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Sample records for easy cheap effective

  1. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation approach for pesticide residue analysis using traditional detectors in chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Shin, Sung Chul; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-01-01

    In pesticide residue analysis, relatively low-sensitivity traditional detectors, such as UV, diode array, electron-capture, flame photometric, and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors, have been used following classical sample preparation (liquid-liquid extraction and open glass column cleanup); however, the extraction method is laborious, time-consuming, and requires large volumes of toxic organic solvents. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method was introduced in 2003 and coupled with selective and sensitive mass detectors to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks. Compared to traditional detectors, mass spectrometers are still far more expensive and not available in most modestly equipped laboratories, owing to maintenance and cost-related issues. Even available, traditional detectors are still being used for analysis of residues in agricultural commodities. It is widely known that the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method is incompatible with conventional detectors owing to matrix complexity and low sensitivity. Therefore, modifications using column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction instead of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup have been applied in most cases to compensate and enable the adaptation of the extraction method to conventional detectors. In gas chromatography, the matrix enhancement effect of some analytes has been observed, which lowers the limit of detection and, therefore, enables gas chromatography to be compatible with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method. For liquid chromatography with a UV detector, a combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction was found to reduce the matrix interference and increase the sensitivity. A suitable double-layer column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction might be the perfect solution, instead of a time-consuming combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and

  3. Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine as adsorbent and its application in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Zhao, Qin; Mo, Jie-Zhen; Huang, Yun-Qing; Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-07-26

    By using magnetic graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA/MNPs) as adsorbent, a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was proposed for pesticide residue analysis in vegetables. The magnetic adsorbent was fabricated via simple co-mixing method based on an "aggregate warp" mechanism. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS toward target analytes, several parameters, including the composition of analyte protectants and the amount of the adsorbents were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 10 pesticide residues in vegetables was established by coupling modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The detection limits of the proposed method for 10 pesticides ranged from 0.39 to 8.6ng/g. Good linearity (R value≥0.990) was achieved at concentration levels of 10-200ng/g, and acceptable method reproducibility was found as intra- and inter-day precisions, yielding the relative standard deviations less than 10.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 69.9-125.0% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of a large number of samples, the proposed method has the advantage of less time-consuming in clean-up procedure.

  4. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Lu-Qin; Li, Fang-Wei; Ding, Yi; Yang, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ming-Lin

    2014-09-26

    Based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the adsorbing material and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we established a new method for the determination of multiple pesticides in vegetables and fruits. It was determined that bare MNPs have excellent function as adsorbent when purified, and it is better to be separated from the extract. The amount of MNPs influenced the clean-up performance and recoveries. To achieve the optimum performance of modified QuEChERS towards the target analytes, several parameters including the amount of the adsorbents and purification time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, recoveries were evaluated in four representative matrices (tomato, cucumber, orange and apple) with the spiked concentrations of 10 μg kg(-1), 50 μg kg(-1)and 200 μg kg(-1) in all cases. The results showed that the recovery of 101 pesticides ranged between 71.5 and 111.7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10.5%. The optimum clean-up system improved the purification efficiency and simultaneously obtained satisfactory recoveries of multiple pesticides, including planar-ring pesticides. In short, the modified QuEChERS method in addition to MNPs used for removing impurities improved the speed of sample pre-treatment and exhibited an enhanced performance and purifying effect.

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in milk by a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Gaston; Campiglia, Andres D

    2013-07-01

    We describe the first application of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction technique to the CZE analysis of monohydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk. Complete resolution of 2-hydroxyfluorenene, 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene was accomplished in 4 min of electrophoretic run. Limits of detection at the parts-per-billion were obtained with a single solvent (acetonitrile) for metabolite extraction and sample stacking. The small sample volume (1.2 mL) and the conservative usage of chemicals provided a simple and rapid procedure for the simultaneous extraction of numerous samples. Adding 4 min of electrophoretic run per sample, it should be possible to screen ten samples in approximately 1 h of analysis time. The nanoliter extract volume required for sample injection allows for further chromatographic usage and confirmation of positive samples. The unique electrophoretic pattern of the studied metabolites demonstrates the potential for the unambiguous determination of positional isomers with very similar chromatographic behaviors and undistinguishable mass fragmentation patterns.

  6. New analytical method for the determination of musks in personal care products by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Cunha, Carina; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance additives and fixative compounds in a diversity of personal care products. A new method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction followed by GC-MS for the analysis of 12 musks in personal care products was developed and validated. Some experimental parameters, such as total QuEChERS mass, sample mass/solvent volume ratio, type of extraction solvent, as well as salts and sorbents amount were investigated and optimized. The final method involves the musks extraction using acetonitrile, followed by the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium acetate. The clean-up step was performed using dispersive SPE with primary and secondary amine and octadecyl-silica sorbents. This extraction procedure is fast (about 10 min) when compared to other traditional approaches. The method was robust for the matrices studied and shows a high precision (%RSD < 15%) and accuracy (average recovery of 85%), allowing the detection of musks in minimum concentrations between 0.01 ng/g (galaxolide) and 15.80 ng/g (musk xylene). The developed method was applied to the analysis of 12 samples, which revealed musks concentrations ranging from 2 ng/g (toothpaste) to 882,340 ng/g (perfumed body lotion).

  7. Simultaneous determination of carbamate insecticides and mycotoxins in cereals by reversed phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 22 carbamate insecticides and 17 mycotoxins in cereals by ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Carbamates and mycotoxins were extracted from cereal samples using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure without any further clean-up step. The extract was diluted with water containing 0.1% formic acid and 5.0mM ammonium acetate, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with water (0.1% formic acid, 0.50mM ammonium acetate)/methanol as mobile phase with gradient elution. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification. Blank samples (rice, wheat and corn) were fortified at 5, 10 and 50 μg/kg except for five zearalenonic compounds at 25, 50 and 250 μg/kg, and recoveries were in the range of 70-120%. Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% in all cases. The LOQ values were in the range of 0.20-29.7 μg/kg. The method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of carbamate insecticides and mycotoxins in cereals. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 35 min.

  8. Magnetic "one-step" quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the fast determination of pesticide residues in freshly squeezed juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-06-12

    A "one-step" quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was proposed for pesticide residue analysis in freshly squeezed juice of fruits and vegetables. In this method, a new magnetic adsorbent prepared by simple physical blending was adopt, which could endow the sample mixture with magnetic separability. To achieve the best performance of the modified QuEChERS towards target analytes, the amounts of adsorbents were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 11 pesticide residues in freshly squeezed juice was established by coupling modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The limits of quantification of the proposed method for 11 pesticides ranged from 2.0 to 49.6ng/g. Good linearities (R value ≥0.9993) were achieved at different concentration ranges, and acceptable method reproducibility was obtained by evaluating intra- and inter-day precisions with the relative standard deviations being less than 8.5% and 13.5%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 70.3-114.1% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the traditional QuEChERS methods, extraction/partitioning and purification were integrated into one step in the proposed method, which thus was time-saving (within 3.5min) with keeping good clean-up performance.

  9. Magnetic graphene as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Li, Xue; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Zai-Gen; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-07

    In this study, magnetic graphene was used as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tobacco. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS procedure toward target analytes, several parameters affecting the clean-up efficiency including the amount of the adsorbent and clean-up time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a method for the determination of 26 OCPs residues in tobacco was established by coupling the modified QuEChERS procedure to on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). The limits of detection of proposed method for 26 OCPs residues ranged from 0.01275 to 3.150ng/g. And good linearities of the proposed method were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9985 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility of method was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, the relative standard deviations were less than 11.1 and 15.0%, respectively. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 64-126% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of OCPs residues in tobacco, the proposed method has the advantages of simple to operate, low cost and high clean-up ability. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs residues in real samples.

  10. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Feng, Zhihong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Wu, Aibo

    2014-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ≤ 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 μg/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes.

  11. Development of a modified QUick, Easy, CHeap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method for the determination of multi-class antimicrobials in vegetables by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fengyang; Bian, Kui; Liu, Yahong; Su, Yijuan; Zhou, Tong; Song, Xuqin; He, Limin

    2014-11-14

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid determination of 26 veterinary antimicrobials in vegetables. Samples were extracted by single-phase extraction with acetonitrile-methanol (85:15, v/v) and citric buffer solution, followed by liquid-liquid partitioning with the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. A dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine was applied for cleanup. Concentration and solvent exchange was performed prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. All matrix-matched calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients (r) over 0.99. Recoveries for all the analytes spiked at 0.5 (1 or 1.5), 5 and 50 ng/mL were in the range of 60.0-98.0%, except for sulfaquinoxaline, sulfaclozine and doxycycline, with relative standard deviations below 25% for the low concentration level, 20% for the medium and 15% for the high. The decision limits and the detection capabilities of the analytes ranged from 0.005 to 0.5 μg/kg and from 0.02 to 1.5 μg/kg, respectively. The method was developed and validated in accordance with romaine lettuce matrix, and higher recovery rates were obtained from the other five kinds of vegetables including white radish, Chinese cabbage, cucumber, string bean and green pepper. Matrix effects of different vegetables were evaluated and signal suppression effect was observed for the majority of 26 analytes. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of real samples collected from the agricultural areas in the vicinity of local pig farms, and the phenomenon of vegetables contaminated by antimicrobials residues is provoking.

  12. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Timm, Anne; Blaney, Lee

    2017-08-04

    Ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the complex environmental matrices. Here, a multi-residue method has been developed for simultaneous determination of five UV-filters and three estrogens in tissue from aquatic and marine organisms. The procedure involved a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with a novel reverse-solid-phase extraction (reverse-SPE) cleanup in place of dispersive-SPE, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The tissue mass, acetonitrile content, and salt conditions for QuEChERS extraction, along with the reverse-SPE cartridge material and elution conditions, were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Five UV-filters (i.e., 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, benzophenone-3, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octocrylene) and three estrogens (i.e., estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were simultaneously analyzed by taking advantage of wrong-way-round ionization in LC-MS/MS. The optimized analytical protocol exhibited good recoveries (>80%) for target compounds and enabled their detection at concentrations as low as 0.2ng/g in 50mg tissue samples. The method was applied to determine concentrations of target analytes in four invertebrates (i.e., Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, Crassostrea virginica, and Ischadium recurvum). All eight target analytes were detected at least once in the tissue samples, with the highest concentration being 399ng/g of homosalate in O. virilis. These results highlight the ubiquitous bioaccumulation of CECs in aquatic and marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A; Li, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Land application of biosolids and irrigation with reclaimed water in agricultural production could result in accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetable produce. To better assess the potential human health impact from long-term consumption of pharmaceutical-contaminated vegetables, it is important to accurately quantify the amount of pharmaceuticals accumulated in vegetables. In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed and optimized to extract multiple classes of pharmaceuticals from vegetables, which were subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. For the eleven target pharmaceuticals in celery and lettuce, the extraction recovery of the QuEChERS method ranged from 70.1 to 118.6% with relative standard deviation <20%, and the method detection limit was achieved at the levels of nanograms of pharmaceuticals per gram of vegetables. The results revealed that the performance of the QuEChERS method was comparable to, or better than that of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method for extraction of pharmaceuticals from plants. The two optimized extraction methods were applied to quantify the uptake of pharmaceuticals by celery and lettuce growing hydroponically. The results showed that all the eleven target pharmaceuticals could be absorbed by the vegetables from water. Compared to the ASE method, the QuEChERS method offers the advantages of short time and reduced costs of sample preparation, and less amount of organic solvents used. The established QuEChERS method could be used to determine the accumulation of multiple classes of pharmaceutical residues in vegetables and other plants, which is needed to evaluate the quality and safety of agricultural produce consumed by humans.

  14. Determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Lie; Lv, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Jian

    2016-02-15

    A new analytical method for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol:acetic acid, 99:1, v/v). The extract was further purified by QuEChERS method using primary-secondary amine (PSA) and C18. Finally, the extract was dried by nitrogen under 45°C and reconstituted in water. The separation was performed on a Hypercarb analytical column under a gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of water buffered with ammonium acetate (2.0mM) and acetonitrile. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The values of the decision limit (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ) were 1.1 and 1.5μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of ribavirin ranged from 94.2% to 99.2%. The repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr) of the method ranged from 4.5% to 4.9% and the reproducibility (CVR) of the method ranged from 4.8% to 5.4%. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle in conformity with the current EU performance requirements through validation. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 45min.

  15. Simultaneous determination of florfenicol with its metabolite based on modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and evaluation of their degradation behavior in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingfei; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Ma, Junwei; Wang, Jianmei; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    A simple and simultaneous method for the determination of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in agricultural soils using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine residues in agricultural soils were extracted with alkalized acetonitrile and an aliquot was cleaned up with Si(CH2)3NH(CH2)2NH2 and C18 sorbent, which were powder materials. High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to simultaneously determine the level of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils. Excellent linearity was achieved for florfenicol and florfenicol amine over a range of concentrations from 0.1-500 μg/L with coefficients more than 0.99. Average recoveries at four different levels (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) for florfenicol and florfenicol amine ranged from 73.6-94.9% with relative standard deviations of 2.9-12.5%. The limits of detection for florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils were 2.0 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 6.0 μg/kg. Based on this method, the degradation behavior of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in three soils (Nanchang, Hangzhou, and Changchun) under sterilized and native conditions was investigated and the transformation rate of florfenicol amine from florfenicol was evaluated.

  16. Pesticide analysis in coffee leaves using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Optimization of the clean-up step.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Owen, Robert Wyn; Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Breuer, Andrea; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-08-25

    An analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 52 pesticides in coffee leaf extractshas been developed and validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. Different sorbent combinations for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up as well as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were tested. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the recovery of 87-94% of pesticides added to coffee leaf extracts,was ≤20% for samples spiked at concentrations up to 50ng*g(-1) depending on the clean-up procedures. However, samples spiked with a 100ng*g(-1) pesticide mixture gave RSDs>20% for most pesticides when d-SPE was carried out adding Supelclean ENVI-Carb 120/400. To explain this fact,the secondary metabolic profile was analyzed in all the extraction and clean-up procedures. Only in the clean-up procedure with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+, does caffeine show a constant adsorption between blank and spiked samples. In other clean-up procedures, the amount of caffeine was higher in those samples spiked with pesticides. This indicates competition between caffeine and pesticides for adsorption to the sorbent. Addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ to the procedure revealed only a 32% matrix effect, whereas using PSA+ C18 the matrix effect was close to 97%. The process efficiency is up to 54% with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ and just up to 7% for the other clean-up procedures. The method was successfully tested in coffee leaves from different types of cultivars. Pesticides were not detected in organic coffee leaf extracts, but thiametoxan was clearly detected in 50% of coffee leaf extracts harvested from coffee trees grown under traditional conditions as determined by UHPLC-TOFMSLC/QqTOF-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction with novel phospholipid cleanup: A streamlined ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection approach for screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Provatas, Anthony A; Yevdokimov, Alexander V; King, Cory A; Gatley, Emma L; Stuart, James D; Evers, David C; Perkins, Christopher R

    2015-08-01

    A streamlined method has been developed for the isolation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma utilizing quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction in combination with novel phospholipid cleanup technology. A variety of traditional extraction and cleanup techniques have been employed in the preparation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsin a variety of matrices; liquid-liquid partitioning, solid-phase extractions, gel permeation chromatography, and column chromatography are all effective techniques, however they are laborious and time consuming processes that require large amounts of solvent. Using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled with phospholipid cleanup, samples can be quickly screened while maintaining high throughput and sensitivity. With a liquid chromatography approach, analysis times may be kept short at 16 min while maintaining high analyte recovery. Recoveries in quality control samples ranged from 70 to 109%, with average surrogate recoveries of 80.6 ± 1.10%. The result of using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction approach in conjunction with phospholipid cleanup is a methodology that significantly reduces sample preparation time and solvent use while maintaining high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  18. High Pressure Experimental Deformation in Talc Assemblies: Cheap, Easy, Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, E. D.; Holyoke, C. W.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Newman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Early methods of applying high pressures in the Griggs piston-cylinder triaxial deformation apparatus employed solid confining media thought to be weak compared with the silicate samples under investigation. Griggs apparatus sample assemblies with talc as the confining medium have been used in large numbers of experimental studies of rock deformation at pressures of 1.0 to 2.0 GPa. Modern methods now use solid and molten salts as confining media, with flow strengths that are low for solid salts (at elevated temperatures) and zero for molten salts; yet, talc continues to be used when deformation microstructures are used to infer differential stress. Recent comparison experiments conducted in the Griggs apparatus and gas apparatus have yielded calibrations that enable accurate stress measurements using solid and molten salt assemblies. These calibrations demonstrate that differential stresses measured at high confining pressures using the Griggs apparatus are systematically high, yet they are correctable. They also indicate that a significant portion of the required stress correction is due to friction in the nested loading column of the apparatus. No other correction is required for molten salt assemblies and the offset in stress measurements using solid salt assemblies, due to the strength of solid salt, is considerably smaller than previously thought. Encouraged by these calibrations for solid and molten salt assemblies, we performed similar comparison experiments in the Griggs apparatus using traditional, easy-to-use talc assemblies with the goal of developing another calibration for high-pressure stress measurements. Following the same procedures as used in our earlier calibrations, we deformed molybdenum and TZM alloy cylinders using a talc assembly at the same temperatures and strain rates (600-1000{circ}C and 1{ast}10^{-4}/s) as used in gas apparatus experiments. The apparent strengths of the samples deformed below the talc dehydration temperature were at

  19. Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

    2015-01-09

    The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An innovative method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled to desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for screening the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams.

    PubMed

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Bianchi, Federica; Milioli, Marco; Cavazza, Antonella; Careri, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The capabilities of desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) were tested for screening the presence of some paralytic shellfish toxins in clams. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach is proposed for sample clean-up. QuEChERS extraction was optimized by using a full factorial design followed by the multicriteria method of the desirability functions. Quantitation limits in the microgram per kilogram range proved reliability of the method for the detection of the investigated toxins in accordance to the rules laid down by European legislation. The optimized QuEChERS-DESI-HRMS based-method allowed for a rapid reliable screening of the investigated compounds at levels of interest, thus being useful for high-throughput analyses.

  1. Alternative sorbents for the dispersive solid-phase extraction step in quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Rombaldi, Caroline; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2014-09-19

    The clean-up step is essential to reduce interferences, improve quantification and help to maintain the integrity of the chromatographic system when working with complex matrices. In this study, alternative materials were evaluated as sorbents in the dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) for the determination and extraction of seventeen pesticides from rice paddy soil samples by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chitin, chitosan, diatomaceous earth and PSA were compared in terms of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. The best results were achieved when chitosan was used. Quantification limits ranged from 0.1 to 100μgkg(-1). Calibration curves showed correlation coefficient values higher than 0.98. Results of accuracy and precision in the spiked soil samples between 60% and 120%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 20%, were reached for 15 out of 17 pesticides. The matrix effect was evaluated and only one compound was influenced by the matrix components, showing medium effect. Results showed that alternative materials are more effective and less expensive than traditional sorbents which have been usually employed, i.e., they may be used in the D-SPE step during the extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of ametoctradin residue in fruits and vegetables by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingfeng; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Hanqing; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-05-15

    A rapid, effective and sensitive method to quantitatively determine ametoctradin residue in apple, cucumber, cabbage, tomato and grape was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compound was determined in less than 5.0 min using an electrospray ionisation source in positive mode (ESI+). The limit of detection was below 0.043 μg kg(-1), whereas the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.135 μg kg(-1) in all five matrices. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9969) for the target compound. Recovery studies were performed in all matrices at three spiked levels (1, 10 and 100 μg L(-1)). The mean recoveries from five matrices ranged from 81.81% to 100.1%, with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDr) in the range of 0.65-7.88% for the test compound. This method will be useful for the quick and routine detection of ametoctradin residues in potato, grape, cucumber, apple and tomato.

  3. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  4. Evaluation of an alternative fluorinated sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for pesticide residues analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Manoel L; Kemmerich, Magali; Prestes, Osmar D; Maldaner, Liane; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Zanella, Renato

    2017-09-08

    In this study, the efficiency of a new fluorinated sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up in extracts provided by the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) acetate method from tomato and sweet pepper samples was evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Clean-up using d-SPE technique has been widely used associated with the QuEChERS method. The most commonly sorbents used in d-SPE are primary secondary amine (PSA), octadecylsilane (C18) and graphitized carbon black (GCB), which are indicated to remove sugars, fatty acids, pigments, among others. The performance of an alternative fluorinated sorbent was compared with PSA and C18 sorbents for representative pesticides and better results were obtained when the fluorinated sorbent was used. Validation presented acceptable results for trueness and precision, with method limit of detection between 0.9 and 1.8μgkg(-1) and limit of quantification from 2.6 to 5.4μgkg(-1). Most of the compounds presented low matrix effect. Results showed that the fluorinated sorbent contribute to the clean-up of the tomato extract and is an effective alternative, with lower costs and greater efficiency. Commercial tomato samples were analyzed using the proposed method and residues of dimethoate, tetraconazole and thiamethoxam were detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry to determine benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Pol; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa M

    2014-04-25

    A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five benzotriazole, four benzothiazole and five benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge. While the method was being developed, several buffers and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up (dSPE) sorbents were tested. Citrate buffer and Z-sep+ (zirconium-based sorbent) were the most effective extraction buffer and dSPE clean-up material. The absolute recoveries were higher than 80% for all compounds (100ng/g (d.w.)) and the matrix effect was less than -20% for most compounds. The limits of detection were between 0.5 and 10ng/g (d.w.) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 1 and 25ng/g (d.w.). Repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 15% (%RSD, n=5). Several sludge samples from five sewage treatment plants in Catalonia were analysed and the most abundant compounds were 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (

  6. Evaluation of two modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation methods for the analysis of baclofen and gabapentin in feeds by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Yong; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of baclofen and gabapentin in feeds based on two modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For the two modified QuEChERS methods, samples were first extracted with acidified acetonitrile (5.0% acetic acid, v/v) without using acetonitrile salting-out extraction. Then, the first modified QuEChERS method was established according to the original QuEChERS cleanup procedure. For the second modified QuEChERS method, the extract was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in acetonitrile. Subsequently, the analytes in the reconstituted solution were retained by primary secondary amine (PSA) and released from PSA with 1.0% formic acid in methanol. Finally, the eluate was evaporated and dissolved in 0.1% formic acid solution/methanol (v/v, 80:20). All of the samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, and the LODs and LOQs of the two modified QuEChERS sample preparation methods were investigated and compared. Comparative results showed that the second method was obviously superior to the first method.

  7. Innovative mixture of salts in the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the extraction of residual macrolides in milk followed by analysis with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2015-11-01

    A simple extraction technique has been developed for seven macrolide antibiotics in milk. The procedure involves a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method based on acetonitrile extraction, followed by the addition of a mixture of salts (sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, and potassium carbonate) not yet reported in literature. The method was validated for tylosin and was selective, free of matrix effect, and linear in the range of 0.78-18.75 ng/mL in the final extract, corresponding to 0.125-3 times the maximum residue limit. The limit of detection, limit of quantification, decision limit, and detection capability were, respectively, 0.84, 2.79, 58.4, and 71.7 μg/kg. The overall average recovery at 25, 50, and 75 μg/kg ranged from 89-97%. Repeatability and intermediate precision expressed by relative standard deviations were below 10.5 and 12%, respectively. The extension of the validation for spiramycin, throleandomycin, oleandomycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin is under consideration since the procedure proved to be able to efficiently extract all studied macrolides, with recoveries from 74-104% at 50 μg/kg for tylosin, erythromycin, spiramycin, and oleandomycin and 20 μg/kg for throleandomycin, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin.

  8. Simultaneous determination of flupyradifurone and its two metabolites in fruits, vegetables, and grains by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    An effective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of a novel insecticide flupyradifurone and its two metabolites was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure. The three target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up with octadecylsilane, and were separated successfully between 1.9 and 3.1 min using an HSS T3 chromatographic column connected to an electrospray ionization source. All the matrix-matched samples at three fortified levels (0.01, 0.05, and 0.5 mg/kg) provided satisfactory recoveries in the range of 70.3-116.5% with relative standard deviations below 18.6%. The limits of quantitation were 10 μg/kg for flupyradifurone and difluoroethylamino-furanone and 100 μg/kg for 6-chloronicotinic acid. The limit of quantification of flupyradifurone was far below the maximum residue limit in the USA. The method is of great significance for establishing maximum residue limits in China.

  9. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A simplified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe approach for the determination of trihalomethanes and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in soil matrices by fast gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    García Pinto, Carmelo; Herrero Martín, Sara; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2011-03-09

    A method based on simplified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction followed by large-injection volume-fast gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection has been developed for the determination of trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in soil samples. The simplified version of QuEChERS used meets the requirements of the "green chemistry" and provides reliable results with high sample throughput, low solvent consumption, little labour and the use of materials commonly employed in laboratories. The GC device used is equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV), with a liner packed with Tenax-TA(®). Using the solvent-vent mode, the PTV allows the injection of large volumes of sample, affording an improvement in the sensitivity of the method. The chromatographic conditions used here allowed the separation of the compounds in less than 5.50 min. Good linearity was obtained for all the target compounds, with highly satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility values. The limits of detection were in the 0.2 to 15 μg kg(-1) range. The method was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials.

  11. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the simultaneous detection of four triazolone herbicides in cereals combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Zheng, Yonguan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a novel, rapid, and sensitive analytical method for monitoring four triazolone herbicides in cereals (wheat, rice, corn, and soybean), using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample extraction procedure followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The four triazolone herbicides (amicarbazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, sulfentrazone, and thiencarbazone-methyl) were extracted using acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% v/v formic acid) and subsequently purified with octadecylsilane (C18 ) prior to sample analysis. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode. Amicarbazone and carfentrazone-ethyl were detected in the positive mode (ESI+), while sulfentrazone and thiencarbazone-methyl were detected in the negative mode (ESI-). All compounds were successfully separated in less than 3.0 min. Further optimization achieved desired recoveries ranging from 74.5 to 102.1% for all analytes with relative standard deviation values ≤17.2% in all tested matrices at three levels (10, 100, and 500 μg/kg). The limits of detection for all compounds were ≤2.3 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation did not exceed 7.1 μg/kg. The developed method showed excellent linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and was proven to be highly efficient and reliable for the routine monitoring of triazolone herbicides in cereals.

  12. Determination of 136 pharmaceuticals and hormones in sewage sludge using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction followed by analysis with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peysson, William; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2013-05-17

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the analysis of a wide range of hormonal steroids and pharmaceutical compounds in sewage sludge. Thus, 136 substances were selected, including 119 pharmaceuticals and 17 hormonal steroids. An innovative sample preparation procedure based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed. The analysis was then performed using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the specificity, quadratic curve fitting, recovery, reproducibility and limits of detection and quantification. The method allows the analysis of the majority of the target compounds with limits of detection ranging from 1 ng/g to 2500 ng/g, depending on the nature of the substance. The protocol was then successfully applied to various types of sludge (limed, digested, dried, liquid and composted) collected in several sewage works in France. Among the target compounds, 34 were quantified at levels up to 6000 ng/g. Among the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals were the antiemetic domperidone (mean concentration 769 ng/g) and the antiepileptic lamotrigine (mean concentration 31 ng/g) whose presence had, to our knowledge, never been shown in sludge.

  13. Simultaneous determination of spirotetramat and its four metabolites in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yulong; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liang, Xuyang; Li, Minmin; Duan, Lifang; Zheng, Yongquan

    2013-07-19

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for the simultaneous determination of spirotetramat and its four metabolites in fruits (apple, peach) and vegetables (cabbage, tomato, potato, cucumber), based on the use of liquid extraction/partition and dispersive solid phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) followed by ultrahigh-performance chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was established. Acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid) as the extraction solvent and simultaneous liquid-liquid partitioning formed by adding anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and anhydrous sodium acetate (NaOAc). The extract was then cleaned up by dispersive-SPE using graphitized carbon black (GCB) as selective sorbent. Further optimization of sample preparation and determination achieved recoveries of between 82 and 110% for all analytes with RSD values lower than 14% in apple, peach, cabbage, tomato, potato and cucumber at three levels (10, 100 and 1000μg/kg). The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9895) for all studied analytes. The determination of the target compounds was achieved in less than 6.0min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+). The method is demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of spirotetramat and its metabolites in fruits and vegetables.

  14. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimisation and matrix effects reduction by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction.

    PubMed

    Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Leang, Sokha; Bernet, Nathalie; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2014-07-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimise an analytical method for the quantification of a bactericide and 13 pharmaceutical products, including 8 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolide), in various aqueous environmental samples: soil water and aqueous fractions of pig slurry, digested pig slurry and sewage sludge. The analysis was performed by online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS). The main challenge was to minimize the matrix effects observed in mass spectrometry, mostly due to ion suppression. They depended on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its origin, and ranged between -22% and +20% and between -38% and -93% of the signal obtained without matrix, in soil water and slurry supernatant, respectively. The very variable levels of these matrix effects suggested DOC content cut-offs above which sample purification was required. These cut-offs depended on compounds, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 290mgC/L for antibiotics (except tylosine) up to 600-6400mgC/L for the most apolar compounds. A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure was therefore optimised using an experimental design methodology, in order to purify samples with high DOC contents. Its performance led to a compromise, allowing fluoroquinolone and tetracycline analysis. The QuEChERS extraction salts consisted therefore of sodium acetate, sodium sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate, and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as a ligand of divalent cations. The modified QuEChERS procedure employed for the extraction of pharmaceuticals in slurry and digested slurry liquid phases reduced the matrix effects for almost all the compounds, with extraction recoveries generally above 75%. The performance characteristics of the method were evaluated in terms of linearity, intra-day and inter

  15. Simultaneous determination of oxathiapiprolin and two metabolites in fruits, vegetables and cereal using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Li, Yuanbo; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-14

    An effective and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of a new fungicide oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites (IN-E8S72 and IN-WR791) residues in fruits (grape, watermelon, watermelon peel), vegetables (cucumber, tomato, potato) and cereal (wheat) was developed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) using the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction concept. Three target compounds were extracted from all matrices with 1% (V/V) formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile then cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) with octadecylsilane (C18) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). The determination of the target compounds was achieved within a 5.1min run time by using an UPLC HSS T3 column connected to an electrospray ionization source (ESI, positive ion mode) for oxathiapiprolin and the negative mode for the two metabolites. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9904) for target compounds. The limit of detection (LOD) for the three compounds ranged from 0.5μgkg(-1) to 7.5μgkg(-1) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 1μgkg(-1) and 10μgkg(-1) for oxathiapiprolin and the metabolites, respectively. The mean recoveries from seven matrices ranged from 81.5 to 110.7%, with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDr) in the range of 0.8-12.0% for all three test compounds. The inter-day RSDR were less than 14.5% for all of the recovery tests. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous analysis of oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in actual trial samples, indicating its effectiveness in investigating oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in the food.

  16. A robust preference for cheap-and-easy strategies over reliable strategies when verifying personal memories.

    PubMed

    Nash, Robert A; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Adelman, James S

    2017-08-01

    People depend on various sources of information when trying to verify their autobiographical memories. Yet recent research shows that people prefer to use cheap-and-easy verification strategies, even when these strategies are not reliable. We examined the robustness of this cheap strategy bias, with scenarios designed to encourage greater emphasis on source reliability. In three experiments, subjects described real (Experiments 1 and 2) or hypothetical (Experiment 3) autobiographical events, and proposed strategies they might use to verify their memories of those events. Subjects also rated the reliability, cost, and the likelihood that they would use each strategy. In line with previous work, we found that the preference for cheap information held when people described how they would verify childhood or recent memories (Experiment 1), personally important or trivial memories (Experiment 2), and even when the consequences of relying on incorrect information could be significant (Experiment 3). Taken together, our findings fit with an account of source monitoring in which the tendency to trust one's own autobiographical memories can discourage people from systematically testing or accepting strong disconfirmatory evidence.

