, Laxmi Basin, Laxmi Ridge, Arabian Basin, slow spreading Carlsberg Ridge and Eastern Somali Basin. The seismically constrained gravity models along the geo-traverses suggest considerable variation in crustal thickness - about 38 km on continental shelf of western India to about 4 km of the Eastern Somali Basin. The Eastern Somali Basin is characterized by thin oceanic crustal thickness (~3 to 4 km) as compared to its conjugate Arabian Basin where thickness varies from 5 to 6 km. The magnetic anomalies along the geo-traverse reveal three distinct zones: (i) a zone of relative high frequency short wavelength younger anomalies over the axial parts of the Carlsberg Ridge, (ii) a zone of well developed Early Tertiary magnetic anomalies in both the Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, and (iii) relative magnetic quiet zone, between the above two zones, representing a hiatus in spreading. Based on the results, we present a comparative analysis of crustal configuration and magnetic pattern of major structural features of the study area and discuss its tectonic evolution.

  4. The First Guess: Testing predictions of coastal change from shoreline orientation and wave climate along Cape Cod and the U.S. Eastern Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, A. D.; Biolchi, L. G.; Nienhuis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Myriad factors, including sea-level rise, cross-shore sediment transport, tidal inlet mechanics, geological inheritance, and, more recently, anthropogenic activities affect the shape and rates of change of the shoreline. However, the generally smooth shape of many sandy shorelines provides a rather clear demonstration that alongshore sediment transport, through gradients in this flux, exerts a first-order control on coastal shape. Fisher (1968) has also previously observed that the mid-to-northern USA coast, spanning the Cape Cod, Long Island, New Jersey, and Delmarva shores, share many basic traits, as they are comprised of a series of erosional headlands flanked by accretionary spits and, towards their southern/western extension, increasingly disjointed barrier island chains. Here, using ~30-year hindcast wave data and modern shoreline orientations, we test the first-order prediction that alongshore sediment transport drives the long-term evolution of the shorelines of these systems. We find that, in many cases, predictions of erosion and accretion from shoreline orientation and wave climate alone match historical trends in shoreline change. These first-order predictions, however, do not explain all of the historical shoreline changes, and our analysis can highlight the regions where other processes must be invoked to understand long-term shoreline change. However, we find that changes to the shoreline orientation are sufficient to explain many well-documented locations of rapid shoreline change, further suggesting that in these locations geologic and cross-shore controls may be playing secondary roles in shoreline change.

  5. Trace metals in a sediment core from the largest mariculture base of the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Vertical distribution, speciation, and biological risk.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin

    2016-12-15

    A sediment core collected from Zhelin Bay, the biggest mariculture base of the eastern Guangdong Province, was analyzed for trace metal concentrations and chemical fractions. Average total concentrations (mg/kg) were 20.7±15.4 (Pb), 74.6±11.6 (Cr), 40.7±6.0 (Ni), 55.9±13.0 (Cu), and 169.0±11.9 (Zn), with the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn being significantly higher than their corresponding background values. We identified two vertical distribution patterns of the trace metals in the sediment core. In all sub-samples, Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction, whereas a major portion (62.2 to 95.2%) of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was strongly associated with the residual fractions. Biological risk assessment based on the mean effects range-median quotient suggests that the Zhelin Bay sediment core has a 21% probability of being toxic.

  6. Satellite-Based Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature Tendency in the Tropical Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans for the 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The 1997/98 is a strong El Nino warm event, while the 1998/99 is a moderate La Nina cold event. We have investigated surface heat budgets and sea surface temperature (SST) tendency for these two events in the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans using satellite-retrieved surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. The radiative fluxes are taken from the Goddard Satellite-retrieved Surface Radiation Budget (GSSRB), derived from radiance measurements of the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The GSSRB covers the domain 40 deg S - 4 deg N, 90 deg E-17 deg W and a period from October 1997 to December 2000. The spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg lat-long and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The turbulent fluxes are taken from Version 2 of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF-2). The GSSTF-2 has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long over global Oceans and a temporal resolution of 1 day covering the period July 1987-December 2000. Daily turbulent fluxes are derived from the S S M (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) surface wind and surface air humidity, and the SST and 2-m air temperature of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a stability-dependent bulk flux algorithm. The changes of surface heat budgets, SST and tendency, cloudiness, wind speed, and zonal wind stress of the 1997/98 El Nino relative to the1998/99 La Nina for the northern winter and spring seasons are analyzed. The relative changes of surface heat budgets and SST tendency of the two events are quite different between the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. For the tropical western Pacific, reduced solar heating (more clouds) is generally associated with decreased evaporative cooling (weaker winds), and vise versa. The changes in evaporative cooling over-compensate that of solar heating and dominate the spatial variability of the changes in net surface heating. Both solar heating and evaporative cooling offset each other to reduce

  7. Plant invasion impacts on the gross and net primary production of the salt marsh on eastern coast of China: Insights from leaf to ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Guo, Hai-Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    exotic Spartina alterniflora from North America has been rapidly invading the entire Chinese coast, while the impacts of plant invasion on the gross (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) of the coastal salt marshes were less known. In this study, we investigated the photosynthetic performance, leaf characteristics, and primary production of the exotic C4 grass and the dominant native C3 grass (Phragmites australis) in two marsh mixtures (equipped with eddy covariance systems) in the Yangtze Estuary. The light-saturated photosynthetic rate and annual peak leaf area index (LAI) of S. alterniflora was higher than that of P. australis throughout the growing season. The leaf nitrogen content of P. australis declined sharper during the latter growing season than that of S. alterniflora. The leaf-to-canopy production model with species-specific (C3 and C4 types) parameterizations could reasonably simulate the daily trends and annual GPP amount against the 3 year flux measurements from 2005 to 2007, and the modeled NPP agreed with biomass measurements from the two species during 2012. The percentage contributions of GPP between S. alterniflora and P. australis were on average 5.82:1 and 2.91:1 in the two mixtures, respectively. The annual NPP amounts from S. alterniflora were higher by approximately 1.6 times than that from P. australis. Our results suggested that higher photosynthesis efficiency, higher LAI, and longer growing season resulted in greater GPP and NPP in the exotic species relative to the native species. The rapid expansion rate of S. alterniflora further made it the leading contributor of primary production in the salt marsh.

  8. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  9. Hanging by a coastal strand: breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Torres, Elena; Koptur, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Coastal development has led to extensive habitat destruction and the near extinction of the beach clustervine, Jacquemontia reclinata (Convolvulaceae), an endangered, perennial vine endemic to dune and coastal strand communities in south-eastern Florida. We examined the breeding system of this rare species, and observed visitors to its flowers, as part of a larger effort to document its status and facilitate its recovery. Methods Reproductively mature experimental plants were grown from seed collected from wild plants in two of the largest remaining populations. Controlled hand pollinations on potted plants were conducted to determine the level of compatibility of the species and to investigate compatibility within and between populations. Seeds from the hand pollinations were planted in soil, and they were monitored individually, recording time to seed germination (cotyledon emergence). Wild plants were observed in several of the remaining populations to determine which species visited the flowers. Key Results Hand pollination and seed planting experiments indicate that J. reclinata has a mixed mating system: flowers are able to set fruit with viable seeds with self-pollen, but outcross pollen produces significantly greater fruit and seed set than self-pollen (≥50 % for crosses vs. <25 % for self-pollinations). Visitors included a wide array of insect species, primarily of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All visitors captured and examined carried J. reclinata pollen, and usually several other types of pollen. Conclusions Remnant populations of beach clustervine will have greater reproductive success not only if floral visitor populations are maintained, but also if movement of either pollen or seed takes place between populations. Restoration efforts should include provisions for the establishment and maintenance of pollinator populations. PMID:19797424

  10. Pseudofaults and associated seamounts in the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins, NW Indian Ocean - New constraints from high-resolution satellite-derived gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Chaubey, A. K.; Mishra, Akhil; Kumar, Shravan; Rajawat, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Marine gravity data derived from satellite altimeters are effective tools in mapping fine-scale tectonic features of the ocean basins such as pseudofaults, fracture zones and seamounts, particularly when the ocean basins are carpeted with thick sediments. We use high-resolution satellite-generated gravity and seismic reflection data to map boundaries of pseudofaults and transferred crust related to the Paleocene spreading ridge propagation in the Arabian and its conjugate Eastern Somali basins. The study has provided refinement in the position of previously reported pseudofaults and their spatial extensions in the conjugate basins. It is observed that the transferred crustal block bounded by inner pseudofault and failed spreading ridge is characterized by a gravity low and rugged basement. The refined satellite gravity image of the Arabian Basin also revealed three seamounts in close proximity to the pseudofaults, which were not reported earlier. In the Eastern Somali Basin, seamounts are aligned along NE-SW direction forming ∼300 km long seamount chain. Admittance analysis and Flexural model studies indicated that the seamount chain is isostatically compensated locally with Effective Elastic Thickness (Te) of 3-4 km. Based on the present results and published plate tectonic models, we interpret that the seamounts in the Arabian Basin are formed by spreading ridge propagation and are associated with pseudofaults, whereas the seamount chain in the Eastern Somali Basin might have probably originated due to melting and upwelling of upper mantle heterogeneities in advance of migrating/propagating paleo Carlsberg Ridge.

  11. Dynamical analysis of the Indian Ocean climate network and its correlation with Australian Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Laura; Masoller, Cristina; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2015-04-01

    During the period between the mid-1990s and late 2000s Australia had suffered one of the worst droughts on record. Severe rainfall deficits affected great part of southeast Australia, causing widespread drought conditions and catastrophic bushfires. The "Millennium Drought", as it was called, was unusual in terms of its severity, duration and extent, leaving important environmental and financial damages. One of the most important drivers of Australia climate variability is the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), that is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The IOD is measured by an index (DMI) that is the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Its positive phase is characterized by lower than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern coast, and higher than normal in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events are associated to severe droughts in countries located over the eastern Indian Ocean, and to severe floods in the western tropical ones. Recent research works projected that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase significantly over the twenty-first century and consequently, the frequency of extreme climate conditions in the zones affected by it. In this work we study the dynamics of the Indian Ocean for the period of 1979-2014, by using climate networks of skin temperature and humidity (reanalysis data). Annual networks are constructed by creating links when the Pearson correlation coefficient between two nodes is greater than a specific value. The distance distribution Pd(k), that indicates the fraction of pairs of nodes at distance k, is computed to characterize the dynamics of the network by using Information Theory quantifiers. We found a clear change in the Indian Ocean dynamics and an increment in the network's similarities quantified by the Jensen-Shannon divergence in the late 1990s. We speculate that

  12. Factors influencing spatio-temporal variation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from a tropical mangrove of eastern coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Rita; Datta, Arindam; Ramanathan, AL.; Adhya, T. K.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the seasonal and tidal variation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from the intertidal sediment of Bhitarkanika mangrove in the east coast of India. Seasonal variability study was conducted at five sites (three replicate of each site) inside the core area of the national park during three different seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) whereas tidal variation was studied at three different sites outside the core area during monsoon and winter season. Both CH4 and N2O emission from the intertidal sediment were significantly higher under the low tide condition during the winter season. During the study period CH4 emission from five different sites was ranged between 0.08 and 2.30 mg m-2 h-1 and the N2O emission was ranged between 9.0 and 187.58 μg m-2 h-1. Average seasonal N2O emission (μg m-2 h-1) from five different sites followed the order: winter (115.60 ± 21.90) > summer (45.29 ± 7.78) > monsoon (16.98 ± 2.54). CH4 and N2O emission was also recorded significantly higher during the winter season over the tidal cycle of three sampling locations. The CH4 emission was negatively correlated with sediment salinity (r = -0.91, P < 0.05) and SO4-2 (r = -0.89, P < 0.05) concentration whereas; the N2O emission was positively correlated with sediment salinity (r = 0.48) and NO3--N (r = 0.88, P < 0.05) concentration during the monsoon season. Positive correlation of N2O emission with the sediment NO3--N indicates possible influence of upstream anthropogenic activities on N2O emission from the mangrove sediment. In general, methylamine utilizing methanogen and denitrifying bacterial population was significantly higher during winter season in the mangrove sediment. The study concludes that the CH4 and N2O emission from the sediment at different sites during different seasons are influenced by allochthonous carbon and nitrogenous materials.

