Science.gov

Sample records for easy cheap effective

  1. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation approach for pesticide residue analysis using traditional detectors in chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Shin, Sung Chul; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-01-01

    In pesticide residue analysis, relatively low-sensitivity traditional detectors, such as UV, diode array, electron-capture, flame photometric, and nitrogen-phosphorus detectors, have been used following classical sample preparation (liquid-liquid extraction and open glass column cleanup); however, the extraction method is laborious, time-consuming, and requires large volumes of toxic organic solvents. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method was introduced in 2003 and coupled with selective and sensitive mass detectors to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks. Compared to traditional detectors, mass spectrometers are still far more expensive and not available in most modestly equipped laboratories, owing to maintenance and cost-related issues. Even available, traditional detectors are still being used for analysis of residues in agricultural commodities. It is widely known that the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method is incompatible with conventional detectors owing to matrix complexity and low sensitivity. Therefore, modifications using column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction instead of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup have been applied in most cases to compensate and enable the adaptation of the extraction method to conventional detectors. In gas chromatography, the matrix enhancement effect of some analytes has been observed, which lowers the limit of detection and, therefore, enables gas chromatography to be compatible with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method. For liquid chromatography with a UV detector, a combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction was found to reduce the matrix interference and increase the sensitivity. A suitable double-layer column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction might be the perfect solution, instead of a time-consuming combination of column/cartridge-based solid-phase extraction and

  3. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Feng, Zhihong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhihui; Wu, Yongjiang; Wu, Aibo

    2014-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 μm) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ≤ 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 μg/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Determination of phthalate esters in soil using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianjun; Chen, Di; Wu, Jiyuan; Yin, Guangcai; Lin, Qintie; Zhang, Min; Hu, Huawen

    2018-04-01

    A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure was designed to extract pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables with a high percentage of water. It has not been used extensively for the extraction of phthalate esters from sediments, soils, and sludges. In this work, this procedure was combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine 16 selected phthalate esters in soil. The extraction efficiency of the samples was improved by ultrasonic extraction and dissolution of the soil samples in ultra-pure water, which promoted the dispersion of the samples. Furthermore, we have simplified the extraction step and reduced the risk of organic solvent contamination by minimizing the use of organic solvents. Different extraction solvents and clean-up adsorbents were compared to optimize the procedure. Dichloromethane/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) and n-hexane/acetone (1:1, v/v) were selected as the extractants from the six extraction solvents tested. C18/primary secondary amine (1:1, m/m) was selected as the sorbent from the five clean-up adsorbents tested. The recoveries from the spiked soils ranged from 70.00 to 117.90% with relative standard deviation values of 0.67-4.62%. The proposed approach was satisfactorily applied for the determination of phthalate esters in 12 contaminated soil samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New analytical method for the determination of musks in personal care products by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Cunha, Carina; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance additives and fixative compounds in a diversity of personal care products. A new method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction followed by GC-MS for the analysis of 12 musks in personal care products was developed and validated. Some experimental parameters, such as total QuEChERS mass, sample mass/solvent volume ratio, type of extraction solvent, as well as salts and sorbents amount were investigated and optimized. The final method involves the musks extraction using acetonitrile, followed by the addition of anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium acetate. The clean-up step was performed using dispersive SPE with primary and secondary amine and octadecyl-silica sorbents. This extraction procedure is fast (about 10 min) when compared to other traditional approaches. The method was robust for the matrices studied and shows a high precision (%RSD < 15%) and accuracy (average recovery of 85%), allowing the detection of musks in minimum concentrations between 0.01 ng/g (galaxolide) and 15.80 ng/g (musk xylene). The developed method was applied to the analysis of 12 samples, which revealed musks concentrations ranging from 2 ng/g (toothpaste) to 882,340 ng/g (perfumed body lotion). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Lu-Qin; Li, Fang-Wei; Ding, Yi; Yang, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ming-Lin

    2014-09-26

    Based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the adsorbing material and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we established a new method for the determination of multiple pesticides in vegetables and fruits. It was determined that bare MNPs have excellent function as adsorbent when purified, and it is better to be separated from the extract. The amount of MNPs influenced the clean-up performance and recoveries. To achieve the optimum performance of modified QuEChERS towards the target analytes, several parameters including the amount of the adsorbents and purification time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, recoveries were evaluated in four representative matrices (tomato, cucumber, orange and apple) with the spiked concentrations of 10 μg kg(-1), 50 μg kg(-1)and 200 μg kg(-1) in all cases. The results showed that the recovery of 101 pesticides ranged between 71.5 and 111.7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10.5%. The optimum clean-up system improved the purification efficiency and simultaneously obtained satisfactory recoveries of multiple pesticides, including planar-ring pesticides. In short, the modified QuEChERS method in addition to MNPs used for removing impurities improved the speed of sample pre-treatment and exhibited an enhanced performance and purifying effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A; Li, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Land application of biosolids and irrigation with reclaimed water in agricultural production could result in accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetable produce. To better assess the potential human health impact from long-term consumption of pharmaceutical-contaminated vegetables, it is important to accurately quantify the amount of pharmaceuticals accumulated in vegetables. In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed and optimized to extract multiple classes of pharmaceuticals from vegetables, which were subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. For the eleven target pharmaceuticals in celery and lettuce, the extraction recovery of the QuEChERS method ranged from 70.1 to 118.6% with relative standard deviation <20%, and the method detection limit was achieved at the levels of nanograms of pharmaceuticals per gram of vegetables. The results revealed that the performance of the QuEChERS method was comparable to, or better than that of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method for extraction of pharmaceuticals from plants. The two optimized extraction methods were applied to quantify the uptake of pharmaceuticals by celery and lettuce growing hydroponically. The results showed that all the eleven target pharmaceuticals could be absorbed by the vegetables from water. Compared to the ASE method, the QuEChERS method offers the advantages of short time and reduced costs of sample preparation, and less amount of organic solvents used. The established QuEChERS method could be used to determine the accumulation of multiple classes of pharmaceutical residues in vegetables and other plants, which is needed to evaluate the quality and safety of agricultural produce consumed by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the determination of imidacloprid and its metabolites in soil.