  17. Comparison of micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochu; Bian, Yanli; Liu, Fengmao; Teng, Peipei; Sun, Pan

    2017-10-06

    Two simple sample pretreatment for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea was developed including micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (ME-IL-VALLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. In ME-IL-VALLME method, the target analyte was extracted by surfactant Tween 20 micellar solution, then the supernatant was diluted with 3mL water to decrease the solubility of micellar solution. Subsequently, the vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was performed in the diluted extraction solution by using the ionic liquid of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF6) as the extraction solvent and Tween 20 as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into the aqueous phase. Parameters that affect the extraction have been investigated in both methods Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantitation were 0.10 and 0.05mgkg(-1), respectively. And good linearity was achieved with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.9941. The relative recoveries ranged from 78.6 to 94.8% and 92.0 to 118.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 7.9-9.6% and 1.2-3.2%, respectively. Both methods were quick, simple and inexpensive. However, the ME-IL-VALLME method provides higher enrichment factor compared with conventional QuEChERS method. The ME-IL-VALLME method has a strong potential for the determination of difenoconazole in complex vegetable matrices with HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of cyromazine and melamine in chicken eggs using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Cheng; Lee, Ren-Jye; Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2012-11-08

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of cyromazine and melamine in chicken eggs using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimal extraction solvent for the liquid-liquid extraction was 5 mL of acetonitrile with a 0.1 M hydrochloric acid aqueous solution (99.5:0.5, v/v). The extract was cleaned with 0.5 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 10 mg of graphitized carbon black. The analysis of cyromazine and melamine was accomplished by combining the use of an anion exchange LC column with tandem mass spectrometry in the positive electrospray ionization mode with selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). The detection limits were 1.6 ng g(-1) for cyromazine and 8 ng g(-1) for melamine, and the quantitation limits were 5.5 ng g(-1) for cyromazine and 25 ng g(-1) for melamine. The recoveries of cyromazine and melamine in the spiked egg samples were 83.2% and 104.6%, respectively, with an relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 18.1%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions, represented by the RSD, ranged from 1.5% to 8.8% and 6.8% to 14.3%, respectively. The proposed method was tested by analyzing chicken eggs from the markets and from the veterinary medicine laboratory. The concentrations of cyromazine and melamine detected in these samples were in the range of 20-94 ng g(-1). The results demonstrated that the QuEChERS method combined with LC-MS/MS is a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for the analysis of cyromazine and melamine in eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and clean-up by immunoaffinity column for the analysis of 15 mycotoxins by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Tessiot, Sabine; Bessaire, Thomas; Racault, Lucie; Fiorese, Elisa; Urbani, Alessandro; Chan, Wai-Chinn; Cheng, Pearly; Mottier, Pascal

    2014-04-11

    Optimization and validation of a multi-mycotoxin method by LC-MS/MS is presented. The method covers the EU-regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2), as well as nivalenol and 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol for analysis of cereals, cocoa, oil, spices, infant formula, coffee and nuts. The proposed procedure combines two clean-up strategies: First, a generic preparation suitable for all mycotoxins based on the QuEChERS (for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) protocol. Second, a specific clean-up devoted to aflatoxins and ochratoxin A using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up. Positive identification of mycotoxins in matrix was conducted according to the confirmation criteria defined in EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC while quantification was performed by isotopic dilution using (13)C-labeled mycotoxins as internal standards. Limits of quantification were at or below the maximum levels set in the EC/1886/2006 document for all mycotoxin/matrix combinations under regulation. In particular, the inclusion of an IAC step allowed achieving LOQs as low as 0.05 and 0.25μg/kg in cereals for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Other performance parameters like linearity [(r)(2)>0.99], recovery [71-118%], precision [(RSDr and RSDiR)<33%], and trueness [78-117%] were all compliant with the analytical requirements stipulated in the CEN/TR/16059 document. Method ruggedness was proved by a verification process conducted by another laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the potentialities of an improved ultrasound-assisted quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based extraction technique combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for determination of Zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Camacho, Irene; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a secondary metabolite from Fusarium graminearum fungi that invade crops and grow during blooming in moist cool field conditions, is a nonsteroidal oestrogen, biologically very potent, although hardly toxic. Different analytical methods, among which a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) strategy, combined with or liquid chromatography, have been proposed for ZEA determination in foods. However, this extraction procedure has the disadvantage of using large amount of organic solvents, partitioning salts and sample volume, which limits the technique application on the fields where the sample amount is critical. Therefore in this work an improved sample preparation step based on the original QuEChERS (O-QuEChERS) approach, the μ-QuEChERS, combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with fluorescence detection (FLR) is proposed for the sensitive and high-throughput quantification of ZEA in cereals. The proposed analytical strategy, μ-QuEChERSUSAE, uses up to 32 times lower amounts of partitioning salts, lower sample amount and lower extraction solvents, in comparison with O-QuEChERS technique. The performance of the analytical approach was assessed by studying the selectivity, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linear dynamic range, matrix effect and precision. Good linearity (r(2)>0.99) was achieved for ZEA, and limits of detection (LOD=3.4μgkg(-1)) and limits of quantification (LOQ=4.7μgkg(-1)) were found below the tolerance levels set by European Commission. Good recoveries were obtained with different spiked concentrations, ranged from 80.2% to 109.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.0%. The comparison of the analytical performance of the proposed μ-QuEChERSUSAE with O-QuEChERS showed the powerful ability of the proposed strategy since it gives comparable results but using lower amounts of sample, partitioning

  1. High-throughput method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe followed by liquid chromatography-multi-wavelength detection for the quantification of multiclass polyphenols in wines.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Ariel R; Bottini, Rubén

    2014-05-16

    In this work, a reliable, simple, fast, inexpensive and robust sample preparation approach for the determination of multiclass polyphenols in wine samples is proposed. The polyphenols selected for this work were gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and cinnamic acid. The method is based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction technique coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up. Under optimized conditions, the analytes were extracted from 5mL wine samples (previously acidified with 1% formic acid) using 2.5mL acetonitrile. For phase separation, 1.5g NaCl and 4g anhydrous MgSO4 were added. Then, a 1mL aliquot of the partitioned supernatant was cleaned-up using d-SPE with a combination of 150mg CaCl2, 50mg primary-secondary amine (PSA) and 50mgC18 as sorbents. A 250μL aliquot of the obtained cleaned extract was concentrated to dryness and taken up with the initial mobile phase previous to liquid chromatography-multi-wavelength detection (LC-MWD). The proposed method provided limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.004 to 0.079μgmL(-1) and an inter-day variability below 12% RSD for all analytes in red and white wine samples. Considering external calibration (red wines) and matrix-matched calibration (white wines) as quantification techniques, the overall recoveries (accuracy) of the method ranged between 75.0% and 119.6% for red and white wine samples, respectively. The developed method was applied for the determination of polyphenols in 10 wines produced in Argentina. Nine phenolic compounds were determined, at concentrations above detectable levels in the method. The maximum concentrations corresponded to (-)-epicatechin in white wines, while gallic acid and (+)-catechin were the most abundant in red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Morgan, Marsha K; Graham, Stephen E; Starr, James M

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is important to understand the contribution of these degradates when studying sources of human pyrethroid exposure. We modified the widely used Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method to measure several current-use pyrethroids (cis/trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and cyhalothrin) and their environmental degradation products (3-PBA, cis/trans-DCCA, 4-F-3-PBA, DBCA, and MPA) in selected fresh fruits and vegetables. Using fortified samples, we determined extraction efficiencies from: tomatoes, oranges (whole, peeled, and rind), grapes, apples, bananas (peeled and rind only), onions, lettuce, green peppers, carrots and broccoli. For a subset of these food items (apples, grapes, tomatoes, lettuce and banana peel), we also established limits of detection (MDLs) and quantitation (MQLs). Each sample was homogenized (1kg) then spiked with the target pyrethroids and their degradation products. Sub-samples (15g) were extracted with acetonitrile, then salted out and partitioned with NaCl and MgSO4. The extract was divided and further cleaned using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing either graphitized non-porous carbon (pyrethroids) or C18 (degradation products). Sample analysis was via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering the mean recoveries each of the 14 analytes in all 13 matrices: 42% of the recoveries were ≥90%, 70% were ≥80%, and 90% were ≥70%. All MDL's were less than 100ng/kg, except 3-PBA (132ng/kg, tomato), MPA (129ng/kg, tomato), and trans-permethrin (141ng/kg, banana peel). We then applied the method to non-spiked samples (subset of 5 for which the MDLs/MQLs had been

  3. Statistical evaluation of the influence of soil properties on recoveries and matrix effects during the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds and steroids by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-08

    Numerous chemical products are dispersed in our environment. Many of them are recognized as harmful to humans and the ecosystem. Among these harmful substances are antibiotics and steroid hormones. Currently, very few data are available on the presence and fate of these substances in the environment, in particular for solid matrices, mainly due to a lack of analytical methodologies. Indeed, soil is a very complex matrix, and the nature and composition of the soil has a significant impact on the extraction efficiency and the sensitivity of the method. For this reason a statistical approach was performed to study the influence of soil parameters (clay, silt, sand and organic carbon percentages and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) on recoveries and matrix effects of various pharmaceuticals and steroids. Thus, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed when several substances were analyzed simultaneously, whereas a Pearson correlation was used to study the compounds individually. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first time such an experiment was performed. The results showed that clay and organic carbon percentages as well as the CEC have an impact on the recoveries of most of the target substances, the variables being anti-correlated. This result suggests that the compounds are trapped in soils with high levels of clay and organic carbon and a high CEC. For the matrix effects, it was shown that the organic carbon content has a significant effect on steroid hormones and penicillin G matrix effects (positive correlation). Finally, interaction effects (first order) were evaluated. This latter point corresponds to the crossed effects that occur between explanatory variables (soil parameters). Indeed, the value taken by an explanatory variable can have an influence on the effect that another explanatory variable has on a dependent variable. For instance, it was shown that some parameters (silt, sand) have an impact on the effect that clay content has on

  4. Simultaneous determination of three herbicides in wheat, wheat straw, and soil using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a sensitive and effective analytical method for the extraction and detection of three herbicide residues (florasulam, fluroxypyr, and halauxifen-methyl) in wheat and soil was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water followed by salting out, dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup, and detection using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The target analytes were detected within a 5 min runtime using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography high-strength silica trifunctional column connected to an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The method was validated in five replicates at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Adequate pesticide quantification and identity confirmation were attained, even at the lowest concentration levels. The method showed very good accuracy and precision. Good recoveries were observed for the three herbicides and mostly ranged between 75.8 and 114.6%, with intraday relative standard deviations <6.01% and interday relative standard deviations <4.02%. The limits of quantification ranged between 0.14 and 7.68 μg/kg for each herbicide. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the three herbicides in actual trial samples, and the results proved that the proposed method was effective in detecting these three herbicides.

  5. Preparation of size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles with a graphene and polymeric ionic liquid coating for the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of preservatives from vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaling; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Zhiqiong; Wang, Guoming

    2016-05-27

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 200-1000nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was synthesized and used as modified QuEChERS adsorbent for the determination of preservatives in vegetables. The size of about 200nm of Fe3O4 in Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was selected as optimum size to clean-up. It not only exerted the nanometer features of magnetic nanoparticles, but also displayed the large specific surface area of graphene (G) and the solvent effects of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs). Various experimental parameters have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 20 preservatives residues in vegetables was established by modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The good linearity with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9972-0.9999 was obtained over the range of 0.02-2.00mg/L for 20 preservatives. The detection limits of the proposed method for 20 preservatives ranged from 0.82 to 6.64μg/kg. The adsorbent was successfully applied for extraction and determination of preservatives in vegetable samples, which thus was time-saving with keeping good clean-up performance.

  6. Simultaneous determination of penflufen and one metabolite in vegetables and cereals using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fajun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-12-15

    The present study attempts to investigate a rapid, effective and sensitive analytical method to determine a new fungicide penflufen and its metabolite residues in potato, cowpea, corn, wheat and rice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were extracted using acetonitrile and cleaned up by primary secondary amine (PSA) and octadecylsilane (C18). Both compounds were determined in less than 5.0min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+). The calculated limits of detection and quantification were below 0.018μgkg(-1) and 0.060μgkg(-1) in different matrices. The method revealed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9957) for both compounds. The recoveries ranged from 76.1 to 101.0% for both compounds with RSD values lower than 9.8% in all matrices. The results demonstrated that the method is reliable and effective enough for the routine detecting penflufen and its metabolite residues in vegetables and cereals.

  7. A statistical approach to determine fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soils, sediment and sludge based on a combination of chemometric tools and a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Zhu, Yulong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Li, Minmin; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-09-05

    An effective method for the quantification of fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soils, sediment and sludge was developed using ultrahigh performance chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Both the extraction and clean-up steps of the QuEChERS procedure were optimised using a chemometric tool, which was expected to facilitate the rapid analysis with minimal procedures. Several operating parameters (MeCN/acetic acid ratio in the extraction solution (i.e., acetic acid percentage), water volume, extraction time, PSA amount, C18 amount, and GCB amount) were investigated using a Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Afterward, the significant factors (acetic acid percentage, water volume, and PSA amount) obtained were optimised using central composite design (CCD) combined with the desirability function (DF) to determine the optimum experimental conditions. The optimised procedure provides high-level linearity for all studied compounds with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9972 and 0.9999. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1 to 1.0μg/kg and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were between 0.5 and 3.4μg/kg with relative standard deviations (RSD) between 2.3% and 9.6% (n=6). Therefore, the developed protocol can serve as a simple and sensitive tool for monitoring fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soil, sediment and sludge samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid residue analysis of oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in typical Chinese soil, water, and sediments by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chao; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zhao, Huanhuan; Zheng, Yongquan; Xu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and effective method for the simultaneous determination of residues from a new fungicide, oxathiapiprolin, and its metabolites (IN-E8S72 and IN-WR791) in soil, water, and sediment, was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Three compounds were extracted from water, soil, and sediment by using acetonitrile and different proportions of formic acid aqueous solution (1% v/v for water; 2% v/v for soil; and sediment), and were cleaned with octadecylsilane. The target compounds were determined within 5 min using an electrospray ionization source in the positive mode for oxathiapiprolin and in the negative mode for the two metabolites. The limits of quantification for all the three compounds were 0.1 μg/kg in water and 1 μg/kg in soil and sediment. Recovery studies were performed using three spiked levels (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/kg for water; 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg for soil and sediment). The overall average recoveries ranged from 64.8 to 112.7% with all intra- and interday relative standard deviation values below 19.4 and 19.1%, respectively. The method validation confirmed that the proposed method was convenient and reliable for determining residual oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in soil, water, and sediments.

  9. Large multiresidue analysis of pesticides in edible vegetable oils by using efficient solid-phase extraction sorbents based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe methodology followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parrilla Vázquez, P; Hakme, E; Uclés, S; Cutillas, V; Martínez Galera, M; Mughari, A R; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2016-09-09

    The aim of this research was to adapt the QuEChERS method for routine pesticide multiresidue analysis in edible vegetable oil samples using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Several clean-up approaches were tested: (a) D-SPE with Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR-Lipid™); (b) D-SPE with PSA; (c) D-SPE with Z-Sep; (d) SPE with Z-Sep. Clean-up methods were evaluated in terms of fat removal from the extracts, recoveries and extraction precision for 213 pesticides in different matrices (soybean, sunflower and extra-virgin olive oil). The QuEChERS protocol with EMR-Lipid d-SPE provided the best reduction of co-extracted matrix compounds with the highest number of pesticides exhibiting mean recoveries in the 70-120% range, and the lowest relative standard deviations values (4% on average). A simple and rapid (only 5min) freeze-out step with dry ice (CO2 at -76°C) prior to d-SPE clean-up ensured much better removal of co-extracted matrix compounds in compliance of the necessity in routine analysis. Procedural Standard Calibration was established in order to compensate for recovery losses of certain pesticides and possible matrix effects. Limits of quantification were 10μgkg(-1) for the majority of the pesticides. The modified methodology was applied for the analysis of different 17 oil samples. Fourteen pesticides were detected with values lower than MRLs and their concentration ranged between 10.2 and 156.0μgkg(-1).

  10. Development of a method for the analysis of hormones and pharmaceuticals in earthworms by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-01

    The earthworm represents a kind of creature in contact with the soil surface and usually exposed to a variety of organic pollutants from human activities. Therefore, it can be considered as an organism of choice for identifying pollution or better understanding the input of contaminants in food chains in particular through the contributions of sludge. Moreover, the use of organisms such as soil invertebrates is to be developed for ecotoxicological risk assessment of pollutants. In this context, a simple, rapid and effective multi-residue method was developed for the determination of 31 compounds including 11 steroids, 14 veterinary antibiotics and 6 human contaminants (paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, fluvoxamine, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, bisphenol A) in earthworm. The sample preparation procedure was based on a salting-out extraction with acetonitrile (QuEChERS approach) that was optimised with regard to the acetonitrile/water ratio used in the extraction step, the choice of the clean-up and the quantity of the matrix. The optimised extraction method exhibited recoveries that comprised between 44 and 98 % for all the tested compounds. The limits of detection of all compounds were below 14 ng g(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) comprised between 1.6 and 40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The method was therefore applied to determine the levels of pharmaceuticals and hormones in six earthworm samples collected in various soils. Concentrations up to 195 ng g(-1) for bisphenol A were determined, between a few nanograms per gram and 43.1 ng g(-1) (estriol) for hormones and between a few nanograms per gram and 73.5 ng g(-1) (florfenicol) for pharmaceuticals. Experiments were also conducted in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accumulation of the target substances by earthworm.

  11. "Cheap, Efficient, and Easy to Implement"? Economic Aspects of Monitorial Education in Swedish Elementary Schools during the 1820s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Esbjörn

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the economic aspects of monitorial education in Sweden during the 1820s. In contrast to previous research, which has often emphasised monitorial education as a cheap method of education, this article shows that this was rarely the case. Monitorial education could in fact lead to increased costs, especially during the…

  12. Technical Note: A safe, cheap, and easy-to-use isotropic diffusion MRI phantom for clinical and multicenter studies.

    PubMed

    Pullens, Pim; Bladt, Piet; Sijbers, Jan; Maas, Andrew I R; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-03-01

    Since Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data acquisition and processing are not standardized, substantial differences in DWI derived measures such as Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) may arise which are related to the acquisition or MRI processing method, but not to the sample under study. Quality assurance using a standardized test object, or phantom, is a key factor in standardizing DWI across scanners. Current diffusion phantoms are either complex to use, not available in larger quantities, contain substances unwanted in a clinical environment, or are expensive. A diffusion phantom based on a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution, together with a phantom holder, is presented and compared to existing diffusion phantoms for use in clinical DWI scans. An ADC vs. temperature calibration curve was obtained. ADC of the phantom (808 to 857 ± 0.2 mm(2) /s) is in the same range as ADC values found in brain tissue. ADC measurements are highly reproducible across time with an intra-class correlation coefficient of > 0.8. ADC as function of temperature (in Kelvin) can be estimated as ADCm(T)=[exp(-7.09)·exp-2903.81T-1293.55] with a total uncertainty (95% confidence limit) of ± 1.7%. We present an isotropic diffusion MRI phantom, together with its temperature calibration curve, that is easy-to-use in a clinical environment, cost-effective, reproducible to produce, and that contains no harmful substances. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Prolene: a novel, cheap, and effective material in dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Sundus; Oksuz, Huseyin; Okuyucu, Semsettin; Akoglu, Ertap; Dagli, Safak

    2009-07-01

    Prolene is cheap, effective, and readily available in almost all operating theaters. It might be used successfully in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and is promising as an alternative to silicone stent intubations, especially in settings with limited resources. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and results of stenting with polypropylene (Prolene; Ethicon, Inc.) suture material instead of silicone tube in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Forty-two endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy operations were performed in 36 patients (11 men and 25 women; mean age 34.7 + or - 9.5 years, range 16-60 years) between 2007 and 2008. After creating an aperture in the medial wall of the lacrimal sac, 2/0 Prolene was inserted through the canaliculi into the sac. The Prolene was left in the lacrimal sac for 3 months. The patients were followed up for between 6 and 18 months (mean 8.1 + or - 3.6 months). The improvement in the complaint of epiphora was grouped as very good, good, or no change. The improvement in 34 eyes (81%) was reported as very good, whereas improvement was noted as good in 5 eyes (11.9%), and there was no change in 3 eyes (7.1%). We observed granulation tissue formation around the Prolene in two patients.

  14. Adaptation and Validation of QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible (QUENCHER) Antioxidant Capacity Assays in Model Products Obtained from Residual Wine Pomace.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; García-Lomillo, Javier; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Muñiz, Pilar

    2015-08-12

    Evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of solid matrices without extraction steps is a very interesting alternative for food researchers and also for food industries. These methodologies have been denominated QUENCHER from QUick, Easy, New, CHEap, and Reproducible assays. To demonstrate and highlight the validity of QUENCHER (Q) methods, values of Q-method validation were showed for the first time, and they were tested with products of well-known different chemical properties. Furthermore, new QUENCHER assays to measure scavenging capacity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals were developed. Calibration models showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.995), proportionality and precision (CV < 6.5%), and acceptable detection limits (<20.4 nmol Trolox equiv). The presence of ethanol in the reaction medium gave antioxidant capacity values significantly different from those obtained with water. The dilution of samples with powdered cellulose was discouraged because possible interferences with some of the matrices analyzed may take place.

  15. All About Oxygen in the Ocean: Cheap, Quick and Easy Experiments for Pupils Grades 5 to 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Dengg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The collaborative research project (SFB 754) at GEOMAR Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany addresses among others the decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the oceans. The school outreach component of the SFB 754 a project funded by the German Science Foundation aims to spread the science behind ocean de-oxygenation in secondary schools in Germany. To realise this goal, a series of hands-on experiments have been developed on different topics like gas solubility in water, gas transport in the ocean, oxygen production by phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by bacteria and experiments on nutrient uptake by phytoplankton. The experiments developed are simple, using low cost and reusable materials thus ensuring affordability in schools. For the hands-on session the following experiments will be presented: (1) The effects of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, nature of solute and nature of solvent on the solubility of oxygen in water will be demonstrated using Luer-Lock syringes, (2) Oxygen transport from the ocean surface to the deep will be shown in an experiment using a modification of the "blue-bottle" experiment, and (3) Simulation of ocean circulation employing a 2-dimensional tank. Applications and experiment ideas using immobilised phytoplankton and other procedures suitable for schools for measuring oxygen consumption by bacteria will be introduced in a poster presentation.

  16. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in

  17. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Networking the Physical World Made Cheap and Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, N. T.; Mendez, J. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Hoffman, C.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. Non-standardized interfaces make instrument integration and field operation cumbersome and error-prone. Indeed, the assembly and deployment of some systems can take months and incur high costs. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply "plugging" devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Mechanical integration is also accelerated by repackaging instruments according to the CubeSAT form-factor (multiples of 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes). In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To demonstrate our initial success, we first discuss the Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), a low-cost, modular, spaceweather satellite running LION-PNP. BUSAT is a completely student-driven project meant for magnetospheric-ionospheric research incorporating 4

  18. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%).

  19. Burn moulage made easy (and cheap).

    PubMed

    Swan, Nanci A

    2013-01-01

    Moulage is one of the key factors in suspending disbelief for those participating in a simulation scenario. Transforming a mannequin into a simulated patient with burns seems like an overwhelming task. Techniques for using makeup and toilet paper to make blisters and burns are presented.

  20. Cheap Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Terry G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity from the ninth-grade physical science program at the Energy Management Center, the outdoor science and energy education center for students in Pasco County, Florida. The activity focuses on making an effective solar collector. (JN)

  1. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration. PMID:27698988

  2. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Treesearch

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  3. Linezolid: an effective, safe and cheap drug for patients failing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singla, R; Caminero, J A; Jaiswal, A; Singla, N; Gupta, S; Bali, R K; Behera, D

    2012-04-01

    Linezolid is identified as an effective drug with which to treat patients failing multidrug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis (TB) treatment. However, cost and safety are the concerns. In India, the average price of a 600-mg pill of linezolid is less than one US dollar, much cheaper than most of the third-line drugs. A prospective study of 29 MDR-TB treatment failure patients (16 with laboratory-proven extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB and the remaining 13 with MDR-TB with resistance to any quinolone but sensitive to injectables) was carried out in Delhi, India. All patients received daily unsupervised therapy with linezolid, one injectable agent, one fluoroquinolone and two or more other drugs. Patients received a median of six anti-mycobacterial agents. Besides linezolid, capreomycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and amoxycillin-clavulanic acid were used in 41.4%, 58.6%, 41.4%, and 79.3% of patients. Out of a total of 29 patients, 89.7% patients achieved sputum smear and culture conversion; 72.4% showed interim favourable outcome; 10.3% died, 6.8% failed and 10.3% patients defaulted. Linezolid had to be stopped in three (10.3%) patients due to adverse reactions. The outcome of treatment of 16 XDR-TB patients was comparable to the other 13 MDR-TB patients. Linezolid is an effective, cheap and relatively safe drug for patients failing MDR-TB treatment, including those with confirmed XDR-TB.

  4. Effects of glucose doping on the MgB2 superconductors using cheap crystalline boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkandy, Jafar Meethale; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Shah, M. Shahabuddin; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Qaid, Salem A. S.; Madhar, Niyaz Ahmad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Shar, Muhammad Ali

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor fabricated by dry mixing using planetary ball milling. Herein, as-prepared bulk polycrystalline Mg (B1-xCx) 2 samples with different doping levels (x = 0, 2, 4, and 6 at. %) were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and resistivity measurements, and microstructure analysis. When carbon doped, the reduction in critical transition temperature and shrinkage in a-lattice were obviously observed. This resulted in structural distortion of the MgB2 lattice, and thereby, enhanced an impurity scattering. In addition to these, upper critical field and high-field critical current densities were also enhanced. On the other hand, both pinning force and low-field critical current density are decreased. The high field enhancement and low field degradation are due to increase in impurity scattering and decrease in pinning force respectively.

  5. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2005-01-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application's running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than "walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  6. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2004-12-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application"s running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than `walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  7. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  8. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  9. The Effectiveness of SpeechEasy during Situations of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer J.; Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple single-subject design was used to examine the effects of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in the laboratory and in longitudinal samples of speech produced in situations of daily living (SDL). Seven adults who stutter participated, all of whom had exhibited at least 30% reduction in stuttering frequency while using SpeechEasy during…

  10. The Effectiveness of SpeechEasy during Situations of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer J.; Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple single-subject design was used to examine the effects of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in the laboratory and in longitudinal samples of speech produced in situations of daily living (SDL). Seven adults who stutter participated, all of whom had exhibited at least 30% reduction in stuttering frequency while using SpeechEasy during…

  11. Cheap, Easy-To-Read Frequency Monitor For Pulsed Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esporoles, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    Electronic circuit provides bar-graph display of difference between carrier frequency of pulsed laser transmitter and frequency of another laser serving as local oscillator in receiver. Display device linear array of light-emitting diodes (LED's), each representing 1-MHz portion of beat-frequency range from 20 to 40 MHz. Middle LED and neighbors green; LED's representing edges of passband yellow; LED's of frequencies outside passband red. Operator determines approximate relative frequency of transmitter at a glance by observing color and position of illuminated LED.

  12. Naive empiricism and dogmatism in confidence research: a critical examination of the hard-easy effect.

    PubMed

    Juslin, P; Winman, A; Olsson, H

    2000-04-01

    Two robust phenomena in research on confidence in one's general knowledge are the overconfidence phenomenon and the hard-easy effect. In this article, the authors propose that the hard-easy effect has been interpreted with insufficient attention to the scale-end effects, the linear dependency, and the regression effects in data and that the continued adherence to the idea of a "cognitive overconfidence bias" is mediated by selective attention to particular data sets. A quantitative review of studies with 2-alternative general knowledge items demonstrates that, contrary to widespread belief, there is (a) very little support for a cognitive-processing bias in these data; (b) a difference between representative and selected item samples that is not reducible to the difference in difficulty; and (c) near elimination of the hard-easy effect when there is control for scale-end effects and linear dependency.

  13. Automatic single-step quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe sample preparation devices for analysis of pesticide residues in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jishi; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yaping; Peng, Yi; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-09-18

    In this research, the manual two-step QuEChERS approach has been streamlined and automated into a one-step method using a cleanup tube fitted within an extraction tube. A novel automatic QuEChERS combination have been developed to simplify the QuEChERS procedures and improve sample preparation efficiency. This combination integrates QuEChERS procedures into a single run via the use of a vortex vibration-centrifuge device and a centrifuge filtration tube. To validate the efficiency of our automatic QuEChERS device, 270 pesticides were analyzed in plant origined foods including celery, tomatoes, leeks, eggplants, grapes, corn, green tea, and soybean oil using this automatic platform. The results were then compared with those obtained using the manual QuEChERS method. Different parameters were validated and compared including recovery, linearity, repeatability and limits of quantification (LOQ). Satisfactory results, comparable to results obtained using the manual QuEChERS method were obtained. The average recoveries ranged between 70% and 120% for most pesticides with associated relative standard deviations (RSDs) <20% (n=5) indicating satisfactory accuracy and repeatability. An LOQ of 2μg/kg was obtained for most pesticides present in celery and corn matrices, and the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were >0.990 within a linearity range of 2-500μg/kg. Compared to manual QuEChERS, this novel automatic QuEChERS device and combination could significantly improve the sample preparation efficiency for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Determination of cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Qin, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-10-01

    A new, highly sensitive, and selective method was developed for the determination of the cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by using gas chromatography quadruple mass spectrometry. The target compound was extracted using acetonitrile and then cleaned up using dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary and secondary amine and graphitized carbon black, and optionally by a freezing-out cleanup step. The matrix-matched standards gave satisfactory recoveries and relative standard deviation values in different matrices at three fortified levels (0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) ). The overall average recoveries for this method in water, soil, and all fruits matrix at three fortified levels ranged from 76.3 to 101.5% with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.2-11.8% (n = 5). The calculated limits of detection and quantification were typically below 0.005 and 0.015 μg kg(-1), which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by Japanese Positive List. This study provides a theoretical basis for China to draw up maximum residue level and analytical method for cyflumetofen acaricide in different fruits. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  16. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  17. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  18. Long-Term Effectiveness of the SpeechEasy Fluency-Enhancement Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Ronald F.; Runyan, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    The SpeechEasy has been found to be an effective device for reduction of stuttering frequency for many people who stutter (PWS); published studies typically have compared stuttering reduction at initial fitting of the device to results achieved up to one year later. This study examines long-term effectiveness by examining whether effects of the…

  19. Long-Term Effectiveness of the SpeechEasy Fluency-Enhancement Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Ronald F.; Runyan, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    The SpeechEasy has been found to be an effective device for reduction of stuttering frequency for many people who stutter (PWS); published studies typically have compared stuttering reduction at initial fitting of the device to results achieved up to one year later. This study examines long-term effectiveness by examining whether effects of the…

  20. The end of cheap uranium.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10±2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58±4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54±5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41±5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse.

  1. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner’s dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player’s cooperation choices in prisoner’s dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were ‘moral bargain hunters’ who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a ‘price list’ of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game. PMID:27296466

  2. The effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael; Mason, Jessica; De Croos, Dayani

    2006-01-01

    The effect of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency during speech produced in a laboratory setting was examined. Thirteen adults who stutter participated. Stuttering frequencies in two baseline conditions were compared to stuttering frequencies with the device fitted according to the manufacturer's protocol. The fitting protocol includes instructions for deliberate use of vowel prolongation. Relative to the initial baseline condition, stuttering was reduced by 74%, 36%, and 49% for reading, monologue, and conversation, respectively. In comparison, stuttering was reduced by 42%, 30%, and 36%, respectively with the device in place, but before participants were instructed to deliberately prolong vowels. Examination of individual response profiles revealed that although stuttering reduced in the device compared to the baseline conditions during at least one of three speech tasks for most participants, degree and pattern of benefit varied greatly across participants. The reader will be able to: (1) discuss recent research in altered auditory feedback that led to the development of SpeechEasy, (2) analyze and describe issues related to evaluating the treatment benefits of fluency aids, and (3) summarize the range of outcomes that were observed with SpeechEasy in this study.

  3. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  4. The Easy-to-Hard Effect in Human (Homo sapiens) and Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Auditory Identification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Estella H.; Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A.; Orduña, Itzel

    2009-01-01

    Training exercises can improve perceptual sensitivities. We examined whether progressively training humans and rats to perform a difficult auditory identification task led to larger improvements than extensive training with highly similar sounds (the easy-to-hard effect). Practice improved humans’ ability to distinguish sounds regardless of the training regimen. However, progressively trained participants were more accurate and showed more generalization, despite significantly less training with the stimuli that were the most difficult to distinguish. Rats showed less capacity to improve with practice, but still benefited from progressive training. These findings indicate that transitioning from an easier to a more difficult task during training can facilitate, and in some cases may be essential for, auditory perceptual learning. The results are not predicted by an explanation that assumes interaction of generalized excitation and inhibition, but are consistent with a hierarchical account of perceptual learning in which the representational precision required to distinguish stimuli determines the mechanisms engaged during learning. PMID:18489229

  5. Temporal Learning and Rhythmic Responding: No Reduction in the Proportion Easy Effect with Variable Response-Stimulus Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The present report further investigates the proportion easy effect, a conflict-free version of the proportion congruent effect. In the proportion easy paradigm, it is observed that the difference in performance between easy (high contrast) and hard (low contrast) items is smaller in a task with mostly hard items relative to a task with mostly easy items. This effect has been interpreted as evidence for temporal learning: participants learn a faster pace (i.e., rhythm of responding) in the mostly easy context, which boosts the contrast effect, and a slower pace in the mostly hard context. In the present experiment, intervals between trials were either fixed or randomly varied from trial to trial. Interestingly, the proportion easy effect was still present with variable intervals. These data suggest that participants do not learn the regularity in timing from one response to the next (which was highly inconsistent with variable intervals). As one alternative, participants might be learning the intervals between stimulus onset and responses, which were not manipulated. They could then use this learned timing information to prepare for responding at the anticipated time, resulting in rhythmic responding. The results further imply that variable response-stimulus intervals are insufficient for controlling for rhythmic biases. PMID:27199861

  6. Is Cheap Labor a Magnet for Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John R., II

    1995-01-01

    Contends that it is widely believed that cheap labor in poor countries attracts foreign investors. Asserts that historical evidence indicates that past patterns of direct foreign investment in poor countries are inconsistent with the cheap-labor argument. Includes two figures and one table. (CFR)

  7. Teach the Way They Learn: 62 Easy, Engaging, & Effective Language Arts Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    This book focuses on quick and easy language arts activities to inspire and motivate students in kindergarten to sixth grades. Ingenious ideas appeal to children's enthusiasm for games, parades, race cars, their own names, and much more. The activities cost little or nothing. They engage young learners, and they work! This book is perfect for a…

  8. Teach the Way They Learn: 62 Easy, Engaging, & Effective Language Arts Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    This book focuses on quick and easy language arts activities to inspire and motivate students in kindergarten to sixth grades. Ingenious ideas appeal to children's enthusiasm for games, parades, race cars, their own names, and much more. The activities cost little or nothing. They engage young learners, and they work! This book is perfect for a…

  9. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    D BY RICHARD C. NELSON AND PHILIP E. MARTIN BIOMECHANICS LABORATORY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA MARCH...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Biomechanics Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park. Pennsylvania 16802 10. PROGRAM...REFERENCES APPENDICES A. Clothing and Equipment Used in This Study B. ANOVA Summary Tables for Easy Standing C. ANOVA Summary Tables for

  10. Cheap electricity from French tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, H.

    1980-02-01

    A tidal power plant built in Saint-Malo, France is examined, and some of the problems that have resulted in recent years are analyzed. These include mechanical problems due to turbine runner-blade seal failure and electrical problems involving electroerosion and structural station difficulties. the effects of tidal power plants on the environment are discussed, and it is noted that all possible side effects of the operations are very limited. Attention is given to the basic requirements for constructing power sites.

  11. The SpeechEasy device in stuttering and nonstuttering adults: fluency effects while speaking and reading.

    PubMed

    Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Corey, David M; Golob, Edward J; Conture, Edward G

    2013-08-01

    The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a significantly greater reduction in stuttering (compared to baseline) with custom device settings compared to the non-altered feedback (control) condition. Stuttering was reduced the most during reading, followed by narrative and conversation. For the conversation task, stuttering was reduced more when the device was worn in the left ear. Those individuals with a more severe stuttering rate at baseline had a greater benefit from the use of the device compared to individuals with less severe stuttering. Our results support the view that overt stuttering is associated with defective speech-language monitoring that can be influenced by manipulating auditory feedback.

  12. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  13. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  14. The effect of easy axis misorientation on the low induction hysteresis properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaugher, Matthew; Ghosh, Pampa; Knight, Andy M.; Chromik, Richard R.

    2015-05-01

    The coercivity and hysteresis losses of non-oriented electrical steels (NOES) are determined by metallurgical parameters evolved during their manufacturing process. Although the links between grain size, inclusion content, orientation and these magnetic properties are well established, the effects of misorientation, especially with respect to the magnetic easy axis, are mostly unexplored. From this work examining NOES samples with "typical" grain size and inclusion distributions, but with texture variations induced by lab processing, the major factors determining the coercivity and hysteresis losses were limited to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (Ea) and EAM, a newly created easy axis misorientation parameter. It is believed that Ea is a measure of the contribution of domain rotation processes, while EAM is a representation of the ability of the sample to nucleate reverse magnetic domains. The utilization of EAM allows for a better understanding of the influence of metallurgical parameters on the magnetic properties, especially for samples with large differences in processing and texture.

  15. Dirt Cheap 3D Spatial Audio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Dirt Cheap 3D Spatial Audio Eric Klein1 Greg S. Schmidt12 Erik B. Tomlin1 Dennis G. Brown1 1Virtual Reality Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory...ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory,Virtual Reality Laboratory,4555 Overlook Ave. SW,Washington,DC,20375 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...hardware with our 4-wall immersive virtual reality room at the Virtual Reality Laboratory, part of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington D.C. We

  16. Effects of the SpeechEasy on Objective and Perceived Aspects of Stuttering: A 6-Month, Phase I Clinical Trial in Naturalistic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Ryan; Ellis, John B.; Finan, Don; Ramig, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of the SpeechEasy when used under extraclinical conditions over several months were investigated. Primary purposes were to help establish Phase I level information about the therapeutic utility of the SpeechEasy and to compare those results with previous findings obtained in laboratory and clinical settings. Method: Eleven adults…

  17. An easy and effective approach to manage radiologic portable document format (PDF) files using iTunes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li Jun; Zhou, Mi; Xu, Jian Rong

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to explain an easy and effective approach for managing radiologic files in portable document format (PDF) using iTunes. PDF files are widely used as a standard file format for electronic publications as well as for medical online documents. Unfortunately, there is a lack of powerful software to manage numerous PDF documents. In this article, we explain how to use the hidden function of iTunes (Apple Computer) to manage PDF documents as easily as managing music files.

  18. Analysis of pesticide residues in fresh peppermint, Mentha piperita L., using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) followed by gas chromatography with electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detection.

    PubMed

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2012-09-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of 14 pesticide residues in fresh peppermint was developed based on the QuEChERS sample preparation technique followed by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detectors (GC/ECD/NPD). The validation study clearly demonstrated suitability of the method for its intended application. The overall recoveries of the pesticides from peppermint, at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg(-1), were 100% ± 10% with relative standard deviations of 6% ± 5% on average. The limit of quantification was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for all the pesticides. The expanded uncertainties were in the range between 7% and 30% (14% on average), which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. Compared with our previous method, that entailed dichloromethane/acetone extraction and florisil column cleanup with collection of four fractions, the new method was more straightforward, less time and labour intensive as well as more sensitive, selective and accurate, simultaneously.

  19. Multiresidue LC-MS/MS analysis of cephalosporins and quinolones in milk following ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersive extraction combined with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology.

    PubMed

    Karageorgou, Eftichia; Myridakis, Antonis; Stephanou, Euripides G; Samanidou, Victoria

    2013-06-01

    A sensitive and selective confirmatory method for milk-residue analysis of ten quinolones and eight cephalosporins by LC-MS/MS has been developed herein. For the chromatographic separation of target analytes, a Perfectsil ODS-2 (250 × 4 mm, 5 μm) analytical column was used and gradient elution was applied, using a mobile phase of 0.1% w/w TFA in water and 0.1% w/w TFA in ACN. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure was applied for the extraction and clean-up procedure of antimicrobials agents from milk matrix using a mixture of Bond Elut Plexa sorbent and QuEChERS. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining selectivity, linearity response, trueness, precision (repeatability and between-day reproducibility), decision limit, detection capability, and ruggedness following the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics ranged from 81.7 to 117.9%, while RSD values were lower than 13.7%. Limits of quantification for all examined compounds ranged from 2.4 to 15.0 μg/kg, substantially lower than the maximum residue limits established by the European Union (30-100 μg/kg).

  20. Contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in wild versus cultivated samples of female and male mussels (Mytilus sp.) from the Northwest Coast of Iberian Peninsula--new application for QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) methodology.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Santos, Cláudia; Velhote, Susana; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    A newly analytical method based on QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was developed and validated for the quantification of 18 PCBs in wild (from Matosinhos Beach, Portugal) and cultivated (from Ria de Arousa, Spain) mussel samples, pooled by sex. Wild animals showed higher PCB levels than cultivated mussels, with males from both origins, presenting an upper contamination profile comparing with females. This fact seems to be correlated with few biometric parameters, but other interdependencies, not addressed herein, such as distinct lipid contents between sexes, as a consequence of the gametogenic stage, may also explain this data. Overall, data reiterate the importance of investigating the presence of PCBs in marine biological samples, which can act both as bioindicators of environmental contamination, either as food quality controls for human health.