  13. Recent evolution of surge-related events and assessment of coastal flooding risk on the eastern coasts of the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirazzoli, Paolo Antonio; Costa, Stéphane; Dornbusch, Uwe; Tomasin, Alberto

    2006-12-01

    This paper is based on statistical analysis of hourly tide measurements for some 285 equivalent full years from the stations of Weymouth, Bournemouth, Portsmouth, Newhaven, Dover and Sheerness in the UK, and of Cherbourg, Le Havre, Dieppe, Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk in France. For each tidal value, surge heights have been determined and correlated with hourly or three-hourly wind and air pressure data from nearby meteorological stations. Major surges in the area are generally produced by storms associated with wind from north-west or south-west that tend to push oceanic water into the Channel. Recent medium-term climate evolution does not seem to increase the flooding risk at French stations, where surge-related winds tend to decrease in frequency and speed (Cherbourg, Dieppe and Boulogne) or show little change (Le Havre). However, the long-term risk of flooding will increase through the loss in land elevation due to a continuation of the local relative sea-level rise, especially if this effect will be enhanced by an acceleration in the global sea-level rise predicted by climatic models. The northern side of the Channel (Weymouth, Bournemouth and Portsmouth) is mainly exposed to southerly winds that show variable trends. It is also apparently affected by strong subsidence trends during the last two decades. If lasting, such trends can only increase long-term flooding risk. The flooding risk has not increased near the eastern end of the Channel. The duration of significant cyclonic events tends to decrease near Cherbourg but tends to increase near Weymouth, with no conclusive trends in other stations (Portsmouth, Calais and Dunkirk), where extreme surges may occur also in relatively high-air-pressure situations. In conclusion, medium-term coastal flooding risk seems to increase especially at Weymouth, Bournemouth and Portsmouth, and also, but less so, at Le Havre and Sheerness. In addition, few extreme surges occurred during the last decades at the time of spring

  14. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.

  15. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  16. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  18. Changes in intensity of the regional Hadley cell in Indian Ocean and its impacts on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of changes in the intensity of the regional Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding regions are investigated during the period 1979-2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific region, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon-ENSO-Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM.

  19. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  20. Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert Proctor

    Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

  1. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  2. Structural Evolution of the India-Arabia Plate Boundary from Miocene to Present-Day (NW Indian Ocean) and Comparison with the Dead Sea Fault (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen-Murray Ridge (OMR) for the India-Arabia plate boundary. This discrepancy between the age of the active strike-slip systems and the age of inception of strike-slip motion raises the question of the kinematic driver for the transition between successive generations of strike-slip faults. Using a recent mutibeam and seismic dataset crossing the OFZ and the OMR, we provide a new geodynamic framework for the Miocene to present-day structural evolution of the India-Arabia plate boundary, and highlight some similarities with the structural evolution of the DST. We first document a Late Miocene episode of uplift of the OMR uplift along the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary. The onset of this uplift is coeval with a plate reorganization event marked by the onset of intra-plate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The OFZ emplaced around 3 Ma, with major pull-apart basins opening (20°N Basin, Dalrymple Trough) dated at 2.4 Ma by far-field correlation with ODP Sites. The opening of pull-apart basins is coeval with the last structural reorganization of the Makran accretionnary wedge, marked by the regional M-unconformity, and with a major intensification of the Indian monsoon. A Late Miocene episode of folding is also recognized at the Lebanon ranges prior to the onset of the present-day DST, which occurred in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The similarities between the geological history of the India-Arabia plate boundary and the DST in the Late Miocene and the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene suggest that both plate boundaries recorded the same kinematic changes. Late Miocene (i.e. Tortonian) deformation is widely

  3. Solution structure of BTK-2, a novel hK(v)1.1 inhibiting scorpion toxin, from the eastern Indian scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Senthil; Upadhyay, Sanjeev; Mathew, M K; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2011-04-01

    The three dimensional structure of a 32 residue three disulfide scorpion toxin, BTK-2, from the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus has been determined using isotope edited solution NMR methods. Samples for structural and electrophysiological studies were prepared using recombinant DNA methods. Electrophysiological studies show that the peptide is active against hK(v)1.1 channels. The structure of BTK-2 was determined using 373 distance restraints from NOE data, 66 dihedral angle restraints from NOE, chemical shift and scalar coupling data, 6 constraints based on disulfide linkages and 8 constraints based on hydrogen bonds. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d) about the averaged co-ordinates of the backbone (N, C(α), C') and all heavy atoms are 0.81 ± 0.23Å and 1.51 ± 0.29Å respectively. The backbone dihedral angles (ϕ and ψ) for all residues occupy the favorable and allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The three dimensional structure of BTK-2 is composed of three well defined secondary structural regions that constitute the α-β-β structural motif. Comparisons between the structure of BTK-2 and other closely related scorpion toxins pointed towards distinct differences in surface properties that provide insights into the structure-function relationships among this important class of voltage-gated potassium channel inhibiting peptides.

  4. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liao, Shiyu; Qi, Xuebin; Liu, Jiewei; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of an Asian-specific Y-chromosome lineage (O2a1-M95)—the dominant paternal lineage in Austro-Asiatic (AA) speaking populations, who are found on both sides of the Bay of Bengal—led to two competing hypothesis of this group’s geographic origin and migratory routes. One hypothesis posits the origin of the AA speakers in India and an eastward dispersal to Southeast Asia, while the other places an origin in Southeast Asia with westward dispersal to India. Here, we collected samples of AA-speaking populations from mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and southern China, and genotyped 16 Y-STRs of 343 males who belong to the O2a1-M95 lineage. Combining our samples with previous data, we analyzed both the Y-chromosome and mtDNA diversities. We generated a comprehensive picture of the O2a1-M95 lineage in Asia. We demonstrated that the O2a1-M95 lineage originated in the southern East Asia among the Daic-speaking populations ~20–40 thousand years ago and then dispersed southward to Southeast Asia after the Last Glacial Maximum before moving westward to the Indian subcontinent. This migration resulted in the current distribution of this Y-chromosome lineage in the AA-speaking populations. Further analysis of mtDNA diversity showed a different pattern, supporting a previously proposed sex-biased admixture of the AA-speaking populations in India. PMID:26482917

  5. Termination and the Eastern Band of Cherokees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, John R.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s, local factors helped the Eastern Cherokees to resist termination of tribal status and federal responsibilities in Indian affairs. Factors include the belief that area tourism depended on Cherokee tribal identity, reluctance of local public schools to accept Indian students, and the band's complex legal status and…

  6. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  7. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  8. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  9. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  10. 33 CFR 167.153 - Off New York: Eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach. 167.153 Section 167.153 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.153 Off New York: Eastern approach. (a)...

  11. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  12. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  13. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the San Joaquin valley. Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, warmed by the morning sun, are visible through the marine stratus ... bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; San Diego is at ...

  14. Hurricane Linda Off the Baja Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie captures Hurricane Linda moving off the Baja California coast in September 1997. The strongest hurricane on record for the eastern Pacific at that time, Hurricane Linda invaded Southern California with winds that had gusted to 105 mph (174 kph). While off the coast of Mexico, her winds gusted up to 220 mph (354 kph). Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  15. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  16. Two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Satoru; Tozuka, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is known as a climate mode in the tropical Indian Ocean accompanied by negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the eastern (western) pole during its positive phase. However, the western pole of the IOD is not always covered totally by positive SST anomalies. For this reason, the IOD is further classified into two types in this study based on SST anomalies in the western pole. The first type (hereafter "canonical IOD") is associated with negative (positive) SST anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean. The second type (hereafter "IOD Modoki"), on the other hand, is associated with negative SST anomalies in the eastern and western tropical Indian Ocean and positive SST anomalies in the central tropical Indian Ocean. Based on composite analyses, it is found that easterly wind anomalies cover the whole equatorial Indian Ocean in the canonical IOD, and as a result, positive rainfall anomalies are observed over East Africa. Also, due to the basin-wide easterly wind anomalies, the canonical IOD is accompanied by strong sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. In contrast, zonal wind anomalies converge in the central tropical Indian Ocean in the IOD Modoki, and no significant precipitation anomalies are found over East Africa. Also, only weak SSH anomalies are seen, because equatorial downwelling anomalies induced by westerly wind anomalies in the west are counteracted by equatorial upwelling anomalies caused by easterly wind anomalies in the east.

  17. Eastern South African hydroclimate over the past 270,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Margit H.; Ziegler, Martin; Bosmans, Joyce; Barker, Stephen; Reason, Chris J.C.; Hall, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Processes that control the hydrological balance in eastern South Africa on orbital to millennial timescales remain poorly understood because proxy records documenting its variability at high resolution are scarce. In this work, we present a detailed 270,000 year-long record of terrestrial climate variability in the KwaZulu-Natal province based on elemental ratios of Fe/K from the southwest Indian Ocean, derived from X-ray fluorescence core scanning. Eastern South African climate variability on these time scales reflects both the long-term effect of regional insolation changes driven by orbital precession and the effects associated with high-latitude abrupt climate forcing over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles, including millennial-scale events not previously identified. Rapid changes towards more humid conditions in eastern South Africa as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling were potentially driven by a combination of warming in the Agulhas Current and shifts of the subtropical anticyclones. These climate oscillations appear coherent with other Southern Hemisphere records but are anti-phased with respect to the East Asian Monsoon. Numerical modelling results reveal that higher precipitation in the KwaZulu-Natal province during precession maxima is driven by a combination of increased local evaporation and elevated moisture transport into eastern South Africa from the coast of Mozambique. PMID:26686943

  18. Interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon associated with the air-sea feedback in the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Huang, Bohua

    2016-03-01

    Using observation-based analyses, this study identifies the leading interannual pattern of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) independent of ENSO and examines the potential mechanisms of its formation. For this purpose, an objective procedure is used to isolate the variability of the summer precipitation associated with the contemporary ENSO state and in previous winter-spring, which influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region in opposite ways. It is shown that the leading pattern of these ENSO-related monsoon rainfall anomalies reproduces some major ISMR features and well represents its connections to the global-scale ENSO features in both lower and upper troposphere. On the other hand, the leading pattern derived from the precipitation anomalies with the ENSO component removed in the ISM and surrounding region also accounts for a substantial amount of the monsoon precipitation centered at the eastern coast of the subtropical Arabian Sea, extending into both the western Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. The associated atmospheric circulation change is regional in nature, mostly confined in the lower to mid troposphere centered in the Arabian Sea, with a mild connection to an opposite tendency centered at the South China Sea. Further analyses show that this regional pattern is associated with a thermodynamic air-sea feedback during early to mid summer season. Specifically, before the monsoon onset, an anomalous atmospheric high pressure over the Arabian Sea causes excessive shortwave radiation to the sea surface and increases SST in May. The warm SST anomalies peak in June and reduce the sea level pressure. The anomalous cyclonic circulation generates regional convection and precipitation, which also induces subsidence and anticyclonic circulation over the South China Sea. The combined cyclonic-anticyclonic circulation further transport moisture from the western Pacific into the Indian Ocean and causes its convergence into the Arabian Sea. As a

  19. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  20. Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lauren M.; Goodman, Steven M.; Nowak, Michael D.; Weisrock, David W.; Yoder, Anne D.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species. PMID:21479256

  1. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  2. Eastern Pacific and central Pacific types of ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying

    In this study, I identify and contrast two types of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO): one located in the eastern Pacific near the South American coast (i.e. EP-ENSO), and the other in the central Pacific close to the date line (i.e. CP-ENSO). The EP-ENSO possesses the properties of the canonical ENSO and is related to thermocline variations. It is characterized by basin-wide surface and subsurface evolution, coupled with Southern Oscillation and dominated by 2 to 4 year timescale. In contrast, the CP-ENSO is characterized by in-situ evolution and local atmosphere-ocean coupling, and is likely driven by atmospheric forcing. From an upper-ocean heat budget analysis, the CP-ENSO is found to be related to the trade wind forcing associated with the variations of the northern subtropical high. Wind-induced surface heat flux forcing first warms up the upper ocean temperature in the Northeastern Subtropical Pacific. The SST anomalies later spread toward the central equatorial Pacific through heat-flux forcing and vertical advection processes, are further enhanced by zonal advection, and eventually terminate by surface heat flux. The budget results suggest a possible interaction pathway between the north-eastern subtropics and central equatorial Pacific. The CP-ENSO is dominated by a quasi-biennial (˜2.5 yr) periodicity that is also found in subtropical high and Asian-Australian monsoon variability. The possible linkage between CP-ENSO and monsoon variability is demonstrated by an Indian Ocean-decoupled experiment using a coupled GCM. The biennial CP-ENSO in the model is significantly reduced when the Indian Ocean coupling is turned off to weaken the biennial monsoon variability. This study suggests the existence of a distinct CP-ENSO that is a result of interactions among Asian-Australian monsoon, northern subtropical Pacific and central equatorial Pacific.