    PubMed

    Akoijam, Romila; Singh, Balwinder; Mandal, Kousik

    2015-04-01

    A simplified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method was standardized and validated for the estimation of residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites from different types of soil comprising sandy loam, loamy sand and clay loam soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, clean up by treatment with primary secondary amine sorbent and graphitized carbon. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique to separate and quantitate residues of polar, nonvolatile and thermolabile chemical compounds, using high-pressure pumps, short and narrow columns packed with microparticulate phases and a detector. The residues were estimated using HPLC equipped with a photodiode array detector system, C18 column. Acetonitrile and water (30 : 70) were used as an isocratic mobile phase at 0.3 mL/min. Imidacloprid and its metabolites presented distinct peaks at retention factors of 4.93 min (6-chloronicotinic acid), 7.91 min (nitroguanidine), 9.12 min (olefin), 11.32 min (nitrosimine), 13.82 min (urea), 15.45 min (5-hydroxy) and 22.47 min (imidacloprid). Consistent recoveries above 80% for imidacloprid and its metabolites were observed when samples were spiked at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg levels. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg. The analytical method was validated in terms of parameters including selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the detection system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Lie; Lv, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Jian

    2016-02-15

    A new analytical method for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol:acetic acid, 99:1, v/v). The extract was further purified by QuEChERS method using primary-secondary amine (PSA) and C18. Finally, the extract was dried by nitrogen under 45°C and reconstituted in water. The separation was performed on a Hypercarb analytical column under a gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of water buffered with ammonium acetate (2.0mM) and acetonitrile. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The values of the decision limit (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ) were 1.1 and 1.5μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of ribavirin ranged from 94.2% to 99.2%. The repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr) of the method ranged from 4.5% to 4.9% and the reproducibility (CVR) of the method ranged from 4.8% to 5.4%. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of ribavirin in chicken muscle in conformity with the current EU performance requirements through validation. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 45min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Timm, Anne; Blaney, Lee

    2017-08-04

    Ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the complex environmental matrices. Here, a multi-residue method has been developed for simultaneous determination of five UV-filters and three estrogens in tissue from aquatic and marine organisms. The procedure involved a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with a novel reverse-solid-phase extraction (reverse-SPE) cleanup in place of dispersive-SPE, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The tissue mass, acetonitrile content, and salt conditions for QuEChERS extraction, along with the reverse-SPE cartridge material and elution conditions, were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Five UV-filters (i.e., 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, benzophenone-3, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octocrylene) and three estrogens (i.e., estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were simultaneously analyzed by taking advantage of wrong-way-round ionization in LC-MS/MS. The optimized analytical protocol exhibited good recoveries (>80%) for target compounds and enabled their detection at concentrations as low as 0.2ng/g in 50mg tissue samples. The method was applied to determine concentrations of target analytes in four invertebrates (i.e., Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, Crassostrea virginica, and Ischadium recurvum). All eight target analytes were detected at least once in the tissue samples, with the highest concentration being 399ng/g of homosalate in O. virilis. These results highlight the ubiquitous bioaccumulation of CECs in aquatic and marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Pesticide analysis in coffee leaves using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Optimization of the clean-up step.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Owen, Robert Wyn; Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Breuer, Andrea; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-08-25

    An analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 52 pesticides in coffee leaf extractshas been developed and validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. Different sorbent combinations for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up as well as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were tested. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the recovery of 87-94% of pesticides added to coffee leaf extracts,was ≤20% for samples spiked at concentrations up to 50ng*g -1 depending on the clean-up procedures. However, samples spiked with a 100ng*g -1 pesticide mixture gave RSDs>20% for most pesticides when d-SPE was carried out adding Supelclean ENVI-Carb 120/400. To explain this fact,the secondary metabolic profile was analyzed in all the extraction and clean-up procedures. Only in the clean-up procedure with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+, does caffeine show a constant adsorption between blank and spiked samples. In other clean-up procedures, the amount of caffeine was higher in those samples spiked with pesticides. This indicates competition between caffeine and pesticides for adsorption to the sorbent. Addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ to the procedure revealed only a 32% matrix effect, whereas using PSA+ C18 the matrix effect was close to 97%. The process efficiency is up to 54% with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ and just up to 7% for the other clean-up procedures. The method was successfully tested in coffee leaves from different types of cultivars. Pesticides were not detected in organic coffee leaf extracts, but thiametoxan was clearly detected in 50% of coffee leaf extracts harvested from coffee trees grown under traditional conditions as determined by UHPLC-TOFMSLC/QqTOF-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

    2015-01-09

    The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in crop plants by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a calibration based on a single level standard addition in the sample.

    PubMed

    Viera, Mariela S; Rizzetti, Tiele M; de Souza, Maiara P; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, optimized by a 2 3 full factorial design, was developed for the determination of 72 pesticides in plant parts of carrot, corn, melon, rice, soy, silage, tobacco, cassava, lettuce and wheat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Considering the complexity of these matrices and the need of use calibration in matrix, a new calibration approach based on single level standard addition in the sample (SLSAS) was proposed in this work and compared with the matrix-matched calibration (MMC), the procedural standard calibration (PSC) and the diluted standard addition calibration (DSAC). All approaches presented satisfactory validation parameters with recoveries from 70 to 120% and relative standard deviations≤20%. SLSAS was the most practical from the evaluated approaches and proved to be an effective way of calibration. Method limit of detection were between 4.8 and 48μgkg -1 and limit of quantification were from 16 to 160μgkg -1 . Method application to different kinds of plants found residues of 20 pesticides that were quantified with z-scores values≤2 in comparison with other calibration approaches. The proposed QuEChERS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and using an easy and effective calibration procedure presented satisfactory results for pesticide residues determination in different crop plants and is a good alternative for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of ametoctradin residue in fruits and vegetables by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingfeng; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Hanqing; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-05-15

    A rapid, effective and sensitive method to quantitatively determine ametoctradin residue in apple, cucumber, cabbage, tomato and grape was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compound was determined in less than 5.0 min using an electrospray ionisation source in positive mode (ESI+). The limit of detection was below 0.043 μg kg(-1), whereas the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.135 μg kg(-1) in all five matrices. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9969) for the target compound. Recovery studies were performed in all matrices at three spiked levels (1, 10 and 100 μg L(-1)). The mean recoveries from five matrices ranged from 81.81% to 100.1%, with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDr) in the range of 0.65-7.88% for the test compound. This method will be useful for the quick and routine detection of ametoctradin residues in potato, grape, cucumber, apple and tomato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  16. Optimization for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of mycotoxins and veterinary drugs by response surface methodology for application to egg and milk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Cong, Jin-Mi; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Zhang, Jing-Shun; Wang, Jun-Lin; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2018-01-12