  1. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5ppm) mass spectrometry. The performance of the method was evaluated according to the EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for the analysis of veterinary drugs residues. Acceptable values were obtained for: linearity (R(2)<0.99), limit of detection (LOD, 3-26μg/kg), limit of quantification (LOQ, 11-88μg/kg), accuracy (recovery 88-112%), intra- and inter-day precision 1-14 and 1-17%, respectively, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) around the maximum residue limits (MRL) of SAs (100μg/kg). The method was validated by analysis of a reference material FAPAS-02188 "Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀ<0.63. The method was applied to various matrices (kidney, liver, muscle) originated from pig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry.

  2. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid residue in rice and soil by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xixi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Fengshou

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in rice including straw, bran, brown rice and soil was developed by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The fungicide trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid were extracted using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid v/v and subsequently cleaned up by primary secondary amine, octadecylsilane or graphitized carbon black prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The determination of two target compounds was achieved in less than 3 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The limits of detection were below 0.22 μg/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.74 μg/kg in all matrices, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The overall average recoveries in four matrix at three levels (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) ranged from 74.2 to 107.4% with a relative standard deviations of less than 7.8% (n = 5) for both analytes. The method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of degradation study samples.

  4. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  5. Determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in fruit and vegetables by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method using gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Wang, Xu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-10-01

    A new analytical method using QuEChERS procedure by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) and ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) for the quantitative determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid has been developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from five fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to GC analysis. The present methods provided sufficient sensitivity as reflected by the values of limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.4-7 and 1.2-20 µg/kg for GC-IT-MS/MS and GC-NPD. The recoveries were, on average, 68-117 and 68-121%, respectively, for three compounds by GC-NPD and GC-IT-MS/MS with intra-day precision achieved with an RSD of 2.7-19.1%. The inter-day precision was better than 15.1% as determined by GC-NPD. The QuEChERS procedure, by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards, gave satisfactory recoveries and RSD values in different matrices. IT-MS acquisition provided higher specificity and selectivity for pesticides and better limit of detection and quantification. However, the repeatability and precision of NPD method were better compared with IT-MS.

  6. Comparison of extraction solvents and sorbents in the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of pesticide multiresidue in fruits by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; He, Huali; Huang, Xihui; Jin, Quan; Zhu, Guonian

    2015-10-01

    An improved analytical method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of several plant growth regulators and fungicides (carbendazim, pyrimethanil, metalaxyl, triadimefon, paclobutrazol, thiophanate, prochloraz, dimethomorph, difenoconazole, (4-chlorophenoxy)-acetic acid, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-acetic acid, thiadiazuron, forchlorfenuron and gibberellins) in fruits followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted and purified using a modified QuEChERS method. Different extraction solvents and sorbents in the QuEChERS method were compared. Optimum results were followed by the addition of 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile; C18 sorbent was added due to the acidic nature of several pesticides. The recoveries of the pesticides were in the range 73.7-118.4%, with relative standard deviations lower than 16.63%. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1-1.0 μg/kg. The method presented here is simple, rapid, sensitive and can be applied to large-scale monitoring programs to screen the presences of pesticides in fruits.

  7. A cheap, simple high throughput method for screening native Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors using a recombinant Escherichia coli, its validation and demonstration of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract effectivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Amar, Natalie; Peretz, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most frequent and persistent bacterial infection worldwide, and a risk factor for active gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Although combined antibiotics treatment is effective cases of antibiotic resistance are reported at an alarming rate. The H. pylori urease enzyme is essential for the bacteria establishment in the gastric mucosa, resulting urease inhibitors being sought after as effective and specific anti- H. pylori treatment. To-date, screening assays are based mostly on the analog plant urease enzyme but difference in properties of the plant and bacterial enzymes hamper these efforts. We have developed a screening assay based on recombinant Escherichia coli expressing native H. pylori urease, and validated this assay using thiourea and a methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica. The assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance. The extract was also found to be neutral toward common probiotic bacteria, supporting its specificity and compatibility with digestive system desired microflora and suggesting it could be a good source for anti-H. pylori compounds. The assay has proven to be cheap, simple and native alternative to the plant enzyme based assay and could allow for high throughput screening for new urease inhibitors and could expedite screening and development of novel, better H. pylori remedies helping us to combat this infection.

  8. Taking the Headaches out of Anesthetizing "Drosophila": A Cheap & Easy Method of Constructing Carbon Dioxide Staging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiss, Thomas; Hughes, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an excellent alternative to conventional methods of anesthetizing fruit flies as it is non-flammable and odorless. We have devised a method of constructing carbon dioxide stages used to keep "Drosophila" immobilized cheaply and easily using empty micropipette tip containers. (Contains 6 figures.)

  9. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  10. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  11. Taking the Headaches out of Anesthetizing "Drosophila": A Cheap & Easy Method of Constructing Carbon Dioxide Staging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiss, Thomas; Hughes, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an excellent alternative to conventional methods of anesthetizing fruit flies as it is non-flammable and odorless. We have devised a method of constructing carbon dioxide stages used to keep "Drosophila" immobilized cheaply and easily using empty micropipette tip containers. (Contains 6 figures.)

  12. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  13. EASy: Expert authorizations system

    SciTech Connect

    Altfeld, J.; Landon, D.F.; Daniels, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Equifax Check Services provides retail merchants and other businesses with quality decisions concerning the acceptability. risk. or fraudulence of customer checks. The greatest percentage of these decisions are provided automatically through on-line links with point-of-sale terminals. When a transaction is suspect, a referral notice is generated directing the merchant to call one of Equifax Check Services` authorization centers for additional processing. This processing considers a wide variety of information unavailable through online processing, thereby giving consumers the greatest possible benefit of doubt prior to declining checks. These high-risk authorizations had historically been handled using a legacy mainframe system involving a high degree of manual intervention. Authorizations agents would complete a lengthy, rigorous training regimen, and be monitored as to their performance. Pursuit of service excellence caused Equifax, in conjunction with Brightware Corporation, to develop the Expert Authorization System (EASy), a rule-based solution for check authorizations that uses an innovative twist on a standard blackboard architecture. EASy was deployed and is used today by as many as 300 concurrent users. By encapsulating extensive domain knowledge, EASy has effectively eliminated authorization errors, provided consistent and replicable decisions, reduced elapsed time to a decision, and reduced the average agent training time from 4-6 weeks to 3 days.

  14. Prognostic value of interim and restaging PET/CT in Hodgkin lymphoma. Results of the CHEAP (Chemotherapy Effectiveness Assessment by PET/CT) study - long term observation.

    PubMed

    Miltenyi, Z; Barna, S; Garai, I; Simon, Z; Jona, A; Magyari, F; Gergely, M; Nagy, Z; Keresztes, K; Pettendi, P; Illes, A

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have determined the prognostic value of interim and restaging PET/CT in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma using current standard of care therapy outside clinical trials. We analyzed the effect of the results of interim and restaging PET/CT on the survival (overall- and relapse-free) in patients who received standard first-line treatment based on the stage of disease and risk factors. We investigated the differences between the relapse and non-relapse groups based on the clinical pathological characteristics of patients who had positive interim PET/CT results.Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011, the staging, interim and restaging PET/CT scans of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma were analyzed. The Deauville criteria were used for the evaluation of interim PET/CT scans. One hundred and thirteen Hodgkin lymphoma patients underwent staging, interim and restaging PET/CT scans. None of the therapy was modified based on the interim PET/CT results. The median follow-up time was 43.5 months. A total of 62 early stage patients and 51 advanced stage patients were identified. The five-year overall survival rates were 93.4% in the interim PET negative group and 58% in the interim PET positive group (p<0.001). The five-year relapse-free survival rates for the negative and positive groups were 92.7% and 40.8%, respectively (p<0.001). The negative predictive value was 100% in the early stage group and 82.35% in the advanced stage group. By comparison, the positive predictive values were 53.8% and 58.8%, respectively, in these two groups. In the interim PET positive group, patients over 40 years of age had a significantly higher probability of relapse (p=0.057).The routine clinical use of interim PET/CT is highly recommended based on our investigation. However, patients with positive interim PET/CT results required frequent additional evaluations.

  15. The Hall effect is not so easy to detect after all

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    In a previous paper we suggested a method to easily observe the Hall effect with a pencil and paper. Upon delving deeper into the subject it turned out that some issues were overlooked in our original work and we present our new findings here.

  16. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing

  17. A modified breathing exercise program for asthma is easy to perform and effective.

    PubMed

    Karam, Marilyn; Kaur, Bani P; Baptist, Alan P

    2017-03-01

    Breathing exercises are used by some asthmatic patients, yet are often difficult to perform and time-consuming. This study evaluated a simple, modified breathing exercise program regarding ease to perform and effectiveness as an adjunctive therapy. Subjects age 18 to 65 with a current diagnosis of persistent asthma were enrolled. A program that incorporated three different breathing exercises (yoga pranayama techniques, diaphragmatic breathing and pursed lip breathing) was taught to subjects. The program was designed to be completed in less than 10 minutes per day. Subjects completed the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. They also completed a survey that asked them to rate the effectiveness and difficulty of the exercises, and whether they would recommend them in the future. A total of 74 subjects were enrolled in this study. The intervention improved breathing for 52.9% of the subjects, while 67.6% felt that their daily activity was improved and 66.1% noted that the exercises allowed decreased use of a rescue inhaler. Most subjects (80.9%) recommended breathing exercises as a complementary therapy for asthma and 79.4% of the subjects stated the exercises took less than 10 minutes per day total. Overall, ACT scores improved significantly (p = 0.002) with a statistically non-significant improvement in AQLQ scores. A simple program of breathing exercises was found to be effective and could be completed in less than 10 minutes per day. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant improvement in ACT scores post-exercise.

  18. Quertle and KNALIJ: searching PubMed has never been so easy and effective.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2011-12-01

    Quertle and KNALIJ are two innovative tools created to search PubMed in a easier and more effective way. They dramatically reduce time to discover meaningful results. Quertle allows a semantic search in multiple biomedical databases (PubMed included) and runs a query via relationships between concepts, so that you retrieve at ease more pertinent results and can navigate them by "key concepts". KNALIJ is a visualization tool which searches PubMed and presents the results in the form of visual, interactive maps you can zoom, scale, and explore according to new paths.

  19. Measuring Young’s modulus the easy way, and tracing the effects of measurement uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2015-09-01

    The speed of sound in a solid is determined by the density and elasticity of the material. Young’s modulus can therefore be calculated once the density and the speed of sound in the solid are measured. The density can be measured relatively easily, and the speed of sound through a rod can be measured very inexpensively by setting up a longitudinal standing wave and using a microphone to record its frequency. This is a simplified version of a technique called ‘impulse excitation’. It is a good educational technique for school pupils. This paper includes the description and the free provision of custom software to calculate the frequency spectrum of a recorded sound so that the resonant peaks can be readily identified. Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees.

  20. Highly crystalline strontium ferrites SrFeO(3-δ): an easy and effective wet-chemistry synthesis.

    PubMed

    Diodati, S; Nodari, L; Natile, M M; Russo, U; Tondello, E; Lutterotti, L; Gross, S

    2012-05-14

    The synthesis of strontium ferrite SrFeO(3-δ) has been explored through wet-chemistry methods in order to optimize a quick, easy and reproducible method to obtain the perovskite in pure crystalline form with a high yield. Among the three investigated synthetic paths, (i) coprecipitation of hydroxides, (ii) coprecipitation of oxalates and (iii) polyol-assisted coprecipitation, only the second one was effective in obtaining the desired perovskite modification as a single phase. The products were analyzed by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to determine the crystalline structure and the chemical composition of the sample surface, respectively, and to optimise the synthetic process. Pure samples were further characterised by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) analysis, nitrogen adsorption, elemental analysis, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  1. Easy alignment and effective nucleation activity of ramie fibers in injection-molded poly(lactic acid) biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Liu, Chun-Yan; Chen, Chen; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ramie fiber biocomposites were fabricated, which exhibited considerable reinforcement effect comparable to the glass fiber at the same loading. The attempts were made to understand the flow-induced morphology of ramie fibers and PLA crystals in the injection-molded PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, thus revealing its relationship to biocomposite mechanical properties. The polarized optical microscopy (POM) and two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D-WAXD) were for the first time used to determine the distribution of nature fibers, which interestingly showed the ramie fibers aligned well along the flow direction over the whole thickness of injection-molded parts, instead of skin-core structure. This easy alignment of ramie fibers during the common processing was ascribed to the intrinsically high flexibility of ramie fibers and strong interfacial interaction between PLA chains and cellulose molecules of ramie fibers. Both 2D-WAXD and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements suggested that the PLA matrix in its ramie biocomposites had rather high orientation degree and crystallinity, which was attributed to effective heterogeneous nucleation induced by ramie fibers and local shearing field in the vicinity of fiber surface. Remarkable improvement of mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties was achieved for PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites, without sacrifice of toughness and ductility. Addition of 30wt% ramie fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus of PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites from 65.6 and 1468 MPa for pure PLA to 91.3 and 2977 MPa, respectively. These superior mechanical properties were ascribed to easy alignment of ramie fibers, high crystallinity of PLA, and favorable interfacial adhesion as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and theoretical analysis based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diabetes self-risk assessment questionnaires coupled with a multimedia health promotion campaign are cheap and effective tools to increase public awareness of diabetes in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y L; Gao, W G; Pang, Z C; Sun, J P; Wang, S J; Ning, F; Song, X; Kapur, A; Qiao, Q

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate costs and effectiveness of implementing a diabetes self-risk assessment (Diabetes Risk Score) questionnaire coupled with a multimedia health promotion campaign on changes in diabetes awareness in a large diabetes prevention programme. Between 2007 and 2010, a multimedia health promotion campaign was conducted targeting the 1.94 million population of Qingdao, China, using newspapers, radio programmes, distribution of free booklets and Diabetes Risk Score flyers. Diabetes awareness questionnaires filled out by people first interviewed in 2006 (survey A), before the initiation of the campaign, were compared with those first interviewed between 2007 and 2010 during the campaign period (survey B). The rates of diabetes awareness in both surveys were studied amongst adults aged 35-74 years without a prior history of diabetes, but with a Diabetes Risk Score of ≥ 14. In survey B, 85, 82 and 76% of the urban participants correctly recognized obesity, family history of diabetes and physical inactivity, respectively, as important risk factors for diabetes; while the awareness rates were 43, 46 and 25%, respectively, in survey A (P < 0.001). The corresponding figures among rural participants were 65, 63 and 53% in survey B and 29, 22 and 11% in survey A (P < 0.001). To cover 1000 individuals, the programme spent €5.4 on the use of the Diabetes Risk Score flyer, €31.3 on the education booklet, €7.7 on the newspaper campaign and €37.5 on radio programmes. The combination of a Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire with a multimedia health promotion campaign is a cheap and effective health promotion tool to raise public awareness of diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  3. [Medical and dental digital photography. Choosing a cheap and user-friendly camera].

    PubMed

    Chossegros, C; Guyot, L; Mantout, B; Cheynet, F; Olivi, P; Blanc, J-L

    2010-04-01

    Digital photography is more and more important in our everyday medical practice. Patient data, medico-legal proof, remote diagnosis, forums, and medical publications are some of the applications of digital photography in medical and dental fields. A lot of small, light, and cheap cameras are on the market. The main issue is to obtain good, reproducible, cheap, and easy-to-shoot pictures. Every medical situation, portrait in esthetic surgery, skin photography in dermatology, X-ray pictures or intra-oral pictures, for example, has its own requirements. For these reasons, we have tried to find an "ideal" compact digital camera. The Sony DSC-T90 (and its T900 counterpart with a wider screen) seems a good choice. Its small size makes it usable in every situation and its price is low. An external light source and a free photo software (XnView((R))) can be useful complementary tools. The main adjustments and expected results are discussed.

  4. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  5. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens Print A A A en español ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  6. Easy-to-Make Cryophoruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    The cryophorus dramatically demonstrates the cooling effect of evaporation. This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels. The most dramatic effects occurred with cyclohexane and benzene, with water generally freezing more slowly. (Contains 4 notes, 2 tables,…

  7. Easy-to-Make Cryophoruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    The cryophorus dramatically demonstrates the cooling effect of evaporation. This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels. The most dramatic effects occurred with cyclohexane and benzene, with water generally freezing more slowly. (Contains 4 notes, 2 tables,…

  8. THE EFFECTS OF SONIC ENVIRONMENT OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN LEARNING DIFFICULT AND EASY TASKS BY HIGH ACHIEVERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARTHY, EDWARD H.

    THE SIXTH-GRADE STUDENTS OBTAINING THE 80 HIGHEST MEAN SCORES ON THE METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TEST FORM D WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS OF EASY OR DIFFICULT TASKS WITHIN EACH OF FIVE DECIBEL LEVEL GROUPS. THE LEARNING TASKS WERE TAKEN FROM THE MEANINGFULNESS OF ALL POSSIBLE CVC TRIGRAMS (ARCHER, 1960). THE APPARATUS INCLUDED A TAPE RECORDING OF…

  9. Ue Project "cheap GSHPs": the Geoexchange Fieldlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Dalla Santa, Giorgia; Bertermann, David; Muller, Johannes; De Carli, Michele; Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Tuccio, Maria; Vivarelli, Arianna; Pockelé, Luc; Mezzasalma, Giulia; Psyk, Mario; Righini, Davide; Bernini, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The CHEAP - GSHPs Horizon 2020 project (No. 657982) focuses on the development of more efficient and safe shallow geothermal systems and the reduction of time consuming and installation costs. One of its most important objectives is the development of the design of new coaxial steel GSHEs and of newly designed helical heat basket type GSHE by means of innovative installation methodologies and drilling machines. For this purpose, in Molinella test site (Bologna, Italy) several types of borehole heat exchangers have been built. The Molinella test site is the open-air laboratory where several types of ground heat exchangers, such as helical heat basket and double-U and coaxial probes, can be directly compared by means of GRT tests, cores thermal measurement, and optical fibers measurements. Moreover, in this test site, new drilling machines and techniques are being tested. Given a geological setting and thermal load, the heat exchange capacity of a ground heat exchanger depends on the used materials and probe dimensions (length, diameter and thickness). In Molinella, in an area of 300m2, 7 different probes are installed: 4 coaxial probes of different materials and different length (96 and 50m) and diameters of internal and external tubes, 2 heat baskets (15m length, different diameter and different pitch) and a traditional double-U (50 m length). The monitoring equipment is constituted by a piezometer 25m long, a monitoring point instrumented with a hybrid fibre optical cable 100m long, and a standard GRT device. The local stratigraphy is known from a 100m core sample, made on purpose. The lithological sequence is typical of a quaternary floodplain deposition environment, rich in silt and silty clay deposits, alternated with sandy layers. For all the main recognized layers, the thermal properties (conductivity and capacity) have been directly measured on the collected core samples on site in order to maintain their natural water content. The thermal exchange

  10. The Effects of "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" on the Acquisition and Generalization of Reading Skills with a Primary Student with ADHD/PI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollough, Debra; Weber, Kimberly; Derby, K. Mark; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons" (Engelmann, Haddox, & Bruner, 1983), on the acquisition and maintenance of reading skills by a six-year-old female with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cognitive Disorder, and Mixed Receptive Language Disorder. The skills evaluated for…

  11. Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on The Cheap

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163963.html Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on the Cheap Do-it- ... pest management may not be needed to control asthma in kids with a mouse allergy, researchers say. ...

  12. A closer look at ‘Cheap White’ cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Hana; Vellios, Nicole; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the prominence of Cheap Whites in illicit tobacco discussions, we examined various definitions, market presence, brand proliferation, manufacturers, production locations, trademark ownership, prices and compliance with tax stamp and warning labels. Methods Data from peer-reviewed and grey literature, newspapers, trademark registries, governments/international organisation reports, and the tobacco industry were contrasted with two visual legal requirements (tax stamps and warning labels) and prices from the Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS). Results Multiple sources identified 82 Cheap White brands and 53 manufacturers operating at least 82 production facilities. One-third of these manufacturers are in the free zones of Russia, Cyprus and the UAE. Two-thirds of the 37 Cheap White brands in the TPackSS had neither the correct health warning nor the required tax stamp in at least one country where they were purchased. Cheap Whites are on average less expensive than all other brands, but the price gap is often not as large as anecdotally reported. The cheapest Cheap White cigarettes purchased in one of the TPackSS countries irrespective of the presence of legal signs were still more expensive than the least expensive other brands satisfying both legal requirements. Conclusions We confirmed that many Cheap White brands do not comply with the legal requirements in countries where they are sold, but also found that some of these cigarettes appear to be sold legally even outside their country of origin. The presence of untaxed Cheap Whites undermines tobacco tax policies, while the availability of legal cheap cigarettes is a public health concern. PMID:26418617

  13. Robust trajectory tracking: differential game/cheap control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, Vladimir; Glizer, Valery Y.; Shinar, Josef

    2014-11-01

    A robust trajectory tracking problem is treated in the framework of a zero-sum linear-quadratic differential game of a general type. For the cheap control version of this game, a novel solvability condition is derived. The sufficient condition, guaranteeing that the tracking problem is solved by the optimal strategy of the minimiser in the cheap control game, is established. The boundedness of the time realisations of this strategy is analysed. An illustrative example is presented.

  14. Cheap, Gram-Scale Fabrication of BN Nanosheets via Substitution Reaction of Graphite Powders and Their Use for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials. PMID:24572725

  15. Cheap, gram-scale fabrication of BN nanosheets via substitution reaction of graphite powders and their use for mechanical reinforcement of polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-02-27

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials.

  16. Cheap, Gram-Scale Fabrication of BN Nanosheets via Substitution Reaction of Graphite Powders and Their Use for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials.

  17. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  18. Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa G; Regiani, Thaís; Dias, Fernanda F G; Romão, Wanderson; Jara, Jose Luis Paz; Klitzke, Clécio F; Coelho, Fernando; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2011-02-15

    The development and illustrative applications of an ambient ionization technique termed Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) is described. Its dual mode of operation with Venturi self-pumping makes V-EASI applicable to the direct mass spectrometric analysis of both liquid (V(L)-EASI) and solid (V(S)-EASI) samples. V-EASI is simple and easy to assemble, operating solely via the assistance of a sonic stream of nitrogen or air. The sonic gas stream causes two beneficial and integrated effects: (a) the self-pumping of solutions via the Venturi effect and (b) sonic-spray ionization (SSI) of analytes either in solution or resting on solid surfaces. In its liquid mode, V(L)-EASI is applicable to analytes in solution, forming negatively and/or positively charged intact molecular species in a soft fashion with little or no fragmentation. In its solid mode, V(S)-EASI relies on Venturi self-pumping of a proper SSI solvent solution in combination with SSI to form a stream of bipolar charged droplets that bombard the sample surface, causing desorption and ionization of the analyte molecules. As for its precursor technique (EASI), V-EASI generates bipolar droplets with considerably lower average charging, which increases selectivity for ionization with high signal-to-noise ratios and clean spectra dominated by single molecular species with minimal solvent ions. V-EASI also operates in a voltage-, heat-, and radiation-free fashion and is therefore free of thermal, electrical, or discharge interferences.

  19. Fast and cheap fabrication of molding tools for polymer replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Kirschner, Nadine; Worgull, Matthias; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-02-01

    Polymer replication is a prerequisite for low-cost microstructure components for consumer and end user market. The production of cost-effective microstructure in polymers requires metal molding tools which are often fabricated by direct structuring methods like milling or laser machining both of which are time-consuming and cost-intensive. We present an alternative fabrication method based on replication processes which allows the cheap ( 50 €) and fast ( 12 h) replication of complex microstructures into metal. The process comprises three steps: 1. Generation of the microstructure in a photoresist via lithography. 2. Casting of the structure into a high-temperature silicone which serves as original mold for creation of the metal molding tool. 3. Melting of an eutectic alloy of Sn, Ag and Cu under light pressure directly inside of the silicone within an oven. After cooling to room temperature the metal molding tool can be used for polymer replication into conventional thermoplastic polymers. As a first example we structured polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) foils with a thickness of 1 mm via hot embossing and feature sizes of 100 μm could be replicated with high fidelity.

  20. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  1. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  2. Effect of the PREPARE Website vs an Easy-to-Read Advance Directive on Advance Care Planning Documentation and Engagement Among Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Boscardin, John; Feuz, Mariko A; McMahan, Ryan D; Katen, Mary T; Barnes, Deborah E

    2017-08-01

    Documentation rates of patients' medical wishes are often low. It is unknown whether easy-to-use, patient-facing advance care planning (ACP) interventions can overcome barriers to planning in busy primary care settings. To compare the efficacy of an interactive, patient-centered ACP website (PREPARE) with an easy-to-read advance directive (AD) to increase planning documentation. This was a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial from April 2013 to July 2016 conducted at multiple primary care clinics at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. Inclusion criteria were age of a least 60 years; at least 2 chronic and/or serious conditions; and 2 or more primary care visits; and 2 or more additional clinic, hospital, or emergency room visits in the last year. Participants were randomized to review PREPARE plus an easy-to-read AD or the AD alone. There were no clinician and/or system-level interventions or education. Research staff were blinded for all follow-up measurements. The primary outcome was new ACP documentation (ie, legal forms and/or discussions) at 9 months. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported ACP engagement at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months using validated surveys of behavior change process measures (ie, 5-point knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness scales) and action measures (eg, surrogate designation, using a 0-25 scale). We used intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic and linear regression, controlling for time, health literacy, race/ethnicity, baseline ACP, and clustering by physician. The mean (SD) age of 414 participants was 71 (8) years, 38 (9%) were women, 83 (20%) had limited literacy, and 179 (43%) were nonwhite. No participant characteristic differed significantly among study arms at baseline. Retention at 6 months was 90%. Advance care planning documentation 6 months after enrollment was higher in the PREPARE arm vs the AD-alone arm (adjusted 35% vs 25%; odds ratio, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.03-2.51]; P = .04). PREPARE also resulted

  3. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  4. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen; Wang Yanqin; Lu Guanzhong

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystal pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.

  5. Temporal Laser Pulse Shaping for RF Photocathode Guns: The Cheap and Easy way using UV Birefringent Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Power, John G.; Jing Chunguang

    2009-01-22

    We report experimental investigations into a new technique for achieving temporal laser pulse shaping for RF photocathode gun applications using inexpensive UV birefringent crystals. Exploiting the group velocity mismatch between the two different polarizations of a birefringent crystal, a stack of UV pulses can be assembled into the desired temporal pulse shape. The scheme is capable of generating a variety of temporal pulse shapes including: (i) flat-top pulses with fast rise-time and variable pulse duration. (ii) microbunch trains, and (iii) ramped pulse generation. We will consider two applications for beam generation at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) including a flat-top laser pulse for low emittance production and matched bunch length for enhanced transformer ratio production. Streak camera measurements of the temporal profiles generated with a 2-crystal set and a 4-crystal set are presented.

  6. Temporal laser pulse shaping for RF photocathode guns : the cheap and easy way using UV birefringent crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Jing, C.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2009-01-01

    We report experimental investigations into a new technique for achieving temporal laser pulse shaping for RF photocathode gun applications using inexpensive UV birefringent crystals. Exploiting the group velocity mismatch between the two different polarizations of a birefringent crystal, a stack of UV pulses can be assembled into the desired temporal pulse shape. The scheme is capable of generating a variety of temporal pulse shapes including: (i) flat-top pulses with fast rise-time and variable pulse duration. (ii) microbunch trains, and (iii) ramped pulse generation. We will consider two applications for beam generation at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) including a flat-top laser pulse for low emittance production and matched bunch length for enhanced transformer ratio production. Streak camera measurements of the temporal profiles generated with a 2-crystal set and a 4-crystal set are presented.

  7. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  8. Spectroscopy Made Easy: Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) package has become a popular tool for analyzing stellar spectra, often in connection with large surveys or exoplanet research. SME has evolved significantly since it was first described in 1996, but many of the original caveats and potholes still haunt users. The main drivers for this paper are complexity of the modeling task, the large user community, and the massive effort that has gone into SME. Aims: We do not intend to give a comprehensive introduction to stellar atmospheres, but will describe changes to key components of SME: the equation of state, opacities, and radiative transfer. We will describe the analysis and fitting procedure and investigate various error sources that affect inferred parameters. Methods: We review the current status of SME, emphasizing new algorithms and methods. We describe some best practices for using the package, based on lessons learned over two decades of SME usage. We present a new way to assess uncertainties in derived stellar parameters. Results: Improvements made to SME, better line data, and new model atmospheres yield more realistic stellar spectra, but in many cases systematic errors still dominate over measurement uncertainty. Future enhancements are outlined.

  9. An easy game for frauds? Effects of professional experience and time pressure on passport-matching performance.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benedikt Emanuel; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2017-06-01

    Despite extensive research on unfamiliar face matching, little is known about factors that might affect matching performance in real-life scenarios. We conducted 2 experiments to investigate the effects of several such factors on unfamiliar face-matching performance in a passport-check scenario. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of professional experience on passport-matching performance. The matching performance of 96 German Federal Police officers working at Munich Airport was compared with that of 48 novices without specific face-matching experience. Police officers significantly outperformed novices, but nevertheless missed a high ratio of frauds. Moreover, the effects of manipulating specific facial features (with paraphernalia like glasses and jewelry, distinctive features like moles and scars, and hairstyle) and of variations in the physical distance between the faces being matched were investigated. Whereas manipulation of physical distance did not have a significant effect, manipulations of facial features impaired matching performance. In Experiment 2, passport-matching performance was assessed in relation to time constraints. Novices matched passports either without time constraints, or under a local time limit (which is typically used in laboratory studies), or under a global time limit (which usually occurs during real-life border controls). Time pressure (especially the global time limit) significantly impaired matching performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Theory of Cheap Control in Embodied Systems.

    PubMed

    Montúfar, Guido; Ghazi-Zahedi, Keyan; Ay, Nihat

    2015-09-01

    We present a framework for designing cheap control architectures of embodied agents. Our derivation is guided by the classical problem of universal approximation, whereby we explore the possibility of exploiting the agent's embodiment for a new and more efficient universal approximation of behaviors generated by sensorimotor control. This embodied universal approximation is compared with the classical non-embodied universal approximation. To exemplify our approach, we present a detailed quantitative case study for policy models defined in terms of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines. In contrast to non-embodied universal approximation, which requires an exponential number of parameters, in the embodied setting we are able to generate all possible behaviors with a drastically smaller model, thus obtaining cheap universal approximation. We test and corroborate the theory experimentally with a six-legged walking machine. The experiments indicate that the controller complexity predicted by our theory is close to the minimal sufficient value, which means that the theory has direct practical implications.

  11. Genuine Onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Genuine onion : Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication Paul Syverson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory paul.syverson@nrl.navy.mil...access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the . onion virtual domain. The focus of . onion use and discussion has traditionally... onion system can be used to provide an entirely separate benefit: basic website authentication. We also argue that not only can onionsites provide

  12. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  13. Fast weathering of olivine in high-energy shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture as a cheap alternative for CCS, and effective mitigation of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boer, P. L.; Schuiling, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    example part of the continental shelf between the Shetland Isles and France, that is the Southern Bight of the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea, is covered with sand waves and in and around the English Channel an area of well over 100,000 km2 experiences bed shear stresses capable of transporting gravel. A volume of 0.35 km3 coarse olivine grains, one cm thick, when applied to an area of 35,000 km2 where gravel can be transported (or a thinner layer over a larger area), thus would compensate 5% of a year's worldwide CO2 emissions. This 5% exceeds the combined annual CO2 emissions of the adjacent countries, the United Kingdom, France, The Netherlands, Belgium and Ireland, which together are responsible for about 4% of the world's CO2 emissions. This is a far safer and cheaper approach than CCS. Moreover, contrary to CCS, adding olivine to the marine system, in areas where it weathers fast is an effective way to counteract ocean acidification. Bio-limiting nutrients brought into the system, Si and Fe, will moreover stimulate primary productivity thus trapping even more CO2.

  14. Effect of ramp configuration on easiness of handling, heart rate, and behavior of near-market weight pigs at unloading.

    PubMed

    Goumon, S; Faucitano, L; Bergeron, R; Crowe, T; Connor, M L; Gonyou, H W

    2013-08-01

    Three experiments, each using 280 pigs, were conducted in a simulated compartment to test the effect of angle of entrance (AOE) to the ramp (90°, 60°, 30°, or 0°), ramp slope (0°, 16°, 21°, or 26°), and an initial 20-cm step associated with 16° or 21° ramp slopes on the ease of handling, heart rate (HR), and behavior of near market-weight pigs during unloading. Heart rate (pigs and handler), unloading time, interventions of the handler, and reactions of the pigs were monitored. The results of the first experiment show that using a 90° AOE had detrimental effects on ease of handling (P < 0.05), HR of the pig (P < 0.05), and behavior (P < 0.05). The 0° and 30° AOE appeared to improve the ease of unloading, whereas the 60° AOE had an intermediate effect. The 30° AOE appeared to be preferable, because pigs moved at this angle balked less frequently (P < 0.01) and required less manipulation (P < 0.05) than pigs moved with a 0° AOE. The results of the second experiment show that the use of a flat ramp led to the easiest unloading, as demonstrated by the lower number of balks (P < 0.001) when pigs were moved to the ramp and less frequent use of paddle (P = 0.001) or voice (P < 0.001) on the ramp, compared with the other treatments. However, the flat ramp did not differ from the 21° ramp in many of the variables reflecting ease of handling, which may be explained by the difference in configuration between the ramps. The results also show that the use of the steepest ramp slope had the most detrimental effect on balking and backing up behavior of pigs (P < 0.001), and handling (touches, slaps, and pushes; P < 0.05 for all) when moved to the ramp and on unloading time (P < 0.01). No differences in pig HR (P < 0.05) and ease of handling on the ramp (P < 0.05) were found between a 26° and 16° ramp slope, suggesting that the length of the ramp may be one of the factors that make unloading more difficult. The results of the last experiment show that an initial

  15. Petroleomics by EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Simas, Rosineide C; Nascimento, Heliara D Lopes; Klitzke, Clécio F; Pereira, Rosana C L; Bastos, Wagner L; Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Rodgers, Ryan P; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-05-15

    An ambient ionization/desorption technique, namely, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI), has been applied to crude oil samples. From a single droplet of the sample placed on an inert surface, EASI(+/-) is shown to promote efficient desorption and ionization of a myriad of polar components via the action of its cloud of very minute supersonic bipolar charged droplets. The gaseous [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) ions concurrently formed by EASI(+/-) were analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and a total of approximately 6000 acidic and basic components have been attributed. EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS of crude oils is show to be almost as fast as ESI(+)/ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, providing similar compositional information of polar components and spectral quality comparable to that of a commercial nonochip-based robotic ESI device. EASI(+/-) requires no sample workup thus eliminating risks of contamination during sample manipulation and memory effects because of carry over in pumping ESI lines. More importantly, EASI(+/-) is a voltage-free ionization technique therefore eliminating risks of redox processes or duality of ionization mechanisms that can be observed in voltage-assisted processes. Data visualization via typical petroleomic plots confirms the similarity of the compositional information provided by EASI(+/-) compared to ESI(+)/ESI(-). The ambient EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS method requires no voltage switching in changing the ion polarity mode, offering a workup, heating and voltage-free protocol for petroleomic studies performed at open atmosphere directly on the undisturbed crude oil sample.

  16. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  17. Cheap Talk with Multiple Strategically Interacting Audiences: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyu; Peeters, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We consider a cheap-talk setting that mimics the situation where an incumbent firm (the sender) is endowed with incentives to understate the true size of the market demand to two potential entrants (the receivers). Although our experimental data reveals that the senders’ messages convey truthful information and this is picked up by the receivers, this overcommunication (relative to standard theoretical prediction) does not enhance efficient entry levels (and payoffs) to beyond what can be achieved without communication. The reason is that receivers fail to optimally translate the information received in their entry decision, possibly due to overcautiousness. PMID:27695082

  18. Conception of a cheap infrared camera using a Fresnel lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grulois, Tatiana; Druart, Guillaume; Guérineau, Nicolas; Crastes, Arnaud; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Today huge efforts are made in the research and industrial areas to design compact and cheap uncooled infrared optical systems for low-cost imagery applications. Indeed, infrared cameras are currently too expensive to be widespread. If we manage to cut their cost, we expect to open new types of markets. In this paper, we will present the cheap broadband microimager we have designed. It operates in the long-wavelength infrared range and uses only one silicon lens at a minimal cost for the manufacturing process. Our concept is based on the use of a thin optics. Therefore inexpensive unconventional materials can be used because some absorption can be tolerated. Our imager uses a thin Fresnel lens. Up to now, Fresnel lenses have not been used for broadband imagery applications because of their disastrous chromatic properties. However, we show that working in a high diffraction order can significantly reduce chromatism. A prototype has been made and the performance of our camera will be discussed. Its characterization has been carried out in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD). Finally, experimental images will be presented.

  19. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. G.; Schwieder, P. R.

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE video conferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hub monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel costs throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  20. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. Gail; Schwieder, Paul R.