  3. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  4. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  5. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  6. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  7. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Salmon...

  8. Psychotherapy and Culture: Healing in the Indian Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakar, Sudhir

    The study of various Indian traditions for the healing of emotional disorders has clarified two issues: the universality of human concerns that underlie emotional illness and the relativity of all psychotherapeutic endeavors, Eastern and Western. It is increasingly evident that Indian patients--whether Hindu, Muslim, or tribal--are engaged in the…

  9. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  10. An Analysis of the ENSO Signal in the Tropical Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    1997-03-01

    This article examines the time-space evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal in the tropical Atlantic and western Indian Oceans, using harmonic analysis. Composites of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and other variables are examined for a 24-month period beginning 6 months prior to the year of maximum warming in the Pacific (termed year 0). An ENSO signal is apparent in the Atlantic in six out of eight Pacific episodes and in the Indian Ocean in all eight episodes. Warming begins along the south-eastern Atlantic coast early in year 0, some months later elsewhere in the Atlantic and in the Indian Ocean. Maximum warming occurs in the Atlantic in October-December of year 0, but in the following January-March in the Indian Ocean.In these oceans a cold phase occurs synchronously with the first half of the Pacific episode (July of year -1 to June of year 0, in the Rasmusson-Carpenter terminology), a warm phase with the second half. Maximum cooling is 1 year prior to maximum warming in both oceans. In the Atlantic the cold phase occurs most consistently; in the Indian Ocean the warm phase occurs most consistently. There is a season-by-season reversal of SST anomalies and, to a lesser extent, pressure anomalies between the cold and warm phases. This is the basis for the biennial component of the ENSO signal.Our results indicate that the ENSO signal in African rainfall variability is a manifestation of ENSO's influence on SSTs in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and, in turn, their influence on rainfall. The cold and warm phases correspond roughly to enhanced and reduced rainfall over the African continent, respectively. A similar reversal of rainfall anomalies is apparent season-by-season during these phases. The timing of the warming and cooling is relatively constant in the Indian Ocean. However, the onset of the warming and cooling in the south and equatorial Atlantic occurs progressively later from south to north, thus the signal propagates northward

  11. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  12. Precessional forced evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Chen, JunMing; Xiao, Dong

    2015-05-01

    In a transient accelerated simulation of a coupled climate model, we identified a zonal dipole-like pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean, which is forced by precessional insolation changes since 300 ka and named as the paleo-IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole). A positive paleo-IOD mean state at 23 kyr precessional band exhibits warmer and wetter conditions over the western Indian Ocean and cooler and drier conditions over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean from August to October. This zonal thermal seesaw at the sea surface can extend downward to the subsurface ocean between 60 and 80 m and accompanies stronger oceanic upwelling in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. The associated boreal summer-autumn tropospheric circulation anomalies are characterized by anomalous ascent over the western Indian Ocean and anomalous descent over the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean, with anomalous easterlies at the surface along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The positive paleo-IOD largely originates from local air-sea interactions that are induced by the increased summer insolation, and is also contributed by the reduced boreal winter insolation through an oceanic "heat memory effect." Our simulated dipole mode index (DMI) of SST is qualitatively consistent with the paleoceanographic reconstructed DMI based on the UK37 proxy of SST at precessional band and provides a possible explanation for the in-phase precessional variation between boreal winter insolation and the UK37 proxy of SST in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean.

  13. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  14. 33 CFR 167.154 - Off New York: South-eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.154 Off New York: South-eastern approach... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: South-eastern approach. 167.154 Section 167.154 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  16. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  17. The Use of Oral Literature to Provide Community Health Education on the Southern Northwest Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nile Robert; Sloat, C. Dale

    2004-01-01

    Among the American Indians of western Washington State and northwest Oregon, stories have served as educational tools by presenting lessons concerning the traditional culture. Several types of instruction have been noted in the oral literature of these Indians of the Southern Northwest Coast. Today these stories present another type of insight and…

  18. An Indian Ocean precursor for Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, O. P.; Panickal, S.; Pai, S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) depicts large interannual variability strongly linked with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, many of the El Niño years were not accompanied by deficient ISMR. The results from the study reveal the significant role of coupled air-sea interaction over the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) in modifying the ENSO-ISMR association. The IO warm water volume (WWV), a measure of heat content variations in the equatorial IO has strong influence on ISMR. A deepening (shoaling) of thermocline in the eastern equatorial IO (EEIO) during late boreal spring (April-May) accompanied by increase (decrease) in WWV anomalies weaken (enhance) the ISMR by enhancing (suppressing) the convection over EEIO resulting in the below (above) normal ISMR. Thus, the changes in the WWV anomalies in the EEIO along with ENSO conditions during boreal spring can be considered as a precursor for the performance of subsequent ISMR.

  19. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  20. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  1. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  2. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Indian Tribes: A Continuing Quest for Survival. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Bonnie, Ed.

    Based on Commission public hearings held in 1977 through 1979 and on research conducted since 1977, this report examines state, federal, and tribal governments' role in major conflicts concerning fishing rights, reservation criminal law enforcement, and Eastern Indian land claims existing between Indian tribes and non-Indians. Chapter 1 discusses…

  4. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. The negative impacts of human activities in the eastern African region: an international waters perspective.

    PubMed

    Payet, Rolph; Obura, David

    2004-02-01

    The complex interactions between human activities and the environment at the interface of land and water is analyzed with a focus on the Somali Current (East Africa), and Indian Ocean Island States, subregions of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA). These 2 subregions contain some of the world's richest ecosystems, including the high biodiversity forests of Madagascar and the diverse coastal habitats of the eastern African coast. These ecosystems support local communities and national and regional economies. Current and future degradation of these systems, from water basins to continental shelves, affects the livelihoods and sustainability of the countries in the region, and long-term efforts to reduce poverty. The assessments determined that pollution and climate change are the primary environmental and social concerns in the Islands of the Indian Ocean, while freshwater shortage and unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources are the primary environmental and social concerns in East Africa. The GIWA approach, through assessing root causes of environmental concerns, enables the development of policy approaches for mitigating environmental degradation. This paper explores policy frameworks for mitigating the impacts, and reducing the drivers, of 3 environmental concerns--freshwater shortage; solid waste pollution; and climate change--addressing social and institutional causes and effects, and linking the subregions to broad international frameworks. The common theme in all 3 case studies is the need to develop integrated ecosystem and international waters policies, and mechanisms to manage conflicting interests and to limit threats to natural processes.

  6. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  7. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  8. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  9. Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 aerial view looking north, detail of eastern docking structure travel lift, boat house and station - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  10. Indian Ocean and Indian summer monsoon: relationships without ENSO in ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Sooraj, K. P.; Roxy, Mathew Koll

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the Indian Ocean and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and their respective influence over the Indo-Western North Pacific (WNP) region are examined in the absence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in two partially decoupled global experiments. ENSO is removed by nudging the tropical Pacific simulated sea surface temperature (SST) toward SST climatology from either observations or a fully coupled control run. The control reasonably captures the observed relationships between ENSO, ISM and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Despite weaker amplitude, IODs do exist in the absence of ENSO and are triggered by a boreal spring ocean-atmosphere coupled mode over the South-East Indian Ocean similar to that found in the presence of ENSO. These pure IODs significantly affect the tropical Indian Ocean throughout boreal summer, inducing a significant modulation of both the local Walker and Hadley cells. This meridional circulation is masked in the presence of ENSO. However, these pure IODs do not significantly influence the Indian subcontinent rainfall despite overestimated SST variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean compared to observations. On the other hand, they promote a late summer cross-equatorial quadrupole rainfall pattern linking the tropical Indian Ocean with the WNP, inducing important zonal shifts of the Walker circulation despite the absence of ENSO. Surprisingly, the interannual ISM rainfall variability is barely modified and the Indian Ocean does not force the monsoon circulation when ENSO is removed. On the contrary, the monsoon circulation significantly forces the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal SSTs, while its connection with the western tropical Indian Ocean is clearly driven by ENSO in our numerical framework. Convection and diabatic heating associated with above-normal ISM induce a strong response over the WNP, even in the absence of ENSO, favoring moisture convergence over India.

  11. Relationships between the Colonists and the Indians. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.3 is delineated as: Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers. North American Indians once had inhabited regions now contained in the United States that stretched from far north to south and from the east to the west coasts. The…

  12. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  13. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-15

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  14. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  15. Programs of Interest to Indians and Metis Administered by The Department of Regional Economic Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassirer, E.

    The primary objective of the report is to describe and clarify those departmental projects which help Indians and Metis move into the economic mainstream of Canadian life. More specifically, it examines programs used by Indians and Metis which are carried out in Western, Central, and Eastern Canada, under the Agricultural and Rural Development Act…

  16. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  17. First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetmore, Ruth Y.

    Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

  18. Threads of Nations: American Indian Graduate and Professional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Apanakhi

    An ethnographic study explored the university experiences of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) graduate and professional students at a West Coast research university. The study consisted of interviews with each participant, observations of students participating with other AI/AN students in 15 public events, and a meeting with the entire…

  19. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gullström, Martin; de la Torre Castro, Maricela; Bandeira, Salomão; Björk, Mats; Dahlberg, Mattis; Kautsky, Nils; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work

  20. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  1. In situ observations of mesoscale undercurrents off eastern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, Leandro; Aguiar-Gonzalez, Borja; Maas, Leo; van Aken, Hendrik; Nauw, Janine; Ridderinkhof, Herman

    2015-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) presents one of the most intriguing western boundary regions of all subtropical gyres. Unlike other gyres, in the SWIO the Madagascar island imposes a physical barrier to the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), which reaches the Madagascar coast between 17°S and 20°S. At this location, the SEC bifurcates into two branches: the poleward branch feeds into the East Madagascar Current (EMC), which further south will feed the Agulhas Current (AC); on the other hand, the poleward branch feeds into the North Madagascar Current (NMC), which turns around Cape Amber, at the northern tip of Madagascar, and continues westward towards the east coast of Africa. Besides the patterns of the boundary currents described above, undercurrents flowing opposite and beneath the mentioned surface currents are also reported to occur: the equatorward East Madagascar Undercurrent (EMUC) and the poleward North Madagascar Undercurrent (NMUC). This work is based on field studies of both undercurrents. We deployed a cross-slope array of five moorings at 23°S off eastern Madagascar, which was maintained from late 2010 till early 2013 (~2.5 years). A total of 6 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiles and 10 Recording Current Meters were coupled to the moorings. Direct measurements were made from near surface (~50 m) to deep in the water column (~4000 m). The observations reveal a recurring equatorward EMUC with its core hugging the continental slope, at a depth of 1260 m and at an approximate distance of 29 km from the coast. The core velocity has a mean value of 4.1 (±6.3) cm s-1, while maximum speeds reach up to 20 cm -1. The volume transport is estimated to be 1.33 (±1.14) Sv with maxima up to 6 Sv. At the northern tip of Madagascar, off Cape Ambar, we present the first observational evidence of a poleward NMUC. These results are based on a hydrographic cruise (March 2001), where vertical profiles of velocity were sampled across the continental

  2. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Carton, X.; Louazel, S.; Boutin, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Persian Gulf produces a high salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter) flowing into the Sea of Oman, in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Past the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies with different thermohaline signatures and pathways depending of the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea an in the Sea of Oman. This study uses the results from the measurements to characterize the water masses, their thermohaline and dynamical signatures. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. This structure was present in 2011 and created a front between the eastern and western part of the basin. As well two energetic gyres were present along the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, injections of fresh and cold water are found in relation with the stirring of the eddies. The PGW observed below or between these eddies have a different dilution depending of the position and formation periods of the gyres. Furthermore, in the western Sea of Oman, the PGW is fragmented in filaments and submesoscale eddies. As well, recirculation of the PGW is observed, thus having the presence of salty nearby patches with two densities. Offshore, in the Arabian Sea, a submesoscale lens was recorded. The different mechanisms leading to its formation and presence are assessed here.

  3. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  4. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  5. Variability of the southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Schouten, Mathijs W

    2005-01-15

    The variability in the southwest Indian Ocean is connected to the basin-scale and global-scale ocean circulation. Two bands of enhanced variability stretch across the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar around 12 degrees S and 25 degrees S, respectively. They mark the preferred routes along which anomalies, generated by varying forcing over the central basin, near the eastern boundary or in the equatorial region, propagate westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. Sea-surface height anomalies pass along the northern tip of Madagascar and are observed by satellite altimetry to propagate into the central Mozambique Channel. There, eddies are subsequently formed that propagate southward into the Agulhas retroflection region. The anomalies along the southern band trigger the formation of large dipolar vortex pairs in the separation region of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island. South of Africa these eddies and dipoles trigger the shedding of Agulhas Rings that feed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with warm, salty, Indian Ocean water. Interannual variability of the forcing over the Indian Ocean, such as that associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole/El Nino climate modes, propagates along these pathways and leads to associated modulations of the eddy transports into the South Atlantic.

  6. Deciphering Detailed Plate Kinematics of the Indian Ocean: A Combined Indian-Australian-French Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadakkeyakath, Y.; Müller, R.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.; Lister, G. S.; Kattoju, K. R.; Whittaker, J.; Shuhail, M.; Gibbons, A.; Jacob, J.; White, L. T.; Bissessur, P. D.; Kiranmai, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Indian Ocean formed as a result of the fragmentation and dispersal of East Gondwanaland since the Jurassic. The deep ocean basins in the Indian Ocean contain the imprints of this plate tectonic history, which is related with several major events such as the Kerguelen, Marion and Reunion hotspot inception and the Indo-Eurasian collision. A broad model for evolution of the Indian Ocean was proposed in the early 1980s. Subsequently, French scientists collected a large amount of magnetic data from the western and southern parts of the Indian Ocean while Indian and Australian scientists collected considerable volumes of magnetic data from the regions of Indian Ocean around their mainlands. Using these data, the Indian, French and Australian researchers independently carried out investigations over different parts of the Indian Ocean and provided improved models of plate kinematics at different sectoral plate boundaries. Under two Indo-French collaborative projects, detailed magnetic investigations were carried out in the Northwestern and Central Indian Ocean by combining the available magnetic data from conjugate regions. Those projects were complemented by additional area-specific studies in the Mascarene, Wharton, Laxmi and Gop basins, which are characterized by extinct spreading regimes. These Indo-French projects provided high resolution and improved plate tectonic models for the evolution of the conjugate Arabian and Eastern Somali basins that constrain the relative motion between the Indian-African (now Indian-Somalian) plate boundaries, and the conjugate Central Indian, Crozet and Madagascar basins that mainly constrain the relative motions of Indian-African (now Capricorn-Somalian) and Indian-Antarctic (now Capricorn-Antarctic) plate boundaries. During the same period, Australian scientists carried out investigations in the southeastern part of the Indian Ocean and provided an improved understanding of the plate tectonic evolution of the Indian

  7. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  8. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  9. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  10. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  11. Indians in Minneapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Richard G.

    The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

  12. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  13. Oceans and Coasts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  14. The Indian Wars and National Military Strategy After 1865

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    1858 triggered the Pike’s Peak gold rush and led to the founding of Denver. On the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada, discovery of the Comstock Lode...protect those borders. * Given this, the Black Hi 1 Is gold rush was on and open warfare resulted between whites and Indians, This in turn would

  15. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  16. Biomonitoring along the Tropical Southern Indian Coast with Multiple Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Vignesh, Sivanandham; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Muthukumar, Krishnan; Vignesh, Gopalaswamy; James, Rathinam Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the spatial and temporal variations of pollution indicators and geochemical and trace metal parameters (23 in total) from water and sediment (144 samples) of three different eco-niches (beach, fishing harbor, and estuary) in larger coastal cities of southern India (Cuddalore and Pondicherry) for one year. A total of 120 marine Pseudomonas isolates were challenged against different concentrations of copper solutions and 10 different antibiotics in heavy metal and antibiotic resistance approaches, respectively. The study shows that 4.16% of the isolates could survive in 250 mM of copper; 70% were resistant to minimum concentrations. Strains were resistant (98.4%) to at least one antibiotic in Cuddalore compared to the Pondicherry (78.4%) region. Pollution index (PI) (0–14.55) and antibiotic resistance index (ARI) (0.05–0.10) ratio indicated that high bacterial and antibiotic loads were released into the coastal environment. The degree of trace metal contamination in sediments were calculated by enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Statistical parameters like two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, factor analysis and scatter matrix tools were employed between the 23 parameters in order to find sources, pathways, disparities and interactions of environmental pollutants. It indicates that geochemical and biological parameters were not strongly associated with each other (except a few) and were affected by different sources. Factor analysis elucidated, ‘microbe–metal’ interaction (Factor 1–48.86%), ‘anthropogenic’ factor (Factor 2–13.23%) and ‘Pseudomonas–Cadmium’ factor (Factor 3–11.74%), respectively. PMID:27941969

  17. Biology, fishery, conservation and management of Indian Ocean tuna fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai, N.; Satheeshkumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is to explore the recent trend of the world tuna fishery with special reference to the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries and its conservation and sustainable management. In the Indian Ocean, tuna catches have increased rapidly from about 179959 t in 1980 to about 832246 t in 1995. They have continued to increase up to 2005; the catch that year was 1201465 t, forming about 26% of the world catch. Since 2006 onwards there has been a decline in the volume of catches and in 2008 the catch was only 913625 t. The Principal species caught in the Indian Ocean are skipjack and yellowfin. Western Indian Ocean contributed 78.2% and eastern Indian Ocean 21.8% of the total tuna production from the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean stock is currently overfished and IOTC has made some recommendations for management regulations aimed at sustaining the tuna stock. Fishing operations can cause ecological impacts of different types: by catches, damage of the habitat, mortalities caused by lost or discarded gear, pollution, generation of marine debris, etc. Periodic reassessment of the tuna potential is also required with adequate inputs from exploratory surveys as well as commercial landings and this may prevent any unsustainable trends in the development of the tuna fishing industry in the Indian Ocean.

  18. The positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-02-04

    Climate models project a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD)-like SST response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming. By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of the formation mechanisms for the changes in the tropical Indian Ocean during the pIOD versus global warming. Results show that their formation processes and related seasonality are quite similar; in particular, the Bjerknes feedback is the leading mechanism in producing the anomalous cooling over the eastern tropics in both cases. Some differences are also found, including that the cooling effect of the vertical advection over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is dominated by the anomalous vertical velocity during the pIOD while it is dominated by the anomalous upper-ocean stratification under global warming. Lastly, these findings above are further examined with an analysis of the mixed layer heat budget.

  19. The positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; ...

    2016-02-04

    Climate models project a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD)-like SST response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming. By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of the formation mechanisms for the changes in the tropical Indian Ocean during the pIOD versus global warming. Results show that their formation processes and related seasonality are quite similar; in particular, the Bjerknes feedback is the leading mechanism in producing the anomalous cooling over the eastern tropics in both cases.more » Some differences are also found, including that the cooling effect of the vertical advection over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is dominated by the anomalous vertical velocity during the pIOD while it is dominated by the anomalous upper-ocean stratification under global warming. Lastly, these findings above are further examined with an analysis of the mixed layer heat budget.« less

  20. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  1. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1314 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...

  3. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Vedula, VSS

    2012-07-01

    The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

  5. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  6. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  7. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  8. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  9. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710,...

  10. Developing triploid (3X) apomictic eastern gamagrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass is a perennial warm-season bunchgrass native from Oklahoma and the Texas pan-handle to the east coast and has long been recognized as a highly productive and palatable forage. In 2004 a breeding project was initiated to develop a novel set of triploid (3X) true breeding apomictic ...

  11. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  12. Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    installment of a maritime strategy, Indian strategy has been expanding since India’s partition from the British Empire. India appears poised to assume...After partition it did not represent a totally Indian force, as almost all of its top leadership and most of its strategic planning was conducted by the...arm of the Royal navy and after the partition of the subcontinent and the Royal Indian Naval force, India possessed four sloops, two frigates, one

  13. A new species of Agelas from the Zanzibar Archipelago, western Indian Ocean (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    PubMed Central

    Manconi, Renata; Pronzato, Roberto; Perino, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new sponge species (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the eastern coast of Unguja Island in the Zanzibar Archipelago. Agelas sansibarica sp. n. is compared to all other Agelas species described so far. The new species differs from its congeners mainly in its three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles, and acanthoxeas) and their sizes. Acanthostrongyles, well represented in the spicular complement, are an exclusive trait of the new species widening the morphological range of the genus. Summarizing on spicular complement and spicular morphotraits of 36 species belonging to the genus Agelas: i) 32 species show only acanthostyles from Indo-Pacific (n = 14), Atlantic (n = 17), and Mediterranean (n = 1); ii) three Indo-Pacific species show acanthostyles and acanthoxeas; iii) one species Agelas sansibarica sp. n. from the western Indian Ocean is characterised by the unique trait of three categories of verticillate spicules (acanthostyles, acanthostrongyles and acanthoxeas). A key for the Indo-Pacific species is supplied together with short descriptions, illustrations, and geographic range; literature on chemical bioprospecting of the genus Agelas is also provided. PMID:26877669

  14. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

  15. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  16. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  17. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  18. PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS OF THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN THE UPPER CHESAPEAKE BAY: A POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL FORECAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni cause devasting infections in populations of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, along the US Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Salinity and temperature are considered major controlling factors in the prevalence and infection i...

  19. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  20. Mozambique Coast, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The serene coastline of Mozambique (17.0S, 39.5E) Africa and the Indian Ocean offer some of the best beaches and recreational diving water in the world. Offshore reefs provide interesting coral formations that host a wide variety of marine life. Inland, the coastal savannas of this tropical nation are filled with a wide range of wildlife in some of the last animal refuges on the African continent.