    A multiclass method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of various classes of veterinary drugs (n = 65), mycotoxins and metabolites (n = 39) in egg and milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contaminants were extracted by QuEChERS-based strategy including salt-out partitioning and dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup further. With the aim of maximizing throughput and extraction efficiency, Plackett-Burman design was employed initially for screening significant variables. And response surface methodology based on central composite design was conducted to achieve optimal conditions in details: 3.35% (v/v) of formic acid in acetonitrile, 1.2 g of NaCl, 0.5 g of anhydrous NaAc, 300 mg of C18 and 140 mg of primary secondary amine. Satisfactory analytical characteristics in validation, in aspects of accuracy (70%-105% for mycotoxins and quinolones, 55%-80% for sulphonamides and 40%-105% for other veterinary drugs), precision (inter-day RSDs < 14%) and sensitivity (LOQs ranged from 0.01 μg/kg to 31 μg/kg), were achieved under the optimized conditions. The matrix effects were evaluated and compensated by the use of matrix-matched calibration curves (R 2  > 0.987). In practice, 45 eggs and 30 milk samples were investigated by the established method, of which positive finding aflatoxin in milk and sterigmatocystin in eggs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative sorbents for the dispersive solid-phase extraction step in quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Rombaldi, Caroline; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2014-09-19

    The clean-up step is essential to reduce interferences, improve quantification and help to maintain the integrity of the chromatographic system when working with complex matrices. In this study, alternative materials were evaluated as sorbents in the dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) for the determination and extraction of seventeen pesticides from rice paddy soil samples by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chitin, chitosan, diatomaceous earth and PSA were compared in terms of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. The best results were achieved when chitosan was used. Quantification limits ranged from 0.1 to 100μgkg(-1). Calibration curves showed correlation coefficient values higher than 0.98. Results of accuracy and precision in the spiked soil samples between 60% and 120%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 20%, were reached for 15 out of 17 pesticides. The matrix effect was evaluated and only one compound was influenced by the matrix components, showing medium effect. Results showed that alternative materials are more effective and less expensive than traditional sorbents which have been usually employed, i.e., they may be used in the D-SPE step during the extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous determination of spirotetramat and its four metabolites in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yulong; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liang, Xuyang; Li, Minmin; Duan, Lifang; Zheng, Yongquan

    2013-07-19

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for the simultaneous determination of spirotetramat and its four metabolites in fruits (apple, peach) and vegetables (cabbage, tomato, potato, cucumber), based on the use of liquid extraction/partition and dispersive solid phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) followed by ultrahigh-performance chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was established. Acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid) as the extraction solvent and simultaneous liquid-liquid partitioning formed by adding anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and anhydrous sodium acetate (NaOAc). The extract was then cleaned up by dispersive-SPE using graphitized carbon black (GCB) as selective sorbent. Further optimization of sample preparation and determination achieved recoveries of between 82 and 110% for all analytes with RSD values lower than 14% in apple, peach, cabbage, tomato, potato and cucumber at three levels (10, 100 and 1000μg/kg). The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9895) for all studied analytes. The determination of the target compounds was achieved in less than 6.0min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+). The method is demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of spirotetramat and its metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the simultaneous detection of four triazolone herbicides in cereals combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yan; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Zheng, Yonguan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a novel, rapid, and sensitive analytical method for monitoring four triazolone herbicides in cereals (wheat, rice, corn, and soybean), using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample extraction procedure followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The four triazolone herbicides (amicarbazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, sulfentrazone, and thiencarbazone-methyl) were extracted using acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% v/v formic acid) and subsequently purified with octadecylsilane (C18 ) prior to sample analysis. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode. Amicarbazone and carfentrazone-ethyl were detected in the positive mode (ESI+), while sulfentrazone and thiencarbazone-methyl were detected in the negative mode (ESI-). All compounds were successfully separated in less than 3.0 min. Further optimization achieved desired recoveries ranging from 74.5 to 102.1% for all analytes with relative standard deviation values ≤17.2% in all tested matrices at three levels (10, 100, and 500 μg/kg). The limits of detection for all compounds were ≤2.3 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation did not exceed 7.1 μg/kg. The developed method showed excellent linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and was proven to be highly efficient and reliable for the routine monitoring of triazolone herbicides in cereals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimisation and matrix effects reduction by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction.

    PubMed

    Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Leang, Sokha; Bernet, Nathalie; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2014-07-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimise an analytical method for the quantification of a bactericide and 13 pharmaceutical products, including 8 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolide), in various aqueous environmental samples: soil water and aqueous fractions of pig slurry, digested pig slurry and sewage sludge. The analysis was performed by online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS). The main challenge was to minimize the matrix effects observed in mass spectrometry, mostly due to ion suppression. They depended on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its origin, and ranged between -22% and +20% and between -38% and -93% of the signal obtained without matrix, in soil water and slurry supernatant, respectively. The very variable levels of these matrix effects suggested DOC content cut-offs above which sample purification was required. These cut-offs depended on compounds, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 290mgC/L for antibiotics (except tylosine) up to 600-6400mgC/L for the most apolar compounds. A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure was therefore optimised using an experimental design methodology, in order to purify samples with high DOC contents. Its performance led to a compromise, allowing fluoroquinolone and tetracycline analysis. The QuEChERS extraction salts consisted therefore of sodium acetate, sodium sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate, and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as a ligand of divalent cations. The modified QuEChERS procedure employed for the extraction of pharmaceuticals in slurry and digested slurry liquid phases reduced the matrix effects for almost all the compounds, with extraction recoveries generally above 75%. The performance characteristics of the method were evaluated in terms of linearity, intra-day and inter

  2. Simultaneous determination of five plant growth regulators in fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaomei; Jin, Fen; Huang, Yuting; Du, Xinwei; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Miao; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-11

    An effective method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized to obtain a complete separation of five representative plant growth regulators (PGRs) [gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron, forchlorfenuron, and paclobutrazol] in fruits. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid, applying modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methodology. LC-MS/MS conditions including composition of mobile phases and mass spectrometry (MS) conditions were evaluated to achieve the highest sensitivity in MS detection. All of the data acquisition was employed in the segmented multiple-reaction monitoring mode for the selected negative and positive transition ions. The octadecylsilyl (C18) dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was found to provide the more satisfied recoveries than primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) for five target PGRs. The optimized method allowed for recoveries of 76-112% for the five PGRs from fruit samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 10%. Limits of quantification (0.5-16.5 μg/kg) were lower than the maximum limit of residues established for PGRs. The results demonstrated that the developed LC-MS/MS and QuEChERS extraction method is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of target PGRs in fruit samples. Finally, the method was successfully used to detect residual PGRs in Beijing, China, in 2010. The concentrations of 2,4-D (5.1-1503 μg/kg) and paclobutrazol (1-1381 μg/kg) found in orange and peach, respectively, suggesting that the use of these PGRs in these fruits should be regulated in China in the future.

  3. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Li, Yuanbo; Shan, Weili; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-09-19

    A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150°C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10°C min(-1) to 240°C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 μg kg(-1), which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of simeconazole in food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A robust preference for cheap-and-easy strategies over reliable strategies when verifying personal memories.