    1993-02-01

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE videoconferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hubs monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel cost throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  1. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. Gail; Schwieder, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE videoconferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hubs monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel cost throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  2. Learning the easy way.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    This article describes the program activities of a 1-day seminar and training course that was organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Participants included high-ranking government officials from education directorates from 12 countries and officers from the National Women's Education Center. The training course relied on two innovative IEC materials developed by JOICFP. The two IEC materials were portable, durable kits that provided visual guides to learning about reproductive health (RH). The Magnel Kit includes a metal white board with almost life-size illustrations of male and female reproductive organs and magnetized vinyl images that teach about the menstrual cycle, pregnancy stages, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. Maggie the Apron is a durable apron with transparent pockets for placing cards with images relating to menstruation, pregnancy, and contraception. The apron is light in weight, cost-effective, and easily folded for storage and portability. Participants were particularly interested in the use of the two IEC materials in adolescent sexual health education. The clear visual materials offer the option of teaching according to the level of understanding of the audience. The materials can be used in any country, since there are no printed texts or narration. The training introduced participants to a community-based approach to family planning and maternal-child health services, which were successful in Japan for raising the level of health. The approach is used by JOICFP in its program efforts in developing countries. The training introduced participants to the role of community women in promoting RH through the presentation of a case study from Bangladesh. Participants watched the JOICFP still-image video "Moni's Milestone," a story about a woman's life in Bangladesh, and a video on the family planning movement in Japan, "First Step in Family Planning in Japan."

  3. Effects of temperature and purity of magnesium sulfate during extraction of pesticides residues using the QuEChERS method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite its many documented advantages, the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation approach has problems with a few unstable pesticides, partly due to the exothermic reaction generated by the use of anhydrous magnesium sulfate during extraction. These pesticide...

  4. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  5. Effects of body-color mutations on vitality: an attempt to establish easy-to-breed see-through medaka strains by outcrossing.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Ayaka; Morimura, Noriko; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Hiraga, Ami; Komine, Ritsuko; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Fukamachi, Shoji

    2013-09-04

    "See-through" strains of medaka are unique tools for experiments: their skin is transparent, and their internal organs can be externally monitored throughout life. However, see-through fish are less vital than normally pigmented wild-type fish, which allows only skilled researchers to make the most of their advantages. Expecting that hybrid vigor (heterosis) would increase the vitality, we outcrossed two see-through strains (SK(2) and STIII) with a genetically distant wild-type strain (HNI). Fish with the see-through phenotypes were successfully restored in the F2 generation and maintained as closed colonies. We verified that genomes of these hybrid see-through strains actually consisted of approximately 50% HNI and approximately 50% SK(2) or STIII alleles, but we could not obtain evidence supporting improved survival of larvae or fecundity of adults, at least under our breeding conditions. We also found that four of the five see-through mutations (b(g8), i-3, gu, and il-1 but not lf) additively decrease viability. Given that heterosis could not overwhelm the viability-reducing effects of the see-through mutations, easy-to-breed see-through strains will only be established by other methods such as conditional gene targeting or screening of new body-color mutations that do not reduce viability.

  6. A novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  7. High performance organic transistors on cheap, commercial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, L. A.; Schroeder, R.; Voigt, M.; Grell, M.

    2004-12-01

    We present here our latest results on high quality gate insulators for organic electronics. Ultra-thin films of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated, anodized aluminium (Al) grown onto flexible, Al-sputtered polyester substrates combine low cost and manufacture under ambient conditions with excellent performance characteristics (negligible leakage and hysteresis, 400 nF cm-2 capacitance). With pentacene as organic semiconductor, we present organic transistors with inverse subthreshold slope of approximately 200 mV dec-1, threshold of the order of -2 V and >105 on/off ratio. The subthreshold behaviour is significantly better than for transistors with pentacene deposited onto a gate insulator optimized for high mobility. Above the threshold, the higher capacitance compensates for the somewhat lower mobility. Crucially, the cheap, sputtered Al-on-polyester films resulted in transistors that were as good as transistors fabricated on the same substrate with evaporated Al.

  8. A comparison of the effects of hard rock and easy listening on the frequency of observed inappropriate behaviors: control of environmental antecedents in a large public area.

    PubMed

    Harris, C S; Bradley, R J; Titus, S K

    1992-01-01

    Observation of clients at a state mental health hospital by direct care staff indicated that they appeared to act in more inappropriate ways when "hard rock" or "rap" music was played in an open courtyard than when "easy listening" or "country" music was played. A study was conducted to compare the inappropriate behavior of clients when hard rock and rap music were played (21 days), followed by easy listening and country and western music (21 days). This comparison was followed by a reversal phase in which hard rock and rap music were again played (18 days). The behaviors of the clients were observed and recorded via a controlled methodology. The results demonstrated that more inappropriate behavior was observed under conditions in which hard rock and rap music were played than when easy listening and country western music were played. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Foreign Direct Investment: Effects of a "Cheap" Dollar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    Direct Investment.” The American Economic Review, June 1997, pp. 447-465. 12 Lipsey , Robert E. and Irving B. Kravis, The Competitive Position of U.S...information on this topic. Nevertheless, direct investment transactions as a whole seem to be tied more directly to the relative rates of economic ...growth between economies, as well as expected long-run rates of return and other economic factors, than to relatively short-term movements in the exchange

  10. Effects of Easy-to-Use Protein-Rich Energy Bar on Energy Balance, Physical Activity and Performance during 8 Days of Sustained Physical Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Minna M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.; Uusitalo, Arja L.; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kinnunen, Hannu O.; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. Methods Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day−1. Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. Results Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. Conclusion An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such

  11. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  12. Making Information Easy to Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Describes an information processing model which can be used to make operating instructions and reference manuals easy for customers to understand and remember. Long-term and short-term memory, readability of text, the use of graphics, and providing cues to improve retention are discussed in terms of the model. (EJS)

  13. Quick and Easy Classroom Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article offers simple design ideas on classroom transformation that are easy on the pocketbook and will make the biggest difference to teachers and their students. These include: (1) Go with a splash of color; (2) Use bright fabrics; (3) Stick with blues and greens; (4) Use color to create nooks; (5) Buddy up with a shop class; (6) Hide the…

  14. W7 - Optics Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richburg, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Optics Made Easy! Whether you are teaching optics in elementary or for the high school Physics EOC, this workshop will break down the concepts for you, give you a hands on understanding of how to conduct optic labs, and brush you up on making lens calculations.

  15. Fast and Easy Website Tuneups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article presents fast, easy and helpful hints for making web sites that people will want to use over and over again. These tips include: (1) Making sure that the website's copyright statement is up-to-date; (2) Adding "last updated" code to each webpage at the site; (3) Adding photos to the site's contact information; (4) Turning boring old…

  16. Why Does Deep and Cheap Learning Work So Well?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Henry W.; Tegmark, Max; Rolnick, David

    2017-09-01

    We show how the success of deep learning could depend not only on mathematics but also on physics: although well-known mathematical theorems guarantee that neural networks can approximate arbitrary functions well, the class of functions of practical interest can frequently be approximated through "cheap learning" with exponentially fewer parameters than generic ones. We explore how properties frequently encountered in physics such as symmetry, locality, compositionality, and polynomial log-probability translate into exceptionally simple neural networks. We further argue that when the statistical process generating the data is of a certain hierarchical form prevalent in physics and machine learning, a deep neural network can be more efficient than a shallow one. We formalize these claims using information theory and discuss the relation to the renormalization group. We prove various "no-flattening theorems" showing when efficient linear deep networks cannot be accurately approximated by shallow ones without efficiency loss; for example, we show that n variables cannot be multiplied using fewer than 2^n neurons in a single hidden layer.

  17. A comparison of cheap talk and alternative certainty calibration techniques in contingent valuation

    Treesearch

    Mihail Samnaliev; Thomas Stevens; Thomas More

    2003-01-01

    A field test of cheap talk and two types of certainty calibration in contingent valuation of public lands indicated that cheap talk does not reduce WTP estimates. Use of a ten point certainty calibration scale reduces WTP estimates by about half. However, adjusting for uncertainty using a 'Not Sure' option does not reduce WTP estimates but increases the...

  18. Effect of Maximal Apnoea Easy-Going and Struggle Phases on Subarachnoid Width and Pial Artery Pulsation in Elite Breath-Hold Divers

    PubMed Central

    Winklewski, Pawel J.; Barak, Otto; Madden, Dennis; Gruszecka, Agnieszka; Gruszecki, Marcin; Guminski, Wojciech; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to assess changes in subarachnoid space width (sas-TQ), the marker of intracranial pressure (ICP), pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ) and cardiac contribution to blood pressure (BP), cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cc-TQ oscillations throughout the maximal breath hold in elite apnoea divers. Non-invasive assessment of sas-TQ and cc-TQ became possible due to recently developed method based on infrared radiation, called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS). Methods The experimental group consisted of seven breath-hold divers (six men). During testing, each participant performed a single maximal end-inspiratory breath hold. Apnoea consisted of the easy-going and struggle phases (characterised by involuntary breathing movements (IBMs)). Heart rate (HR) was determined using a standard ECG. BP was assessed using the photoplethysmography method. SaO2 was monitored continuously with pulse oximetry. A pneumatic chest belt was used to register thoracic and abdominal movements. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was estimated by a 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasonic probe. sas-TQ and cc-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS. Wavelet transform analysis was performed to assess cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations. Results Mean BP and CBFV increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and were further augmented by IBMs. cc-TQ increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and remained stable during the IBMs. HR did not change significantly throughout the apnoea, although a trend toward a decrease during the easy phase and recovery during the IBMs was visible. Amplitudes of BP, CBFV and cc-TQ were augmented. sas-TQ and SaO2 decreased at the easy phase of apnoea and further decreased during the IBMs. Conclusions Apnoea increases intracranial pressure and pial artery pulsation. Pial artery pulsation seems to be stabilised by the IBMs. Cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and

  19. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  20. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L−1 starch, 30 g L−1 soya bean and 9 g L−1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

  1. Power augmentation of cheap, sail-type, horizontal-axis wind-turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, P. D.; Probert, S. D.

    1982-09-01

    A history of the development of windpowered machinery is presented, and the installation of tipvanes and centerbodies to enhance the performance of low cost WECS for developing countries are examined experimentally. Particular attention is given to sail wing rotors equipped with tip fins, peristaltic pumps reparable by semiskilled labor, and various configurations of tip fins and center bodies, which deflect the wind outward from the hub to the sails. Cheap, flat-plate tip fins were found to effective in augmenting rotor performance by as much as 1.6 when facing only downwind. Best results were obtained with one tip vane per sail, with the fins downwind a distance at least equal to the pitch of a wind-filled sail. Further experimentation with stationary deflectors which redirect wind into the buckets of a Savonius rotor or the sails of a horizontal axis WECS are suggested.

  2. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C.; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10–20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12–24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS. PMID:26356840

  3. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  4. Easy Projection of Stereo Movies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    stereo films . This apparatus is easily portable and has been tsted over the past few years with a large variety of commercial movie projectors. It C...transparency of even black frames of film in the infrared, the unit remains synchronized throughout the movie . P. The voltage required for the PI.ZT wafer is...7D-W6 99 EASY PROJECTION OF STEREO MOVIES (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN Il1 DIEGO LA JOLLA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY N BARTLETT ET AL. S1 NAY 86 N99914-?8-C-1325

  5. A comparison of the Goldmann applanation and non-contact (Keeler Pulsair EasyEye) tonometers and the effect of central corneal thickness in indigenous African eyes.

    PubMed

    Babalola, O E; Kehinde, A V; Iloegbunam, A C; Akinbinu, T; Moghalu, C; Onuoha, I

    2009-03-01

    The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye non-contact tonometer (NCT) was introduced into practice at Rachel Eye Center Abuja, Nigeria, where the patients are indigenous Africans. This was compared to the 'gold standard' Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) to determine if the instrument was accurate in Africans, with particular reference to the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT). 174 eyes of 88 patients were analysed. Pachymetry was performed using Sonomed PacScan AP300, and GAT with the Haag Streit R-900. Pachymetric corrections of NCT (NCTc) and GAT (GATc) were carried out with the Sonomed algorithm. Pearson's correlation r, linear regression analysis, Student t-test and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the instruments. Mean NCT readings were similar (17.36 mmHg) to mean GAT (17.42 mmHg; p = 0.769). GAT/NCT correlation coefficient, r, was 0.883 as compared with 0.868 for GATc/NCTc. The linear regression equation was GAT = 2.79 + 0.84*NCT (r(2) = 0.78). Forty-five per cent of differences were within 1 mmHg, while 79% were within 3 mmHg. This was similar to findings in some studies on Caucasians. Bland-Altman analysis however suggested that the spread of differences was wider than in those studies. Outliers (differences more than 5 mmHg) sometimes reflected difficulties encountered with GAT in routine practice. Mean CCT was 537.9 microm, (S.D. 38.4, 95% confidence interval 532.1-543.7 microm) and CCT appeared lower than in Caucasians. Both GAT and NCT IOP tended to rise with increasing CCT but NCT had a greater tendency to do so. Regression analysis suggested that NCT IOP increased by 0.6 mmHg for every 10 mum increase in CCT, compared to 0.4 mmHg for GAT. Thirty-eight per cent of the patients preferred NCT as opposed to 25% GAT. The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye gives reliable measurements of IOP in African eyes but is significantly affected by CCT. Particularly in borderline cases where management decisions have to be taken, it may be necessary to have pachymetric

  6. Introducing human population biology through an easy laboratory exercise on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pardiñas, Antonio F; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of different sizes that can be visualized in agarose gels. The analysis of these fragments can reveal the mitochondrial haplogroup of each student. The results of the exercise can be used to provide additional insights into the genetic variation of human populations.

  7. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples.

  8. DATAA - data acquisition made easy

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, R.L.

    1992-10-01

    [open quote]DATAA[close quote] was written to fill the need for a versatile, general purpose data acquisition program for digital scopes and data recorders. Unfortunately, a GPIB software standard was only recently developed for such instruments. For operating the older, pre-standard digital scopes, different software for each instrument is usually required. The concept for this program is that the operator controls the instrument settings. The computer controls the data acquisition. [open quote]Let the operator do what he does best, let the computer do what it does best.[close quote] In a research environment, the diagnostic setup requirements are constantly changing. Reliable, reproducible data is essential. [open quote]DATAA[close quote] accomplishes this task. Data is automatically stored, with setup information being included with each data file. A plotting routine allows for easy examination of all data. For hardcopies, data files are printed at 300DPI to a Laser Jet printer. This report contains a brief description of each main command. Included are figures showing the main display screens, and sample waveform charts.

  9. Predictable and predictive emotions: explaining cheap signals and trust re-extension

    PubMed Central

    Schniter, Eric; Sheremeta, Roman M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and an emotion survey to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended. PMID:25477797

  10. Availability and use of cheap tobacco in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Project.

    PubMed

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the UK between 2002-2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted 1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory made packs (FM-P), and cartons (FM-C); 2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g. supermarkets, convenience stores) with non-UK/ non-store sources representing tax avoidance/ evasion (e.g. outside the UK, duty free, informal sellers); and 3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalised Estimating Equations tested linear changes over time. 1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. 2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/ evasion. 3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/ non-store sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 - 2014 were statistically significant, but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Options exist driving UK smokers to minimise their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and cartons of packs of factory-made cigarettes. Wide price ranges allowed smokers in 2014 to easily obtain

  11. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation.

  12. Improving chronic lung disease management in rural and remote Australia: the Breathe Easy Walk Easy programme.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Catherine L; Maxwell, Lyndal J; Boyle, Eileen; Maguire, Graeme P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a chronic lung disease management training programme, Breathe Easy Walk Easy (BEWE), for rural and remote health-care practitioners. Quasi-experimental, before and after repeated measures design. Health-care practitioners (n = 33) from various professional backgrounds who attended the BEWE training workshop were eligible to participate. Breathe Easy Walk Easy, an interactive educational programme, consisted of a training workshop, access to online resources, provision of community awareness-raising materials and ongoing telephone/email support. Participant confidence, knowledge and attitudes were assessed via anonymous questionnaire before, immediately after and at 3 and 12 months following the BEWE workshop. At 12 months, local provision of pulmonary rehabilitation services and patient outcome data (6-min walk test results before and after pulmonary rehabilitation) were also recorded. Measured knowledge (score out of 19) improved significantly after the workshop (mean difference 7.6 correct answers, 95% confidence interval: 5.8-9.3). Participants' self-rated confidence and knowledge also increased. At 12-month follow up, three locally run pulmonary rehabilitation programmes had been established. For completing patients, there was a significant increase in 6-min walk distance following rehabilitation of 48 m (95% confidence interval: 18-70 m). The BEWE programme increased rural and remote health-care practitioner knowledge and confidence in delivering management for people living with chronic lung disease and facilitated the establishment of effective pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in regional and remote Australian settings where access to such programmes is limited. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Easy and cheap fabrication of ordered pyramidal-shaped plasmonic substrates for detection and quantitative analysis using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leordean, Cosmin; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Canpean, Valentin; Astilean, Simion

    2013-09-07

    In this work we present a simple approach for the fabrication of periodically ordered pyramidal-shaped metallic nanostructures and demonstrate their efficiency as SERS active substrates. Our method for the fabrication of the plasmonic substrate is based on nanoimprint lithography and exploits the thermal properties of two classes of polymers, thermoplastics and hydrogels. During the heating process the thermoplastic polymers will start to melt whereas the hydrogel polymers will form a solid due to the evaporation of water molecules adsorbed during the dissolving process. Using this approach we fabricate highly ordered pyramidal-shaped nanostructures using the texture of a commercial DVD as the initial mold. This technique represents a low-cost alternative to the classical lithography techniques, allowing the fabrication over large areas (~cm(2)) of periodically ordered nanostructures in a controlled and reproducible manner. The SERS efficiency of the fabricated substrate is demonstrated through the detection of urea molecules found in the fingerprint. In addition, due to the periodicity of the pyramidal-shaped structures, the fabricated substrate can be successfully employed to correlate the intensity of the specific SERS peak of urea with the molecules concentration, offering thus the possibility of developing a quantitative SERS renal sensor.

  14. What Makes a Word Easy to Acquire? The Effects of Word Class, Frequency, Imageability and Phonological Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a set of psycholinguistic factors may account for children's lexical development. Age of acquisition is compared to a measure of lexical development based on vocabulary size rather than age, and robust regression models are used to assess the individual and joint effects of word class, frequency, imageability and…

  15. Changing classroom designs: Easy; Changing instructors' pedagogies: Not so easy...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Charles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Chris; Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Technology-rich student-centered classrooms such as SCALE-UP and TEAL are designed to actively engage students. We examine what happens when instructors adopt the classroom but not the pedagogy that goes with it. We measure the effect of using socio-technological spaces on students' conceptual change and compare learning gains made in groups using different pedagogies (active learning vs. conventional instruction). We also correlate instructors' self-reported instructional approach (teacher-centered, student-centered) with their classes' normalized FCI gains. We find that technology-rich spaces are only effective when implemented with student-centered active pedagogies. In their absence, the technology-rich classroom is not significantly different from conventional teacher-centered classrooms. We also find that instructors' self-reported perception of student-centeredness accounts for a large fraction of the variance (r2 = 0.83) in their class' average normalized gain. Adopting student-centered pedagogies appears to be a necessary condition for the effective use of technology-rich spaces. However, adopting a new pedagogy seems more difficult than adopting new technology.

  16. It's SO Easy Being Green

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Nicole; Tarver, Angela; Kennedy, Megan; Tang, Eric; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Diego, Matthew San; Naca, Christine; Alexandre, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    In a difficult economy, budget constraints require creative solutions to overcome ergonomic challenges. Employees have created cost-effective solutions to satisfy the ergonomic needs of our fast paced, highly repetitive working environment.

  17. An Easy, Cost-Effective and Time-Conserving Method of Studying the Vascular Anatomy of the Base of the Skull

    PubMed Central

    Landolfi, Mauro; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Bhatia, Sanjaya; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Sanna, Mario

    1995-01-01

    In this work we present a simple, rapid, cost-effective and time-conserving method of studying the vascular anatomy of the base of the skull. This method is based on the injection of the arteries and veins with an appropriate coloring solution that possesses the property of rapid solidification. This technique of preparation of the coloring solution and the method of injection is described in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17170945

  18. An easy, reproducible and cost-effective method for andrologists to improve the laboratory diagnosis of nonobstructive azoospermia: a novel microcentrifugation technique.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosa Alice Casemiro; Pariz, Juliana Risso; Pieri, Patricia de Campos; Hallak, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a new method of microcentrifugation as an improved, viable, cost-effective option to the classical Cytospin apparatus to confirm azoospermia. Azoospermic semen samples were evaluated for cryptozoospermia by a centrifugation method similar to that of World Health Organization guidelines (2010; entire specimen centrifuged at 3000g for 15 min, and aliquots of the pellet examined). Then, if no sperm were detected, the pellet from that procedure was resuspended in culture medium, centrifuged (2000g for 15 min), and the entire pellet spread on a 4 X 6mm area of a slide and stained using the Christmas tree method (Nuclear-Fast solution and picric acid). The entire stained area was examined for the presence or absence of sperm. A total of 148 azoospermic samples (after standard WHO diagnosis) were included in the study and 21 samples (14.2%) were identified as sperm-positive. In all microcentrifugation slides, intact spermatozoa could be easily visualized against a clear background, with no cellular debris. This novel microcentrifugation technique is clearly a simple and effective method, with lower cost, increasing both sensitivity and specificity in confirming the absence or presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. It may represent a step forward of prognostic value to be introduced by andrology laboratories in the routine evaluation of patients with azoospermia in the initial semen analysis.

  19. An easy, reproducible and cost-effective method for andrologists to improve the laboratory diagnosis of non-obstructive azoospermia: a novel microcentrifugation technique

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rosa Alice Casemiro; Pariz, Juliana Risso; Pieri, Patrícia de Campos; Hallak, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes a new method of microcentrifugation as an improved, viable, cost-effective option to the classical Cytospin apparatus to confirm azoospermia. Azoospermic semen samples were evaluated for cryptozoospermia by a centrifugation method similar to that of World Health Organization guidelines (2010; entire specimen centrifuged at 3000g for 15 min, and aliquots of the pellet examined). Then, if no sperm were detected, the pellet from that procedure was resuspended in culture medium, centrifuged (2000g for 15 min), and the entire pellet spread on a 4 X 6mm area of a slide and stained using the Christmas tree method (Nuclear-Fast solution and picric acid). The entire stained area was examined for the presence or absence of sperm. A total of 148 azoospermic samples (after standard WHO diagnosis) were included in the study and 21 samples (14.2%) were identified as sperm-positive. In all microcentrifugation slides, intact spermatozoa could be easily visualized against a clear background, with no cellular debris. This novel microcentrifugation technique is clearly a simple and effective method, with lower cost, increasing both sensitivity and specificity in confirming the absence or presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. It may represent a step forward of prognostic value to be introduced by andrology laboratories in the routine evaluation of patients with azoospermia in the initial semen analysis. PMID:27136479

  20. No Easy Talk: A Mixed Methods Study of Doctor Reported Barriers to Conducting Effective End-of-Life Conversations with Diverse Patients

    PubMed Central

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Neri, Eric; Kraemer, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Though most patients wish to discuss end-of-life (EOL) issues, doctors are reluctant to conduct end-of-life conversations. Little is known about the barriers doctors face in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients. This mixed methods study was undertaken to empirically identify barriers faced by doctors (if any) in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients and to determine if the doctors’ age, gender, ethnicity and medical sub-specialty influenced the barriers reported. Design Mixed-methods study of multi-specialty doctors caring for diverse, seriously ill patients in two large academic medical centers at the end of the training; data were collected from 2010 to 2012. Outcomes Doctor-reported barriers to EOL conversations with diverse patients. Results 1040 of 1234 potential subjects (84.3%) participated. 29 participants were designated as the development cohort for coding and grounded theory analyses to identify primary barriers. The codes were validated by analyses of responses from 50 randomly drawn subjects from the validation cohort (n= 996 doctors). Qualitative responses from the validation cohort were coded and analyzed using quantitative methods. Only 0.01 % doctors reported no barriers to conducting EOL conversations with patients. 99.99% doctors reported barriers with 85.7% finding it very challenging to conduct EOL conversations with all patients and especially so with patients whose ethnicity was different than their own. Asian-American doctors reported the most struggles (91.3%), followed by African Americans (85.3%), Caucasians (83.5%) and Hispanic Americans (79.3%) in conducting EOL conversations with their patients. The biggest doctor-reported barriers to effective EOL conversations are (i) language and medical interpretation issues, (ii) patient/family religio-spiritual beliefs about death and dying, (iii) doctors’ ignorance of patients’ cultural beliefs, values and practices, (iv) patient

  1. No Easy Talk: A Mixed Methods Study of Doctor Reported Barriers to Conducting Effective End-of-Life Conversations with Diverse Patients.

    PubMed

    Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Neri, Eric; Kraemer, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Though most patients wish to discuss end-of-life (EOL) issues, doctors are reluctant to conduct end-of-life conversations. Little is known about the barriers doctors face in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients. This mixed methods study was undertaken to empirically identify barriers faced by doctors (if any) in conducting effective EOL conversations with diverse patients and to determine if the doctors' age, gender, ethnicity and medical sub-specialty influenced the barriers reported. Mixed-methods study of multi-specialty doctors caring for diverse, seriously ill patients in two large academic medical centers at the end of the training; data were collected from 2010 to 2012. Doctor-reported barriers to EOL conversations with diverse patients. 1040 of 1234 potential subjects (84.3%) participated. 29 participants were designated as the development cohort for coding and grounded theory analyses to identify primary barriers. The codes were validated by analyses of responses from 50 randomly drawn subjects from the validation cohort (n= 996 doctors). Qualitative responses from the validation cohort were coded and analyzed using quantitative methods. Only 0.01% doctors reported no barriers to conducting EOL conversations with patients. 99.99% doctors reported barriers with 85.7% finding it very challenging to conduct EOL conversations with all patients and especially so with patients whose ethnicity was different than their own. Asian-American doctors reported the most struggles (91.3%), followed by African Americans (85.3%), Caucasians (83.5%) and Hispanic Americans (79.3%) in conducting EOL conversations with their patients. The biggest doctor-reported barriers to effective EOL conversations are (i) language and medical interpretation issues, (ii) patient/family religio-spiritual beliefs about death and dying, (iii) doctors' ignorance of patients' cultural beliefs, values and practices, (iv) patient/family's cultural differences in truth

  2. My School Makes Me Sick: Cheap Solutions to Environmental Problems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Robert

    This paper presents 19 solutions to problems within the school environment: (1) ventilation (e.g., keep the thermostat fan on whenever the room is occupied); (2) filters (e.g., get rid of 20 percent cheap filters); (3) clean the ductwork; (4) avoid car and bus fumes by keeping vehicles 50 feet from the building; (5) sewer vents (vents must…

  3. Forced assembly of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes trapped in paper for cheap gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shujun; Qian, Qiuping; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Yapei

    2013-11-25

    A versatile and readily scalable approach to fabricate a cheap and sensitive paper gas sensor is described. Chemically acidified single-walled carbon nanotubes are assembled in paper, forming continuous sensing arrays with a low detection limit and high detection selectivity for ammonia gas.

  4. Cheap Thrills and Humble Pie: The Adolescence of Female Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, B. Joyce

    1987-01-01

    Examined social and psychological patterns of the adolescence of females who become adult suicide attempters. Obtained life histories of 50 adult female suicide attempters and personal documents written during adolescence. Identified two patterns: Cheap Thrills pattern of defiance, rebelliousness, acting-out, drug use, and indiscriminate…

  5. Easy Preparation of Methyl 7-epi-Jasmonate and Four Stereoisomers of Methyl Cucurbate, and Assessment of the Stereogenic Effect of Jasmonate on Phytohormonal Activities.

    PubMed

    Seto, H; Nomura, E; Fujioka, S; Koshino, H; Suenaga, T; Yoshida, S

    1999-01-01

    To test the stereogenic effect of jasmonate on phytohormonal activities, methyl 7-epi-jasmonate (1b) and four stereoisomers of methyl cucurbate were easily prepared in racemic form: epimerization at the C-7 position of a commercially available methyl jasmonate (2b) with a base and subsequent fractional distillation gave a 46:54 mixture of 1b and 2b, whose reduction gave a mixture of methyl cucurbates (3-6). This synthetic chemistry was supplemented by molecular modeling and an NMR study on 1b and 2b. An assessment of the inhibitory activities of the prepared jasmonates on growth of the second leaf sheath of rice and on seed germination of cress clarified that the cis-configuration of the C-3 and C-7 side chains of jasmonate was an important factor for the high activities. In inhibiting the seed germination of cress, methyl 6-epi-cucurbate (4) exhibited activity that was markedly higher than the other compounds tested, showing that the stereochemistry at C-6 as well as at C-3 and C-7 was strictly recognized by this bioassay.

  6. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Haixiang; Li, Changlin; Ren, Jiawen; Wang, Yanqin; Lu, Guanzhong

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ( 27Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystal pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. 27Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites.

  7. Bioinformatics: Cheap and robust method to explore biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo

    2015-02-01

    Indonesia has a huge amount of biodiversity, which may contain many biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. These resources potency should be explored to discover new drugs for human wealth. However, the bioactive screening using conventional methods is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a methodology for screening the potential of natural resources based on bioinformatics. The method is developed based on the fact that organisms in the same taxon will have similar genes, metabolism and secondary metabolites product. Then we employ bioinformatics to explore the potency of biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity by comparing species with the well-known taxon containing the active compound through published paper or chemical database. Then we analyze drug-likeness, bioactivity and the target proteins of the active compound based on their molecular structure. The target protein was examined their interaction with other proteins in the cell to determine action mechanism of the active compounds in the cellular level, as well as to predict its side effects and toxicity. By using this method, we succeeded to screen anti-cancer, immunomodulators and anti-inflammation from Indonesia biodiversity. For example, we found anticancer from marine invertebrate by employing the method. The anti-cancer was explore based on the isolated compounds of marine invertebrate from published article and database, and then identified the protein target, followed by molecular pathway analysis. The data suggested that the active compound of the invertebrate able to kill cancer cell. Further, we collect and extract the active compound from the invertebrate, and then examined the activity on cancer cell (MCF7). The MTT result showed that the methanol extract of marine invertebrate was highly potent in killing MCF7 cells. Therefore, we concluded that bioinformatics is cheap and robust way to explore bioactive from Indonesia biodiversity for source of drug and another

  8. Microcomputerizing Your Paperwork: Easy, Economical, and Effective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrow, Stanley

    1982-01-01

    Discusses computer applications to school administration tasks, in particular word processing, computations, and data base management systems. Advantages and disadvantages of program software and a chart containing an overview of application programs available are included. (JJD)

  9. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  10. EASY AT-Food for Thought: The Minibook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Not all technology requires plugs, batteries, or software updates. Sometimes the simplest tools can make all the difference in the world, and open doors (and minds) to other possibilities. One such tool is a minibook constructed by a single sheet of cleverly folded paper. A minibook is a cost-effective, easy to revise and replace,…

  11. 75 Quick and Easy Solutions to Common Classroom Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bryan; Goldberg, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    This very well organized book is packed with practical solutions to the most common classroom problems--side talk, rude behavior, calling out, students losing focus, and students refusing even to try. Every solution is classroom-tested, highly effective, and quick and easy to implement! Use this book to help make your classroom a happier, more…

  12. EASY AT-Food for Thought: The Minibook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Not all technology requires plugs, batteries, or software updates. Sometimes the simplest tools can make all the difference in the world, and open doors (and minds) to other possibilities. One such tool is a minibook constructed by a single sheet of cleverly folded paper. A minibook is a cost-effective, easy to revise and replace,…

  13. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  14. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  15. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (< $100/DWS); even in remote settings with a 2-3 person crew, hydraulic post pounder, very cheap materials, and avoiding impacts associated with operating heavy equipment. This allows us to install lots of the structures at high density (every 5-15 channel widths) over an entire stream system. We call this overall approach System Wide Woody Addition Treatment (SWWAT). In the long term, we hypothesize that the SWWAT will provide an intial input LWD that will become a part of study creeks which are more

  16. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  17. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  18. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  19. Teaching is Easy Courseware Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huehner, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a narrative review of a teacher microcomputer authoring system called Teaching is Easy (National Collegiate Software Clearing House, 1983). This simplified menu-driven authoring system allows the teacher to create class-specific drill and practice exercises on IBM PC or 100% compatible clones. Reported cost is $20, and learning time is…

  20. Teaching is Easy Courseware Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huehner, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a narrative review of a teacher microcomputer authoring system called Teaching is Easy (National Collegiate Software Clearing House, 1983). This simplified menu-driven authoring system allows the teacher to create class-specific drill and practice exercises on IBM PC or 100% compatible clones. Reported cost is $20, and learning time is…

  1. Reference Five. Five Easy games of Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie-Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Presents five easy games of referencing in academic writing: Risk--the art of assembling powerful coalitions; Poker--using citations to finesse a bluff; Dominoes and the logic of citations; Monopoly--using citations to create an empire; and Trivial Pursuit. (Author/VWL)

  2. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  3. Easy Steps to Reading Independence (ESTRI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggins, Catherine M.; Sainz, JoAnn

    The Easy Steps to Reading Independence (ESTRI) Program is a reading program to be used to support whole language or basal reader programs by enabling limited ability or non-readers to begin reading, or to remediate reading disabilities, at age and grade appropriate levels immediately, without requiring the students to know sight words before…

  4. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  5. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories-premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Analysis of 2001-08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories—premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Methods Analysis of 2001–08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Results Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. PMID:25118219

  7. A Practical and Cheap Circuit for ECG Sensing and Heart Frequency Alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; González-García, A. E.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Sánchez-Yáñez, R.; Ayala-Ramírez, V.

    2006-09-01

    A practical electronic circuit for ECG sensing, using high gain instrumentation amplifiers, a PIC microcontroller and two electrodes is presented. It allows to identify and to amplify a well-delimited ECG signal for a further wave analysis, and using a zero crossing detector a heart frequency detector is also implemented. By the moment, the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) configurations making use of separate electrical connections to the arms and legs (bipolar limb lead 1) is exploited. This device is a practical and cheap way to monitoring ECG signal and some heart anomalies (e.g., arrhythmias, tachycardia) that can be used in a network to communicate anytime with a far health supervisor.

  8. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Planar graphical models which are easy

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chernyak, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  10. Automatic sleep stage classification based on easy to register signals as a validation tool for ergonomic steering in smart bedding systems.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Tim; Van Deun, Dorien; Verhaert, Vincent; Pirrera, Sandra; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Verbraecken, Johan; Haex, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic sleep studies benefit from long-term monitoring in the home environment to cope with daily variations and habituation effects. Polysomnography allows to asses sleep accurately, but is costly, time-consuming and possibly disturbing for the sleeper. Actigraphy is cheap and user friendly, but for many studies lacks accuracy and detailed information. This proof-of-concept study investigates Least-Squares Support Vector Machines as a tool for automatic sleep stage classification (Wake-N1-Rem to N2-N3 separation), using automatic trainingset-specific filtered features as derived from three easy to register signals, namely heart rate, breathing rate and movement. The algorithms are trained and validated using 20 nights out of a 600 night database from over 100 different healthy persons. Different training and test set strategies were analyzed leading to different results. The more person-specific the training nights to the test nights, the better the classification accuracy as validated against the hypnograms scored by experts from the full polysomnograms. In the limit of complete person-specific training, the accuracy of the algorithm on the test set reached 94%. This means that this algorithm could serve its use in long-term monitoring sleep studies in the home environment, especially when prior person-specific polysomnographic training is performed.

  11. A Class of High Performance Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts based on Cheap Carbon Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiujuan; Song, Ping; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Changpeng; Xu, Weilin; Xing, Wei

    2013-01-01

    For the goal of practical industrial development of fuel cells, cheap, sustainable and high performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) which rival those based on platinum (Pt) and other rare materials are highly desirable. In this work, we report a class of cheap and high-performance metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts obtained by co-doping carbon blacks with nitrogen and fluorine (CB-NF).The CB-NF electrocatalysts are highly active and exhibit long-term operation stability and tolerance to poisons during oxygen reduction process in alkaline medium. The alkaline direct methanol fuel cell with the best CB-NF as cathode (3 mg/cm2) outperforms the one with commercial platinum-based cathode (3 mg Pt/cm2). To the best of our knowledge, these are among the most efficient non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Since carbon blacks are 10,000 times cheaper than Pt, these CB-NF electrocatalysts possess the best price/performance ratio for ORR, and are the most promising alternatives to Pt-based ones to date. PMID:23974295

  12. A Rapid and Cheap Methodology for CRISPR/Cas9 Zebrafish Mutant Screening.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Ylenia; Locascio, Annamaria; Ristoratore, Filomena; Sordino, Paolo; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Borra, Marco; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new genome editing tools such as ZFNs, TALENs and, more recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, has greatly expanded the ability to knock-out genes in different animal models, including zebrafish. However, time and costs required for the screening of a huge number of animals, aimed to identify first founder fishes (F0), and then carriers (F1) are still a bottleneck. Currently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is the most efficient technology for large-scale InDels detection, but the very expensive equipment demanded for its application may represent a limitation for research laboratories. Here, we propose a rapid and cheap method for high-throughput genotyping that displays efficiency rate similar to the HRM. In fact, using a common ViiA™7 real-time PCR system and optimizing the parameters of the melting analysis, we demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between the mutant and the wild type melting curves. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cheapness, our method can be used as a preliminary one-step approach for massive screening, in order to restrict the scope at a limited number of embryos and to focus merely on them for the next sequencing step, necessary for the exact sequence identification of the induced mutation. Moreover, thanks to its versatility, this simple approach can be readily adapted to the detection of any kind of genome editing approach directed to genes or regulatory regions and can be applied to many other animal models.