  1. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  2. Tsunami Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk assessment for the coast of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; MArtínez, Jara; Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Fernandez, Felipe; Medina, Raúl; Al-Yahyai, Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, and causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructures around the world. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of new methodologies in this field. This work presents the methodology that has been followed for developing the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment for the coast of Oman, including maps containing the results of the process. Oman is located in the south eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula and of the Arabian plate, in front of the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ), which is the major source of earthquakes in the eastern border of the Arabian plate and Oman (Al-Shaqsi, 2012). There are at least three historical tsunamis assigned to seismic origin in the MSZ (Heidarzadeh et al., 2008; Jordan, 2008). These events show the high potential for tsunami generation of the MSZ, being one of the most tsunamigenic zones in the Indian Ocean. For the tsunami hazard assessment, worst potential cases have been selected, as well as the historical case of 1945, when an 8.1 earthquake generated a tsunami affecting the coast of Oman, and prompting 4000 casualties in the countries of the area. These scenarios have been computationally simulated in order to get tsunami hazard maps, including flooding maps. These calculations have been carried out at national and local scale, in 9 municipalities all along the coast of Oman, including the cities of Sohar, Wudam, Sawadi, Muscat, Quriyat, Sur, Masirah, Al Duqm, and Salalah. Using the hazard assessment as input, this work presents as well an integrated framework for the tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment carried out in the Sultanate of Oman. This framework considers different dimensions (human, structural) and it is developed at two different spatial resolutions, national and local scale. The national

  3. Yakima Indian Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    This booklet was prepared by the Yakima Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, to provide information to the public on the history and customs of the Yakima Indian Nation, as well as explaining life on the Reservation today. The events mentioned range from 1775 to July 1, 1971. Since this document only skims the surface of Yakima culture and history,…

  4. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  5. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  6. The American Indian Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, George

    This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians…

  7. American Indian Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  8. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  9. Suicide in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

  10. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  11. Extreme Events: The Indian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. S.

    2008-05-01

    The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, extreme and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other extreme natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, extreme rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though

  12. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  13. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  14. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

  15. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.

  16. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  17. The shear wave velocity of the upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, Northeast Indian Ocean from interstation phase velocities of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S. N.; Mitra, Supriyo; Suresh, G.

    2013-06-01

    The Bay of Bengal evolved along the eastern margin of the Indian subcontinent about 130 Ma with the breakup of India from eastern Gondwanaland. Since then the Indian lithospheric Plate has moved northward, along with the Bay of Bengal, and eventually collided with the Eurasian Plate. The age of the lithosphere beneath the central Bay of Bengal is ˜110 Ma. We evaluate the shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the central Bay through inversion of phase velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves along two wave paths: (i) between Port Blair (PBA) and VIS (Visakhapatnam) and (ii) between DGPR (Diglipur) and VIS. The seismological observatories PBA and DGPR are located on the Andaman Island and to the east of the Bay and the observatory at VIS in located on the eastern coast of India to the west of the Bay. Using broad-band records of earthquakes, which lie along the great circle arc joining each pair of observatories, we obtain phase velocities between 20 and 240 s periods for Rayleigh waves and between 23 and 170 s for Love waves. These phase velocities are inverted to find the S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle down to 400 km. The crustal structure is based on previous studies of the Bay and kept fixed in the inversion. We obtain a radially anisotropic upper-mantle structure, where the SH-wave velocity (VSH) is greater than the SV-wave velocity (VSV) down to 400 km. The S-wave velocity decreases sharply by ˜4.5 per cent for VSV and ˜1.5 per cent for VSH at a depth 110 km, which is considered as the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary (LAB), that is, the bottom of the mantle lid. Based on recent studies, such sharp fall of S-wave velocity below the mantle lid appears to indicate a partially molten thin layer (G-discontinuity) at this depth. The thickness of the mantle lid is intermediate between oceanic and continental regions. The lid is also characterized

  18. Federal Financing of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Eric Van

    Since over 200 million Federal dollars are disbursed annually for American Indian education under Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, Indian Education Act Title IV, and Johnson O'Malley programs, it is difficult to understand the dismal state of Indian education. However, factors contributing to abuse of…

  19. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  20. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  1. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...: 2010-16214] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240, (202) 219-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of...

  2. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  3. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

    2005-12-01

    In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to

  4. Hydrogeology of eastern Michaud Flats, Fort Hall Indian Reservation, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Michaud Flats, southeastern Idaho, is developed extensively for irrigation and industry. Extensive clay beds overlie the Bighole Basalt and Sunbeam Formation, which yield most of the water for irrigation and industrial wells; artesian aquifers in these rock units have heads below land surface and near those in the shallow water-table aquifer in the overlying Michaud Gravel. Transmissivities in artesian aquifers range from 19,6000 to 444,000 feet squared per day. High levels of arsenic were detected in groundwater in the Flats in 1972. During 1982, concentrations of arsenic twice exceeded the recommended drinking water limit of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of other chemical constituents were generally within drinking water limits. Stable-isotope data suggest more than one source of aquifer recharge and indicate some mixing between waters from industrial ponds and local groundwater. Management alternatives are being implemented by two industries for control of groundwater contamination. These include reduction of effluent, installation of liners and leachate recovery systems in ponds, and removal and reclamation of precipitates in old slurry and evaporation ponds. Six sites will be monitored through 1985 to determine changes in groundwater chemistry and migration of contaminants. (USGS)

  5. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  6. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  7. The 18.6 yr nodal modulation in the tides of Southern European coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. G. P.; Tsimplis, M. N.

    2010-02-01

    The nodal modulation of the diurnal ( K1 and O1) and semi-diurnal ( M2 and K2) tidal constituents at the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic is estimated and its spatial variability mapped. Fourteen hourly tide gauge records each spanning more than 18 years are considered in this analysis. Ten tide gauges are located in the Mediterranean Sea and four in the Bay of Biscay. The nodal modulation of the most energetic tidal constituent ( M2) reaches up to 5 cm at the eastern Atlantic coasts, while within the Mediterranean Sea its modulation is in general less than 1.1 cm. The largest K2 nodal modulation found is 3.7 cm in the eastern Atlantic coasts. In the Mediterranean Sea, smaller modulation amplitudes, ranging between 0.4 and 1.4 cm are found. The K1 tide constituent has the largest amplitude nodal modulation within the Mediterranean Sea of 1.9 cm in the north Adriatic Sea, which is also larger than the modulation of this constituent at the eastern Atlantic coasts. The O1 tide constituent has the highest amplitude nodal modulation (1.4 cm) at the eastern Atlantic coasts. In the Mediterranean Sea the maximum value is 1 cm in the north Adriatic Sea. The derived nodal modulations of the diurnal and semi-diurnal constituents follow, in general, the equilibrium tidal theory. The tidal amplitudes for all four components do not indicate significant secular trends for most tide gauges. The tidal phases indicate significant negative trends for all four tidal constituents within the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  9. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  10. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  11. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  12. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  13. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  14. Coast Guard SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    community/Art%20Program/ex- hibit3/e30012a.htm). 18 JSOU Report 05-7 have prepared the Service with unique skills.” 42 Figure 2 depicts an early direct...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...FEB 2006 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coast Guard SOF 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  15. Indians on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamail, Milton H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Kickapoo have actively sought to preserve their culture at Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico, evidence of an eroding culture is found at Eagle Pass, Texas where American Indian migrant workers reside temporarily. (JC)

  16. Indian Summer for Wayfarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbronn, Kyra

    1977-01-01

    A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

  17. Geomorphic observations of rivers in the Oregon Coast Range from a regional reconnaissance perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, S.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in long profile, gradient, gradient index, pseudo-hypsometric integral, valley incision, and sinuosity fractal dimension for rivers in western Oregon were studied to determine their usefulness in assessing an hypothesis of differential uplift within the Coast Range. All data were gathered from topographic quadrangles and geologic maps, and so the results of this paper are limited to the description of river forms with only limited interpretations. Rivers were naturally divided into three groups, those in the western Coast Range, the eastern Coast Range, and the Klamath and Cascade Ranges, and differences in river morphometry were generalized. Rivers in the western Coast Range had more divergent characteristics, whereas those in the other groups were more similar within each group. For example, long profiles of western Coast Range rivers had diverse forms, but in the other groups, long profiles were similar within the group. Pseudo-hypsometric integrals had a wide scatter in the western Coast Range, but in the other ranges, the pseudo-hypsometric integral was more narrowly defined. Valley entrenchment and high sinuosity were common in the western Coast Range, and were less visible in the eastern Coast Range. These regional generalizations do not hold for the central Coast Range near 44.5??N where the Yaquina and Marys Rivers are located. In the eastern Coast Range, the Marys River is unique in that it has a convex bulge in its long profile, does not have an increasing valley-floor width to valley height ratio downstream, and has a high sinuosity fractal dimension. In the western Coast Range, the Yaquina River is unique in that it has a smoothly decreasing long profile, has a very low pseudo-hypsometric integral, and does not have a decreasing valley-floor width to valley height ratio downstream. There may be many explanations for these observations, but these observations are also consistent with tectonic interpretations that the central western Coast Range

  18. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  19. Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    NAVFAC Southwest Lora E. Morrow Deputy for Small Business NAVFAC Southwest NAVFAC Southwest Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast August...REPORT DATE 13 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast 5a...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast

  20. Isotopic and geochemical provinces of the western Indian Ocean Spreading Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. J.; Natland, J. H.; White, W. M.; Poreda, R.; Bloomer, S. H.; Fisher, R. L.; Baxter, A. N.

    1989-04-01

    Basalt glasses from the Central Indian Ridge are distinct isotopically from mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) of the Indian Ocean triple junction and western few hundred kilometers of the Southeast Indian Ridge. In particular, very low 206Pb/204Pb and high 87Sr/86Sr signatures, which characterize the latter region, are absent over most of the Central Indian Ridge. In turn, lavas from the unusually deep eastern 1100-1500 km of the Southwest Indian Ridge are different chemically and isotopically from those of the above areas. A rather abrupt eastern boundary to Southwest Indian Ridge-type compositions occurs at or very near the geographic triple junction. This provinciality in western Indian Ocean ridge basalts partly mirrors fundamental regional differences in the underlying mantle but, at least between the eastern Southwest Indian Ridge and the western Southeast Indian Ridge and triple junction, also may reflect variations in extent and depth of melting in a vertically zoned upper mantle. A pronounced low ɛNd, high 206Pb/204Pb, high 87Sr/86Sr anomaly exists on the Central Indian Ridge at the Marie Celeste Fracture Zone and on the adjacent ridge segment to the south. Despite the great distance (>1100 km) of Réunion Island from the ridge, this zone appears to demark a region of mantle containing substantial Réunion hotspotlike material. Several old (35-60 m.y.) Deep Sea Drilling Project basalts which erupted on the ancestral Central Indian Ridge also record a significant Réunion hotspotlike influence, whereas a 46-m.y.-old sample that formed farther from the presumed locus of the hotspot possesses isotopic values identical to many present (non-Marie Celeste area) Central Indian Ridge MORB. The variably expressed and/or heterogeneous low 206Pb/204Pb material partly responsible for the isotopic distinctiveness of Indian Ocean ridge basalts may have entered into the Indian MORB mantle as a result of continental lithospheric remobilization preceding the breakup of

  1. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Snowy to the north and west and cloudy to the east, this MODIS image from February 28, 2002, shows the eastern U.S. Piedmont, a region of relatively low-lying, rolling plateau that runs between New Jersey to the north and Alabama to the south. Bounded on the west by the Appalachians and on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont is fertile agricultural land, and appears to be greening up in (from bottom left) Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina, while winter has left its snowy mark on West Virginia (left of center), and to the northeast in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England.

  2. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3... Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible for... of maintenance in the school attended, when their presence will not exclude Indian pupils...

  3. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  4. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  5. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

  6. Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

  7. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  8. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  9. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  10. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  11. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  12. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are...