    PubMed

    Nash, Robert A; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Adelman, James S

    2017-08-01

    People depend on various sources of information when trying to verify their autobiographical memories. Yet recent research shows that people prefer to use cheap-and-easy verification strategies, even when these strategies are not reliable. We examined the robustness of this cheap strategy bias, with scenarios designed to encourage greater emphasis on source reliability. In three experiments, subjects described real (Experiments 1 and 2) or hypothetical (Experiment 3) autobiographical events, and proposed strategies they might use to verify their memories of those events. Subjects also rated the reliability, cost, and the likelihood that they would use each strategy. In line with previous work, we found that the preference for cheap information held when people described how they would verify childhood or recent memories (Experiment 1), personally important or trivial memories (Experiment 2), and even when the consequences of relying on incorrect information could be significant (Experiment 3). Taken together, our findings fit with an account of source monitoring in which the tendency to trust one's own autobiographical memories can discourage people from systematically testing or accepting strong disconfirmatory evidence.

  5. Comparison of micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochu; Bian, Yanli; Liu, Fengmao; Teng, Peipei; Sun, Pan

    2017-10-06

    Two simple sample pretreatment for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea was developed including micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (ME-IL-VALLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. In ME-IL-VALLME method, the target analyte was extracted by surfactant Tween 20 micellar solution, then the supernatant was diluted with 3mL water to decrease the solubility of micellar solution. Subsequently, the vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was performed in the diluted extraction solution by using the ionic liquid of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF 6 ) as the extraction solvent and Tween 20 as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into the aqueous phase. Parameters that affect the extraction have been investigated in both methods Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantitation were 0.10 and 0.05mgkg -1 , respectively. And good linearity was achieved with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.9941. The relative recoveries ranged from 78.6 to 94.8% and 92.0 to 118.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 7.9-9.6% and 1.2-3.2%, respectively. Both methods were quick, simple and inexpensive. However, the ME-IL-VALLME method provides higher enrichment factor compared with conventional QuEChERS method. The ME-IL-VALLME method has a strong potential for the determination of difenoconazole in complex vegetable matrices with HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Residue analysis of four diacylhydrazine insecticides in fruits and vegetables by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Li, Yuanbo; Song, Wenchen; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-08-01

    The new analytical method using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) procedure for simultaneous determination of diacylhydrazine insecticide residues in fruits and vegetables was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The four insecticides (tebufenozide, methoxfenozide, chromafenozide, and halofenozide) were extracted from six fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The determination of the target compounds was achieved in less than 3.0 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode (ESI+) for tebufenozide, methoxfenozide, and halofenozide and in negative mode (ESI-) for chromafenozide. The limits of detection were below 0.6 μg kg(-1), while the limit of quantification did not exceed 2 μg kg(-1) in different matrices. The QuEChERS procedure by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards gave satisfactory recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) values in different matrices at four spiked levels (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 mg kg(-1)). The overall average recoveries for this method in apple, grape, cucumber, tomato, cabbage, and spinach at four levels ranged from 74.2% to 112.5% with RSDs in the range of 1.4-13.8% (n = 5) for all analytes. This study provides a theoretical basis for China to draw up maximum residue limits and analytical method for diacylhydrazine insecticide in vegetables and fruits.

  7. High-throughput method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe followed by liquid chromatography-multi-wavelength detection for the quantification of multiclass polyphenols in wines.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Ariel R; Bottini, Rubén

    2014-05-16

    In this work, a reliable, simple, fast, inexpensive and robust sample preparation approach for the determination of multiclass polyphenols in wine samples is proposed. The polyphenols selected for this work were gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and cinnamic acid. The method is based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction technique coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up. Under optimized conditions, the analytes were extracted from 5mL wine samples (previously acidified with 1% formic acid) using 2.5mL acetonitrile. For phase separation, 1.5g NaCl and 4g anhydrous MgSO4 were added. Then, a 1mL aliquot of the partitioned supernatant was cleaned-up using d-SPE with a combination of 150mg CaCl2, 50mg primary-secondary amine (PSA) and 50mgC18 as sorbents. A 250μL aliquot of the obtained cleaned extract was concentrated to dryness and taken up with the initial mobile phase previous to liquid chromatography-multi-wavelength detection (LC-MWD). The proposed method provided limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.004 to 0.079μgmL(-1) and an inter-day variability below 12% RSD for all analytes in red and white wine samples. Considering external calibration (red wines) and matrix-matched calibration (white wines) as quantification techniques, the overall recoveries (accuracy) of the method ranged between 75.0% and 119.6% for red and white wine samples, respectively. The developed method was applied for the determination of polyphenols in 10 wines produced in Argentina. Nine phenolic compounds were determined, at concentrations above detectable levels in the method. The maximum concentrations corresponded to (-)-epicatechin in white wines, while gallic acid and (+)-catechin were the most abundant in red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Morgan, Marsha K; Graham, Stephen E; Starr, James M

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is important to understand the contribution of these degradates when studying sources of human pyrethroid exposure. We modified the widely used Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method to measure several current-use pyrethroids (cis/trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and cyhalothrin) and their environmental degradation products (3-PBA, cis/trans-DCCA, 4-F-3-PBA, DBCA, and MPA) in selected fresh fruits and vegetables. Using fortified samples, we determined extraction efficiencies from: tomatoes, oranges (whole, peeled, and rind), grapes, apples, bananas (peeled and rind only), onions, lettuce, green peppers, carrots and broccoli. For a subset of these food items (apples, grapes, tomatoes, lettuce and banana peel), we also established limits of detection (MDLs) and quantitation (MQLs). Each sample was homogenized (1kg) then spiked with the target pyrethroids and their degradation products. Sub-samples (15g) were extracted with acetonitrile, then salted out and partitioned with NaCl and MgSO4. The extract was divided and further cleaned using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing either graphitized non-porous carbon (pyrethroids) or C18 (degradation products). Sample analysis was via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Considering the mean recoveries each of the 14 analytes in all 13 matrices: 42% of the recoveries were ≥90%, 70% were ≥80%, and 90% were ≥70%. All MDL's were less than 100ng/kg, except 3-PBA (132ng/kg, tomato), MPA (129ng/kg, tomato), and trans-permethrin (141ng/kg, banana peel). We then applied the method to non-spiked samples (subset of 5 for which the MDLs/MQLs had been

  9. Statistical evaluation of the influence of soil properties on recoveries and matrix effects during the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds and steroids by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-08