  13. Magnetic Susceptibility of Ancient and Modern Potsherds Using a Fast, Cheap and Portable Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    It has been estimated that there exist over 100 million ancient potsherds in various collections worldwide, many of which have never been studied and for which the provenance is ambiguous or unknown. Indeed, many collections are extremely badly catalogued or completely mixed-up. We have been using a novel portable probe to measure the magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of potsherds in the hope that this fast, cheap and portable measurement can provide data that will help to sort similar looking potsherds into sets in a manner which may help to define their provenance. The probe, which resembles a firearm, uses the Hall effect to make a non-destructive measurement on the potsherd. The probe is attached to an Dell Axim X51 PDA, which runs software that allows the measurement to be carried out and logged. Each measurement, which is made by pressing a button on the gun, takes only a few seconds. We have made measurements on three suites of ancient potsherds as well as a suite of modern potsherds that were created by using a garden centre and a hammer! In each case a set of 5 stacked measurements were taken on the inside and outside faces of the potsherd in two perpendicular directions. Potsherds which were either (i) so flat that the inside and outside could not be distinguished, (ii) so curved (radius of curvature less than 5 cm) that the probe tip could not approach the surface sufficiently closely, or (iii) smaller than the probe tip, were excluded from the suite of measurements. Each suite contained over 50 measureable potsherds. All measurements were completed within one day. In this pilot study we found that (1) each suite was represented by a normal distribution of magnetic susceptibility values, (2) the four different suites could be distinguished statistically on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility measurements, but (3) the distinction was not sufficiently powerful to separate all potsherds (i.e., there was a significant overlap of the

  14. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on ancient and modern potsherds using a fast, cheap and portable probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. W. J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been estimated that there exist over 100 million ancient potsherds in various collections worldwide, many of which have never been studied and for which the provenance is ambiguous or unknown. Indeed, many collections are extremely badly catalogued or completely mixed-up. We have been using a novel portable probe to measure the magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of potsherds in the hope that this fast, cheap and portable measurement can provide data that will help to sort similar looking potsherds into sets in a manner which may help to define their provenance. The probe, which resembles a firearm, uses the Hall effect to make a non-destructive measurement on the potsherd. The probe is attached to an Dell Axim X51 PDA, which runs software that allows the measurement to be carried out and logged. Each measurement, which is made by pressing a button on the gun, takes only a few seconds. We have made measurements on three suites of ancient potsherds as well as a suite of modern potsherds that were created by using a garden centre and a hammer! In each case a set of 5 stacked measurements were taken on the inside and outside faces of the potsherd in two perpendicular directions. Potsherds which were either (i) so flat that the inside and outside could not be distinguished, (ii) so curved (radius of curvature less than 5 cm) that the probe tip could not approach the surface sufficiently closely, or (iii) smaller than the probe tip, were excluded from the suite of measurements. Each suite contained over 50 measureable potsherds. All measurements were completed within one day. In this pilot study we found that (1) each suite was represented by a normal distribution of magnestic susceptibility values, (2) the four different suites could be distinguished statistically on the basis of their magnetic susceptibilty measurements, but (3) the distinction was not sufficiently powerful to separate all potsherds (i.e., there was a significant overlap of the

  15. Pen Torch Transillumination: Difficult Venepuncture Made Easy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Sankaran, Kalarani; Tan, Monica; Chan, Yiong Huak; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2017-09-01

    Our novel technique of pen torch transillumination (PTI) uses a cheap and easily available instrument (Penlite-LP212(®), Energizer(®), Missouri, USA) to visualize superficial veins invisible to the naked eye. We evaluate the efficacy of PTI in improving venepuncture success rate (SR) for patients with poor venous access. This prospective randomized controlled trial looked at adult patients (n = 69) aged 21-90 with difficult venous access (history of ≥3 consecutive attempts required for successful cannulation during the current admission) requiring non-emergent venepuncture. Patients underwent venepuncture over the upper-limb using one of the following: conventional venepuncture (control); Veinlite(®) EMS (TransLite(®), Texas, USA), a commercial transillumination device; PTI. Outcome measures were: successful cannulation within 2 attempts and total duration of venepuncture. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. A significantly larger number of patients had successful venepuncture within 2 attempts using PTI (22/23, 95.7%) and Veinlite (23/23, 100%), compared to the controls (7/23, 30.4%) (p < 0.05). The total duration required for successful venepuncture was significantly shorter for Veinlite (mean 3.7 min, 1.0-5.3 min) and PTI (mean 8.5 min, range 1.08-27 min) compared to the controls (mean 23.2 min, range 1.88-46.5 min) (p < 0.05). PTI allows users to visualize veins invisible to the naked eye. Thrombosed/tortuous veins, branch points and valves, are easily identified and avoided. It has comparable efficacy to Veinlite(®) and is cheaper (Veinlite(®)-USD 227 vs. Penlite-LP212(®)-USD 7.00) and more easily available. PTI improves patient care, especially in developing regions where costs are a concern.

  16. Life on Easy Street: The Persistent Need for Embodied Hopes and Down-to-Earth Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in kinesiology is changing behavior--specifically, converting habitually sedentary individuals into active human beings. This task is not an easy one. Thus, when we adopt Easy Street strategies that focus on introducing, informing, and entertaining, we have very little hope of effecting such conversions. Easy…

  17. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  18. A cheap earphone for small animals with good frequency response in the ultrasonic frequency range.

    PubMed

    Schuller, G

    1997-02-01

    A new type of earphone for binaural stimulation in small animals is described. The characteristic features are: (1) small, 8 mm diameter, can be miniaturised further; (2) cheap, uses no expensive condenser microphone capsule, material costs less than 20 dollars; (3) frequency response flat within 6 dB between 10 kHz and 120 kHz, within 10 dB up to 200 kHz; (4) harmonic distortions at levels of the fundamental frequency below 75 dB SPL is below - 34 dB at worst case (10 kHz); and (5) due to the low price the most stable earphones optimally paired for dichotic stimulation can be selected by screening a number of individual specimen.

  19. Measuring difficult temperament the easy way.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Stewart, K A; Fitzpatrick, M J; Allhusen, V D; Goldberg, W A

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new measure of infant temperament, the Pictorial Assessment of Temperament (PAT), and provide information about its psychometric qualities based on findings from a study of 132 mothers and infants. The PAT is a 10-item measure of "difficult" temperament that is quick and easy to use and avoids some of the inherent problems in existing paper-and-pencil measures of temperament (e.g., complexity of response choices, dependence on respondents' educational level and verbal skills). It has convergent validity with the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and with observed behavior in a laboratory procedure, moderate reliability and stability over time, and moderate agreement between mothers' and fathers' reports. Predictive validity was demonstrated by significant associations with the children's later disruptive behavior, behavior problems, lack of sociability, and negativity in interactions with their mother. Parent characteristics (agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, sensitivity, depression) were not related to scores on the PAT, demonstrating its discriminant validity.

  20. Withdrawal of penicillamine from zinc sulphate-penicillamine maintenance therapy in Wilson's disease: promising, safe and cheap.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Taly, A B

    2008-01-15

    Penicillamine, once considered the cornerstone of treatment for Wilson disease (WD), is rather expensive and toxic, and often causes neurological worsening. Zinc sulphate, aiming at the treatment of free-copper toxicosis, has emerged as effective, safe and cheap alternative. To assess the effect of withdrawal of penicillamine from maintenance treatment with penicillamine and zinc sulphate. 45 patients of WD (M:F: 28:17; age at diagnosis: 13.5+/-63 years), on both penicillamine (P) and zinc sulphate (Zn), couldn't continue penicillamine due to financial constraints. Their clinical data, disability and impairment scores (Schwab and England (S&E) score, Neurological Symptom Score (NSS), and Chu staging) and follow-up data of patients maintained only on zinc sulphate were recorded. Majority of patients (84.4%) had neuropsychiatric manifestations. The mean duration of treatment with penicillamine (P) and zinc sulphate (P+Zn), before stopping penicillamine, was 107.4+/-67.3 months. 40 patients improved variably, while the rest didn't. They received only zinc sulphate for 27.2+/-8.5 months (range: 12 to 34) and 44 patients (97.7%) remained status quo or improved marginally. Only one patient reported worsening in dysarthria. Their disability and impairment scores during combination (penicillamine and zinc sulphate) and Zn alone were: Chu (1.3+/-0.5 vs. 1.5+/-1.9; p=0.4), NSS (1.8+/-3.1 vs. 1.5+/-2.3; p=0.03) and S&E (96.4+/-5.6 vs. 98.6+/-3.5; p=0.03). There were no adverse effects. Withdrawal of penicillamine from zinc sulphate/penicillamine maintenance therapy for patients with Wilson's disease was effective, safe and economic, for almost all patients. This retrospective study reiterates that zinc sulphate may be used as a preferred mode of treatment for patients with Wilson's disease.

  1. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-05-18

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production.

  2. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain CASL, an Efficient l-Lactic Acid Producer from Cheap Substrate Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Su, Fei; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Qin, Jiayang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a type of probiotic bacteria with industrial potential for l-lactic acid production. We announce the draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus CASL (2,855,156 bp with a G+C content of 46.6%), which is an efficient producer of l-lactic acid from cheap, nonfood substrate cassava with a high production titer. PMID:22123765

  3. Good, Fast, Cheap: How Centers of Teaching and Learning Can Capitalize in Today's Resource-Constrained Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Michael H.; Juillerat, Stephanie; Gin, Deborah H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides leaders and educational developers of Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTL) with innovative and practical strategies on how to increase their centers' capacity and impact by focusing on quality, efficiency, and cost. This "good, fast, cheap" model represents a promising way that CTL can continue to grow, scale,…

  4. Good, Fast, Cheap: How Centers of Teaching and Learning Can Capitalize in Today's Resource-Constrained Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Michael H.; Juillerat, Stephanie; Gin, Deborah H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides leaders and educational developers of Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTL) with innovative and practical strategies on how to increase their centers' capacity and impact by focusing on quality, efficiency, and cost. This "good, fast, cheap" model represents a promising way that CTL can continue to grow, scale,…

  5. Visualization of Large Terrains Made Easy

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V

    2001-08-07

    We present an elegant and simple to implement framework for performing out-of-core visualization and view-dependent refinement of large terrain surfaces. Contrary to the recent trend of increasingly elaborate algorithms for large-scale terrain visualization, our algorithms and data structures have been designed with the primary goal of simplicity and efficiency of implementation. Our approach to managing large terrain data also departs from more conventional strategies based on data tiling. Rather than emphasizing how to segment and efficiently bring data in and out of memory, we focus on the manner in which the data is laid out to achieve good memory coherency for data accesses made in a top-down (coarse-to-fine) refinement of the terrain. We present and compare the results of using several different data indexing schemes, and propose a simple to compute index that yields substantial improvements in locality and speed over more commonly used data layouts. Our second contribution is a new and simple, yet easy to generalize method for view-dependent refinement. Similar to several published methods in this area, we use longest edge bisection in a top-down traversal of the mesh hierarchy to produce a continuous surface with subdivision connectivity. In tandem with the refinement, we perform view frustum culling and triangle stripping. These three components are done together in a single pass over the mesh. We show how this framework supports virtually any error metric, while still being highly memory and compute efficient.

  6. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2017-06-22

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status 1-8. Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase 9-10. However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes." Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing powerContributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco.

  7. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  8. Neonatal newborn hearing screening: four years' experience at Ferrara University Hospital (CHEAP project): part 1.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Camurri, L; Negossi, L; Rossi, M; Cosso, D; Petruccelli, J; Martini, A

    2007-02-01

    The Child Hearing Early Assessment Programme (CHEAP) regional project, was a combined departmental approach (Audiology, Neonatology) of the University Hospital of Ferrara, aimed at identifying neonatal hearing impairment and defining early intervention strategies. Aims of this project have been: (i) construction of a neonatal screening programme using evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem responses; (ii) the calculation of a precise estimate of cost-benefits for every child tested; (iii) the development of an information flow instrument (database) for the storage of data and the statistical analysis of the results. The present report refers only to the results of the project related to the otoacoustic emission data from well-babies and intensive care unit residents. In the period January 2000-December 2004, 4269 full-term newborns and 654 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit babies were tested at the Neonatology Department. The cost of the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening was estimated at Euro 9.20 per child, considering the use of the ILO-292 apparatus, and Euro 8.28 per child in the case of an automatic screener. In this screening model, the initial hardware costs can be re-iterated into budget in a period of two years, if 1000 children per year are tested.

  9. How Cheap Is Soaring Flight in Raptors? A Preliminary Investigation in Freely-Flying Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80–100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food. PMID:24454760

  10. Lethal tide: The worldwide threat from cheap conventional arms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.D.

    1994-04-01

    The twentieth century has seen as unprecedented explosion in the manufacture and use of armaments. This has been accompanied by steady increases in the number, length and lethality of conflicts. Both trends have been accelerating since the end of World War II, especially with regard to the so-called Third World. The focus of most arms control efforts has been on nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, with some secondary concern in the last two decades over sophisticated major conventional armaments. Virtually unnoticed have been the massive quantities of simple, inexpensive arms produced all over the globe and traded in channels overt, covert, and illegal. These items remain useful for many years. Equipment such as mortars and rifles find application in war after war, while ammunition keeps its explosive nature until it detonates. So the world, especially the Third World, has an ever growing sea of cheap arms, the old stuff still dangerous, more added every day. Review of selected conflicts, including Cambodia and Afghanistan, illustrates the depth of the trouble we are in and suggests some possible future directions in order to avoid drowning in this lethal sea.

  11. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  12. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  13. Edit while watching: home video editing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Marco; Weda, Hans; Barbieri, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more people capture their experiences in home videos. However, home video editing still is a difficult and time-consuming task. We present the Edit While Watching system that allows users to automatically create and change a summary of a home video in an easy, intuitive and lean-back way. Based on content analysis, video is indexed, segmented, and combined with proper music and editing effects. The result is an automatically generated home video summary that is shown to the user. While watching it, users can indicate whether they like certain content, so that the system will adapt the summary to contain more content that is similar or related to the displayed content. During the video playback users can also modify and enrich the content, seeing immediately the effects of their changes. Edit While Watching does not require a complex user interface: a TV and a few keys of a remote control are sufficient. A user study has shown that it is easy to learn and to use, even if users expressed the need for more control in the editing operations and in the editing process.

  14. Characterization and application of bioflocculant prepared by Rhodococcus erythropolis using sludge and livestock wastewater as cheap culture media.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lanyan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Lu; Dai, Chuanhua; Long, Zhiyong; Liu, Hongyu; Zhong, Yuanyuan

    2014-08-01

    A new bioflocculant was produced by culturing Rhodococcus erythropolis in a cheap medium. When culture pH was 7.0, inoculum size was 2 % (v/v), Na2HPO4 concentration was 0.5 g L(-1), and the ratio of sludge/livestock wastewater was 7:1 (v/v), a maximum flocculating rate of 87.6 % could be achieved. Among 13 different kinds of pretreatments for sludge, the optimal one was the thermal-alkaline pretreatment. Different from a bioflocculant produced in a standard medium, this bioflocculant was effective over a wide pH range from 2 to 12 with flocculating rates higher than 98 %. Approximately, 1.6 g L(-1) of crude bioflocculant could be harvested using cold ethanol for extraction. This bioflocculant showed color removal rates up to 80 % when applied to direct and disperse dye solutions, but only 23.0 % for reactive dye solutions. Infrared spectrum showed that the bioflocculant contained functional groups such as -OH, -NH2, and -CONH2. Components in the bioflocculant consisted of 91.2 % of polysaccharides, 7.6 % of proteins, and 1.2 % of DNA. When the bioflocculant and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were used together for decolorization in actual dye wastewater, the optimum decolorization conditions were specified by the response surface methodology as pH 11, bioflocculant dosage of 40 mg/L, and CuSO4 80 mg/L, under which a decolorization rate of 93.9 % could be reached.

  15. Easy to write? Creating easy-to-read patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Karten, Clare

    2007-08-01

    The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society develops and distributes both detailed and easy-to-read booklets intended to help patients and caregivers communicate with healthcare providers about their treatment and support needs. The easy-to-read booklets initially were developed for newly diagnosed patients; however, the society has learned that all patients with cancer are likely to benefit from the information at some point in their journeys. To date, the society has developed easy-to-read booklets about acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, lymphomas, myeloma, and coping with blood cancer. All booklets are free to patients, healthcare providers, and the general public, and most titles are available in Spanish-language versions. They can be ordered through the society's Information Resource Center (800-955-4572, infocenter@lls.org, or www.lls.org) or its 68 chapters. This article focuses on the development of the booklet Myeloma: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers and includes a handout based on its content.

  16. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  17. Universal precautions and dedicated machines as cheap and effective measures to control HCV spread.

    PubMed

    Cerrai, T; Michelassi, S; Ierpi, C; Toti, G; Zignego, A L; Lombardi, M

    1998-01-01

    Haemodialysis patients are at great risk for HCV infection, and a strict relationship is clear between anti-HCV positivity and dialysis age or hospital dialysis, irrespective of previous blood transfusions. Notwithstanding that, the precise root of its nosocomial nontransfusional diffusion among haemodialysis patients is not clear yet. As isolation is a very expensive policy, we evaluated whether simpler measures such as the observance of the Universal Precautions (UP), and the use of anti-HCV positive patient dedicated monitors can stop the diffusion of HCV infection in a hospital haemodialysis centre. Since January 1990 to December 1991 (1st phase), the patients shared the monitors irrespective of their serological status for HCV, and training of the dialysis care staff was not performed with regard to the UP. Since January 1991 to June 1996 (2nd phase), according to the UP, strictly personal dialysis-tools were used for all patients, anti-HCV positive patients were assigned to dedicated monitors in defined (not separated) areas of the dialysis rooms and the dialysis care staff was trained to the strict observance of the UP. In the first phase of the follow-up 5 seroconversions occurred; none occurred in the second one. Our study shows that isolation is not required for such patients. We believe that measures such as the application of UP, dedicated machines and continuous training of the care staff, instead of the isolation of positive patients, result in the same efficacy and are cheaper than isolation of positive patients. Therefore they are mandatory for all haemodialysis centres.

  18. A cheap and effective CO{sub 2} cap-and-trade for electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Steven

    2009-10-15

    Now that debate has shifted from regional toward federal cap-and-trade policy, it's time to reintroduce the idea of using reduction credits rather than allowances to drive emission reductions. A credit system appears to work well to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions with minimal compliance cost - and without windfall, wealth transfer, or market power concerns. It also provides a strong incentive for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and a ready means to harmonize a federal cap-and-trade with state and federal renewable energy portfolio requirements. (author)

  19. Imprint cytology--a cheap, rapid and effective method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S. P.; Dwivedi, M.; Misra, V.; Gupta, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of imprint cytology, histology and CLO-test (for biopsy urease) in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection, antral biopsies were taken from 239 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Both imprint cytology and histology showed the presence of H. pylori in 215 (90%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology vis-à-vis histology was noted to be 100%. The CLO-test was performed in 165 patients and was positive in 130 (79%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the CLO-test were 89% and 95%, respectively. The median time required for the CLO-test to become positive and for imprint was 60 minutes for each. The sensitivity of the CLO-test was reduced further in patients receiving colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Of the 27 patients receiving the drug the sensitivity of the CLO-test was only 9% after 4 weeks of therapy. However, the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology were unaffected by the antimicrobial therapy and after 4 weeks of treatment were still 100%. It is concluded that the CLO-test has a lower sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing H. pylori infection compared to imprint cytology, which had a sensitivity and specificity equal to that of histology. Imprint cytology may be prepared as an adjunct to histology in patients in whom antral biopsies are taken as it offers a relatively quick diagnosis of H. pylori infection, is considerably cheaper than the CLO-test and does not require additional biopsy material. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8321793

  20. Spray-coated fluorine-free superhydrophobic coatings with easy repairability and applicability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weici; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xinjie; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-01

    The present paper reports a very simple and low-cost fluorine-free superhydrophobic coating prepared by spray-coating metal alkylcarboxylates, for example, Cu[CH(3)(CH(2))(10)COO](2), onto virtually any substrates. Superhydrophobicity with a static water contact angle of about 160 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees was achieved from the proper precursor concentration. The advantages of the present approach include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, an industrial implementation method, and easy repairability and applicability so as to make a great application potential in practice. The hydrophobicity of coatings and the adhesion to water were found to be dependent on the surface morphology that was governed by the precursor concentrations from which coatings were prepared. The static wetting behavior of water droplets with different sizes gentlly deposited on the coatings was studied in more detail and correlated to theories, i.e., Wenzel's and Cassie's models. The results indicated that nanoribbon-textured coatings prepared from low precursor concentration (0.02 M) exhibited a transition from the metastable Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state with increments in the droplet volume, and eventually droplets firmly stick to the surface even when the droplet was gently deposited on the surface. Surface coatings with dual roughness at both microscale and nanometer scale were formed as the concentration (0.04 M) was increased and conferred a stable Cassie state, even for increased droplet size and increased droplet deposit speed.

  1. Weak data do not make a free lunch, only a cheap meal

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Zhipu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    Refinement and analysis of four structures with various data resolution cutoffs suggests that at present there are no reliable criteria for judging the diffraction data resolution limit and the condition I/σ(I) = 2.0 is reasonable. However, extending the limit by about 0.2 Å beyond the resolution defined by this threshold does not deteriorate the quality of refined structures and in some cases may be beneficial. Four data sets were processed at resolutions significantly exceeding the criteria traditionally used for estimating the diffraction data resolution limit. The analysis of these data and the corresponding model-quality indicators suggests that the criteria of resolution limits widely adopted in the past may be somewhat conservative. Various parameters, such as R{sub merge} and I/σ(I), optical resolution and the correlation coefficients CC{sub 1/2} and CC*, can be used for judging the internal data quality, whereas the reliability factors R and R{sub free} as well as the maximum-likelihood target values and real-space map correlation coefficients can be used to estimate the agreement between the data and the refined model. However, none of these criteria provide a reliable estimate of the data resolution cutoff limit. The analysis suggests that extension of the maximum resolution by about 0.2 Å beyond the currently adopted limit where the I/σ(I) value drops to 2.0 does not degrade the quality of the refined structural models, but may sometimes be advantageous. Such an extension may be particularly beneficial for significantly anisotropic diffraction. Extension of the maximum resolution at the stage of data collection and structure refinement is cheap in terms of the required effort and is definitely more advisable than accepting a too conservative resolution cutoff, which is unfortunately quite frequent among the crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank.

  2. Medicinal Effect of Nutraceutical Fruits for the Cognition and Brain Health

    PubMed Central

    Keservani, Raj K.; Sharma, Anil K.; Kesharwani, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. PMID:26966612

  3. Use of buffering and other means to improve results of problematic pesticides in a fast and easy method for residue analysis of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    A modification that entails the use of buffering during extraction was made to further improve results for certain problematic pesticides (e.g., folpet, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, and pymetrozine) in a simple, fast, and inexpensive method for the determination of pesticides in produce. The method, known as the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residues in foods, now involves the extraction of the sample with acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid (HAc) and simultaneous liquid-liquid partitioning formed by adding anhydrous MgSO4 plus sodium acetate (NaAc). The extraction method is carried out by shaking a centrifuge tube which contains 1 mL of 1% HAc in MeCN plus 0.4 g anhydrous MgSO4 and 0.1 g anhydrous NaAc per g sample. The tube is then centrifuged, and a portion of the extract is transferred to a tube containing 50 mg primary secondary amine sorbent plus 150 mg anhydrous MgSO4/mL of extract. After a mixing and centrifugation step, the extract is transferred to autosampler vials for concurrent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Independent of the original sample pH, the use of buffering during the extraction yields pH <4 in the MeCN extract and >5 in the water phase, which increases recoveries of both acid- and base-sensitive pesticides. The method was evaluated for 32 diverse pesticides in different matrixes, and typical percent recoveries were 95 +/- 10, even for some problematic pesticides. Optional solvent exchange to toluene prior to GC/MS analysis was also evaluated, showing equally good results with the benefit of lower detection limits, but at the cost of more time, material, labor, and expense.

  4. EasyPanorama: a new panorama authoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xianyong; Yan, Wen; Pan, Zhigeng; Xu, Dan; Chen, Mingwei

    2004-03-01

    Although panorama has been intensively researched in recent years and there are many tools on panorama creation, existing methods still can't cope with ghosting effectively and almost all the tools can't create an image with a large vertical field of view. By modifying the sobel operator, we present an improved algorithm to deghost based on dynamic programming. Our new algorithm is simple and robust. This algorithm has been used in our new panorama authoring system, EasyPanorama. This paper describes the architecture, the interactive authoring and publishing process of this system. The system treats panorama as a type of wide angle image, and can vertically mosaic the source images to create an image with a large vertical field of view. With this system, the user first creates a wide angle image, then edits the walkthrough of the panorama if the wide angle image is mosaiced to be a panorama and finally publishes the result to the web.

  5. Expert Supervisors' Priorities When Working with Easy and Challenging Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemer, Gulsah; Borders, L. DiAnne; Yel, Nedim

    2017-01-01

    Using Kemer, Borders, and Willse's (2014) concept map as a conceptual model, the authors aimed to understand expert supervisors' priorities with their easy and challenging supervisees. Experts' priorities with easy and challenging supervisees were represented in different parts of the concept map, and they seemed to individualize their work with…

  6. Characteristics and Conceptual Framework of the Easy-Play Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Steele, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The Easy-Play Model offers a defined framework to organize games that promote an inclusive and enjoyable sport experience. The model can be implemented by participants playing sports in educational, recreational or social contexts with the goal of achieving an active lifestyle in an inclusive, cooperative and enjoyable environment. The Easy-Play…

  7. Characteristics and Conceptual Framework of the Easy-Play Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Steele, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The Easy-Play Model offers a defined framework to organize games that promote an inclusive and enjoyable sport experience. The model can be implemented by participants playing sports in educational, recreational or social contexts with the goal of achieving an active lifestyle in an inclusive, cooperative and enjoyable environment. The Easy-Play…

  8. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  9. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  10. How Digital Image Processing Became Really Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Michael

    1988-02-01

    In the early and mid-1970s, digital image processing was the subject of intense university and corporate research. The research lay along two lines: (1) developing mathematical techniques for improving the appearance of or analyzing the contents of images represented in digital form, and (2) creating cost-effective hardware to carry out these techniques. The research has been very effective, as evidenced by the continued decline of image processing as a research topic, and the rapid increase of commercial companies to market digital image processing software and hardware.

  11. A visual multiplex PCR microchip with easy sample loading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Wei; Shao, Ning; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhu, Yuanshou; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-06-20

    There is an urgent demand for affordable, rapid and easy-to-use technology to simultaneously detect many different DNA targets within one reaction. Conventional multiplex PCR is an effective methodology to simultaneously amplify different DNA targets. However, its multiplicity is limited due to the intrinsic interference and competition among primer pairs within one tube. Here, we present an easy multiplex PCR microchip system, which can simultaneously detect 54 targets. The design of the microchip is quite simple. There is a microchannel connected with multiple underlying parallel microwells. And every microchannel has an inlet/outlet for loading PCRmix. The surface of the microchannel is hydrophobic and the inner surface of the microwell is hydrophilic, which enables us to load and separate the PCRmix into different microwells simultaneously. Different primer pairs and low melting agarose are pre-fixed in different microwells, and the microchip is assembled with top glass. The PCRmix is loaded into inlets and then mineral oil is sequentially pipetted into channels to push the PCRmix into all microwells and subsequently mineral oil fills the channels to avoid cross contaminations. After the PCRmix is loaded, it would be placed on a plat thermal cycler for PCR. During PCR, the low melting gel in the well is liquid and after PCR it would be solidified due to temperature changes. When PCR is completed, a nucleic acid dye is introduced into channels and then results are visualized by a home-made, potable UV detector. In our platform we successfully detected seven frequently used targets of genetically modified (GM) organisms. The results demonstrate that our platform has high flexibility and specificity. Due to the excellent performance of this technology, we believe that it can be applied to multiple nucleic acid detection fields including GM organisms.

  12. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  13. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  14. Easy Observation of Infrared Spectral Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of some chemical elements display intense infrared (IR) lines that can be used more effectively than the ones in the visible region for identification purposes. A simple setup, based on the IR sensitivity of a handycam in nightshot mode, is described to record the visible as well as the IR spectra from decorative bulbs or salts on the…

  15. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  16. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  17. Easy Observation of Infrared Spectral Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of some chemical elements display intense infrared (IR) lines that can be used more effectively than the ones in the visible region for identification purposes. A simple setup, based on the IR sensitivity of a handycam in nightshot mode, is described to record the visible as well as the IR spectra from decorative bulbs or salts on the…

  18. Sample Size Estimation: The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a simple approach to making quick sample size estimates for basic hypothesis tests. Although there are many sources available for estimating sample sizes, methods are not often integrated across statistical tests, levels of measurement of variables, or effect sizes. A few parameters are required to estimate sample sizes and…

  19. High order path integrals made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-01

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  20. Diffusivity Measurements Made Instant and Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    A compact common path interferometer (CPI) system has been developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. It uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. The molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined from the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and liquid phase properties. When the data obtained by using the CPI have been compared with similar results from other techniques, the instrument has been demonstrated to be far superior to other instruments for measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while staying very compact and robust (ref. 1). Because of its compactness and ease of use, the CPI has been adopted for use in studies of interface dynamics as well as other diffusion-controlled process applications (ref. 2). This progress will permit experiments in microgravity that can quantitatively answer basic science questions about mass and thermal diffusion and their effect in transport processes. This instrument is a spinoff of a diagnostic development for microgravity fluid physics experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center that has used optics and electronics existing in the fluid physics laboratory for feasibility studies. Optical diagnostic techniques have become an integral part of many areas of measurement applications in industrial and research laboratories. Many types of interferometers and their phase-shifted versions have been used as instruments for measuring optical wave fronts for lens testing and combustion and fluid flow diagnostics. One of these, the point diffraction interferometer, is considered to be robust (see, for example, ref. 3) because it has a common-path design. The point diffraction interferometer is difficult to align and has a limited measurement range for liquid

  1. Animal Behavior: Electric Eels Amp Up for an Easy Meal.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2015-11-16

    The high voltage discharge generated by electric eels is a powerful predatory weapon. A new study shows that eels exploit basic physics to increase the voltage delivered to prey, inducing muscle fatigue that turns challenging prey items into easy targets.

  2. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePlus

    ... faq/easytoread.html Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

  3. On Creativity and Humor: An Analysis of EASY STREET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Roy R.

    1974-01-01

    Author attempted to present a reasonable description of the film, Easy Street, with major antics numbered, then analyzed those in terms of Duncker and Koestler, thereby extending the latter's theory of bisociation. (Author/RK)

  4. An Easy-to-Make Instructional Materials File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, LaMond F.

    1978-01-01

    Cardboard crates for shipping fruit can be made into attractive containers for the storage of instructional materials. A simplified cataloging and classification system is suggested for easy retrieval. (Author/STS)

  5. An Easy Classroom Experiment on the Supercooling of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    The change from the state of supercooling to the solid state of ice is called superfreezing. This process is not uncommon and takes place in domestic freezers. It is also easy to reproduce in the laboratory. (Contains 6 figures.)

  6. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  7. An Easy Classroom Experiment on the Supercooling of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    The change from the state of supercooling to the solid state of ice is called superfreezing. This process is not uncommon and takes place in domestic freezers. It is also easy to reproduce in the laboratory. (Contains 6 figures.)

  8. An Easy-to-Make Instructional Materials File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, LaMond F.

    1978-01-01

    Cardboard crates for shipping fruit can be made into attractive containers for the storage of instructional materials. A simplified cataloging and classification system is suggested for easy retrieval. (Author/STS)

  9. What Makes Mathematics Lessons Easy to Follow, Understand, and Remember?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1983-01-01

    Described is a teaching method explored in the author's doctoral dissertation, as well as some findings from the study. Lesson organization and clarity are stressed, with the qualities that make a lesson easy to follow, understand, and remember discussed. (MNS)

  10. OTTER: An Optimized Transit Tool And Easy Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    tool , Static OTTER, is a generic, optimal solution to individual ship transit-speed combinations, in the form of a printable reference sheet that...system is in the initial stages. C. OBJECTIVES We develop a mathematical model incorporated in an Optimized Transit Tool and its Easy Reference dubbed... OPTIMIZED TRANSIT TOOL AND EASY REFERENCE by Warren Korban Blackburn March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Emily Craparo Co-Advisor: Connor McLemore

  11. Analysis of fluid/mechanical systems using EASY5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Arndt, Scott D.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the use of a general analysis package can simplify modeling and analyzing fluid/mechanical systems. One such package is EASY5, a Boeing Computer Services product. The basic transmission line equations for modeling piped fluid systems are presented, as well as methods of incorporating these equations into the EASY5 environment. The paper describes how this analysis tool has been used to model several fluid subsystems of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  12. New method for the analysis of lipophilic marine biotoxins in fresh and canned bivalves by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry: a quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, safe approach.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, A; Muñoz, E; Gibert, D; Cortés-Francisco, N; Granados, M; Caixach, J; Centrich, F

    2015-03-20

    A new method for the analysis of lipophilic marine biotoxins (okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, azaspiracids, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, spirolids) in fresh and canned bivalves has been developed. A QuEChERS methodology is applied; i.e. the analytes are extracted with acetonitrile and clean-up of the extracts is performed by dispersive solid phase extraction with C18. The extracts are analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, operating in tandem mass spectrometry mode, with resolution set at 70,000 (m/z 200, FWHM). Separation of the analytes, which takes about 10min, is carried out in gradient elution mode with a BEH C18 column and mobile phases based on 6.7mM ammonia aqueous solution and acetonitrile mixtures. For each analyte the molecular ion and 1 or 2 product ions are acquired, with a mass accuracy better than 5ppm. The quantification is performed using surrogate matrix matched standards, with eprinomectin as internal standard. The high-throughput method, which has been successfully validated, fulfills the requirements of European Union legislation, and has been implemented as a routine method in a public health laboratory.

  13. Multi-residue analysis of emerging pollutants in benthic invertebrates by modified micro-quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe extraction and nanoliquid chromatography-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlioz-Barbier, Alexandra; Buleté, Audrey; Faburé, Juliette; Garric, Jeanne; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-07

    Aquatic ecosystems are continuously contaminated by agricultural and industrial sources. Although the consequences of this pollution are gradually becoming visible, their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems are poorly known, particularly regarding the risk of bioaccumulation in different trophic levels. To establish a causality relationship between bioaccumulation and disease, experiments on biotic matrices must be performed. In this context, a multi-residue method for the analysis of 35 emerging pollutants in three benthic invertebrates (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus fossarum, and Chironomus riparius) has been developed. Because the variation in response of each individual must be taken into account in ecotoxicological studies, the entire analytical chain was miniaturised, thereby reducing the required sample size to a minimum of one individual and scaling the method accordingly. A new extraction strategy based on a modified, optimised and miniaturised "QuEChERS" approach is reported. The procedure involves salting out liquid-liquid extraction of approximately 10-20mg of matrix followed by nano-liquid chromatography-nano electospray ionisation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The validated analytical procedure exhibited recoveries between 40 and 98% for all the target compounds and enabled the determination of pollutants on an individual scale in the ng g(-1) concentration. The method was subsequently applied to determine the levels of target analytes in several encaged organisms which were exposed upstream and downstream of an effluent discharge. The results highlighted a bioaccumulation of certain targeted emerging pollutants in three freshwater invertebrates, as well as inter-species differences. 18 out of 35 compounds were detected and eight were quantified. The highest concentrations were measured for ibuprofen in G. fossarum, reaching up to 105 ng g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerial Surveys Using Consumer Electronics: Fast, Cheap and Best of All: Useful!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    We report results from two low-cost, low-altitude, aerial imaging surveys of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) carried out in late 2009. In total 541 km of the fault was imaged with a ground sample distance (pixel size) of a few cm. The two surveys covered the Carrizo Plain and points north to the Choice Valley on 24 Sep 2009, and the SAF between I-5 (Tejon Pass) and I-15 (Cajon Pass) on 29 Dec 2009. Each area was imaged twice, once on the first pass and a short time later on the return pass. The I-5 to I-15 flight included Lone Pine Canyon east of Wrightwood soon after the Sheep Fire of early Oct 2009. Ground that was normally covered by heavy brush was revealed for the first time in many years. The data set consists of 5216 6Mb jpg photographs (31 Gb total) which were posted on the internet within hours of their acquisition. Shortly thereafter they were placed into PICASA web albums for easy browsing. Total cost for both surveys (excluding camera) was about $5000. The pictures were taken with a Nikon D90 with an attached GP-1 receiver that wrote the aircraft’s position into the EXIF file of each photograph. Organization, manipulation and geolocation of the images were done on a Macintosh laptop. All photographs are freely available and carry no copyright. They are in the public domain. Lynch, David K., Kenneth W. Hudnut and David S. P. Dearborn “Low Altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain”, Seismological Research Letters, 81, 453-459 (2010) Full frame image of Wallace Creek. The inset shows a visitor. The pixel size at the center of the frame is about 4 cm.