  13. Resources for Teaching About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Lists selected resources for teaching about American Indians available from the ERIC database. Topics of resources include Navajo history, Pacific Northwest history, Indians of Oklahoma, Indian traditions, Plains Indian culture, and Pawnee history. (AEM)

  14. Pollutant Transport During the Spring Months to the West Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) 2K2 field campaign, April 22 to May 19 2002, a wide range of chemical species were measured over the west coast of the U.S. and adjacent Pacific Ocean. Both aircraft and ground-based measurements were made. The MOZART chemical transport model driven by forecast meteorological fields was used to provide forecasts of chemical species (ozone, CO, NOx and PAN) and inert diagnostic species during the ITCT campaign. The diagnostic species provided tracers of rapid transport to the west coast of the U.S. from emission regions located in North America (over both the U.S. and Mexico), eastern Asia (including emissions from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources), the eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer and Europe. Recirculation of pollution from North America had very little effect on free-tropospheric concentrations off the west coast of the U.S. The eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer also had little impact in the free troposphere. The west coast was most directly affected by biomass burning sources and anthropogenic emission sources over Eastern Asia with occasional evidence of rapid transport from European sources. Deep and strong tropopause folds were also forecast to influence the west coast of the U.S. during ITCT, and in at least one instance were verified by the measurements. During this talk we further explore the long-range transport of pollutants to the west coast of the U.S. during spring 2002, as well as in other years over the last decade.

  15. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  16. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by…

  17. Mussel watch program for organic contaminants along the Korean coast, 2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2010-10-01

    The level and extent of organic contaminants along the Korean coast were estimated through the mussel watch program, established in 2001. Mussels and oysters were collected at 20 sites along the Korean coast in 2001 and at 25 sites from 2002 to 2007. The mussel tissues were analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine presticides, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs. PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs were ubiquitous contaminants along the Korean coast, showing mean detection frequencies of more than 95% over 7 years. The concentrations of organic contaminants in mussels along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. Concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs were below the action or maximum levels for humans established by USFDA and EU. Elevated concentrations above the 85th percentile were found for PCBs, PAHs, BTs, and PCDD/Fs at sites near industrial complexes or big harbors, for HCHs at sites near non-industrial complexes, and for DDTs at sites near both non-industrial and industrial complexes. Using two nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends, the Spearman test revealed that BTs and PCDD/Fs had significant decreasing trends at four sites (Gwangyang Bay, Cheonsu Bay, Garorym Bay, and the Incheon coast) and at six sites (Hupo coast, Guryongpo coast, eastern part of Geojedo, Gunsan coast, Garorym Bay, and Asan Bay), respectively.

  18. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  19. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the... Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada became effective upon publication of the...

  20. Teaching about Indians? Use the Real Stuff!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldkamp-Price, Betsy; Smith, David Lee

    1994-01-01

    Provides suggestions for teaching students about American Indians. Teachers need to learn more about Indians; confront misconceptions and stereotypes; have students make Indian crafts and foods; play Indian games; learn about contemporary Indian culture; be critical of resources; and contact local Indian or cultural groups. (MDM)

  1. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  2. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis.

  4. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. S.; Prasad, V. R.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Hemalatha, K. P. J.; Rao, Y. V.

    2015-10-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were measured in 27 major and medium monsoonal estuaries along the Indian coast during southwest monsoon in order to understand the spatial variability in their concentrations and fluxes to the northern Indian Ocean. A strong spatial variability (~20-fold) in DOC and DON was observed in the Indian monsoonal estuaries due to variable characteristics of the catchment area and volume of discharge. It is estimated that the Indian monsoonal estuaries transport ~2.37 ± 0.47 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of DOC and ~0.41 ± 0.08 Tg of DON during wet period to the northern Indian Ocean. The Bay of Bengal receives 3 times higher DOC and DON (1.82 and 0.30 Tg, respectively) than the Arabian Sea (0.55 and 0.11 Tg). Catchment area normalized fluxes of DOC and DON were found to be higher in the estuaries located in the southwestern than the estuaries from other regions of India. It was attributed to relatively higher soil organic carbon, biomass carbon, and heavy rainfall in catchment areas of the rivers from the former region. It has been noticed that neither catchment area nor discharge volume of the river controls the fluxes of DOC and DON to the northern Indian Ocean. Since the total load of DOC and DON is strongly linked to the volume of discharge, alterations in the freshwater discharge due to natural or anthropogenic activities may have significant influence on organic matter fluxes to the Indian coastal waters and its impact on microbial food web dynamics needs further evaluation.

  5. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  6. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  7. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  8. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  9. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  10. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  11. [Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

  12. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Deemed Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On October 31, 2012, the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians and the State of California submitted Amendment I to the Class III compact approved on December...

  13. Heat flow measurements on the southeast coast of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, R.D.; Jaeger, J.C.; Sass, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    Three boreholes have been drilled for the Australian National University near the southeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. The heat flows found are 1.1, 1.0, and 1.3 ??cal/cm2sec. The errors resulting from the proximity of the sea and a lake, surface temperature change, conductivity structure and water flow have been examined. The radioactive heat production in some of the intrusive rocks of the area have also been measured. The heat flows are much lower than the values of about 2.0 found elsewhere in south eastern Australia. The lower values appear to be part of a distinct heat flow province in eastern Australia. ?? 1969.

  14. Indian History of New York State. Part I: Pre-Iroquoian Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William A.

    It is reported that the New York State Indians, descendants of Asiatic immigrants, participated in leading cultural episodes of the eastern United States. Since their remains illustrate processes of cultural growth, the New York prehistoric cultures are described in terms of archaeological findings under 3 major stages of development: the…

  15. Tectonics in the Cuddapah fold-thrust belt in the Indian shield, Andhra Pradesh, India and its implication on the crustal amalgamation of India and Rayner craton of Antarctica during Neoproterozoic orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Neoproterozoic orogenesis in East Antarctica and India led to the amalgamation of northern Prince Charles Mountains-Rayner complex of Antarctica with the Krishna Province of India along the present eastern coast of India with the development of ~990-900 Ma old fold-thrust belt. The frontal part of the fold-thrust belt [henceforth called the Cuddapah fold-thrust belt (CFTB)], recognized in the intercratonic, Palaeoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, includes two frontal thrust sheets carried by the eastern Velikonda and the western Nallamalai thrusts, along with a part of the undeformed foreland, constituting frontal part of a larger fold-thrust belt now fragmented and separated in different continents of Gondwanaland. Therefore, the intercratonic deformation now preserved in the Palaeoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin is related to the collision of the Indian shield to the Antarctic block during the amalgamation of the Rodinia Supercontinent. CFTB is dominated by quasi-plastic deformational structures, representing exhumed deeper level fault-propagation folding related to the Velikonda thrust, while the Nallamalai thrust represents the forelandward thrust of the CFTB dominated by elastico-frictional deformation structures.

  16. Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coast of Visakhapatnam, North-East Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, G.; Grinivasa Kumar, T.

    2016-08-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Visakhapatnam, district of Andhra Pradesh along the coast of India. This area is mostly vulnerable to many disasters such as storms, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This area is considered as cyclone prone area because of frequently occurrence of the cyclones in this area. Recently the two tropical cyclones that formed in the Bay of Bengal are Hudhud (October 13, 2014) and Phylin (October 11, 2013), has caused devastating impacts on the eastern coast and shows that the country has lack of preparedness to cyclone, storm surge and related natural hazards. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared here are a blended and combined overlay of multiple hazards those affecting the coastal zone. The present study aims to develop a methodology for coastal multi-hazard vulnerability assessment. This study carried out using parameters like probability of coastal slope, tsunami arrival height, future sea level rise, coastal erosion and tidal range. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared by overlaying of multi hazards those affecting the coastal zone. Multi-hazard vulnerability maps further reproduced as risk maps with the land use information. The decision making tools presented here can provide a useful information during the disaster for the evacuation process and to evolve a management strategy.

  17. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  18. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  19. Who Is An Indian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeanette; Costo, Rupert

    1980-01-01

    A resolution submitted by the National Tribal Chairmen's Association declares only tribes have the right to determine tribal membership. The resolution results from an emergency meeting of the tribes to review the six federal options of defining "Indian" for eligibility to receive educational services. (ERB)

  20. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  1. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  2. Indians as Archaeologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badhorse, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes a cooperative program between Fort Belknap College, in northern Montana, and an archeological firm designed to provide Native American students with hands-on experience in research and excavation of Indian artifacts. Reviews benefits of the partnership with respect to student experience and knowledge of ancient cultures. (MAB)

  3. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age…

  4. Prison Reform and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

  5. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  6. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  7. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  8. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  9. English for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  10. Marsden Hartley: "Indian Fantasy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Uses Marsden Hartley's "Indian Fantasy" to explore with students in grades 7-9 the variety of expressive qualities of an early twentieth-century U.S. artist working abroad. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and painting. (GEA)

  11. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  12. Indian Wisdom Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Jerry D.

    Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

  13. Experiencing Indian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol; And Others

    Intended to provide for the reader a new road to study India, the booklet encourages students to experience the languages of India as an avenue to learning something about its people. The workbook introduces the reader to the languages of India; shows through activities and research the contributions of Indian languages to English; and provides a…

  14. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  15. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  16. INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOPS. PART I - EDUCATION OF INDIAN ADULTS. PART II - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, NICHOLAS, ED.; ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR., ED.

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1962, THE INDIAN EDUCATION CENTER OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFERED TWO COURSES--EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN ADULT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION. PAPERS WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN THE COURSES AND REPORTS OF GUEST SPEAKERS ARE PRESENTED IN THIS VOLUME. TOPICS COVERED INCLUDE ADULT EDUCATION THROUGH PARENT-TEACHER…

  17. Igneous Rocks of the Indian Ocean Floor.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Fischer, R L; Engel, A E

    1965-10-29

    Four dredge hauls from near the crest and from the eastern flank of the seismically active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge at 23 degrees to 24 degrees S, at depths of 3700 to 4300 meters, produced only low-potassium tholeiitic basalt similar in chemical and mineralogic composition to basalts characteristic of ridges and rises in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A fifth haul, from a depth of 4000 meters on the lower flank of a seamount on the ocean side of the Indonesian Trench, recovered tholeiitic basalt with higher concentrations of K and Ti and slightly lower amounts of Si and Ca than the typical-oceanic tholeiite of the ridge. The last sample is vesicular, suggesting depression of the area since the basalt was emplaced. Many of the rocks dredged are variously decomposed and hydrated, but there is no evidence of important chemical modification toward conversion of the lava flows to spilite during extrusion or solidification.

  18. Igneous rocks of the Indian ocean floor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Fischer, R.L.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1965-01-01

    Four dredge hauls from near the crest and from the eastern flank of the seismically active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge at 23?? to 24??S, at depths of 3700 to 4300 meters, produced only low-potassium tholeiitic basalt similar in chemical and mineralogic composition to basalts characteristic of ridges and rises in the Atlantic and Pacific oceansA fifth haul, from a depth of 4000 meters on the lower flank of a seamount on the ocean side of the Indonesian Trench, recovered tholeiitic basalt with higher concentrations of K and Ti and slightly lower amounts of Si and Ca than the typical oceanic tholeiite of the ridgeThe last sample is vesicular, suggesting depression of the area since the basalt was emplacedMany of the rocks dredged are variously decomposed and hydrated, but there is no evidence of important chemical modification toward conversion of the lava flows to spilite during extrusion or solidification.

  19. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  20. Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic, 1939-63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tester, Frank James; Kulchyski, Peter

    Between 1939 and 1963, the Canadian federal government embarked on a program of relocation and relief in the Eastern Arctic that dramatically altered the lives of Inuit living there. This book begins with an account of the debate over whether Inuit are Indians and, therefore, which branch of government should be responsible for them. It then…

  1. 78 FR 76829 - Approval of Application Submitted by Eastern Shoshone Tribe and Northern Arapaho Tribe for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This notice announces that the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 8 has approved the December 2008 application submitted by the Northern Arapaho Tribe and Eastern Shoshone Tribe (Tribes) of the Wind River Indian Reservation for treatment in a similar manner as a state (TAS) pursuant to the Clean Air Act and the EPA's implementing regulations for purposes of certain Clean Air Act provisions.......