    Numerous chemical products are dispersed in our environment. Many of them are recognized as harmful to humans and the ecosystem. Among these harmful substances are antibiotics and steroid hormones. Currently, very few data are available on the presence and fate of these substances in the environment, in particular for solid matrices, mainly due to a lack of analytical methodologies. Indeed, soil is a very complex matrix, and the nature and composition of the soil has a significant impact on the extraction efficiency and the sensitivity of the method. For this reason a statistical approach was performed to study the influence of soil parameters (clay, silt, sand and organic carbon percentages and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) on recoveries and matrix effects of various pharmaceuticals and steroids. Thus, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed when several substances were analyzed simultaneously, whereas a Pearson correlation was used to study the compounds individually. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first time such an experiment was performed. The results showed that clay and organic carbon percentages as well as the CEC have an impact on the recoveries of most of the target substances, the variables being anti-correlated. This result suggests that the compounds are trapped in soils with high levels of clay and organic carbon and a high CEC. For the matrix effects, it was shown that the organic carbon content has a significant effect on steroid hormones and penicillin G matrix effects (positive correlation). Finally, interaction effects (first order) were evaluated. This latter point corresponds to the crossed effects that occur between explanatory variables (soil parameters). Indeed, the value taken by an explanatory variable can have an influence on the effect that another explanatory variable has on a dependent variable. For instance, it was shown that some parameters (silt, sand) have an impact on the effect that clay content has on

  10. Rapid residue analysis of oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in typical Chinese soil, water, and sediments by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chao; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zhao, Huanhuan; Zheng, Yongquan; Xu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and effective method for the simultaneous determination of residues from a new fungicide, oxathiapiprolin, and its metabolites (IN-E8S72 and IN-WR791) in soil, water, and sediment, was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Three compounds were extracted from water, soil, and sediment by using acetonitrile and different proportions of formic acid aqueous solution (1% v/v for water; 2% v/v for soil; and sediment), and were cleaned with octadecylsilane. The target compounds were determined within 5 min using an electrospray ionization source in the positive mode for oxathiapiprolin and in the negative mode for the two metabolites. The limits of quantification for all the three compounds were 0.1 μg/kg in water and 1 μg/kg in soil and sediment. Recovery studies were performed using three spiked levels (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/kg for water; 1, 10, and 50 μg/kg for soil and sediment). The overall average recoveries ranged from 64.8 to 112.7% with all intra- and interday relative standard deviation values below 19.4 and 19.1%, respectively. The method validation confirmed that the proposed method was convenient and reliable for determining residual oxathiapiprolin and its metabolites in soil, water, and sediments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A statistical approach to determine fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soils, sediment and sludge based on a combination of chemometric tools and a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Zhu, Yulong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Li, Minmin; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-09-05

    An effective method for the quantification of fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soils, sediment and sludge was developed using ultrahigh performance chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Both the extraction and clean-up steps of the QuEChERS procedure were optimised using a chemometric tool, which was expected to facilitate the rapid analysis with minimal procedures. Several operating parameters (MeCN/acetic acid ratio in the extraction solution (i.e., acetic acid percentage), water volume, extraction time, PSA amount, C18 amount, and GCB amount) were investigated using a Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Afterward, the significant factors (acetic acid percentage, water volume, and PSA amount) obtained were optimised using central composite design (CCD) combined with the desirability function (DF) to determine the optimum experimental conditions. The optimised procedure provides high-level linearity for all studied compounds with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9972 and 0.9999. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1 to 1.0μg/kg and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were between 0.5 and 3.4μg/kg with relative standard deviations (RSD) between 2.3% and 9.6% (n=6). Therefore, the developed protocol can serve as a simple and sensitive tool for monitoring fluxapyroxad and its three metabolites in soil, sediment and sludge samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a method for the analysis of hormones and pharmaceuticals in earthworms by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-01

    The earthworm represents a kind of creature in contact with the soil surface and usually exposed to a variety of organic pollutants from human activities. Therefore, it can be considered as an organism of choice for identifying pollution or better understanding the input of contaminants in food chains in particular through the contributions of sludge. Moreover, the use of organisms such as soil invertebrates is to be developed for ecotoxicological risk assessment of pollutants. In this context, a simple, rapid and effective multi-residue method was developed for the determination of 31 compounds including 11 steroids, 14 veterinary antibiotics and 6 human contaminants (paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, fluvoxamine, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, bisphenol A) in earthworm. The sample preparation procedure was based on a salting-out extraction with acetonitrile (QuEChERS approach) that was optimised with regard to the acetonitrile/water ratio used in the extraction step, the choice of the clean-up and the quantity of the matrix. The optimised extraction method exhibited recoveries that comprised between 44 and 98 % for all the tested compounds. The limits of detection of all compounds were below 14 ng g(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) comprised between 1.6 and 40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The method was therefore applied to determine the levels of pharmaceuticals and hormones in six earthworm samples collected in various soils. Concentrations up to 195 ng g(-1) for bisphenol A were determined, between a few nanograms per gram and 43.1 ng g(-1) (estriol) for hormones and between a few nanograms per gram and 73.5 ng g(-1) (florfenicol) for pharmaceuticals. Experiments were also conducted in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accumulation of the target substances by earthworm.

  13. Red rubber bulb, cheap and effective vacuum drainage.

    PubMed

    Vatanasapt, V; Areemit, S; Jeeravipoolvarn, P; Kuyyakanond, T; Kuptarnond, C

    1989-04-01

    Red rubber bulbs have been used for vacuum drainage in head, neck, breast and several other operations by the authors since 1975 quite effectively without any major problems. The vacuum pressure of the red rubber bulbs was found to be higher than the expensive commercially available vacuum wound drainage device. The question of remaining old blood and infective microorganisms inside the reservoir for the reused ones were tested by the manual cleaning process and the standard sterile technique using steam under increased pressure (autoclave). The result is quite satisfactory. We encourage the use of this cheap and effective (made in Thailand) vacuum wound drainage in Thai hospitals and Thai medical schools.

  14. Technical Note: A safe, cheap, and easy-to-use isotropic diffusion MRI phantom for clinical and multicenter studies.

    PubMed

    Pullens, Pim; Bladt, Piet; Sijbers, Jan; Maas, Andrew I R; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-03-01