  15. The end of suburbia: what happens when all the cheap oil is gone and what are the health implications?

    PubMed

    Parker, Alan A

    2005-04-01

    In isolation, the depletion of the world's stocks of cheap oil is a risk management problem of global proportions. The risk would be manageable given an international agreement by all the developed nations to conserve much of the remaining cheap oil for essential purposes, but there is no such agreement nor is there any intent to create one. Evidence is presented to show that the synergetic interaction of oil depletion with other long-standing environmental problems will result in world food production peaking and then declining at a rapid rate. Australian Census data for the journey to work and the growth of car ownership are analysed. It reveals that car/ oil dependency is growing in outer suburbia, where most Australians live and where future population growth will be housed. It is argued that oil dependency, if not reduced, will develop into a serious threat to national security in a few years. Health promotion professionals have an important role in activating local, State and Commonwealth governments to implement 'travel smart' programs.

  16. Formative Assessment Made Easy: Templates for Collecting Daily Data in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Kyena E.

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to collect data on student progress and use it as formative data to inform instructional decisions. Being told to collect student data without being shown how to effectively and efficiently collect it, may cause teachers to become overwhelmed. This article provides three easy-to-use templates to facilitate quick data…

  17. How to Create a 3D Model from Scanned Data in 5 Easy Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a cost effective way to generate copies of damaged parts for demonstrations. Integrating scanned data of a damaged area into an existing model may be challenging. However, using the relatively inexpensive Nettfab software (from one can generate a "watertight" model that is easy to print.

  18. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  19. Easy fabrication of a tunable high-pass birdcage resonator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Tang, P

    1997-07-01

    A practical design for a high-pass birdcage resonator is presented. Precision seamless telescoping tubes were used for easy tuning of resonant frequency by adjusting the length of the coils. Three probes, of 4.4, 5.0, and 25.0 cm in diameter, respectively, were constructed and tested. An empirical formula is given that can be used to calculate the capacitance needed for a given frequency when the desired physical dimension and the number of elements of the coll are specified. A simple three-step procedure is suggested for easy fabrication of resonators that are routinely tunable over tens of megahertz.

  20. Food Byproducts as a New and Cheap Source of Bioactive Compounds: Lignans with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Le; Lou, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-08-19

    During the process of manufacturing hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) juice and jam, a significant quantity of byproducts (leaves, seeds) is generated. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of hawthorn seeds has led to the isolation of eight new lignans, hawthornnins A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra. The radical-scavenging effects of all isolated compounds were investigated. 1-6 and 8 showed moderate activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas 1-6 and 14 displayed good 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities that were even more potent than that of trolox. In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by detecting the nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by the LPS-induced murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, and compounds 1-7, 13, and 14 exhibited potent inhibition of NO and TNF-α production. The structure-activity relationships of isolated lignans were also examined, and the results obtained show that C. pinnatifida seeds can be regarded as a potential new and cheap source of antioxidants and inflammation inhibitors.

  1. Measurement of elastic nonlinearity using remote laser ultrasonics and CHeap Optical Transducers and dual frequency surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Collison, I J; Stratoudaki, T; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2008-11-01

    A nonlinear ultrasonic technique for evaluating material elastic nonlinearity has been developed. It measures the phase modulation of a high frequency (82MHz) surface acoustic wave interacting with a low frequency (1MHz) high amplitude stress inducing surface acoustic wave. A new breed of optical transducers has been developed and used for the generation and detection of the high frequency wave. The CHeap Optical Transducer (CHOT) is an ultrasonic transducer system, optically activated and read by a laser. We show that CHOTs offer advantages over alternative transducers. CHOTs and nonlinear ultrasonics have great potential for aerospace applications. Results measuring changes in ultrasonic velocity corresponding to different stress states of the sample are presented on fused silica and aluminium.

  2. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  3. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test... Service filed a notice, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3641, announcing its intent to initiate a market test of an...

  4. Children's Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Fluency in Easy Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise

    2006-01-01

    This study explored third-graders' oral reading fluency (ORF) in easy text in relation to their third- and fourth-grade reading comprehension. It also examined the children's performance on two different measures of text exposure, a self-report questionnaire and a title-recognition test. Although third-graders' ORF related significantly to their…

  5. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  6. Everyday Science: Fun and Easy Projects for Making Practical Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shar; Johnstone, Leslie

    This book contains 25 experiments designed to help students understand some of the science used every day. Each experiment includes a list of materials, a series of easy-to-follow steps, an explanation of the scientific principle demonstrated, and additional scientific facts and information. No special or expensive materials are required.…

  7. Attentional Capacity Allocation while Reading Easy and Difficult Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kevin K.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    To examine the difference in attention capacity when reading difficult or easy text, a study presented text that varied in difficulty to 22 subjects via a computer monitor. The text was presented in a self-paced manner, one word at a time. Reading times for each word were obtained by computing latencies between key presses. Whenever a flashing…

  8. Software Updates: Web Design--Software that Makes It Easy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattridge, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses Web design software that provides an easy-to-use interface. The "Netscape Communicator" is highlighted for beginning Web page construction and step-by-step instructions are provided for starting out, page colors and properties, indents, bulleted lists, tables, adding links, navigating long documents, creating e-mail links,…

  9. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  10. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-02-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  11. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  12. Miscue Analysis Made Easy: Building on Student Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Sandra

    Beginning with a series of interactive exercises, this book leads readers through the thinking processes and linguistic systems that students use to build their understanding of text. Through a review of these systems, the book then shows how to assess students' reading ability. It then presents an easy-to-use, step-by-step diagnostic procedure,…

  13. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate…

  14. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  15. Fast and Easy Searching of Files in Unisys 2200 Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been written to enable (1) fast and easy searching of symbolic files for one or more strings of characters, dates, or numerical values in specific fields or columns and (2) summarizing results of searching other fields or columns.

  16. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  17. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate…

  18. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  19. EASY MONEY: An Exploration of Trust in Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1997-01-01

    Cash games are simulation activities which feature real cash prizes and explore interpersonal skills and concepts. EASY MONEY is one such game, featuring an investment activity which focuses on trust among team members in ambiguous decision-making situations. Directions for administering the game and suggestions for applying a standard six-phase…

  20. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  1. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  2. Is Easy Read Information Really Easier to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, B.; Jones, L.; Burniston, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Producing accessible information regarding health issues is very important in order to ensure that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) have equal access to services and can make informed decisions about their treatment. Method: This study examined whether an Easy Read leaflet improved service users' comprehension and…

  3. Technical Manual: easyCBM. Technical Report #1408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Farley, Dan; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saven, Jessica L.; Wray, Kraig A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research…

  4. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  5. Swift heavy ion irradiated spinel ferrite: A cheap radiation resistant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satalkar, M.; Kane, S. N.; Kulriya, P. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-07-01

    Effect of (80 MeV) 16O 6+ ion irradiation on the structural properties and cation distribution of the as-burnt samples (i.e. the samples are without any thermal/sintering treatment) with the following compositions: MnFe2O4, Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique have been studied through in-situ and ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Well characterized single phase MnFe2O4 and Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples were irradiated at fluence 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012, 1 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 ions/cm2 to see the effect of the electronic energy loss induced changes in the structural properties and in cation distribution monitored through ex-situ XRD. ZnFe2O4 samples were irradiated with ion fluence values ranging between 1 × 1011 - 2 × 1014 ions/cm2 to observe the effect of in-situ XRD on structural properties and cation distribution. Results very clearly depict the redistribution of cations in the samples, which show noticeable changes in: ionic radii of A-site (rA) and B-site (rB), experimental and theoretical lattice parameter (aexp.,ath.), unit cell volume (V), Scherrer's Grain diameter (D), oxygen positional parameter (u), tetrahedral and octahedral bond length (RA, RB), shared tetrahedral and octahedral edge (dAE,dBE) and bond angles (θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4, θ5). Results are interpreted in terms of irradiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters.

  6. 3-(Dimethylamino)-1-propylamine: a cheap and versatile reagent for removal of byproducts in carbohydrate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sofie Meng; Heuckendorff, Mads; Jensen, Henrik H

    2015-02-20

    Inexpensive 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine (DMAPA) was found to be effective in anomeric deacylation reactions giving 1-O deprotected sugars in high yield as precursors for the formation of imidate glycosyl donors. DMAPA was also found to be useful for removing excess reagents such as benzoyl chloride, tosyl chloride, and 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-phenylacetimidoyl chloride. The deacylation reaction could be conducted in moist THF and did not require chromatographic purification since an acidic wash was sufficient to remove excess reagent and the formed byproduct.

  7. [Amniocentesis trainer: development of a cheap and reproducible new training model].

    PubMed

    Tassin, M; Cordier, A-G; Laher, G; Benachi, A; Mandelbrot, L

    2012-11-01

    Amniocentesis is the most common invasive procedure for prenatal diagnosis. It is essential to master this sampling technique prior to performing more complex ultrasound-guided interventions (cordocentesis, drain insertion). Training is a challenge because of the risks associated with the procedure, as well as the impact on the patient's anxiety. An amniocentesis simulator allows for safe training and repeats interventions, thus accelerating the learning curve, and also allows for periodic evaluation of proficiency. We present here a new, simple, and cost-effective amniotrainer model that reproduces real life conditions, using chicken breast and condoms filled with water.

  8. EasyBowling: a virtual bowling system for small space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhigeng; Huang, Jin; Xu, Weiwei; Zhou, Kun; Shi, Jiaoying

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual bowling game machine called EasyBowling Machine, which is designed and implemented based on techniques such as Virtual Reality, animation, and image processing. To introduce Virtual Reality technique into this virtual bowling game, our system provides a real game mode: players play the game by throwing a real bowling ball, and then the EasyBowling system uses a PC Camera to detect the motion of the real bowling ball. After the motion parameters (ball direction, ball force, et al.) are computed, the movement of the bowling ball and its collision with pins are simulated on a large display screen. The most obvious advantage of such bowling game machine over other existing bowling games is that the system integrates body exercise into game playing. The implementation techniques are discussed in detail, and the prototype system illustrates the feasibility and efficiency of our method.

  9. Phenomenological model for the optically induced easy direction.

    PubMed

    Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Uncheselu, C; Lucchetti, L; Barbero, G

    2007-02-01

    We present a phenomenological model to interprete the optically induced easy direction in a nematic cell in the slab approximation. One of the surfaces of the sample is supposed to give strong anchoring, whereas the other, covered with photosensible material, very weak anchoring. We assume that a surface nematic molecule is submitted to a potential connected with its interaction with the surface easy direction, with the surface nematic field, and with the optical induced anisotropy. The case in which the coupling with the nematic order in the bulk is important is considered too. A differential equation for the time evolution of the surface director is proposed, in which the viscous torque is balanced by the torque related to the surface fields. We show that our theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental data on the optical induced surface orientation. The dependence of the anchoring energy strength on the irradiation time for dye-doped liquid crystals is also investigated.

  10. Solar-powered saline sorbent-solution heat pump/storage system. [Coastal Energy Laboratory-Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, H.; Houston, S.

    1981-01-01

    Coastal Energy Laboratory Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP) is a redesigned open-cycle liquid desiccant air conditioner. Heat is discharged to shallow-well water by dehumidification-humidification for cooling and extracted by humidification-dehumidification for heating. Direct solar radiation concentrates the desiccant. For continuous operation, a small uninsulated tank stores concentrated solution. 6 refs.

  11. High capacity, easy release adhesives from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael D; Crosby, Alfred J

    2014-06-04

    Reversible adhesives composed of renewable materials are presented which achieve high force capacities (810 N) while maintaining easy release (∼ 0.25 N) and reusability. These simple, non-tacky adhesives consist of natural rubber impregnated into stiff natural fiber fabrics, including cotton, hemp, and jute. This versatile approach enables a clear method for designs of environmentally-responsible, reversible adhesives for a wide variety of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate around a vertical axis. LEGO rockers (see Fig. 1) are much more reliable and versatile.

  13. Easy Come, Easy Go: Capillary Forces Enable Rapid Refilling of Embolized Primary Xylem Vessels.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Vivien; Bergstrom, Dana M; Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Chen, Hua; Wolfe, Joe; Holbrook, N Michele; Stanton, Daniel E; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-08-01

    Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots.

  14. Easy Come, Easy Go: Capillary Forces Enable Rapid Refilling of Embolized Primary Xylem Vessels1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lenné, Thomas; Wolfe, Joe; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2015-01-01

    Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots. PMID:26091819

  15. EasyExonPrimer: automated primer design for exon sequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David J

    2006-01-01

    EasyExonPrimer is a web-based software that automates the design of PCR primers to amplify exon sequences from genomic DNA. EasyExonPrimer is written in Perl and uses Primer3 to design PCR primers based on the genome builds and annotation databases available at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser database (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). It masks repeats and known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the genome and designs standardised primers using optimised conditions. Users can input genes by RefSeq mRNA ID, gene name or keyword. The primer design is optimised for large-scale resequencing of exons. For exons larger than 1 kb, the user has the option of breaking the exon sequence down into overlapping smaller fragments. All primer pairs are then verified using the In-Silico PCR software to test for uniqueness in the genome. We have designed >1000 pairs of primers for 90 genes; 95% of the primer pairs successfully amplified exon sequences under standard PCR conditions without requiring further optimisation. EasyExonPrimer is available from http://129.43.22.27/~primer/. The source code is also available upon request. Xiaolin Wu (forestwu@mail.nih.gov).

  16. Easy-to-read texts for students with intellectual disability: linguistic factors affecting comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Ávila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio; Tavares, Gema; Gómez, Marcos; Hernández, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The use of 'easy-to-read' materials for people with intellectual disabilities has become very widespread but their effectiveness has scarcely been evaluated. In this study, the framework provided by Kintsch's Construction-Integration Model (1988) is used to examine (i) the reading comprehension levels of different passages of the Spanish text that have been designed following easy-to-read guidelines and (ii) the relationships between reading comprehension (literal and inferential) and various linguistic features of these texts. Sixteen students with mild intellectual disability and low levels of reading skills were asked to read easy-to-read texts and then complete a reading comprehension test. The corpus of texts was composed of a set of forty-eight pieces of news selected from www.noticiasfacil.es, a Spanish digital newspaper that publishes daily journalistic texts following international guidelines for the design of easy-to-read documents (IFLA, Tronbacke B. (1997) Guidelines for Easy-to-read Materials. IFLA, The Hague). Participants correctly answered 80% of the comprehension questions, showing significantly higher scores for literal questions than for inferential questions. The analyses of the texts' linguistic features revealed that the number of coreferences was the variable that best predicted literal comprehension, but contrary to what the previous literature seemed to indicate, the relationship between the two variables was inverse. In the case of inferential comprehension, the number of sentences was a significant negative predictor; that is, the higher the sentence density, the lower the ability of these students to find relationships between them. The effects of the rest of linguistic variables, such as word frequency and word length, on comprehension were null. These results provide preliminary empirical support for the use of easy-to-read texts but bring into question the validity of some popular design guidelines (e.g. augmenting word frequency) to

  17. The use of cylindrical lenses in easy experiments for physics education and the magic arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by staging tricks, effects or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats.

  18. Production of fungal amylases using cheap, readily available agriresidues, for potential application in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Singh, Sanamdeep; Bali, Vrinda; Sharma, Lovleen; Mangla, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL) in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL) and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL) for incubation period (6 days), temperature (35 °C), initial pH (6.0), nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel) was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α -type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55 °C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL) and chemical (814.2 U/mL) mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing.

  19. Anabolic androgen use in the management of hereditary angioedema: Not so cheap after all.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kevin Y; Zuraw, Bruce L; Chen, Qiaoling; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (HAE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that imposes a significant burden on affected patients. 17α-alkylated androgens (anabolic androgens) decrease attack frequency and severity but carry the risk of potentially serious dose-related adverse effects. Despite the emergence of targeted therapies for HAE, continued anabolic androgen use has been driven in part by their low cost. To examine the hidden cost of anabolic androgen use related to the risk of developing non-HAE comorbidities. Patients with HAE were identified in the Southern California Kaiser Permanente database using clinical and laboratory findings compatible with HAE. These patients were stratified into anabolic androgen exposed and nonexposed groups. Matched controls were selected from the Kaiser database who did not have HAE or anabolic androgen exposure. Using multivariate analysis, we determined the number of non-HAE comorbidities linked to anabolic androgen use. We next determined the association between dosing and increasing exposure to anabolic androgens and the likelihood of having various comorbidities. Patients with HAE exposed to anabolic androgens had a 28% increase (P = .04) in non-HAE comorbidities when compared with their matched (nonexposed) controls. With each gram per month increase in exposure, a 12% increase in non-HAE comorbidities is observed (P < .01). The most commonly occurring non-HAE comorbidities were psychiatric, muscle cramps, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Our data suggest that long-term anabolic androgen use enhances the risk of developing comorbid health conditions, thus amplifying the cost of care. Our report provides additional support for the preferred use of newer, targeted therapies for the management of HAE. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  1. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    PubMed Central

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  2. Metformin: a cheap and well-tolerated drug that provides benefits for viral infections.

    PubMed

    Joven, J; Menéndez, J A; Fernandez-Sender, L; Espinel, E; Rull, A; Beltrán-Debón, R; Rodríguez-Gallego, E; Riera-Borrull, M; Pedro-Botet, J; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Camps, J; Aragonès, G

    2013-04-01

    Insulin resistance in viral infections is common. We have explored the effectiveness of metformin for alleviating insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients and assessed the relevance of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) rs11212617 variant in the clinical response with the rationale that metformin modulates cellular bioenergetics in an ATM-dependent process. HIV-infected patients (n = 385) were compared with controls recruited from the general population (n = 300) with respect to the genotype distribution of the ATM rs11212617 variant and its influence on selected metabolic and inflammatory variables. We also followed up a subset of male patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (n = 47) who were not receiving antiviral treatment and for whom metformin was prescribed for insulin resistance, which tends to have a higher incidence and severity in coinfected patients. Among the HIV-infected patients, human cytomegalovirus (91.9%) and HCV (62.3%) coinfections were frequent. Selected metabolic and/or inflammatory variables were significantly altered in infected patients. Treatment with metformin in HIV and HCV coinfected patients was well tolerated and significantly increased the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. The minor allele (C) of the rs11212617 variant was associated with treatment success and may affect the course of insulin resistance in response to metformin (odds ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.39; P = 0.005). There were no differences between treated and untreated patients in viral loads or variables measuring immune defence, indicating that toxicity is unlikely. We provide novel data suggesting that identification of the ATM rs11212617 variant may be important in assessing the glycaemic response to metformin treatment for insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  3. Production of Fungal Amylases Using Cheap, Readily Available Agriresidues, for Potential Application in Textile Industry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanamdeep; Bali, Vrinda; Mangla, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL) in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL) and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL) for incubation period (6 days), temperature (35°C), initial pH (6.0), nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel) was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α-type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55°C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL) and chemical (814.2 U/mL) mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing. PMID:24527439

  4. CheapStat: An Open-Source, “Do-It-Yourself” Potentiostat for Analytical and Educational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Aaron A.; Bonham, Andrew J.; White, Ryan J.; Zimmer, Michael P.; Yadgar, Ramsin J.; Hobza, Tony M.; Honea, Jim W.; Ben-Yaacov, Ilan; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80), open-source (software and hardware), hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license. PMID:21931613

  5. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2017-09-03

    This paper deals with the thermal transmittance measurement focused on buildings and specifically in building energy retrofitting. Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great amount of devices are used at once along with intensive and tedious post-processing and analysis work. In this paper, from well-known physical laws, authors develop a methodology based on three temperatures measurements, which is implemented by a novel thermal transmittance metre. The paper shows its development step by step. As a result the developed device is modular, scalable, and fully wireless; it is capable of taking as many measurements at once as user needs. The developed system is compared working together on a same test to the currently used one based on heat flow. The results show that the developed metre allows carrying out thermal transmittance measurements in buildings in a cheap, quick, reliable and simple way.

  6. Nitrites in induced sputum as a simple and cheap non-invasive marker of airway inflammation for asthmatic schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Arturo; Apaza, Carlos; Castro-Rodríguez, José A

    2008-08-01

    To determine if there are differences in the nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites) in sputum of patients with persistent asthma and healthy schoolchildren, we performed a case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in Arequipa, Perú. Nitrites in induced sputum samples were measured using the Griess assay in 30 persistent asthmatics (mean age of 10.1 yr) and 30 controls (mean age of 11.9 yr). The mean +/- s.d. of nitrites among asthmatics was significantly higher than the controls (16.30 +/- 8.6 vs. 10.25 +/- 4.68 nmol/ml, respectively, p = 0.001). Moreover, the nitrite level in the sputum in children with severe persistent asthma was higher than in the level found in the moderate and mild asthmatics (32.83 +/- 9.48 vs. 18.10 +/- 1.96 vs. 11.84 +/- 4.73 nmol/ml, respectively, p < 0.01 for linear trend). This study showed for the first time in children that asthmatics have significantly higher levels of nitrites in induced sputum than healthy controls and that the level of nitrite correlates with the severity of the asthma. Nitrite levels in sputum, a simple and cheap, non-invasive method, may be a good alternative to measure the severity of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  7. CheapStat: an open-source, "do-it-yourself" potentiostat for analytical and educational applications.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Aaron A; Bonham, Andrew J; White, Ryan J; Zimmer, Michael P; Yadgar, Ramsin J; Hobza, Tony M; Honea, Jim W; Ben-Yaacov, Ilan; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2011-01-01

    Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80), open-source (software and hardware), hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license.

  8. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  9. Library preparation and multiplex capture for massive parallel sequencing applications made efficient and easy.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Mårten; Sundling, Simon; Grönberg, Henrik; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Lindberg, Johan; Klevebring, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    During the recent years, rapid development of sequencing technologies and a competitive market has enabled researchers to perform massive sequencing projects at a reasonable cost. As the price for the actual sequencing reactions drops, enabling more samples to be sequenced, the relative price for preparing libraries gets larger and the practical laboratory work becomes complex and tedious. We present a cost-effective strategy for simplified library preparation compatible with both whole genome- and targeted sequencing experiments. An optimized enzyme composition and reaction buffer reduces the number of required clean-up steps and allows for usage of bulk enzymes which makes the whole process cheap, efficient and simple. We also present a two-tagging strategy, which allows for multiplex sequencing of targeted regions. To prove our concept, we have prepared libraries for low-pass sequencing from 100 ng DNA, performed 2-, 4- and 8-plex exome capture and a 96-plex capture of a 500 kb region. In all samples we see a high concordance (>99.4%) of SNP calls when comparing to commercially available SNP-chip platforms.

  10. Astrophotography on the Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Chuck; Belloni, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Teaching introductory astronomy means discussing celestial objects that are beyond most students' experience. Simply talking about them is usually not sufficient to convey their size, distance, complexity, and beauty. One way that we introduce our students to celestial objects is through observing sessions, but we have also extended these…

  11. Astrophotography on the Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Chuck; Belloni, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Teaching introductory astronomy means discussing celestial objects that are beyond most students' experience. Simply talking about them is usually not sufficient to convey their size, distance, complexity, and beauty. One way that we introduce our students to celestial objects is through observing sessions, but we have also extended these…

  12. No cheap substitutes.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The Nuffield Trust report on reshaping the healthcare workforce was published last month. Its conclusions were widely reported as a recommendation to 'train up' nurses as a solution to junior doctor shortages, with support workers, in turn, substituting for registered nurses.

  13. Superfluid Spin Transport Through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2014-06-01

    Superfluid spin transport—dissipationless transport of spin—is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where the spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed in a magnetically mediated negative electron-drag experiment.

  14. Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes for easy energy supply.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yang, Shui-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Juan; Lei, Han-Wu; Ruan, Roger; Li, Ti; Tu, Zong-Cai; Song, Xin-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Developing a nanoliposome delivery system for an easy energy supply of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) to improve oral doses and bioavailability. Bangham's method and high-pressure microfluidization were used to prepare MCFA liposomes. The easy energy-supply property of MCFA nanoliposomes was estimated by the anti-fatigue experiments of mice including a weight-loaded swimming test and its corresponding parameters (serum urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid, and hepatic glycogen). For comparison, nanoliposomes without MCFAs and MCFAs not entrapped in nanoliposomes were used throughout. Compared with crude MCFA liposomes according to Bangham's method, the MCFA nanoliposomes made by high-pressure microfluidization exhibited great advantages in their characteristics, with a small average diameter (76.2 ± 34.7 nm), narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.207), high ζ-potential (-50.51 mV), great entrapment efficiency (70.5%) and drug loading (9.4%), and good stability. The high-dose group and the MCFA group (680 mg/kg) showed a longer weight-loaded swimming time (104 ± 29 min, P = 0.087, and 108 ± 11 min, P = 0.047, respectively) and significantly higher hepatic glycogen (16.40 ± 1.45 mg/g, P < 0.001 and 17.27 ± 2.13 mg/g, P < 0.001, respectively) than the control group (59 ± 11 min and 8.79 ± 2.76 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, serum urea nitrogen (891.5 ± 113.4 mg/L, P = 0.024, and 876.6 ± 70.8 mg/L, P = 0.015, respectively) and blood lactic acid (6.05 ± 1.40 mmol/L, P = 0.001, and 5.95 ± 1.27 mmol/L, P < 0.001, respectively) in the high-dose group and the group with an equivalent MCFA dose were significantly lower than those in the control group (1153.6 ± 102.5 mg/L and 12.53 ± 1.86 mmol/L, respectively). Similar to MCFAs, MCFA nanoliposomes prepared by high-pressure microfluidization showed a strong easy energy-supply property, which suggested that MCFA nanoliposomes could be a potential drug candidate for an easy energy supply. Copyright © 2011

  15. Easy creation of polymeric systems for molecular dynamics with Assemble!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T.; Erastova, Valentina; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-05-01

    We present Assemble!, a program greatly simplifying the preparation of molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric systems. The program is controlled either via command line or an intuitive Graphical User Interface, and runs on all major operating systems. Assemble! allows the creation of a desired system of polymer chains from constituent monomers, packs the chains into a box according to the required concentration and returns all the files needed for simulation with Gromacs. We illustrate the capabilities of Assemble! by demonstrating the easy preparation of a 300 monomers-long polyisoprene in hexane, and a heterogeneous mixture of polybutadiene.

  16. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  17. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    PubMed

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  18. Expanding global forest management: An easy first' proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Winjum, J.K. ); Meganck, R.A. ); Dixon, R.K.

    1993-04-01

    World leaders have become increasingly aware of the contributions of sustainable forest resources to political, social, economic, and environmental health. As a result, interest is growing for a world treaty or protocol on forest management and protection. This article focuses on global forest management. The first section discusses the current situtation in global forest management (10-12% of the total). Benefits of global benefit to management included sustained and even increased yield, slowing of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and conservation of biodiversity and increase sustainable use options. The Noordwijk Goal is discussed as one example of concrete global action. Finally, the easy first approach is presented in detail. It involves starting in areas where the obstacles are minimal to develop early momentum and a can do outlook for implementation. Difficulties of this approach involve dealing with the political, social, and economic aspects of resource constraints that many nations face daily. But the easy first approach attempts to demonstrate that not all financial commitments, political agreements and forest management techniques must be in place for work to start.

  19. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  20. That Sounds Easy Enough: An Exploration of Data Management Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.; Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data; Information Service (Acadis)

    2013-05-01

    Creating an infrastructure that is not ad hoc or ephemeral when much of technology today is itself ad hoc and ephemeral is not an easy task. This paper examines the collaboration process between various stakeholders within the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) in order to provide insight into data management, data preservation, and data discovery. Specifically, this paper addresses the partnership of Arctic Research Mapping Application Program (ARMAP) and ACADIS. This partnership shows that what may seem like an easy or straight forward request can, in fact, prove challenging. These challenges can only be met through collaboration and good communication. The ACADIS project fosters scientific synthesis and discovery by providing services that make data freely available for access and analysis across multiple disciplines. The goals of ACADIS are to bring together experts to create tools at the forefront of how science will be done. Essentially, we improve the usability and interdisciplinary reuse of arctic data. ACADIS is a joint effort by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Unidata, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to provide data archival services, preservation, and access for all projects funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Arctic Science Program (ARC).

  1. Randomized clinical trial: the use of SpeechEasy® in stuttering treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Two groups of adults who stutter participated: group 1 consisted of 10 men and one woman aged 21-42 years (mean = 30.0). Group 2 consisted of six men and one woman aged 20-50 years (mean = 35.6). Participants in group 1 were fit with a SpeechEasy® device and were not given any additional training (i.e., supplementary fluency enhancing techniques). Participants used the device daily for 6 months. Participants in group 2 received treatment in the form of a 12-week fluency promotion protocol with techniques based on both fluency shaping and stuttering modification. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) between groups in participants' stuttered syllables following treatment. That is, both therapeutic protocols achieved approximately 40% reduction in number of stuttered syllables from baseline measures, with no significant relapse after 3 or 6 months post-treatment. The results suggest that the SpeechEasy® device can be a viable option for the treatment of stuttering. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  3. Prestressed CFRP Fabrics for Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Beams with an Easy Prestressing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şakar, G.; Tanarslan, H. M.

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to use prestressed CFRP plates for strengthening in order to prevent their debonding and thus to increase their strengthening efficiency. For this purpose, and easy-to-use piece of equipment was created. To determine the effectiveness of this method, an experimental program was carried out, and the effect of prestressed CFRP on the behavior and ultimate strength of reinforced concrete beams was examined in threepoint bending tests. A remarkable increase in their strength with debonding was seen for every specimen to which a prestressed CFRP plate had been applied.

  4. Cheap and Effective: The Impact of Student-Led Recitation Classes on Learning Outcomes in Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Ward, Kevin; Folsom, Justin; Borrenpohl, Teresa; Mumford, Sophie; Pershin, Zach; Carriere, Danielle; Smart, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the impacts of enrollment in a voluntary one-credit recitation class for ECON 101 students, focusing on course grades, course retention, and outcomes in later economics courses. The recitation classes were taught by undergraduate peer leaders with experience in upper-level microeconomics. Instead of being paid, the peer leaders…

  5. Dehydration of highly concentrated solutions of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/carbon dioxide system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Barrault, Joël; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Jérôme, François

    2012-07-01

    Fête DES sciences: The dehydration of fructose and inulin to HMF is conveniently performed in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/CO(2) deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The medium is capable of converting high contents of fructose (>100 wt %) without affecting the yield of HMF (up to 72 %). The purity of the recovered HMF is >98%, and the reaction medium can be recycled.

  6. When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Seaton, Daniel T.; Cardamone, Caroline N.; Rayyan, Saif; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics [1] built using the LON-CAPA [2] open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them [3]. We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.

  7. Easy and hard testbeds for real-time search algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, S.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although researchers have studied which factors influence the behavior of traditional search algorithms, currently not much is known about how domain properties influence the performance of real-time search algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that Eulerian state spaces (a super set of undirected state spaces) are very easy for some existing real-time search algorithms to solve: even real-time search algorithms that can be intractable, in general, are efficient for Eulerian state spaces. Because traditional real-time search testbeds (such as the eight puzzle and gridworlds) are Eulerian, they cannot be used to distinguish between efficient and inefficient real-time search algorithms. It follows that one has to use non-Eulerian domains to demonstrate the general superiority of a given algorithm. To this end, we present two classes of hard-to-search state spaces and demonstrate the performance of various real-time search algorithms on them.

  8. An easy to compare tool for more readable (physics) textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorecova, I.; Teleki, A.; Lacsny, B.; Zelenicky, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we show the easy way to compare the readability of two physics school texts written in the same language. We show that the readability of scholar texts depends on the frequency of terms. We compare the readability of texts from two physics textbooks written in Slovak. In these comparisons, we used the frequency of words and terms with a given length (probability distribution) instead of using a readability formula. The concept of analysing the frequency of words in a text agrees with our observations made by eye tracking systems. We verified our results by cloze tests. The method comparing the probability distribution of words and terms of two texts (written in the same language) is very simple, intuitive as well as language independent (in contrary to readability formulae).

  9. Superfluid Spin Transport through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2014-03-01

    Superfluid spin transport | dissipationless transport of spin | is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport through the device is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed using a magnetically-mediated electron-drag experiment. This work was supported in part by FAME (an SRC STARnet center sponsored by MARCO and DARPA), the NSF under Grant No. DMR-0840965, and Grant No. 228481 from the Simons Foundation.

  10. Learning about having a baby in easy English.

    PubMed

    Hansford, Judith; Forsdike, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Limited English ability hampers communication between pregnant women and midwives and can leave the pregnant woman anxious and put the mother or baby at risk. This article describes a new antenatal course called Learn about having a baby in easy English which has been successfully used with women who have very little English or are only moderately fluent. The 12-hour programme is designed to help women understand essential antenatal information, learn key English vocabulary and gain confidence in communicating in English with health professionals. It is co-taught by a midwife and English teacher and uses simple handouts. After running for three years, indicators suggest that it is playing a useful part in equipping women for labour and motherhood.

  11. Easy mounting interface for compact instruments at TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedina, Adriano; Riverol Rodriguez, A. Luis

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) is able to offer an F/11 Nasmyth focal station with an easy mount for small devices or compact instruments. The slit masks at the focal plane of the LRS spectrograph can be removed in few minutes from the selector stage. A FoV of 9x9arcmin2 is available and a small instrument can be mounted instead of the slit on a mechanical interface of 240x125mm. The size of the instrument along the optical axis is limited by the support of the collimation lens of the spectrograph. This solution has already been used for small devices like a CCD camera or a SH sensor and a compact Hamamatsu photometer. Furthermore from 2016 it will host the folding optical relay for the GIARPS Instrument. This interface is an opportunity to test new instruments, prototypes or demonstrators in a not invasive or time consuming manner at a 4m class telescope.

  12. Differential algebras without differentials: An easy C++ implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Automated differentiation can be motivated and explained rather plainly without any reference to infinitesimals or differentials whatsoever. We shall describe one possible approach in this paper. The method which we shall use will suggest its own implementation. However, FORTRAN is not the most natural language in which to carry it out. In the second section we shall describe an almost trivial implementation using C++. (Indeed, one of the motivations for writing this paper is to persuade militant FORTRAN extremists to invest the four or five days necessary to learn this powerful and easy language.) Take heed, however, that what we describe below is only a stripped-down implementation, written in three days, of differential algebra's most essential features; it is not as robust as and does not contain the battery of tools available in Berz's DA package, the product of a significant amount of work. 10 refs.

  13. Easy Extraction of Terms and Definitions with OWL2TL.

    PubMed

    Judkins, John; Utecht, Joseph; Brochhausen, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Facilitating good communication between semantic web specialists and domain experts is necessary to efficient ontology development. This development may be hindered by the fact that domain experts tend to be unfamiliar with tools used to create and edit OWL files. This is true in particular when changes to definitions need to be reviewed as often as multiple times a day. We developed "OWL to Term List" (OWL2TL) with the goal of allowing domain experts to view the terms and definitions of an OWL file organized in a list that is updated each time the OWL file is updated. The tool is available online and currently generates a list of terms, along with additional annotation properties that are chosen by the user, in a format that allows easy copying into a spreadsheet.

  14. Easy Extraction of Terms and Definitions with OWL2TL

    PubMed Central

    Judkins, John; Utecht, Joseph; Brochhausen, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Facilitating good communication between semantic web specialists and domain experts is necessary to efficient ontology development. This development may be hindered by the fact that domain experts tend to be unfamiliar with tools used to create and edit OWL files. This is true in particular when changes to definitions need to be reviewed as often as multiple times a day. We developed "OWL to Term List" (OWL2TL) with the goal of allowing domain experts to view the terms and definitions of an OWL file organized in a list that is updated each time the OWL file is updated. The tool is available online and currently generates a list of terms, along with additional annotation properties that are chosen by the user, in a format that allows easy copying into a spreadsheet. PMID:28035214

  15. Estimating the Wavelength of Sodium Emission in Flame--The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Simple "box spectroscopes" are not new. Different methods of building them at home using cheap diffraction gratings have been described. However, their use has often been confined to looking at street lights, discharge tubes, and enjoying the beautiful spectra of various lamps. Construction of the box spectroscope usually involves a narrow slit…

  16. Estimating the Wavelength of Sodium Emission in Flame--The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Simple "box spectroscopes" are not new. Different methods of building them at home using cheap diffraction gratings have been described. However, their use has often been confined to looking at street lights, discharge tubes, and enjoying the beautiful spectra of various lamps. Construction of the box spectroscope usually involves a narrow slit…

  17. Banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kindo, A J; Tupaki-Sreepurna, A; Yuvaraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes. The growth from the primary isolation medium was taken and inoculated onto the pieces of double-autoclaved ripe banana peel pieces in a sterile glass Petri dish with some moisture (sprinkles of sterile distilled water). A few sterile coverslips were placed randomly inside the Petri dish for the growing fungus to stick on to it. The plates were kept at room temperature and left undisturbed for 15-20 days. At a time, one coverslip was taken out and placed on a slide with lactophenol cotton blue and focused under the microscope to look for fruit bodies. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica, Chaetomium murorum, Nattrassia mangiferae and Schizophyllum commune were identified by characteristic features from growth on banana peel culture. Banana peel culture is a cheap and effective medium resembling the natural substrate of fungi and is useful for promoting characteristic reproductive structures that aid identification.