  2. 78 FR 26652 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey; Mississippi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey; Mississippi AGENCY: Bureau of Land... survey was requested by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The lands surveyed are: Choctaw, Mississippi T. 14... 12 East, of the Choctaw Meridian, in the State of Mississippi, and was accepted March 12, 2013....

  3. Coastal geohazards and storm surges: The Indian context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    India is blessed with a bountiful variety of habitats: from the coast to the Himalayas, the diversity of India's natural habitat is virtually unmatched. The major physical features of India and her geogrphical position in the Indian Ocean indicate a centuries-old relationship with the sea. In view of the location and height of the Himalayas, the country's trade routes are situated on the coast. The coastline extends over 6,000 kms and deep into the Indian Ocean, with vast expanses of sea on three sides, and it also suggests the intensity of the relationship between the country and the sea. If the Himalayas are in a severe seismic zone, the coastline is equally subject to severe geohazards, like cyclones. Several millions of people depend on the coastal bounty for survival. The 2004 December tsunami is a harsh reminder of the sufferings of those mllions. In the last 100 years, while earthquakes accounted for the death of 80,000 people, cyclones caused death of 120,000 people, including 15,000 by the tsunami of December 26, 2004. India's ranking in the top 10 disasters varies from 1st to 7th, with tropical cyclones occupying positions at 2nd to 7th, between 1737 and 2000 A.D. Recording of disasters in India has been poor. Attention to disasters was very poor, despite several cyclones that hit the Andhra coast in 1977 and 1978. The 1977 cyclone caused more than 8,500 deaths of human beings. 30,000 heads of cattle and 244,000 goats. No year passes without a cyclone hitting the east coast of India and the seasonal frequency varied between 0 in February to 4 in October-November on the east coast, with a maximum of 13 on the west coast in October, as recorded between 1891 and 1982. In coastal India, a 24-km wide belt has been identified as a hazard zone by the cyclonic Review Committee in 1984, while the wind damage could extend over a much wider belt upto 100 km inland and the tidal bore may sweep deep inside the land through the mouths of the rivers. The 1999 cyclone

  4. Evolution of volcanism around the eastern sector of Mt. Etna, inland and offshore, in the structural framework of eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patané, Giuseppe; Agostino, Ivan; La Delfa, Santo; Leonardi, Riccardo

    2009-04-01

    The authors highlight a new perspective to understanding the volcanism in the Mt. Etna eastern sector, inland and offshore, based on original studies of the sea floor off the Ionian coast of Etna by means of various direct surveying methods (underwater explorations) and indirect ones (bathymetric reconstructions using echosounders). They also propose a new interpretation of geophysical, geochemical and structural surveys carried out over the last two decades. Results show that eastern Etnean sector's volcanism extends as far as the Ionian Sea, to a maximum distance from the coast of probably about 20 km. In their opinion, the absence of outcropping apparatuses in the lower eastern flank of Etna is due to these apparatuses being buried by a large detritic formation ("Chiancone") due to the dismantling of the Ancient Alkaline Centres (AAC) localised to the West. The authors consider the structures highlighted by the study of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Ionian sea floor and by the Multibeam analysis (Marani et al., 2004. From Seafloor to Deep Mantle: Architecture of the Tyrrhenian Backarc Basin, vol. 44. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Ital. pp. 1-2) to be of a volcanic nature. This hypothesis opens up a new field of study within the evolution of the eastern Etnean edge's volcanism, inland and offshore, in the last 500 Ky and would further confirm the eruptive axes migration from East to West.

  5. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  6. The Indian Neck Ossuary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManamon, Francis P.; Bradley, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the best-documented example of an ossuary in New England, which contained the bones of at least 56 people interred together about 1,000 years ago. Implies that the southern New England coast had a settled population centuries before the Pilgrims. (TW)

  7. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  9. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  10. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  11. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  12. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  17. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  18. Summertime mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide over the Mediterranean as a footprint of Indian emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangah, Yannick; Ricaud, Philippe; Attié, Jean-Luc; Saitoh, Naoko; Hauglustaine, Didier; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Zbinden, Regina; Delon, Claire

    2016-04-01

    We used global scale thermal infrared measurements of mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and outputs from the 3D Chemical Transport Model LMDz-OR-INCA to assess the impact of the Indian subcontinent N2O emissions on the N2O field over the eastern Mediterranean Basin (MB) during summer. The use of nitrogen fertilizer coupled with high soil humidity during summer monsoon period produce high emissions of N2O in many south Asian countries and especially the Indian subcontinent. N2O is transported to the upper troposphere by updrafts associated to the monsoon and redistributed westward to the eastern Mediterranean via the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone. This summertime (June-July-August) enrichment in N2O in the eastern Mediterranean produces a maximum in the east-west difference of MB mid-to-upper tropospheric N2O anomaly representative for the period 2010-2013 with a maximum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~1.0 ± 0.3 ppbv observed by GOSAT consistently with LMDz-OR-INCA but less intense (~0.5 ppbv). This summertime enrichment of N2O over the eastern Mediterranean is consistent with the increase of the surface emissions and the convective precipitations over the Indian subcontinent during the summer monsoon period. N2O over the eastern Mediterranean can therefore be considered as a footprint of Indian summertime emissions.

  19. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  20. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  1. Interaction of the Reunion hotspot and the Central Indian Ridge near Rodrigues Island (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Hémond, C.; Bissessur, D.; Scientific Party, Cruises Magofond 2; Gimnaut Scientific Party, Cruise; Knox11RR Scientific Party, Cruise

    2009-04-01

    Reunion hotspot is often viewed as a typical intraplate hotspot, which can be traced back along the southern Mascarene Plateau and the Chagos - Laccadive Ridge to the Deccan flood basalt, caused by the inception of a mantle plume head by the Indian lithosphere. The Rodrigues Ridge, an E-W trending structure more than 600 km-long and 2500 m-high above the seafloor, and small volcanic features that extend it up to the Central Indian Ridge axis at 19°S, do not fit well into this scheme and more probably correspond to the manifestation of an interaction of the Reunion hotspot with the Central Indian Ridge. In this talk we present bathymetric, geophysical and geochemical evidences for such a ridge-hotspot interaction as provided by the analysis of data and samples collected by cruises Magofond 2 of R/V Marion Dufresne (IPEV, France), Gimnaut of R/V L'Atalante with deep-sea submersible Nautile (IFREMER, France), and KNOX11RR of R/V Revelle (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA). The reality of the ridge hotspot interaction is substantiated by the shallow bathymetry and the "hot" morphology of the Central Indian Ridge, as well as the presence of volcanic ridges - the Rodrigues, Three Magi and Gasitao ridges - which exhibit isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the Reunion hotspot and MORB. The few age determinations obtained on the Rodrigues Ridge and its eastern extension suggest synchronous pulses of activity on the hotspot and the region of interaction with the spreading centre: the first pulse, between 12 and 8 Ma, corresponds to the shield volcano building of Mauritius Island and the formation of the Rodrigues Ridge, whereas the second pulse, since about 2 Ma, results in the building of Reunion Island, the formation of Rodrigues Island, Three Magi and Gasitao ridges close to the Central Indian Ridge. These pulses are further confirmed by the detailed evolution of the ridge segmentation of the Central Indian Ridge for the last 10 Ma, deciphered from

  2. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial Specifications and... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  3. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the...

  4. Seychelles: Petroleum potential of this Indian Ocean paradise

    SciTech Connect

    Khana, S.N.; Dillay, G.

    1986-03-24

    Seychelles archipelago consists of about 115 islands, scattered over 1.15 million sq km of the western Indian Ocean. The granitic nature of the inner group of islands makes them unique and the only example of oceanic islands of its type, indicating existence of microcontinent surrounded by oceanic crust, with banks submerged under the Indian Ocean and the raised islands exposing granite. The granite islands are surrounded by sand cays and coral islands. Mahe is about 1,300 km from Somalia, the nearest point on the African coast to the northwest; the southern tip of India lies about 2,700 km to the northeast and the northern end of Madagascar 1,000 km to the southwest. A geological evaluation of the Seychelles shelf was recently carried out to increase the understanding of this offshore sedimentary basin prior to inviting oil companies to bid for exploration.

  5. Crustal Structure in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, A.; Thybo, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the centre of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately cancelled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 100 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on forward ray tracing and tomography modelling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland, which have

  6. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  7. INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

    1984-01-01

    The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

  8. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  9. Geohydrology of Indian River County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; Laughlin, C.P.; Toth, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system are the sources of groundwater used in Indian River County, Florida. About 65% of the groundwater is used for irrigation and is from the Floridan aquifer system. Saline water ranging from slightly saline to brine underlies the fresh groundwater throughout the county and is the chief water quality problem. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system in eastern Indian River County range from 1,500 to 11,000 sq ft/d. Yields of wells are as much as 1,200 gal/min. Reported transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer system range from 65,000 to 200,000 sq ft/d. Most wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system flow; flow rates range from 30 to 2,000 gal/min. Chloride concentrations of water in the surficial aquifer system generally are below 100 mg/L, but concentrations often exceed 250 mg/L in water from the Floridan aquifer system. Between 1976 and 1983, average chloride concentrations in water from six wells that tap the surficial aquifer system in the Vero Beach well field increased about 36 mg/L, but were unchanged in four other wells. The increase in chloride concentration probably is related to a well-field pumpage increase from 5.44 million gal/d in 1976 to 8.00 million gal/d in 1983. In most of the County, chloride concentrations of wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system have not changed significantly in the 15-year period, 1968-83. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system declined 15 to 19 ft between 1971 and 1984 in the Vero Beach well field where the larger groundwater withdrawals occur, but have not declined significantly outside heavily pumped areas. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer system have declined 16 to 24 ft in eastern Indian River County in the 50-year period, 1934-84, but declines outside the heavily pumped areas generally have been less than 10 ft during this period. (USGS)

  10. Development of eastern gamagrass into the desirable grass it is today

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass is a robust, perennial warm-season bunch-grass native from the Texas panhandle to the east coast. It has long been recognized as a highly productive and palatable forage grass that begins growing earlier in the spring than most warm-season grasses and produces good growth followin...

  11. Designing and Building a Cardboard Chair: Children's Engineering at the TECA Eastern Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the 2006 Technology Education Collegiate Association (TECA) Eastern Regional elementary competition, wherein teams of technology education students from nine different universities designed and built cardboard chairs. The competition required the teams (four or five to a team) from universities up and down the East Coast to…

  12. Agronomic performance of eastern gamagrass cultivars and experimental germplasm grown on the Southern Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass, [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] is a robust, perennial warm-season bunchgrass native from Oklahoma and the Texas panhandle to the east coast. It has long been recognized as a highly productive and palatable forage grass that begins growing earlier in the spring than most warm-sea...

  13. 33 CFR 167.152 - Off New York: Eastern approach, off Nantucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Eastern approach... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.152 Off New York:...

  14. 78 FR 49920 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the draw of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the broken tread plates and shimming the remaining tread plates to the proper elevation on the Norfolk Southern 5......

  15. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  16. Native Indian Teachers: A Key to Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkness, Verna J.