    Since Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data acquisition and processing are not standardized, substantial differences in DWI derived measures such as Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) may arise which are related to the acquisition or MRI processing method, but not to the sample under study. Quality assurance using a standardized test object, or phantom, is a key factor in standardizing DWI across scanners. Current diffusion phantoms are either complex to use, not available in larger quantities, contain substances unwanted in a clinical environment, or are expensive. A diffusion phantom based on a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution, together with a phantom holder, is presented and compared to existing diffusion phantoms for use in clinical DWI scans. An ADC vs. temperature calibration curve was obtained. ADC of the phantom (808 to 857 ± 0.2 mm 2 /s) is in the same range as ADC values found in brain tissue. ADC measurements are highly reproducible across time with an intra-class correlation coefficient of > 0.8. ADC as function of temperature (in Kelvin) can be estimated as ADCm(T)=[exp(-7.09)·exp-2903.81T-1293.55] with a total uncertainty (95% confidence limit) of ± 1.7%. We present an isotropic diffusion MRI phantom, together with its temperature calibration curve, that is easy-to-use in a clinical environment, cost-effective, reproducible to produce, and that contains no harmful substances. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. All About Oxygen in the Ocean: Cheap, Quick and Easy Experiments for Pupils Grades 5 to 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Dengg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The collaborative research project (SFB 754) at GEOMAR Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany addresses among others the decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the oceans. The school outreach component of the SFB 754 a project funded by the German Science Foundation aims to spread the science behind ocean de-oxygenation in secondary schools in Germany. To realise this goal, a series of hands-on experiments have been developed on different topics like gas solubility in water, gas transport in the ocean, oxygen production by phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by bacteria and experiments on nutrient uptake by phytoplankton. The experiments developed are simple, using low cost and reusable materials thus ensuring affordability in schools. For the hands-on session the following experiments will be presented: (1) The effects of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, nature of solute and nature of solvent on the solubility of oxygen in water will be demonstrated using Luer-Lock syringes, (2) Oxygen transport from the ocean surface to the deep will be shown in an experiment using a modification of the "blue-bottle" experiment, and (3) Simulation of ocean circulation employing a 2-dimensional tank. Applications and experiment ideas using immobilised phytoplankton and other procedures suitable for schools for measuring oxygen consumption by bacteria will be introduced in a poster presentation.

  16. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Networking the Physical World Made Cheap and Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, N. T.; Mendez, J. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Hoffman, C.

    2012-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. Non-standardized interfaces make instrument integration and field operation cumbersome and error-prone. Indeed, the assembly and deployment of some systems can take months and incur high costs. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply "plugging" devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Mechanical integration is also accelerated by repackaging instruments according to the CubeSAT form-factor (multiples of 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes). In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To demonstrate our initial success, we first discuss the Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), a low-cost, modular, spaceweather satellite running LION-PNP. BUSAT is a completely student-driven project meant for magnetospheric-ionospheric research incorporating 4

  17. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Patron ID Cards Made Easy and Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peischl, Tom

    1978-01-01

    Four major problems of academic library identification cards are expense, distribution, timeliness, and validation. By moving from a commercially produced plastic library card to a locally produced paper IBM-type card, this library solved these four library card problems. (Author)

  19. Cheap Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Terry G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity from the ninth-grade physical science program at the Energy Management Center, the outdoor science and energy education center for students in Pasco County, Florida. The activity focuses on making an effective solar collector. (JN)

  20. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  1. Cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation: A salt-free way to begin quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe.

    PubMed

    Shao, Gang; Agar, Jeffrey; Giese, Roger W

    2017-07-14

    Cooling a 1:1 (v/v) solution of acetonitrile and water at -16° C is known to result in two clear phases. We will refer to this event as "cold-induced aqueous acetonitrile phase separation (CIPS)". On a molar basis, acetonitrile is 71.7% and 13.6% in the upper and lower phases, respectively, in our study. The phase separation proceeds as a descending cloud of microdroplets. At the convenient temperature (typical freezer) employed here the lower phase is rather resistant to solidification, although it emerges from the freezer as a solid if various insoluble matter is present at the outset. In a preliminary way, we replaced the initial (salting-out) step of a representative QuEChERS procedure with CIPS, applying this modified procedure ("CIPS-QuEChERS") to a homogenate of salmon (and partly to beef). Three phases resulted, where only the upper, acetonitrile-rich phase is a liquid (that is completely clear). The middle phase comprises ice and precipitated lipids, while the lower phase is the residual matrix of undissolved salmon or meat. Treating the upper phase from salmon, after isolation, with anhydrous MgSO 4 and C18-Si (typical QuEChERS dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents), and injecting into a GC-MS in a nontargeted mode, gives two-fold more preliminary hits for chemicals, and also number of spiked pesticides recovered, relative to that from a comparable QuEChERS method. In part, this is because of much higher background signals in the latter case. Further study of CIPS-QuEChERS is encouraged, including taking advantage of other QuERChERS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Treesearch

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  3. 50 ways to trace your veteran: increasing response rates can be cheap and effective

    PubMed Central

    Fear, Nicola Townsend; Van Staden, Lauren; Iversen, Amy; Hall, John; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background while low response rates need not introduce bias into research, having a lower percentage of responders does increase the potential for this to occur. This is of particular concern given the decline that has been occurring in response rates since the 1950s. However, there are various methods that can be incorporated into the study design, which can assist in increasing levels of participation. Objective To outline the methods used by the King's Centre for Military Health Research (KCMHR) when conducting a recent telephone survey of serving and ex-Service military personnel. Design Using participants who had already taken part in a questionnaire-based study on the health effects of serving in the UK Armed Forces (n=10,272), a subsample was selected for an in-depth telephone interview-based follow-up study. The subsample consisted of 1,105 participants, selected on the basis of their mental health status. An adjusted response rate of 76% was achieved (n=821). Results Various methods of contact were used in this study to ensure an adequate response rate was achieved. Conclusions Simple research strategies increase response rates and are likely to reduce bias. Use of multiple simultaneous tracing methods and customisation of the approach to the target population increases rapport between participants, ensuring that those who take part feel valued as members of the study. In the current climate of decreasing participation in studies, research teams need to engage with their study population and devise innovative strategies to keep participants involved in the research being undertaken. PMID:22893795

  4. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  5. The Effectiveness of SpeechEasy during Situations of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer J.; Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple single-subject design was used to examine the effects of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in the laboratory and in longitudinal samples of speech produced in situations of daily living (SDL). Seven adults who stutter participated, all of whom had exhibited at least 30% reduction in stuttering frequency while using SpeechEasy during…

  6. Estimating linear effects in ANOVA designs: the easy way.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Michal; Tzelgov, Joseph; Ganor-Stern, Dana

    2012-09-01

    Research in cognitive science has documented numerous phenomena that are approximated by linear relationships. In the domain of numerical cognition, the use of linear regression for estimating linear effects (e.g., distance and SNARC effects) became common following Fias, Brysbaert, Geypens, and d'Ydewalle's (1996) study on the SNARC effect. While their work has become the model for analyzing linear effects in the field, it requires statistical analysis of individual participants and does not provide measures of the proportions of variability accounted for (cf. Lorch & Myers, 1990). In the present methodological note, using both the distance and SNARC effects as examples, we demonstrate how linear effects can be estimated in a simple way within the framework of repeated measures analysis of variance. This method allows for estimating effect sizes in terms of both slope and proportions of variability accounted for. Finally, we show that our method can easily be extended to estimate linear interaction effects, not just linear effects calculated as main effects.