  18. Matrix effect in guava multiresidue analysis by QuEChERS method and gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Jhonyson Arruda Carvalho; Silva, Renata de Oliveira; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2016-05-15

    "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS)-GC/MS analytical technique was used to evaluated matrix effect of twenty-two pesticides in guava. Validation parameters (selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined for multiresidue analysis. Statistical test (t-student) was applied to the coefficients of the curves obtained for the guava matrix. The matrix effect (ME) for each pesticide was evaluated through the study of slope ratios obtained of solvent and guava matrix curves. Most of the compounds had positive ME. The rates of recovery were satisfactory (73.97-119.38%), with a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 20%. Analysis of commercial guava samples showed the presence of 5 types of pesticides residues at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg·kg(-1). The results reveal the presence of unauthorized pesticides for cultivation of guava. This data can assist government agencies to ensure food security.

  19. Low-cost and easy experiments about water in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M.; Mazon, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric water represents only the 0,001% of the total water in the hydrosphere. Despite this tiny percentage, the physical changes water experiences in the atmosphere are essential for the conservation of this substance in our planet. Often, the understanding of the presence of water in the Earth's atmosphere and its physical changes inside this gas layer are difficult for most secondary and primary school students. We present 5 examples of simple practical activities that will facilitate students to think about and understand some important concepts about atmospheric water. Two of the basic principles to bear in mind when designing these activities are the use of cheap and easy to find materials and the simplicity of the construction and development of each activity. This simplicity makes it possible for the students to easily carry the experiments in the classroom or in the laboratory, using only a part of a class session. We think that the use of these kinds of activities enables us to work some basic concepts about atmospheric water with the students which lead to a more meaningful understanding, not only of these concepts but also of many other processes related to this part of the hydrosphere, such as meteorological phenomena, erosion, floods, etc. Here we present a brief description of the five experiments we suggest: 1- a crazy thermometer? Using water at the same temperature of the air, a piece of paper and two thermometers, we can easily "build" a dry and a wet bulb thermometer. Making questions about the differences between the temperatures of both thermometers we can understand what the air's humidity is and how we can calculate it. 2- what are clouds made of? Most of people think that clouds are made of water vapour. Observing what happens with the air above a small container filled with warm water when we approach a tray containing ice, we can conduct a Socratic dialogue that allows us to understand that clouds are made of ice or liquid water

  20. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  1. The IBA Easy-E-Beam™ Integrated Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam™ for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  2. Metal bead crystals for easy heating by direct current.

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Bert; Cherepanov, Vasily; Elsaesser, Christa; Linke, Udo

    2008-03-01

    The preparation of metal bead crystals with two wires attached to the crystal is described. These crystals allow for a very easy and efficient method to heat metal single crystals by direct current heating through the connecting wires of the bead crystal. This heating of the bead crystal is sufficient to clean metal surfaces such as the surfaces of Pt and Au as confirmed by Auger spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). There is no need for any ion sputtering which is conventionally used to clean metal single crystal surfaces. The bead crystals with two leads fabricated from a wide range metals and metal alloys such as Cu, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, PtPd, PtRh, AuAg, and PtIr can be used as general purpose metal substrates for surface science studies and other applications. Additionally, these bead crystals can be used to reshape STM tips by indentation of the tip into the soft metal in order to recover atomic resolution imaging on hard substrates.

  3. The IBA Easy-E-Beam Integrated Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  4. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition. PMID:25579988

  5. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  6. Designing easy DNA extraction: Teaching creativity through laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Susantini, Endang; Lisdiana, Lisa; Isnawati; Tanzih Al Haq, Aushia; Trimulyono, Guntur

    2017-05-01

    Subject material concerning Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) structure in the format of creativity-driven laboratory practice offers meaningful learning experience to the students. Therefore, a laboratory practice in which utilizes simple procedures and easy-safe-affordable household materials should be promoted to students to develop their creativity. This study aimed to examine whether designing and conducting DNA extraction with household materials could foster students' creative thinking. We also described how this laboratory practice affected students' knowledge and views. A total of 47 students participated in this study. These students were grouped and asked to utilize available household materials and modify procedures using hands-on worksheet. Result showed that this approach encouraged creative thinking as well as improved subject-related knowledge. Students also demonstrated positive views about content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking skills. This study implies that extracting DNA with household materials is able to develop content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking of the students. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):216-225, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Easy Long-Term Identifiers and the "Data Paper"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, John

    2011-05-01

    A new publishing paradigm is needed to cope with the deluge of data artifacts produced by data-intensive science, many of which are vital to data re-use and verification of published scientific conclusions. Due to the limitations of traditional publishing, most of these artifacts are not usually disseminated, cited, or preserved. At the California Digital Library (CDL), one promising approach to the problem is to wrap these artifacts in the metaphor of a "data paper", assigning and managing data citations with our EZID (easy-eye-dee) identifier service. A data paper is a somewhat unfamiliar bundle of scholarly output with a familiar facade: minimally, a set of links to archived artifacts and a cover sheet containing familiar elements such as title, authors, date, abstract, and persistent identifier _ just enough to create basic citations, build "overlay journals", and enable discovery of data by internet search engines. Over time, we expect to add elements that permit deeper domain-specific discovery and re-use, such as variable names, methods, etc. At the same time, for data and identifiers that we manage, we will leverage as much domain-agnosticism data and identifier as possible.

  8. Electroencephalogram valid rate in simple reaction time task as an easy index of children's attention functions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chi; Guo, Nai-Wen; Lei, Seng-Hang; Fang, Jhih-Hong; Chen, Jia-Jin; Su, Bei-Yi; Chen, Shin-Jaw; Tsai, Hsing-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts occur often in children, but an EEG valid rate (VR), constructed by excluding the artifacts, might be meaningful to evaluate children's neuropsychological functions. The aim of this study was to develop an easy screening index, the EEGVR, and to investigate attention function in children using this index. The EEG was carried out during a 4 min simple reaction time (SRT) task as standard procedure in 50 children, consisting of 26 with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; mean age, 9.8 years; range, 8-11.3 years) and 24 without (mean age, 10.1 years; range, 7.8-12 years). An easy index was derived from the valid rate (VR) of EEG using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The index was applied to regroup the 50 children into high VR (HVR) and low VR (LVR) groups, while the Comprehensive Non-verbal Attention Test (CNAT) and four behavioral questionnaires were compared between the two groups in order to investigate the validity of this index. The EEGVR at 75% was optimal to identify HVR and LVR (sensitivity, 0.769; specificity, 0.792). The LVR group had significantly lower scores on both CNAT and the behavioral questionnaires, although the demographic variables and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) were similar between the two groups. The EEGVR in an SRT task might be an easy and effective index to screen the attention function of children, and could consequently contribute to the early diagnosis of ADHD. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Magnetoelectric and magnetoelastic properties of easy-plane ferroborates with a small ionic radius

    SciTech Connect

    Kadomtseva, A. M.; Vorob'ev, G. P.; Popov, Yu. F.; Pyatakov, A. P.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.

    2012-05-15

    The magnetic, magnetoelectric, and magnetoelastic properties of RFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} ferroborates are studied. The measurement of the field dependences of the magnetoelectric polarization along the a axis in holmium ferroborate and in the mixed composition Ho{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} revealed the following dependences for easy-plane ferroborates: (a) the longitudinal and transverse magnetoelectric effects have the opposite signs and (b) magnetically induced polarization changes its sign in a field close to the field of exchange between rare-earth and iron ions. These dependences agree well with theoretical predictions based on the symmetry of the compounds. The relatively low f-d exchange field in holmium ferroborate (about 20 kOe), which magnetizes the rare-earth subsystem, causes smaller polarization jumps (about 30 {mu}C/m{sup 2}) in fields lower than 10 kOe as compared to the jumps in other easy-plane ferroborates (R = Sm, Nd). The increase in the electric polarization induced in HoFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} in magnetic fields higher than 100 kOe (200-300 {mu}C/m{sup 2}) is found to be significantly smaller than in neodymium ferroborate, which indicates a substantial dependence of the magnetoelectric effects on the electronic structure of a rare-earth ion.

  10. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm) aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  11. Distortion Analysis Toolkit—A Software Tool for Easy Analysis of Nonlinear Audio Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, Jyri

    2010-12-01

    Several audio effects devices deliberately add nonlinear distortion to the processed signal in order to create a desired sound. When creating virtual analog models of nonlinearly distorting devices, it would be very useful to carefully analyze the type of distortion, so that the model could be made as realistic as possible. While traditional system analysis tools such as the frequency response give detailed information on the operation of linear and time-invariant systems, they are less useful for analyzing nonlinear devices. Furthermore, although there do exist separate algorithms for nonlinear distortion analysis, there is currently no unified, easy-to-use tool for rapid analysis of distorting audio systems. This paper offers a remedy by introducing a new software tool for easy analysis of distorting effects. A comparison between a well-known guitar tube amplifier and two commercial software simulations is presented as a case study. This freely available software is written in Matlab language, but the analysis tool can also run as a standalone program, so the user does not need to have Matlab installed in order to perform the analysis.

  12. J-Earth: Remote Sensing Analysis Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Noss, D.; Anwar, S.; Cheeseman, S.; Dunn, S.; Rupp, J.

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of terrestrial remote sensing data has been collected and made public over the years from a variety of missions, but accessing this data and performing analysis on it has often been a time consuming and problematic task. J-Earth is a geospatial application that provides a quick and consistent means of accessing many terrestrial datasets which can then be analyzed and compared with each other. In addition to providing direct access to a number of preprocessed products based off of MODIS, ASTER, and TIMS datasets, J-Earth also makes it easy for a user to import their own data and work with it in an identical fashion. Users can easily work with both graphical and numeric datasets as well as vector/shapefile data. Numeric data can be viewed for a particular location through multiple datasets or plotted across an arbitrary profile line. Shapes can be used to find intersections with other shapefiles or to perform analytical calculations (mean, max, min, etc) upon numeric data within the bounds of a shape. These tools allow a user to quickly assess the geologic parameters of the area, including mineralogy, chemistry, surface temperature, topography and elevation. Additionally, J-Earth allows for temporal comparisons of regions for instruments which have repeat coverage over multiple years. J-Earth is part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of geospatial applications developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This suite of software is used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by active NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta. It is used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world.

  13. Current controlled switching of impedance in magnetic conductor with tilted anisotropy easy axis and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukova, Valentina; Zhukov, Arkady; Gonzalez, Julian

    2016-10-01

    We present a concept and prototype of a memory element based on current driven magneto-impedance (MI) effect that stores the binary data (0, 1) as the orientation of the magnetization. The magnetization orientation in the surface layer with tilted anisotropy easy axis can be switched controllably between two stable states by applying current pulses of the appropriate sign, and can be detected by sensing the impedance. We demonstrated the functioning of a non-volatile magnetic memory with a read speed performance up to and above 2 GHz. A prototype of a memory element was realized on a short piece of amorphous microwire, as this material exhibits the highest MI effect, and the required anisotropy can be quite easily obtained. Nevertheless, this concept can be extended to other materials and geometries exhibiting MI effect and possessing a required magnetic anisotropy.

  14. Current controlled switching of impedance in magnetic conductor with tilted anisotropy easy axis and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukova, Valentina; Zhukov, Arkady; Gonzalez, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept and prototype of a memory element based on current driven magneto-impedance (MI) effect that stores the binary data (0, 1) as the orientation of the magnetization. The magnetization orientation in the surface layer with tilted anisotropy easy axis can be switched controllably between two stable states by applying current pulses of the appropriate sign, and can be detected by sensing the impedance. We demonstrated the functioning of a non-volatile magnetic memory with a read speed performance up to and above 2 GHz. A prototype of a memory element was realized on a short piece of amorphous microwire, as this material exhibits the highest MI effect, and the required anisotropy can be quite easily obtained. Nevertheless, this concept can be extended to other materials and geometries exhibiting MI effect and possessing a required magnetic anisotropy. PMID:27782190

  15. Chelex without boiling, a rapid and easy technique to obtain stable amplifiable DNA from small amounts of ethanol-stored spiders.

    PubMed

    Casquet, Juliane; Thebaud, Christophe; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding projects require high-throughput generation of sequence data to assemble the comprehensive reference databases that are required to perform large-scale biodiversity inventories and molecular ecology studies. With the advent of new sequencing technologies, the extraction step, which often requires a considerable amount of time and money, represents a significant bottleneck in many studies. Here, we present a one-step Chelex double-stranded DNA extraction protocol that is quick, cheap, easy and works with a small quantity of ethanol-stored tissue. We developed this protocol by removing the denaturation step appearing in classic methods. This modification reduces the number of handling steps to one, thus simplifying the extraction procedure and reducing the risk of sample contamination, and yields double-stranded DNA instead of the single-stranded form that classical Chelex extraction protocols usually release. DNA obtained through our method is then suitable for long-term conservation (over 1.5 years). We tested our protocol on a highly diverse genus of spiders comprised of mainly very small species. We also apply the method to two other genera of spiders, one with average size species, the other one with giant species, to test the efficacy of the method with varying amounts of input tissue. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of this DNA extraction technique when working with arthropods.

  16. High-coercivity magnetism in nanostructures with strong easy-plane anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan E-mail: dsellmyer@unl.edu; Manchanda, Priyanka; Skomski, Ralph; Mukherjee, Pinaki; Das, Bhaskar; Sellmyer, David J. E-mail: dsellmyer@unl.edu; Valloppilly, Shah R.; Hadjipanayis, George C.

    2016-04-11

    We report the fabrication of a rare-earth-free permanent-magnet material Co{sub 3}Si in the form of nanoparticles and investigate its magnetic properties by experiments and density-functional theory (DFT). The DFT calculations show that bulk Co{sub 3}Si has an easy-plane anisotropy with a high K{sub 1} ≈ −64 Merg/cm{sup 3} (−6.4 MJ/m{sup 3}) and magnetic polarization of 9.2 kG (0.92 T). In spite of having a negative anisotropy that generally leads to negligibly low coercivities in bulk crystals, Co{sub 3}Si nanoparticles exhibit high coercivities (17.4 kOe at 10 K and 4.3 kOe at 300 K). This result is a consequence of the unique nanostructure made possible by an effective easy-axis alignment in the cluster-deposition method and explained using micromagnetic analysis as a nanoscale phenomenon involving quantum-mechanical exchange interactions.

  17. Novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel with easy application and excellent wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Kyung Soo; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Jin, Sung Giu; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-11-10

    To develop a novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel (FFH) for easy application and excellent wound healing, various FFH formulations and corresponding FFH dried films were prepared with drug, polyvinylalcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), propylene glycol, ethanol and water, and their film forming times, mechanical properties, drug release, in vivo wound healing in rat and histopathology were assessed. The sodium fusidate-loaded FFH composed of sodium fusidate/PVP/PVA/propylene glycol/ethanol/water at the weight ratio of 1/2/12/3/8/74 could form a corresponding dried film in the wound sites promptly due to fast film-forming time of about 4 min. This FFH showed an appropriate hardness and adhesiveness. Furthermore, this corresponding dried film provided an excellent flexibility and elasticity, and gave relatively high drug release. As compared with the sodium fusidate-loaded commercial product, it significantly improved excision and infection wound healing in rats. This FFH was stable at 45°C for at least 6 months. Therefore, this novel sodium fusidate-loaded FFH would be an effective pharmaceutical product with easy application for the treatment of wounds.

  18. An easy method to account for light scattering dose dependence in radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Miras, Hector; Arrans, Rafael

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To date no detector can offer the unbeatable characteristics of film dosimetry in terms of spatial resolution and this is why it has been chosen by many institutions for treatment verification and, in that respect, radiochromic films are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantageous properties. It is the aim of this work to suggest an easy method to overcome one of the drawbacks in radiochromic film dosimetry associated with the scanning device, namely, the non-uniform dose dependent response, mainly due to the light scattering effect. Methods: The suggested procedure consists of building four correction matrices by sequentially scanning one, two, three, and four unexposed blank films. The color level of these four matrices is compatible with four points in the calibration curve dose range. Therefore, the dose dependent correction to the scanned irradiated film will be obtained by interpolating between the four correction matrices. Results: The validity of the suggested method is checked against an ion chamber 2D array. The use of the proposed flattening correction improves considerably the dose agreement when compared with the cases in which no correction is applied. Conclusions: The method showed to be fast and easy and practically overcomes the dependence on the dose of light scattering of flatbed scanners.

  19. easyGWAS: A Cloud-Based Platform for Comparing the Results of Genome-Wide Association Studies[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roqueiro, Damian; Salomé, Patrice A.; Kleeberger, Stefan; Zhu, Wangsheng; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The ever-growing availability of high-quality genotypes for a multitude of species has enabled researchers to explore the underlying genetic architecture of complex phenotypes at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The systematic comparison of results obtained from GWAS of different traits opens up new possibilities, including the analysis of pleiotropic effects. Other advantages that result from the integration of multiple GWAS are the ability to replicate GWAS signals and to increase statistical power to detect such signals through meta-analyses. In order to facilitate the simple comparison of GWAS results, we present easyGWAS, a powerful, species-independent online resource for computing, storing, sharing, annotating, and comparing GWAS. The easyGWAS tool supports multiple species, the uploading of private genotype data and summary statistics of existing GWAS, as well as advanced methods for comparing GWAS results across different experiments and data sets in an interactive and user-friendly interface. easyGWAS is also a public data repository for GWAS data and summary statistics and already includes published data and results from several major GWAS. We demonstrate the potential of easyGWAS with a case study of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, using flowering and growth-related traits. PMID:27986896

  20. Real-time analysis of self-assembled nucleobases by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Shi, Ruixia; Long, Zi; Lu, Xin; Jiang, Fubin; Ouyang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the real-time analysis of self-assembled nucleobases was employed by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (V-EASI-MS). With the analysis of three nucleobases including 6-methyluracil (6MU), uracil (U) and thymine (T) as examples, different orders of clusters centered with different metal ions were recorded in both positive and negative modes. Compared with the results obtained by traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under the same condition, more clusters with high orders, such as [6MU7+Na](+), [6MU15+2NH4](2+), [6MU10+Na](+), [T7+Na](+), and [T15+2NH4](2+) were detected by V-EASI-MS, which demonstrated the soft ionization ability of V-EASI for studying the non-covalent interaction in a self-assembly process. Furthermore, with the injection of K(+) to the system by a syringe pumping, the real-time monitoring of the formation of nucleobases clusters was achieved by the direct extraction of samples from the system under the Venturi effect. Therefore, the effect of cations on the formation of clusters during self-assembly of nucleobases was demonstrated, which was in accordance with the reports. Free of high voltage, heating or radiation during the ionization, this technique is much soft and suitable for obtaining the real-time information of the self-assembly system, which also makes it quite convenient for extraction samples from the reaction system. This "easy and soft" ionization technique has provided a potential pathway for monitoring and controlling the self-assembly processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A facile and cheap coating method to prepare SiO2/melamine-formaldehyde and SiO2/urea-formaldehyde composite microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Shaoyan; Lu, Yao; Jiang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    A facile and cheap coating route has been explored to prepare SiO2/melamine formaldehyde hybrid particles. In this process, SiO2 microspheres act as seeds, and a polycondensation reaction occurs on the surface of melamine-formaldehyde pre-polymers. Formaldehyde is essential in this coating process because it acts as a novel and cheap surface modification agent instead of a traditional silane coupling agent. Ultrasonic method is used in the synthesis to avoid aggregation of nano- and micro-particles. Most of the traditional methods preparing composite microspheres were implemented under difficult conditions and at high costs. The improved coating method is much more able to provide a convenient path for researchers and engineers to more easily and economically perform experiments and engage in manufacturing. To verify this convenient method, SiO2/urea-formaldehyde composite microspheres were also prepared. SEM images show that the surfaces of all the products are smooth and well-shaped.

  2. The Problem of Latent Attentional Capture: Easy Visual Search Conceals Capture by Task-Irrelevant Abrupt Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. We propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, we show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. We argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which employed an easy visual search. PMID:26854530

  3. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  4. Development of easy operating arterial stiffness assessment instrument for home care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Yao, Cheng-Tso; Wu, Tsang-Chih; Liu, An-Bang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 41 asymptomatic subjects (22 men and 19 women, 20 to 60 years of age) were enrolled. The PWV was measured both by dual-channel PPG (PWV-DVP) and by the proposed PWV instrument, Pulse Wave Velocity by Digital Volume Pulse Easy (PWV-DVPE). The developed system recorded digital volume pulse simultaneously from both the finger and ear. Time of pulse transition was measured on the time delay difference between two digital volume pulses. The PWV was calculated by dividing the distance between finger and ear by that of transit time. PWV-DVPE's capability of precise self-monitoring arterial stiffness is being proven in this study. In home care area, only few minutes is needed for self arterial stiffness assessment. Therefore, early self-monitoring of cardio-vascular dys-function and arterial stiffness is easily and effectively achieved.

  5. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    PubMed Central

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  6. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority.

    PubMed

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE.

  7. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  8. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  9. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  10. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    PubMed

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg(-1) does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  11. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Oregon State Test. Technical Report #1011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study examining the relation between the math measures available on the easyCBM[R] online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system and the Oregon statewide assessment of mathematics. Designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, easyCBM[R] is intended to help…

  12. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Oregon. Technical Report #1009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The easyCBM[R] assessment system is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency…

  13. Easy Information about Research: Getting the Message out to People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Julian; Mason, Victoria; Williams, Val; Townsley, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of easy information about research to people with learning disabilities, their families and supporters. We explore some different ways we have used over the past 25 years, to make sure that research has the greatest impact both in the UK and abroad. We discuss first the process of providing easy-read versions of…

  14. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Washington State. Technical Report #1008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample…

  15. EASY ENGLISH, A LANGUAGE FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL THROUGH A REMOTE TYPEWRITER CONSOLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUBINOFF, M.; AND OTHERS

    EASY ENGLISH IS A NATURAL COMMAND LANGUAGE DESIGNED TO SIMPLIFY COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE THROUGH A REMOTE TYPEWRITER CONSOLE. IT IS MADE UP OF READILY RECONIZED SENTENCES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, SENTENCES WHICH ANY LAYMAN MIGHT BE EXPECTED TO USE IN EVERYDAY REQUESTS FOR SERVICES OR ARTICLES FROM A FAMILIAR SOURCE. EASY ENGLISH WAS…

  16. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  17. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  18. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test. Technical Report #1010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous…

  19. New Database Manipulation Tools in the Easy-Learning On-Line Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radescu, Radu; Davidescu, Andrei; Pupezescu, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the new ORM (object-relational mapping) tool introduced in the easy-learning platform. Propel 1.5 is the latest version of Propel, one of the ORMs fully compatible with the Symfony framework, and in comparison with the older versions and it has drastically improved the way the easy-learning platform can manipulate its…

  20. Easy Information about Research: Getting the Message out to People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Julian; Mason, Victoria; Williams, Val; Townsley, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of easy information about research to people with learning disabilities, their families and supporters. We explore some different ways we have used over the past 25 years, to make sure that research has the greatest impact both in the UK and abroad. We discuss first the process of providing easy-read versions of…

  1. Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Alabi, Taofic; Nieus, Clément; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Éric; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-30

    The health status of the indigenous people of Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared with that of the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The development of crickets, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest. Diets based on cassava leaves seem to be the most promising. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiments must be devised in which cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. EASY-II Renaissance: n, p, d, α, γ-induced Inventory Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Eastwood, J. W.; Morgan, J. G.

    2014-04-01

    The European Activation SYstem has been re-engineered and re-written in modern programming languages so as to answer today's and tomorrow's needs in terms of activation, transmutation, depletion, decay and processing of radioactive materials. The new FISPACT-II inventory code development project has allowed us to embed many more features in terms of energy range: up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence and covariance, so as to cover all anticipated application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, stockpile and fuel cycle stewardship, materials characterization and life, and storage cycle management. In parallel, the maturity of modern, truly general purpose libraries encompassing thousands of target isotopes such as TENDL-2012, the evolution of the ENDF-6 format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF have allowed the activation code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles (n, p, d, α, γ), are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code system, EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It includes many new features and enhancements, but also benefits already from the feedback from extensive validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

  3. Easy-to-use strategy for reference gene selection in quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Stefanie; Renckhoff, Kristina; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR is an indispensable technique for mRNA expression analysis but conclusions depend on appropriate reference gene selection. However, while reference gene selection has been a topic of publications, this issue is often disregarded when measuring target mRNA expression. Therefore, we (1) evaluated the frequency of appropriate reference gene selection, (2) suggest an easy-to-use tool for least variability reference gene selection, (3) demonstrate application of this tool, and (4) show effects on target gene expression profiles. All 2015 published articles in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology were screened for the use of quantitative real-time PCR analysis and selection of reference genes. Target gene expression (Vegfa, Grk2, Sirt4, and Timp3) in H9c2 cells was analyzed following various interventions (hypoxia, hyperglycemia, and/or isoflurane exposure with and without subsequent hypoxia) in relation to putative reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Sdha, and Rplp1) using the least variability method vs. an arbitrarily selected but established reference gene. In the vast majority (18 of 21) of papers, no information was provided regarding selection of an appropriate reference gene. In only 1 of 21 papers, a method of appropriate reference gene selection was described and in 2 papers reference gene selection remains unclear. The method of reference gene selection had major impact on interpretation of target gene expression. With hypoxia, for instance, the least variability gene was Rplp1 and target gene expression (Vefga) heavily showed a 2-fold up-regulation (p = 0.022) but no change (p = 0.3) when arbitrarily using Gapdh. Frequency of appropriate reference gene selection in this journal is low, and we propose our strategy for reference gene selection as an easy tool for proper target gene expression.

  4. Design of a novel flexible shape memory alloy actuator with multilayer tubular structure for easy integration into a confined space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jiaming; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Huang, Dawei; Gao, Zhenjian

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel flexible shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator, which is mainly composed of an SMA wire and a multilayer tubular structure. The multilayer tubular structure, which consists of a polytetrafluoroethylene tube, a metallic hose and a rubber tube, possesses the properties of good flexibility and high axial stiffness. The flexibility makes the SMA actuator easy to integrate into a compact or thin, narrow space with dimension constraints. The high axial stiffness helps in handling serious bending and prevents buckling of the SMA actuator. To verify the performance of the proposed actuator, a prototype was fabricated and a corresponding experimental setup was established. The effects of critical parameters, including heating current, winding angle, and applied load were experimentally investigated. The result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed actuator and its easy integration into confined spaces. This work creates expanded opportunities for developing SMA actuators into broader application fields.

  5. Voltage-Driven In-Plane Magnetization Easy Axis Switching in FeNi/Piezoelectric Actuator Hybrid Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Li; Guo, Xiaobin; Wang, Zhen; Li, Yue; Yao, Yuelin; Zuo, Yalu; Xue, Desheng

    2013-01-01

    FeNi thin films with the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering. An FeNi/piezoelectric actuator hybrid structure was used to investigate the voltage-controlled magnetization switching. A theoretical calculation was performed to provide a simplified vision of the magnetoelastic contribution to the magnetic anisotropy. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements were performed and the rotation of the magnetization easy axis in the FeNi film upon application of a voltage with or without the application of a magnetic field was demonstrated. A film-thickness dependent in-plane magnetization easy axis rotation angle was observed and explained by the variation of the magnetostriction.

  6. Not taking the easy road: When similarity hurts learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Seung; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R

    2015-08-01

    Two experimental studies examined the effects of example format and example similarity on mathematical problem solving across different learning contexts. Participants were more successful inducing a correct problem-solving rule when they were provided with annotated examples rather than nonannotated examples. The effects of example similarity varied depending on learning context. In Experiment 1, by presenting an example and problem simultaneously, a direct comparison was possible between the cases. When the examples were similar, participants relied on superficial analogies that hurt learning. When an example was dissimilar from the given problem, participants appeared to study the example first to induce a solution procedure and then apply the rule to the problem, thus resulting in better learning and transfer. However, in Experiment 2 where the example and problem were presented in a sequential manner, the effect disappeared because the learning context did not support a direct comparison. We conclude that comparison is not inherently good for promoting learning and transfer, rather its effect depends on whether it supports relational mapping that is essential for schema acquisition.

  7. Five Easy Pieces: Steps toward Integrating AAVE into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    An American English teacher argues that the teachers should value students' home language and use it to help them become more effective rhetoricians. She offers five steps that an educator should take to help the students, some of them being to educate one in order to understand AAVE (African American Vernacular English), to incorporate…

  8. The Internet for Newbies: An Easy Access Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Constance D.

    This book provides beginning Internet users with basic information about what's out there, how to find it, and what to do with it when you find it. Instructions are provided on connecting to the Internet and using it effectively and appropriately. Aspects of Internet communication are reviewed, including e-mail, netiquette, mailing lists, and…

  9. Teaching Biotechnology to Medical Students: Is There an Easy Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steggles, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)

  10. Teaching Biotechnology to Medical Students: Is There an Easy Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steggles, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)

  11. No Easy Answers: Joseph Schwab's Contributions to Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Schwab's work in curriculum planning emphasizes the need for eclecticism and the legitimacy of an uncertain, practical orientation. This essay analyzes the effects of Schwab's theory and calls for a new language for education, to be formulated through practical contact with the processes of schooling. (MJL)

  12. An Easy and Practical Approach to Data Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Mark C.; Dwinell, Patricia L.

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates the usefulness and practicality of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (1979, version 79.5) as a data base management system for a developmental studies program. SAS is available on IBM computers at educational institutions across the country, and it provides an effective tool for data management. (Author)

  13. The Internet for Newbies: An Easy Access Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Constance D.

    This book provides beginning Internet users with basic information about what's out there, how to find it, and what to do with it when you find it. Instructions are provided on connecting to the Internet and using it effectively and appropriately. Aspects of Internet communication are reviewed, including e-mail, netiquette, mailing lists, and…

  14. Assessment 101: Assessment Made Easy for First-Year Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer; Little, Chelsea; Rigney, Rex; Thaler, Anna; Weiderman, Ken; Yorkovich, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This handbook is designed as a quick reference for first-year teachers who find themselves in an assessment driven environment with little experience to help make sense of the language, underlying philosophy, or organizational structure of the assessment system. The handbook begins with advice on developing and evaluating effective learning…

  15. EASY-HIT: HIV Full-Replication Technology for Broad Discovery of Multiple Classes of HIV Inhibitors▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z′ scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC1280 library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors. PMID:20876377

  16. EASY-HIT: HIV full-replication technology for broad discovery of multiple classes of HIV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z' scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC(1280) library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors.

  17. Analysis of Ejection Seat Stability Using Easy Program. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    2,4 STROKE, VS, TIME, YRANGE =-.5,.5 PI DEI, VS, TIME, YRANGE = 0,60 DISPLAY2 P1 , CE, VS, TIME, YRANGE = -20,20 P1 , DE2, VS, TIME, YRANGE = -15,15...The TITLE command may be changed before each analysis. Once 54 defined, the title remains in effect until a new title is entered. Exam - ples of these...body (survival kit ) AE Airplane AG Atmospheric properties AM Aeromedical AP Aerodynamic plate AS Seat aerodynamics CE Crewperson CS Airplane control

  18. Easy quantitative assessment of genome editing by sequence trace decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Eva K.; Chen, Tao; Amendola, Mario; van Steensel, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and the mutation spectrum of genome editing methods can vary substantially depending on the targeted sequence. A simple, quick assay to accurately characterize and quantify the induced mutations is therefore needed. Here we present TIDE, a method for this purpose that requires only a pair of PCR reactions and two standard capillary sequencing runs. The sequence traces are then analyzed by a specially developed decomposition algorithm that identifies the major induced mutations in the projected editing site and accurately determines their frequency in a cell population. This method is cost-effective and quick, and it provides much more detailed information than current enzyme-based assays. An interactive web tool for automated decomposition of the sequence traces is available. TIDE greatly facilitates the testing and rational design of genome editing strategies. PMID:25300484

  19. No easy answers for global climate change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, J.

    First the word was that not only car emissions but cow burps may play a significant role in global warming. Then, the story turned to rice paddies and cockroaches as likely sources of greenhouse gases. Sound confusing? It should.Now even experts readily admit global warming research is chock-full of uncertainties. And these issues offer only a freeze-frame of the broader climate change motion picture. Everything from whether sea levels will rise to whether hurricanes will be come more frequent to whether solar forcing plays a role in all of this is now in question. This means that making and implementing effective international climate change policies remains a tenuous process—even at a time when the overall funding for global change research is at an all-time high in the United States.

  20. Easy quantitative assessment of genome editing by sequence trace decomposition.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Eva K; Chen, Tao; Amendola, Mario; van Steensel, Bas

    2014-12-16

    The efficacy and the mutation spectrum of genome editing methods can vary substantially depending on the targeted sequence. A simple, quick assay to accurately characterize and quantify the induced mutations is therefore needed. Here we present TIDE, a method for this purpose that requires only a pair of PCR reactions and two standard capillary sequencing runs. The sequence traces are then analyzed by a specially developed decomposition algorithm that identifies the major induced mutations in the projected editing site and accurately determines their frequency in a cell population. This method is cost-effective and quick, and it provides much more detailed information than current enzyme-based assays. An interactive web tool for automated decomposition of the sequence traces is available. TIDE greatly facilitates the testing and rational design of genome editing strategies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Switching the in-plane easy axis by ion implantation in rare earth based magnetic films.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, A R; Wang, D; Stenning, G B G; Bowden, G J; Nandhakumar, I; Ward, R C C; de Groot, P A J

    2013-02-27

    Ar(+) ions have been implanted into Laves phase epitaxial thin films of YFe(2) and DyFe(2). Magneto-optical Kerr effect and vibrating sample magnetometry experiments show that the easy and hard axes of magnetization in both materials rotate through an in-plane angle of 90°, whilst the strength of the magnetic anisotropy remains unaltered. This is supported by OOMMF computational modelling. Atomic force microscopy confirms that the film roughness is not affected by implanted ions. X-ray diffraction data show that the lattice parameter expands upon ion implantation, corresponding to a release of strain throughout the entire film following implantation with a critical fluence of 10(17) Ar(+) ions cm(-2). The anisotropy of the films is linked to the strain and from these data it is concluded that the source of anisotropy alters from one where magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline effects compete to one which is governed solely by magnetocrystalline effects. The ability to locally tune the source of magnetic anisotropy without affecting the film surface and without inducing or eliminating anisotropy could be important in the fabrication of high density magnetic data storage media, spintronic devices and magneto-optical materials.

  2. Easy-interactive and quick psoriasis lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guoli; He, Bei; Yang, Wenming; Shu, Chang

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes an interactive psoriasis lesion segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Psoriasis is an incurable skin disease and affects large population in the world. PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) is the gold standard utilized by dermatologists to monitor the severity of psoriasis. Computer aid methods of calculating PASI are more objective and accurate than human visual assessment. Psoriasis lesion segmentation is the basis of the whole calculating. This segmentation is different from the common foreground/background segmentation problems. Our algorithm is inspired by GrabCut and consists of three main stages. First, skin area is extracted from the background scene by transforming the RGB values into the YCbCr color space. Second, a rough segmentation of normal skin and psoriasis lesion is given. This is an initial segmentation given by thresholding a single gaussian model and the thresholds are adjustable, which enables user interaction. Third, two GMMs, one for the initial normal skin and one for psoriasis lesion, are built to refine the segmentation. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Easy way to estimate meteor brightness on TV frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, V. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional method of the meteor brightness measurements claims that the meteor brightness is equal to the stellar magnitude of a star that looks like a meteor in the brightest point of its track. This rule was convenient for the comparison of meteor observations by different observers and for the analysis of the brightness distributions of meteors from observed showers. This traditional method suffers from systematic errors, particularly those that arise from using stellar brightness measured in specific spectral wave bands different from the observer's ones, but mainly due to neglecting the influence of the meteor angular velocity on the real meteor brightness. To get a proper estimate of the meteor brightness that is a measure of the ground meteor illumination in the non-systematic units, an observer must take into account that the effective exposition of a meteor image in any resolution element of its track is a few times shorter than the corresponding exposition of a star image in the same frame. We propose a very simple method for improved estimations of meteor brightness by applying a correction to the meteor stellar magnitude obtained within the traditional framework.