    1986-01-01

    Indian teachers are critical to the realization of quality education for the Indian population. Indians would be effective teachers of Indian identity, traditions, language, and psychology in addition to the usual subjects. Home-school and community-school relationships would likely improve if Native Indian staff were a significant presence in the…

  17. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  18. On the importance of Sri Lanka for sea-level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Pillathu Moolayil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies have illustrated the strong influence of remote forcing from the equator and the Bay of Bengal on the sea-level variability off the west coast of India, especially at the seasonal timescale. More recently, Suresh et al. [2013] demonstrated with a simple, linear, continuously-stratified (LCS) model that the equatorial zonal winds contribute to more than 60% of intraseasonal sea-level variability along the Indian west coast. In the present study, we quantify the contributions from various processes to the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at different timescales with the help of a LCS model through both idealized and realistic sensitivity experiments. We demonstrate that remote forcing dominates the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Sri Lanka and the southern tip of India play an important role on Indian west coast sea-level variability at all timescales for two reasons: First, the geometry of the coast favors a strong alongshore wind-stress forcing of coastal Kelvin waves across timescales there. Second, Sri Lanka interacts with low-order meridional mode equatorial Rossby waves forced by equatorial winds or southern Bay of Bengal wind- stress curl. This interaction of coastal waveguide with equatorial waveguide creates a new pathway for the equatorial signals to arrive at the west coast of India, alternative to the "classical" coastal waveguide around the rim of the Bay of Bengal. Reference: Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, and P. M. Muraleedharan (2013), Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.

  19. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  20. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  1. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  2. 76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant... known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM). Therefore,...

  3. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  4. Uplift of quaternary shorelines in eastern Patagonia: Darwin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Regard, Vincent; Husson, Laurent; Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Fucks, Enrique; Iglesias, Maximiliano; Weill, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    During his journey on the Beagle, Darwin observed the uniformity in the elevation of coastal Eastern Patagonia along more than 2000 km. More than one century later, the sequences of Quaternary shorelines of eastern Patagonia have been described and their deposits dated but not yet interpreted in terms of geodynamics. Consequently, we i) mapped the repartition of the Quaternary coastal sequences in Argentinean Patagonia, ii) secured accurate altitudes of shoreline angles associated with erosional morphologies (i.e. marine terraces and notches), iii) took into account previous chrono-stratigraphical interpretations in order to calculate mean uplift rates since ~ 440 ka (MIS 11) and proposed age ranges for the higher and older features (up to ~ 180 m), and iv) focused on the Last Interglacial Maximum terrace (MIS 5e) as the best constrained marine terrace (in terms of age and altitude) in order to use it as a tectonic benchmark to quantify uplift rates along the entire passive margin of Eastern South America. Our results show that the eastern Patagonia uplift is constant through time and twice the uplift of the rest of the South American margin. We suggest that the enhanced uplift along the eastern Patagonian coast that interested Darwin during his journey around South America on the Beagle could originate from the subduction of the Chile ridge and the associated dynamic uplift.

  5. Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water Indian Set-Aside Grant Program (CWISA) provides funding to Indian tribes and Alaska Native Villages for wastewater infrastructure. The CWISA program is administered in cooperation with the Indian Health Service (IHS).

  6. Rapid postglacial shoreline changes in the western Gulf of Maine and the Paleo-Indian environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid shoreline regression and transgression along the western Gulf of Maine between 13,000 and 9000 years B.P. are inferred to have produced a nearshore marine environment low in biologic productivity. Paleo-Indians living near the coast of the Gulf were probably forced to rely on nonmarine resources landward of the late-glacial marine limit. Thus, Paleo-Indian sites of the time period in question may be restricted in the region between the marine limit and the postglacial low sea-level stand, or may be altogether absent.

  7. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  8. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the fish family Labridae, Suezichthys rosenblatti, is described from specimens collected at Isla San Felix, Isla Juan Fernandez and Isla San Ambrosio, off the coast of Chile. Suezichthys rosenblatti is distinct in having a combination of 11 dorsal fin soft rays and 11 anal fin soft rays. It falls in the group of species that has 1½ scale rows above the lateral line and lack a scaly sheath at the base of the dorsal and anal fins (S. aylingi Russell, S. caudovittatus Russell, S. gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein) and S. soelae Russell). Unlike other members of this group, S. rosenblatti has haemal arches on vertebrae 10-11 (versus haemal arch only on vertebra 10). The monotypic Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael) is now included in the genus Suezichthys and a revised generic description and key to species of Suezichthys is provided. The occurrence of S. rosenblatti in the south-eastern Pacific and S. ornatus in the south-western Indian Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean represent major range extensions of the genus Suezichthys.

  9. Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskrat, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

  10. American Indian Intellectualism and the New Indian Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Critically reviews modern writings about American Indians, focusing on Indian romance novels, children's stories, biographies, works by "urban mixed-bloods," and the "art for art's sake" stance. Views non-Native works as irrelevant and most Native writings as self-centered or escapist. Calls for Native intellectuals to…

  11. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  12. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  13. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  14. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  15. Emigration dynamics of eastern African countries.

    PubMed

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    This examination of emigration dynamics focuses on 13 countries extending from Eritrea to Zimbabwe and Mozambique on the eastern African mainland and on 5 Indian Ocean island nations. The first part of the study looks at the temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives of emigration dynamics. Part 2 considers international migration in the region according to Appleyard's typology (permanent settlers, labor migration, refugees, and illegal migrants) with the additional category of return migration. Measurement issues in emigration dynamics are discussed in part 3, and the demographic/economic setting is the topic of part 4. The demographic factors emphasized include spatial distribution, population density, population structure, population dynamics, demographic transition, and the relationship between internal and international migration. Other major topics of this section of the study are the economic base, the human resource base, population and natural resources, the sociocultural context (emigration, chain migration, return migration, and migration linkages and networks), political factors (including human rights, minority rights and security, regional integration and economic cooperation, and the impact of structural adjustment programs), and a prediction of future emigration dynamics. It is concluded that refugee flows remain a major factor in eastern African countries but the development of human resources in the northern portion of the region indicates development of potential labor migration from this area. Data constraints have limited measurement of emigration in this region and may contribute to the seeming indifference of most eastern African countries to emigration policies. Emigration in this region has been triggered by deteriorating economic and political conditions and is expected to increase.

  16. Westward propagating twin gyres in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.; Deo, A. A.; Ganer, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    A reduced-gravity (1$\\frac{1}{2-layer) model forced by daily climatological winds simulates twin, anticyclonic gyres, which propagate westward on either side of the equator. The gyres form at the beginning of both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast monsoon in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean, and subsequently propagate across the basin. Their existence is supported by velocity observations taken during WOCE in 1995 and by TOPEX/Poseidon sea-level observations during 1993. They are also present in the ECCO model/data product. They form at the front of a Rossby-wave packet generated by the reflection of the equatorial jet (EJ) from the eastern boundary of the basin. They are likely either Rossby solitons or result from the nonlinear interaction between the EJ and the Rossby-wave front.

  17. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  18. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-02-13

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil.

  20. Impacts of Indonesian Throughflow on seasonal circulation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Dongliang; Zhao, Xia

    2017-03-01

    Impacts of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) on seasonal circulation in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean are investigated using the ocean-only model LICOM by opening and closing ITF passages. LICOM had daily forcing from NCEP reanalysis data during 2000-2011. It can reproduce vertical profiles of mean density and buoyancy frequency of World Ocean Atlas 2013 data. The model also simulates well annual oscillation in the central Indian Ocean and semiannual oscillation in the eastern Indian Ocean of sea level anomalies (SLA) using satellite altimeter data, as well as the semiannual oscillation of surface zonal equatorial currents of Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real Time current data in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The wave decomposition method is used to analyze the propagation and reflection of equatorial long waves based on LICOM output. Wave analysis suggests that ITF blockage mainly influences waves generated from the Indian Ocean but not the Pacific Ocean, and eastern boundary reflections play an important role in semiannual oscillations of SLA and zonal current differences in the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with ITF. Reconstructed ITF-caused SLA using wave decomposition coefficient differences between closed and open ITF-passage experiments suggest both Kelvin and Rossby waves from the first baroclinic mode have comparable contributions to the semiannual oscillations of SLA difference. However, reconstructed ITF-caused surface zonal currents at the equator suggest that the first meridional-mode Rossby wave has much greater contribution than the first baroclinic mode Kelvin wave. Both reconstructed sea level and zonal currents demonstrate that the first baroclinic mode has a greater contribution than other baroclinic modes.

  1. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  2. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  3. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge.

  4. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  5. COAST:The Controller's Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duquette, William H.

    1993-01-01

    COAST, the Controller's Assistant, is a semi-automated player of the CBS wargave training simulation. It uses rule-based techniques to maneuver a collection of platoons through a complex infiltration mission in response to a single high-level order from a CBS controller.

  6. Variability of the recent climate of eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Carl J., III; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.

    2004-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the recent variability of the eastern African climate. The region of interest is also known as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), and comprises the countries of Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, and Tanzania.The analysis was based primarily on the construction of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of gauge rainfall data and on CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data, derived from a combination of rain-gauge observations and satellite estimates. The investigation is based on the period 1961-2001 for the short rains season of eastern Africa of October through to December. The EOF analysis was supplemented by projection of National Centers for Environmental Prediction wind data onto the rainfall eigenmodes to understand the rainfall-circulation relationships. Furthermore, correlation and composite analyses have been performed with the Climatic Research Unit globally averaged surface-temperature time series to explore the potential relationship between the climate of eastern Africa and global warming.The most dominant mode of variability (EOF1) based on CMAP data over eastern Africa corresponds to El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) climate variability. It is associated with above-normal rainfall amounts during the short rains throughout the entire region, except for Sudan. The corresponding anomalous low-level circulation is dominated by easterly inflow from the Indian Ocean, and to a lesser extent the Congo tropical rain forest, into the positive rainfall anomaly region that extends across most of eastern Africa. The easterly inflow into eastern Africa is part of diffluent outflow from the maritime continent during the warm ENSO events. The second eastern African EOF (trend mode) is associated with decadal variability. In distinct contrast from the ENSO mode pattern, the trend mode is characterized by positive rainfall anomalies over the northern sector of

  7. Indian Season in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Reminds teachers that American Indians played a major role in shaping the modern world. Notes that the indigenous peoples of the Americas introduced European American settlers to a variety of foods and agricultural methods. Argues that American Indians also contributed to U.S. concepts of democracy and federalism. Provides guidelines for teaching…

  8. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  9. NEW APPROACH TO INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRYDE, JOHN F.

    RECENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT THE EXCESSIVE NATIONAL INDIAN DROPOUT RATE IS NOT WHOLLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE VALUE CONFLICT CREATED WHEN INDIAN YOUTH ENTER THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM, BUT IS ALSO RELATED TO THE IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM EXPERIENCED BY THESE YOUNGSTERS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO DETERMINE THE POSSIBLE CAUSES OF WHAT IS…

  10. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  11. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  12. California Indian Food and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  13. Handbook for Indian Parent Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louise; Gelardi, Sal

    The 1980 handbook defines parental involvement and elaborates on the functions and authority of parent committees. Funding sources which are most likely to require American Indian parent committees are identified as: Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title I; Johnson-O'Malley; and Indian Education, Title IV-A. Information is provided on:…

  14. The Indian Heritage of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

    In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

  15. Indian Education: An Intergenerational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalohead, Priscilla; Sterner, Michele

    The Indian Education Program in the Osseo School District (Minnesota) serves approximately 200 American Indian students in grades K-12 from 27 schools and a variety of tribes. The Program's intergenerational approach reflects tribal traditions in that generations learn together and grandparents, parents, and students are involved in the…

  16. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  17. Trends in Indian Health, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives living on or near federal reservations (about 60 percent of the Native population). This publication is composed primarily of data tables and graphs that describe…

  18. American Indians of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bertha P.

    Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

  19. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  20. Teaching English to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    Many practices in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools were negative, but this paper emphasizes the positive efforts that were made throughout their history, especially in regard to teaching English. The Carlisle Indian School, which opened in 1879, encouraged the use of English through an English language student newspaper and frequently…