  7. Determination of cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Qin, Dongmei; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-10-01

    A new, highly sensitive, and selective method was developed for the determination of the cyflumetofen residue in water, soil, and fruits by using gas chromatography quadruple mass spectrometry. The target compound was extracted using acetonitrile and then cleaned up using dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary and secondary amine and graphitized carbon black, and optionally by a freezing-out cleanup step. The matrix-matched standards gave satisfactory recoveries and relative standard deviation values in different matrices at three fortified levels (0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) ). The overall average recoveries for this method in water, soil, and all fruits matrix at three fortified levels ranged from 76.3 to 101.5% with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.2-11.8% (n = 5). The calculated limits of detection and quantification were typically below 0.005 and 0.015 μg kg(-1), which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by Japanese Positive List. This study provides a theoretical basis for China to draw up maximum residue level and analytical method for cyflumetofen acaricide in different fruits. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  9. Facile synthesis of amine-functional reduced graphene oxides as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for multi-pesticide residues analysis of tea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guicen; Zhang, Minglu; Zhu, Li; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-01-05

    Amine-functional reduced graphene oxide (amine-rGO) with different carbon chain length amino groups were successfully synthesized. The graphene oxides (GO) reduction as well as amino grafting were achieved simultaneously in one step via a facile solvothermal synthetic strategy. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the modification of GO with different amino groups. The adsorption performance of catechins and caffeine from tea acetonitrile extracts on different amine functional rGO samples were evaluated. It was found that tributylamine-functional rGO (tri-BuA-rGO) exhibited the highest adsorption ability for catechins and caffeine compared to GO and other amino group functional rGO samples. It was worth to note that the adsorption capacity of catechins on tri-BuA-rGO was 11 times higher than that of GO (203.7mgg -1 vs 18.7mgg -1 ). Electrostatic interaction, π-π interaction and surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of tri-BuA-rGO played important roles in the adsorption of catechins as well as caffeine. The gravimetric analysis confirmed that the tri-BuA-rGO achieved the highest efficient cleanup preformance compared with traditional dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) adsorbents like primary-secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) or C18. A multi-pesticides analysis method based on tri-BuA-rGO is validated on 33 representative pesticides in tea using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis method gave a high coefficient of determination (r 2 >0.99) for each pesticide and satisfactory recoveries in a range of 72.1-120.5%. Our study demonstrated that amine functional rGO as a new type of QuEChERS adsorbent is expected to be widely applied for analysis of pesticides at trace levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Treesearch

    Ke He; Anne Timm; Lee Blaney

    2017-01-01

    tUltraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the...

  11. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  12. Long-Term Effectiveness of the SpeechEasy Fluency-Enhancement Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Ronald F.; Runyan, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    The SpeechEasy has been found to be an effective device for reduction of stuttering frequency for many people who stutter (PWS); published studies typically have compared stuttering reduction at initial fitting of the device to results achieved up to one year later. This study examines long-term effectiveness by examining whether effects of the…

  13. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-06-14

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner's dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player's cooperation choices in prisoner's dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were 'moral bargain hunters' who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a 'price list' of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game.

  14. Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner’s dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player’s cooperation choices in prisoner’s dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were ‘moral bargain hunters’ who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a ‘price list’ of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game. PMID:27296466

  15. Long-term effectiveness of the SpeechEasy fluency-enhancement device.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Ronald F; Runyan, Charles M

    2012-12-01

    The SpeechEasy has been found to be an effective device for reduction of stuttering frequency for many people who stutter (PWS); published studies typically have compared stuttering reduction at initial fitting of the device to results achieved up to one year later. This study examines long-term effectiveness by examining whether effects of the SpeechEasy were maintained for longer periods, from 13 to 59 months. Results indicated no significant change for seven device users from post-fitting to the time of the study (t=-.074, p=.943); however, findings varied greatly on a case-by-case basis. Most notably, when stuttering frequency for eleven users and former users, prior to device fitting, was compared to current stuttering frequency while not wearing the device, the change over time was found to be statistically significant (t=2.851, p=.017), suggesting a carry-over effect of the device. There was no significant difference in stuttering frequency when users were wearing versus not wearing the device currently (t=1.949, p=0.92). Examinations of these results, as well as direction for future research, are described herein. The reader will be able to: (a) identify and briefly describe two types of altered auditory feedback which the SpeechEasy incorporates in order to help reduce stuttering; (b) describe the carry-over effect found in this study, suggest effectiveness associated with the device over a longer period of time than previously reported, as well as its implications, and (c) list factors that might be assessed in future research involving this device in order to more narrowly determine which prospective users are most likely to benefit from employing the SpeechEasy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does self-efficacy mediate transfer effects in the learning of easy and difficult motor skills?

    PubMed

    Stevens, David; Anderson, David I; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J; Mark Williams, A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of task difficulty on inter-task transfer is a classic issue in motor learning. We examined the relation between self-efficacy and transfer of learning after practicing different versions of a stick balancing task. Practicing the same task or an easier version led to significant pre- to post-test transfer of learning, whereas practicing a more difficult version did not. Self-efficacy increased modestly from pre- to post-test with easy practice, but decreased significantly with difficult practice. In addition, self-efficacy immediately prior to the post-test was significantly lower after difficult practice than easy or intermediate practice. Self-efficacy immediately prior to the post-test, performance at the end of practice, and pre-test performance explained 75% of the variance in post-test performance. The mediating role of self-efficacy on transfer of learning offers an alternative explanation for recent findings on the superiority of easy-to-difficult transfer and may help clarify inconsistencies in earlier research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  18. Effect of atomic monolayer insertions on electric-field-induced rotation of magnetic easy axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujikawa, M.; Haraguchi, S.; Oda, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the electric field (EF) effect on the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) in the thin films MgO/M/Fe/Au(001) and MgO/Fe/M(001) (M = Pd, Pt, and Au) by means of first-principles density-functional calculations. We find that the MAE varies linearly with the EF and investigate the change in slope of the MAE as a function of the EF as the buffer layer is changed. We find that a single monatomic buffer layer may be useful for devices that use EF-modified MAE. We simulate the critical EF for easy-axis rotation and discuss interface effects of Mg/Fe and Fe/Au on MAE.