  4. Lossy JPEG compression: easy to compress, hard to compare.

    PubMed

    Fidler, A; Likar, B; Skaleric, U

    2006-03-01

    To review the literature on lossy compression in dental radiography and to discuss the importance and suitability of the methodology used for evaluation of image compression. A search of Medline (from 1966 to October 2004) was undertaken with the search expression "(Radiography, dental) and compression". Inclusion criterion was that the reference should be evaluating the effect of lossy image compression on diagnostic accuracy. For all included studies, information in relation to mode of image acquisition, image content, image compression, image display, and method of image evaluation was extracted. 12 out of 32 papers were included in the review. The design of these 12 studies was found to vary considerably. Parameters used to express the degree of information loss (DIL) were either or both compression ratio (CR) and compression level (CL). The highest acceptable CR reported in the studies ranged from 3.6% to 15.4%. Furthermore, different CR values were proposed even for the same diagnostic task, for example, for caries diagnosis CR ranged from 6.2% to 11.1%. Lossy image compression can be used in clinical radiology if it does not conflict with national law. However, the acceptable DIL is difficult to express and standardize. CR is probably not suitable to express DIL, because it is image content dependent. CL is also probably not suitable to express DIL because of the lack of compression software standardization.

  5. How to assemble a beneficial microbiome in three easy steps

    PubMed Central

    Scheuring, István; Yu, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    There is great interest in explaining how beneficial microbiomes are assembled. Antibiotic-producing microbiomes are arguably the most abundant class of beneficial microbiome in nature, having been found on corals, arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates and plant rhizospheres. An exemplar is the attine ants, which cultivate a fungus for food and host a cuticular microbiome that releases antibiotics to defend the fungus from parasites. One explanation posits long-term vertical transmission of P seudonocardia bacteria, which (somehow) evolve new compounds in arms-race fashion against parasites. Alternatively, attines (somehow) selectively recruit multiple, non-coevolved actinobacterial genera from the soil, enabling a ‘multi-drug’ strategy against parasites. We reconcile the models by showing that when hosts fuel interference competition by providing abundant resources, the interference competition favours the recruitment of antibiotic-producing (and -resistant) bacteria. This partner-choice mechanism is more effective when at least one actinobacterial symbiont is vertically transmitted or has a high immigration rate, as in disease-suppressive soils. PMID:22913725

  6. Cotoneaster: A Safe and Easy Way to Reduce Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Kheiri, Soleiman; Shemian, Rabin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of cotoneaster may reduce neonatal jaundice. Aim Hence this study was undertaken to determine the effect of mothers’ cotoneaster consumption on treatment of their neonates’ jaundice. Materials and Methods In this randomized clinical trial study, 120 neonates with jaundice referred to a hospital in southwest Iran were enrolled by nonprobability sampling and divided randomly into four groups. In the first group both mothers and neonates received cotoneaster; in the second group only mothers; in the third group only neonates; and in the fourth group the neonates received distilled water as placebo. Phototherapy was done under the same condition for all neonates. Results The reduction of bilirubin was significantly higher in treatment groups compared to control group (p<0.05). Bilirubin in the group of neonates whose mothers consumed cotoneaster was less compared to control group at 24 and 36 hours (p<0.05) and the highest reduction in bilirubin was observed in the first group. The mean duration of hospitalization was longer for the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion Consumption of cotoneaster by both mothers and neonates caused a decrease in neonatal jaundice more rapidly compared to other groups and decreased the duration of hospitalization. Cotoneaster consumption by mothers, neonates, or both may be useful in treatment of neonatal jaundice. PMID:27190910

  7. Datalist: A Value Added Service to Enable Easy Data Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Angela; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Bryant, Keith; Seiler, Edward; Shie, Chung-Lin; Teng, William; Liu, Zhong; Hearty, Thomas; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven; hide

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a user wanting to study hurricane events. This could involve searching and downloading multiple data variables from multiple data sets. The currently available services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) only allow the user to select one data set at a time. The GES DISC started a Data List initiative, in order to enable users to easily select multiple data variables. A Data List is a collection of predefined or user-defined data variables from one or more archived data sets. Target users of Data Lists include science teams, individual science researchers, application users, and educational users. Data Lists are more than just data. Data Lists effectively provide users with a sophisticated integrated data and services package, including metadata, citation, documentation, visualization, and data-specific services, all available from one-stop shopping. Data Lists are created based on the software architecture of the GES DISC Unified User Interface (UUI). The Data List service is completely data-driven, and a Data List is treated just as any other data set. The predefined Data Lists, created by the experienced GES DISC science support team, should save a significant amount of time that users would otherwise have to spend.

  8. Haplessly Hoping: Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Roger W.; Karl, Julie A.; Bohn, Patrick S.; Nimityongskul, Francesca A.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products control the repertoire of T cell responses that an individual may create against pathogens and foreign tissues. This text will review the current understanding of MHC genetics in nonhuman primates, with a focus on Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). These closely related macaque species provide important experimental models for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis, vaccine development, and transplantation research. Recent advances resulting from the application of several cost effective, high-throughput approaches, with deep sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to perform MHC genotyping of large macaque cohorts. Pyrosequencing of cDNA amplicons with a Roche/454 GS Junior instrument, provides excellent resolution of MHC class I allelic variants with semi-quantitative estimates of relative levels of transcript abundance. Introduction of the Illumina MiSeq platform significantly increased the sample throughput, since the sample loading workflow is considerably less labor intensive, and each instrument run yields approximately 100-fold more sequence data. Extension of these sequencing methods from cDNA to genomic DNA amplicons further streamlines the experimental workflow and opened opportunities for retrospective MHC genotyping of banked DNA samples. To facilitate the reporting of MHC genotypes, and comparisons between groups of macaques, this text also introduces an intuitive series of abbreviated rhesus MHC haplotype designations based on a major Mamu-A or Mamu-B transcript characteristic for ancestral allele combinations. The authors believe that the use of MHC-defined macaques promises to improve the reproducibility, and predictability of results from pre-clinical studies for translation to humans. PMID:24174442

  9. Haplessly hoping: macaque major histocompatibility complex made easy.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Roger W; Karl, Julie A; Bohn, Patrick S; Nimityongskul, Francesca A; Starrett, Gabriel J; O'Connor, David H

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products control the repertoire of T cell responses that an individual may create against pathogens and foreign tissues. This text will review the current understanding of MHC genetics in nonhuman primates, with a focus on Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). These closely related macaque species provide important experimental models for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis, vaccine development, and transplantation research. Recent advances resulting from the application of several cost effective, high-throughput approaches, with deep sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to perform MHC genotyping of large macaque cohorts. Pyrosequencing of cDNA amplicons with a Roche/454 GS Junior instrument, provides excellent resolution of MHC class I allelic variants with semi-quantitative estimates of relative levels of transcript abundance. Introduction of the Illumina MiSeq platform significantly increased the sample throughput, since the sample loading workflow is considerably less labor intensive, and each instrument run yields approximately 100-fold more sequence data. Extension of these sequencing methods from cDNA to genomic DNA amplicons further streamlines the experimental workflow and opened opportunities for retrospective MHC genotyping of banked DNA samples. To facilitate the reporting of MHC genotypes, and comparisons between groups of macaques, this text also introduces an intuitive series of abbreviated rhesus MHC haplotype designations based on a major Mamu-A or Mamu-B transcript characteristic for ancestral allele combinations. The authors believe that the use of MHC-defined macaques promises to improve the reproducibility, and predictability of results from pre-clinical studies for translation to humans.

  10. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    PubMed

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Data collection in IMS: It's not as easy as it looks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Maswadeh, Waleed; Shoff, Donald B.; Harden, Charles S.; Snyder, A. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data collection in Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is not as easy an endeavor as it appears. Despite the advent of high speed personal computers and fast analog-to-digital converters (ADC's), care must be taken to ensure that reliable data are obtained in a timely fashion. This is especially true in hyphenated techniques, e.g. GC-IMS, where the amount of data increases dramatically when gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) data is being collected. Using the Graseby GC-IMS, with a gate repetition rate of 33 Hz, it is theoretically possible to collect 33 spectra per second. This collection rate is not realistically obtained due to a number of factors. Among these factors are inaccuracy of the timing signal from the IMS, the necessity to store the data, disk input/output limitations, disk operating system limitations, and program overhead. Taking these factors into account, we have achieved a data collection rate of 20 spectra per second. This paper will describe these problems, demonstrate the practical effects these problems present, and present methods for minimizing these effects.

  12. Perceiving racism in ambiguous situations: who relies on easy-to-use information?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2010-01-01

    In situations that are ambiguous with regard to the presence of discrimination, how do people arrive at their conclusions that discrimination has (or has not) taken place? This question was examined from a motivated social cognition perspective via the interaction of two factors: the prototype effect--the notion that ambiguously discriminatory behavior is more likely to be perceived as discriminatory when the executor is prototypical and the need for cognitive closure--the tendency to jump hastily to and seize on an answer. Results provided replicating evidence of the prototype effect among European American participants but not among African American participants. Specifically, European Americans were likely to perceive ambiguously racist behavior enacted by a prototypical executor (i.e., a White person) as more discriminatory than the same behavior exhibited by a non-prototypical executor (i.e., a Black person). African American participants, on the other hand, showed no reliance on this simple cognitive heuristic. Furthermore, results showed that European Americans with a higher need for cognitive closure were more likely to rely on the easy-to-use information offered by prototypes. These findings are discussed from a motivated social cognition perspective.

  13. Development of an Easy-to-Use Tool for the Assessment of Emergency Department Physical Design

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Alireza; Tabatabaey, Ali; Motamed, Hassan; Motamedi, Maryam; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Physical design of the emergency department (ED) has an important effect on its role and function. To date, no guidelines have been introduced to set the standards for the construction of EDs in Iran. In this study, we aim to devise an easy-to-use tool based on the available literature and expert opinion for the quick and effective assessment of EDs in regards to their physical design. For this purpose, based on current literature on emergency design, a comprehensive checklist was developed. Then, this checklist was analyzed by a panel consisting of heads of three major EDs and contradicting items were decided. 178 crude items were derived from available literature. The Items were categorized in to three major domains of Physical space, Equipment, and Accessibility. The final checklist approved by the panel consisted of 163 items categorized into six domains. Each item was phrased as a “Yes or No” question for ease of analysis, meaning that the criterion is either met or not. PMID:26495348

  14. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area1

    PubMed Central

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images. PMID:25202639

  15. Tailoring of Magnetic Easy Axis of Nickel Nanowires by Varying Diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Sidra; Sharif, Rehana; Shah, Zaheer Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with an average diameter of D1˜20nm and D2˜200nm are synthesized by two-step anodization. Nickel nanowires are fabricated by AC electro deposition with less microstructure defects at low voltage in AAO templates. Magnetic properties of compact nickel (Ni) nanowires show that easy axis is parallel to nanowire axis for diameter D1˜20nm while by varying diameter from D1˜20nm to D2˜200nm, easy axis shifts to perpendicular direction of nanowire axis. This shifting of magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular direction is mainly due to shape anisotropy and interactive fields between the wires. The competition between shape anisotropy (due to individual wire) and interactive fields by varying diameter of nanowires could result in tailoring of the direction of magnetic easy axis of nanowires.

  16. How to Write Easy-to-Read Health Materials: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do you create easy-to-read materials? Writing ETR materials involves several important steps: Plan and ... learned about your audience, consider them carefully when writing. Cultural, age, and gender differences may have an ...

  17. Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162625.html Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities Only ... lives back on track after being released from juvenile detention, especially those from racial and ethnic minorities, ...

  18. Protection Factor Testing of the 3M Breathe Easy (BE-10) Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the results of the performance testing of the 3M Breathe Easy (BE-10) Powered Air Purifying Respirator. A series of tests were performed to determine the corn -oil protection factors using human subjects.

  19. A dopant for improved sensitivity in easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jandyson M; Vendramini, Pedro H; Schwab, Nicolas V; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Morais, Damila R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN) has been used to improve sensitivity of sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) is one of the simplest, gentlest and most used spray-based desorption/ionization ambient techniques, but limited sensitivity has been commonly taken as its major drawback. Herein we investigate the use of 3-NBN as a dopant in EASI-MS for improved sensitivity. Using a few typical EASI samples as test cases, the presence of 10 ppm (µg ml(-1) ) of 3-NBN in the spray solvent showed two to fourfold gains in EASI-MS sensitivity as measured both by total ion current and S/N ratios, accompanied with significant reductions in chemical noise. Sensitivity for DESI using 3-NBN as a dopant also improved and dopant DESI versus dopant EASI sensitivities were compared. The use of solvent dopants seems therefore to be a promising strategy to improve sensitivity for spray-based ambient MS techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. EasyPCC: Benchmark Datasets and Tools for High-Throughput Measurement of the Plant Canopy Coverage Ratio under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Bangyou; Duan, Tao; Fukatsu, Tokihiro; Chapman, Scott; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2017-04-07

    Understanding interactions of genotype, environment, and management under field conditions is vital for selecting new cultivars and farming systems. Image analysis is considered a robust technique in high-throughput phenotyping with non-destructive sampling. However, analysis of digital field-derived images remains challenging because of the variety of light intensities, growth environments, and developmental stages. The plant canopy coverage (PCC) ratio is an important index of crop growth and development. Here, we present a tool, EasyPCC, for effective and accurate evaluation of the ground coverage ratio from a large number of images under variable field conditions. The core algorithm of EasyPCC is based on a pixel-based segmentation method using a decision-tree-based segmentation model (DTSM). EasyPCC was developed under the MATLAB(®) and R languages; thus, it could be implemented in high-performance computing to handle large numbers of images following just a single model training process. This study used an experimental set of images from a paddy field to demonstrate EasyPCC, and to show the accuracy improvement possible by adjusting key points (e.g., outlier deletion and model retraining). The accuracy (R² = 0.99) of the calculated coverage ratio was validated against a corresponding benchmark dataset. The EasyPCC source code is released under GPL license with benchmark datasets of several different crop types for algorithm development and for evaluating ground coverage ratios.

  1. Breathe Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstien, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Examines the different indoor air pollutants that can be found in schools and tips for controlling them. Also discussed is building analysis for monitoring biocontaminants including allergens and molds. (GR)

  2. Breathing Easy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides practical information and guidance to auto refinish shops on proper ventilation of paint mixing rooms, including ventilation system basics and diagrams, risk reduction ideas, common mistakes, tips, and design considerations.

  3. Easy Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a revised building standard, 1980 A 117.1, requiring barrier-free locksets in new and renovated buildings. The standard specifies that locksets must be designed so that the handle need not be twisted, grasped, or pinched to open the door. Lever-handle, push-type, and U-shaped handles are preferred. (TE)

  4. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  5. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  6. Easy Bruising

    MedlinePlus

    ... yourself? About Stephen J. Schueler, M.D News Advertising How It Works FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians Testimonials Site Map Terms of Use Contact Us FreeMD is provided for information purposes only and should not be used as a ...

  7. Easy Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... yourself? About Stephen J. Schueler, M.D News Advertising How It Works FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians Testimonials Site Map Terms of Use Contact Us FreeMD is provided for information purposes only and should not be used as a ...

  8. Breathe Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstien, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Examines the different indoor air pollutants that can be found in schools and tips for controlling them. Also discussed is building analysis for monitoring biocontaminants including allergens and molds. (GR)

  9. Dirt Cheap and Without Prescription: How Susceptible are Young US Consumers to Purchasing Drugs From Rogue Internet Pharmacies?

    PubMed Central

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O´Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    advised to buy cheaper drugs at pharmacies such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. Conclusions At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers. PMID:20439253

  10. Dirt cheap and without prescription: how susceptible are young US consumers to purchasing drugs from rogue internet pharmacies?

    PubMed

    Ivanitskaya, Lana; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-04-26

    such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers.

  11. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g-1 and 33 Wh kg-1 (1798 F g-1 and 54 Wh kg-1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach.

  12. Development of a cheap and accessible carbon fibers-in-poly(ether ether ketone) tube with high stability for online in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-02-01

    Carbon fibers (CFs) are one kind of important industrial materials that can be obtained commercially at low price. Based on the high extraction efficiency of carbon sorbents, a cheap and accessible carbon fibers-in-poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube was developed for online in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. Coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the CFs-in-tube SPME was applied to analyze eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental aqueous samples. Extraction conditions (sampling rate, extraction time, methanol content) and desorption time were investigated for optimization of conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the CFs-in-tube SPME-HPLC method provided high extraction efficiency with enrichment factors up to 1748. Good linearity (0.05-50 μg L(-1), 0.5-50 μg L(-1)) and low detection limits (0.01-0.1 μg L(-1)) were also obtained. The online analysis method was finally applied to determine several model PAHs analytes in real environmental aqueous samples. Some target analytes were detected and relative recoveries were in the range of 92.3-111%. Due to natural chemical stability of carbon fibers and PEEK tube, the CFs-in-tube device exhibited high resistance to organic solvent, acid and alkaline conditions.

  13. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g−1 and 33 Wh kg−1 (1798 F g−1 and 54 Wh kg−1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach. PMID:26643665

  14. Living in a 'fat swamp': exposure to multiple sources of accessible, cheap, energy-dense fast foods in a deprived community.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Patrick; Saunders, Annie; Middleton, John

    2015-06-14

    This study assesses the levels of fats, including trans-fatty acids, and salt in common takeaway fast foods in a deprived urban municipality in the West Midlands, England, and implications in the context of the spatial distribution of fast food takeaways. The results of the compositional analysis of over 250 take-out foods were compared with established and derived standards. About 70% of products exceeded the recommendation that a meal should contain less than 30% of a Guideline Daily Amount (GDA). More than half of them exceeded 50% GDA for at least one metric, including 81% of all analyses for SFA. And 17% of samples exceeded the GDA for SFA, including each of two meals that contained about twice the GDA. Over 30% samples exceeded the children's GDA for total fat or SFA. 27% of salt analyses exceeded the GDA. People in Sandwell are exposed to large portion sizes and high levels of fats and salt in takeaway foods, with levels in some foods having increased since 2010. Given this population's limited options to break out of a highly compromising environment of living simultaneously in a 'swamp' of unhealthy, readily accessible and cheap takeaways, and a 'desert' of healthy options, an immediate and innovative package of interventions is required.

  15. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-12-08

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g(-1) and 33 Wh kg(-1) (1798 F g(-1) and 54 Wh kg(-1) per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach.

  16. Fernald - As Closure Approaches Changing Public Participation Is Not an Easy (or Popular) Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.

    2006-07-01

    Public participation at a closure site evolves. In large part it's driven by the players - neighbors, DOE, contractors, regulators and to some extent, the media. At Fernald, public participation became an integral part of the decision making process in the late 80's. At that time the Department of Energy was really just beginning to understand the extent of environmental contamination caused by 40 years of uranium metal production. Today, as cleanup nears an end (Figure 1), the Fernald Citizens Advisory Board and other key stakeholders stand at a crossroads. The DOE Office of Environmental Management is working with the Office of Legacy Management and its' contractors as they prepare to take over stewardship of the site. DOE is chartering Local Stakeholder Organizations, LSO's, made up of elected officials to serve as the voice of the public. The transition at Fernald will likely be more difficult than at other cleanup sites. Many area stakeholders have 20 years of time committed to this project. For most, Fernald was an emotional subject that effected their community and families. Change is not easy. (authors)

  17. Hydration properties and texture fingerprints of easy- and hard-to-cook bean varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kinyanjui, Peter K; Njoroge, Daniel M; Makokha, Anselimo O; Christiaens, Stefanie; Ndaka, Daniel S; Hendrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the factors that affect the hydration and cooking profiles of different bean varieties. During this study, nine bean varieties were classified as either easy-to-cook (ETC) or hard-to-cook (HTC) based on a subjective finger pressing test and an objective cutting test. Rose coco, Red haricot, and Zebra beans were classified as ETC, while Canadian wonder, Soya fupi, Pinto, non-nodulating, Mwezi moja, Gwaku, and New mwezi moja were HTC. The effect of different soaking (pre)-treatments on the cooking behavior and/or water absorption of whole or dehulled beans was investigated. Dehulling, soaking in high pH and monovalent salt solutions reduced the cooking time of beans, while soaking in low pH and CaCl2 solutions increased the cooking time. Moisture uptake was faster in ETC and dehulled beans. Soaking at high temperatures also increased the hydration rate. The results point to pectin-related aspects and the rate of water uptake as possible factors that influence the cooking rate of beans. PMID:25650021

  18. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Erik T; Dulay, Maria T; Zare, Richard N

    2016-06-21

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected.

  19. GODDeSS: a Geant4 extension for easy modelling of optical detector components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Hebbeker, T.; Künsken, A.; Merschmeyer, M.; Nieswand, S.; Niggemann, T.

    2017-04-01

    Scintillator- and fibre-based particle detectors with SiPM readout are an indispensable tool in high-energy particle physics, medical physics and other fields of application. For designing and understanding these detectors, very detailed simulations are necessary, which require an accurate modelling of the optical physics (optics, scintillation, wavelength-shifting effects, ... ), of the optical material properties, and of the geometry. To allow for a reliable usage also by less experienced users, the necessary complexity and flexibility of a suitable simulation framework must not lead to an increasing danger of user mistakes. Additionally, the required effort for creating or modifying a detailed simulation has to be minimised in order to allow for the fast creation of flexible simulation setups. These challenges have been addressed by developing GODDeSS (Geant4 Objects for Detailed Detectors with Scintillators and SiPMs). It is an extension of the particle-physics simulation tool Geant4 and allows for the easy simulation of optical detector components, especially combinations of scintillators, optical fibres, and photodetectors. GODDeSS enables the user to create extensive setups for Geant4 simulations with a few lines of source code. At the same time, GODDeSS helps to avoid typical user mistakes. This paper introduces the basic concepts of the GODDeSS framework, its object classes, and its functionality. Furthermore, test measurements with prototype modules will be presented, which were performed to validate simulation results of the GODDeSS framework.

  20. Enzymatic transesterification monitored by an easy-to-use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Natalello, Antonino; Sasso, Francesco; Secundo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Transesterification of triglycerides with short chain alcohols is the key reaction in biodiesel production, in addition to other applications in chemical synthesis. However, it is crucial to optimize reaction conditions to make enzymatic transesterification a cost-effective and competitive process. In this work, a new, easy Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic approach for monitoring the transesterification reaction is reported and compared with a gas-chromatographic method. The concentration of the total methyl esters in the reaction mixture is determined from the peak intensity at ∼1435 cm(-1) in the second derivatives of the FTIR absorption spectra using a linear regression calibration. Interestingly, we found that the use of second derivatives allows an accurate determination of the methyl esters without the interference of free fatty acids. Moreover, information on substrate hydrolysis can be obtained within the same measurement by the infrared absorption at ∼1709 cm(-1) . We applied this approach to monitor methanolysis and hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by different commercial lipases, which displayed different sensitivities to methanol inhibition. Therefore, the FTIR approach reported in this work represents a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate method to monitor enzymatic transesterification, requiring very limited sample preparation and a simple statistical analysis of the spectroscopic data. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  2. CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu. PMID:22916227

  3. Development of Matched (migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) Method for Satellite-Tracked Migratory Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, Tomoko; Chen, Wenbo; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Satellite tracking technology has been used to reveal the migration patterns and flyways of migratory birds. In general, bird migration can be classified according to migration status. These statuses include the wintering period, spring migration, breeding period, and autumn migration. To determine the migration status, periods of these statuses should be individually determined, but there is no objective method to define 'a threshold date' for when an individual bird changes its status. The research objective is to develop an effective and objective method to determine threshold dates of migration status based on satellite-tracked data. The developed method was named the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method". In order to demonstrate the method, data acquired from satellite-tracked Tundra Swans were used. MATCHED method is composed by six steps: 1) dataset preparation, 2) time frame creation, 3) automatic identification, 4) visualization of change points, 5) interpretation, and 6) manual correction. Accuracy was tested. In general, MATCHED method was proved powerful to identify the change points between migration status as well as stopovers. Nevertheless, identifying "exact" threshold dates is still challenging. Limitation and application of this method was discussed.

  4. Easy-to-read consumer communications: a missing link in Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Root, J; Stableford, S

    1999-02-01

    Effective consumer communication is key to successfully moving Medicaid recipients into managed care systems and realizing the promised cost savings from the upheaval. Yet, little attention has been paid to educating these consumers with easy-to-read materials. The Maine Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Health Literacy Center, with the support of the Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc., addressed the problem by offering three national skills training workshops called Writing for the Medicaid Market. The training was marketed to public and private organizations providing Medicaid managed care services, including state Medicaid officials, health benefit counselor staff (enrollment brokers), managed care plan (HMO) staff, and consumer advocates. The training addressed the core issue in health literacy: the mismatch between the low literacy skills of the target population and the high reading level of most health and managed care materials. Posttraining survey data revealed that training was successful in skill building, but also that it addressed only the tip of the iceberg. Faulty and/or nonexistent communication planning limits the success not only of Medicaid, but of other large health and social programs as well. The authors outline the broad scope of the national health literacy problem, share their posttraining survey data, discuss lessons extrapolated from both their data and their experience, and propose a national agenda to address a vast and generally ignored public problem.

  5. The Bead Assay for Biofilms: A Quick, Easy and Robust Method for Testing Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Konrat, Katharina; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Laue, Michael; Dittmann, Christin; Levin, Katja; Andrich, Ricarda; Arvand, Mardjan; Schaudinn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria live primarily in microbial communities (biofilms), where they exhibit considerably higher biocide tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. Current standardized efficacy testing protocols of disinfectants, however, employ predominantly planktonic bacteria. In order to test the efficacy of biocides on biofilms in a standardized manner, a new assay was developed and optimized for easy-handling, quickness, low running costs, and above all—repeatability. In this assay, 5 mm glass- or polytetrafluoroethylene beads in 24 well microtiter plates served as substrate for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. After optimizing result-relevant steps, the actual performance of the assay was explored by treating P. aeruginosa biofilms with glutaraldehyde, isopropanol, or peracetic acid in predefined concentrations. The aspired 5 log10 reduction in CFU counts was achieved by glutaraldehyde at 5% (30 min), and by peracetic acid at 0.3% (10 min). In contrast, 80% isopropanol (30 min) failed to meet the reduction goal. However, the main accomplishment of this study was to unveil the potential of the array itself; most noteworthy here, a reliable repeatability of the results. The new bead assay for biofilms is a robust, quick and cost-effective method for assessing the efficacy of biocides against biofilms. PMID:27315246

  6. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Shibahara, Nona; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kishikawa, Akiko; Fukushima, Keijo; Takano, Maiko; Suzuki, Fumie; Wada, Hirohisa; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs) of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases) depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac), was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study), even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus. PMID:26629699

  7. Hydration properties and texture fingerprints of easy- and hard-to-cook bean varieties.

    PubMed

    Kinyanjui, Peter K; Njoroge, Daniel M; Makokha, Anselimo O; Christiaens, Stefanie; Ndaka, Daniel S; Hendrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the factors that affect the hydration and cooking profiles of different bean varieties. During this study, nine bean varieties were classified as either easy-to-cook (ETC) or hard-to-cook (HTC) based on a subjective finger pressing test and an objective cutting test. Rose coco, Red haricot, and Zebra beans were classified as ETC, while Canadian wonder, Soya fupi, Pinto, non-nodulating, Mwezi moja, Gwaku, and New mwezi moja were HTC. The effect of different soaking (pre)-treatments on the cooking behavior and/or water absorption of whole or dehulled beans was investigated. Dehulling, soaking in high pH and monovalent salt solutions reduced the cooking time of beans, while soaking in low pH and CaCl2 solutions increased the cooking time. Moisture uptake was faster in ETC and dehulled beans. Soaking at high temperatures also increased the hydration rate. The results point to pectin-related aspects and the rate of water uptake as possible factors that influence the cooking rate of beans.

  8. The Bead Assay for Biofilms: A Quick, Easy and Robust Method for Testing Disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Konrat, Katharina; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Laue, Michael; Dittmann, Christin; Levin, Katja; Andrich, Ricarda; Arvand, Mardjan; Schaudinn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria live primarily in microbial communities (biofilms), where they exhibit considerably higher biocide tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. Current standardized efficacy testing protocols of disinfectants, however, employ predominantly planktonic bacteria. In order to test the efficacy of biocides on biofilms in a standardized manner, a new assay was developed and optimized for easy-handling, quickness, low running costs, and above all-repeatability. In this assay, 5 mm glass- or polytetrafluoroethylene beads in 24 well microtiter plates served as substrate for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. After optimizing result-relevant steps, the actual performance of the assay was explored by treating P. aeruginosa biofilms with glutaraldehyde, isopropanol, or peracetic acid in predefined concentrations. The aspired 5 log10 reduction in CFU counts was achieved by glutaraldehyde at 5% (30 min), and by peracetic acid at 0.3% (10 min). In contrast, 80% isopropanol (30 min) failed to meet the reduction goal. However, the main accomplishment of this study was to unveil the potential of the array itself; most noteworthy here, a reliable repeatability of the results. The new bead assay for biofilms is a robust, quick and cost-effective method for assessing the efficacy of biocides against biofilms.

  9. Virtue...On the Cheap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James Davison

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the neo-classical backlash to a therapeutic liberalism in moral education that has attempted to revive the character education system established in the early decades of the 20th century. Notes the importance of generating habits of good moral conduct, then discusses literature and moral understanding, the move from theory to practical…

  10. Words Aren't Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks are a crushingly substantial portion of students' costs every semester, and they're getting more expensive every year. With the cost of some individual textbooks surpassing a monthly cable television bill, students are moving to relieve that economic pressure by renting textbooks instead of buying them new or used. The idea of renting…

  11. Landfill gas makes cheap fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1984-08-01

    According to a recent study by the American Gas Assn (AGA), the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas has grown by nearly 800% over the last five years. There are nearly 30 active sites recovering energy across the US--mostly in California and the Northeast--and, based on one optimistic estimate, there are close to 3500 potential sites. Reasons for recovering landfill gas are numerous. One, communities are attracted by the additional revenue a successful landfill-gas recovery project brings; the gas can be sold to a naturalgas supplier, it can be burned in gas turbines or gas engines to generate electricity for sale to the local utility, and it can be used to generate steam for use at a nearby industrial or institutional site. Recovering methane helps reduce the odors produced from decomposing garbage which can be disturbing to people living in the vicinity of the landfill. It also helps reduce the chance of explosions--methane trapped beneath the surface can build up to dangerous levels.

  12. Words Aren't Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks are a crushingly substantial portion of students' costs every semester, and they're getting more expensive every year. With the cost of some individual textbooks surpassing a monthly cable television bill, students are moving to relieve that economic pressure by renting textbooks instead of buying them new or used. The idea of renting…

  13. An easy and efficient inducible CRISPR/Cas9 platform with improved specificity for multiple gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Wu, Lizhen; Zhang, Shang-Min; Lu, Min; Cheung, William K.C.; Cai, Wesley; Gale, Molly; Xu, Qi; Yan, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome editing tool and has been widely used for biomedical research. However, many challenges, such as off-target effects and lack of easy solutions for multiplex targeting, are still limiting its applications. To overcome these challenges, we first developed a highly efficient doxycycline-inducible Cas9-EGFP vector. This vector allowed us to track the cells for uniform temporal control and efficient gene disruption, even in a polyclonal setting. Furthermore, the inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system dramatically decreased off-target effects with a pulse exposure of the genome to the Cas9/sgRNA complex. To target multiple genes simultaneously, we established simple one-step cloning approaches for expression of multiple sgRNAs with improved vectors. By combining our inducible and multiplex genome editing approaches, we were able to simultaneously delete Lysine Demethylase (KDM) 5A, 5B and 5C efficiently in vitro and in vivo. This user friendly and highly efficient toolbox provides a solution for easy genome editing with tight temporal control, minimal off-target effects and multiplex targeting. PMID:27458201

  14. Organization dependent collective magnetic properties of secondary nanostructures with differential spatial ordering and magnetic easy axis orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Sarma, D. D.; Deb, P.

    2016-06-01

    Achieving control on the formation of different organization states of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to harness their organization dependent physical properties in desired ways. In this study, three organization states of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3), defining as (i) assembly (ii) network aggregate and (iii) cluster, have been developed by simply changing the solvent evaporation conditions. All three systems have retained the same phase and polydispersity of primary particles. Magnetic measurements show that the partial alignment of the easy axes of the particles in the network system due to the stacking aggregation morphology can result in significant enhancement of the coercivity and remanence values, while the opposite is obtained for the cluster system due to the random orientation of easy axes. Partial alignment in the aggregate system also results in noticeable non-monotonic field dependence of ZFC peak temperature (Tpeak). The lowest value of the blocking temperature (TB) for the cluster system is related to the lowering of the effective anisotropy due to the strongest demagnetizing effect. FC (Field cooled) memory effect was observed to be decreasing with the increasing strength of dipolar interaction of organization states. Therefore, the stacking aggregation and the cluster formation are two interesting ways of magnetic nanoparticles organization for modulating collective magnetic properties significantly, which can have renewed application potentials from recording devices to biomedicine.

  15. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry combined with thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Renato; Milagre, Humberto M S; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2008-04-15

    On-spot detection and analyte characterization on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is performed via ambient desorption/ionization and (tandem) mass spectrometry detection, that is, via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS). As proof-of-principle cases, mixtures of semipolar nitrogenated compounds as well as pharmaceutical drugs and vegetable oils have been tested. The technique has also been applied to monitor a chemical reaction of synthetic importance. EASI is the simplest and gentlest ambient ionization technique currently available, assisted solely by N2 (or air). It uses no voltages, no electrical discharges; no UV or laser beams, and no high temperature and is most easily implemented in all API mass spectrometers. TLC is also the simplest, fastest, and most easily performed chromatographic technique. TLC plus EASI-MS therefore provide a simple and advantageous combination of chromatographic separation and sensitive detection of the TLC spots as well as on-spot MS or MS/MS characterization. The favorable characteristics of TLC-EASI-MS indicate advantageous applications in several areas such as drug and oil analysis, phytochemistry and synthetic chemistry, forensics via reliable counterfeit detection, and quality control.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymers as analyte sequesters and selective surfaces for easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Sanvido, Gustavo Braga; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2010-04-01

    The use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective surface for ambient mass spectrometry is demonstrated. The MIP is used to sequester target analytes from urine and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be able to efficiently desorb the analytes from the MIP surface and then transfer them in protonated forms to the gas phase for MS analysis. A set of five phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, perphenazine, triflupromazine, thioridazine and prochlorperazine) were chosen from a proof-of-principle class of drug samples. A chlorpromazine-imprinted methacrylic polymer was synthesized and used to prepare a MIP probe. The MIP-EASI-MS technique using acidified methanol as solvent has been shown to allow quantification of all five drugs in urine with LOQ of ca. 1 micromol L(-1).

  17. EasyKSORD: A Platform of Keyword Search Over Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Wang, Shan

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual users to use keyword queries (a set of keywords) to search relational databases just like searching the Web, without any knowledge of the database schema or any need of writing SQL queries. Based on our previous work, we design and implement a novel KSORD platform named EasyKSORD for users and system administrators to use and manage different KSORD systems in a novel and simple manner. EasyKSORD supports advanced queries, efficient data-graph-based search engines, multiform result presentations, and system logging and analysis. Through EasyKSORD, users can search relational databases easily and read search results conveniently, and system administrators can easily monitor and analyze the operations of KSORD and manage KSORD systems much better.

  18. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  19. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational database management system. Volume 1, Executive Overview, gives an overview of the functions provided by EASIE and describes their use. Three operational design systems based upon the EASIE software are briefly described.

  20. Systematic review of EASY-care needs assessment for community-dwelling older people

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Christopher; Chadborn, Neil; Sands, Gina; Tuomainen, Helena; Gladman, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: undertaking comprehensive geriatric assessments (CGAs) combined with long-term health and social care management can improve the quality of life of older people [ 1]. The EASY-Care tool is a CGA instrument designed for assessing the physical, mental and social functioning and unmet health and social needs of older people in community settings or primary care. It has also been used as a frailty assessment tool and for gathering population-level data. Objective: to review the evidence of reliability, validity and acceptability of EASY-Care and its appropriateness for assessing the needs of community-dwelling older people. Methods: systematic search of literature databases using pre-defined search terms (January 1994—May 2014) for English language articles reporting on the reliability, validity, acceptability and implementation of EASY-Care in primary care and community settings. Eligible articles were critically reviewed. Discussion papers mapping professionals' use of the tool were also included as these could be considered an aspect of validity. Results: twenty-nine papers met the inclusion criteria and underwent data extraction. A narrative synthesis was performed, because there was a variety of quantitative and qualitative outcomes and characteristics. Reliability evidence for EASY-Care is minimal. Evidence for validity is good, and it has received numerous positive endorsements of acceptability in international settings from older people and practitioners. Conclusion: evidence supports the use of EASY-Care for individual needs assessment; further research is needed for other uses. Of the papers that made statements about who should administer EASY-Care, the majority indicated that nurses were preferable to self-completion. PMID:25911539