  19. The Easy-to-Hard Effect in Human (Homo sapiens) and Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Auditory Identification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Estella H.; Mercado, Eduardo; Church, Barbara A.; Orduña, Itzel

    2009-01-01

    Training exercises can improve perceptual sensitivities. We examined whether progressively training humans and rats to perform a difficult auditory identification task led to larger improvements than extensive training with highly similar sounds (the easy-to-hard effect). Practice improved humans’ ability to distinguish sounds regardless of the training regimen. However, progressively trained participants were more accurate and showed more generalization, despite significantly less training with the stimuli that were the most difficult to distinguish. Rats showed less capacity to improve with practice, but still benefited from progressive training. These findings indicate that transitioning from an easier to a more difficult task during training can facilitate, and in some cases may be essential for, auditory perceptual learning. The results are not predicted by an explanation that assumes interaction of generalized excitation and inhibition, but are consistent with a hierarchical account of perceptual learning in which the representational precision required to distinguish stimuli determines the mechanisms engaged during learning. PMID:18489229

  20. Users guide for EASI graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. EASI Graphics is a computer graphics extension of EASI which provides a capability for performing sensitivity and trade-off analyses of the parameters of a physical protection system. This document reports on the implementation of EASI Graphics and illustrates its application with some examples.

  1. Is Cheap Labor a Magnet for Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John R., II

    1995-01-01

    Contends that it is widely believed that cheap labor in poor countries attracts foreign investors. Asserts that historical evidence indicates that past patterns of direct foreign investment in poor countries are inconsistent with the cheap-labor argument. Includes two figures and one table. (CFR)

  2. Teach the Way They Learn: 62 Easy, Engaging, & Effective Language Arts Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    This book focuses on quick and easy language arts activities to inspire and motivate students in kindergarten to sixth grades. Ingenious ideas appeal to children's enthusiasm for games, parades, race cars, their own names, and much more. The activities cost little or nothing. They engage young learners, and they work! This book is perfect for a…

  3. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    D BY RICHARD C. NELSON AND PHILIP E. MARTIN BIOMECHANICS LABORATORY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA MARCH...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Biomechanics Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park. Pennsylvania 16802 10. PROGRAM...REFERENCES APPENDICES A. Clothing and Equipment Used in This Study B. ANOVA Summary Tables for Easy Standing C. ANOVA Summary Tables for

  4. A closer look at 'Cheap White' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Vellios, Nicole; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-09-01

    Given the prominence of Cheap Whites in illicit tobacco discussions, we examined various definitions, market presence, brand proliferation, manufacturers, production locations, trademark ownership, prices and compliance with tax stamp and warning labels. Data from peer-reviewed and grey literature, newspapers, trademark registries, governments/international organisation reports, and the tobacco industry were contrasted with two visual legal requirements (tax stamps and warning labels) and prices from the Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS). Multiple sources identified 82 Cheap White brands and 53 manufacturers operating at least 82 production facilities. One-third of these manufacturers are in the free zones of Russia, Cyprus and the UAE. Two-thirds of the 37 Cheap White brands in the TPackSS had neither the correct health warning nor the required tax stamp in at least one country where they were purchased. Cheap Whites are on average less expensive than all other brands, but the price gap is often not as large as anecdotally reported. The cheapest Cheap White cigarettes purchased in one of the TPackSS countries irrespective of the presence of legal signs were still more expensive than the least expensive other brands satisfying both legal requirements. We confirmed that many Cheap White brands do not comply with the legal requirements in countries where they are sold, but also found that some of these cigarettes appear to be sold legally even outside their country of origin. The presence of untaxed Cheap Whites undermines tobacco tax policies, while the availability of legal cheap cigarettes is a public health concern. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Cheap electricity from French tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, H.

    1980-02-01

    A tidal power plant built in Saint-Malo, France is examined, and some of the problems that have resulted in recent years are analyzed. These include mechanical problems due to turbine runner-blade seal failure and electrical problems involving electroerosion and structural station difficulties. the effects of tidal power plants on the environment are discussed, and it is noted that all possible side effects of the operations are very limited. Attention is given to the basic requirements for constructing power sites.

  6. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  7. Non-volatile logic gates based on planar Hall effect in magnetic films with two in-plane easy axes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyeop; Bac, Seul-Ki; Choi, Seonghoon; Lee, Hakjoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Xinyu; Dobrowolska, M; Furdyna, Jacek K

    2017-04-25

    We discuss the use of planar Hall effect (PHE) in a ferromagnetic GaMnAs film with two in-plane easy axes as a means for achieving novel logic functionalities. We show that the switching of magnetization between the easy axes in a GaMnAs film depends strongly on the magnitude of the current flowing through the film due to thermal effects that modify its magnetic anisotropy. Planar Hall resistance in a GaMnAs film with two in-plane easy axes shows well-defined maxima and minima that can serve as two binary logic states. By choosing appropriate magnitudes of the input current for the GaMnAs Hall device, magnetic logic functions can then be achieved. Specifically, non-volatile logic functionalities such as AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates can be obtained in such a device by selecting appropriate initial conditions. These results, involving a simple PHE device, hold promise for realizing programmable logic elements in magnetic electronics.

  8. The SpeechEasy device in stuttering and nonstuttering adults: fluency effects while speaking and reading.

    PubMed

    Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Corey, David M; Golob, Edward J; Conture, Edward G

    2013-08-01

    The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a significantly greater reduction in stuttering (compared to baseline) with custom device settings compared to the non-altered feedback (control) condition. Stuttering was reduced the most during reading, followed by narrative and conversation. For the conversation task, stuttering was reduced more when the device was worn in the left ear. Those individuals with a more severe stuttering rate at baseline had a greater benefit from the use of the device compared to individuals with less severe stuttering. Our results support the view that overt stuttering is associated with defective speech-language monitoring that can be influenced by manipulating auditory feedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of easy-to-read pamphlets about self-care management of radiation side effects on patients' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Feleta L; Mood, Darlene; Nordstrom, Cheryl K

    2010-11-01

    To test patients' knowledge of side effects after they review six easy-to-read pamphlets on radiation side effects. Nonexperimental. Urban radiation oncology clinic. 47 patients receiving radiation treatment. The Knowledge of Radiation Side Effects Test was administered. Patient literacy and knowledge level. The self-report of highest grade completed in school was 10th grade; however, the actual reading level was 4th-6th grade. Scores for each knowledge test increased with literacy level, with statistically significant correlations for pamphlets on fatigue, skin problems for women, and skin problems for men. Participants who read at the 4th-6th-grade level scored higher than expected. Although the pamphlets were deemed easy to read, patients who had the lowest reading levels still had difficulty understanding them. In addition to written patient information, oncology nurses should use innovative teaching strategies to improve patient understanding and self-care behaviors. A need exists for continued nursing inquiry that will focus on self-care behaviors to manage radiation side effects, particularly for patients with low literacy.

  10. An easy and effective approach to manage radiologic portable document format (PDF) files using iTunes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li Jun; Zhou, Mi; Xu, Jian Rong

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to explain an easy and effective approach for managing radiologic files in portable document format (PDF) using iTunes. PDF files are widely used as a standard file format for electronic publications as well as for medical online documents. Unfortunately, there is a lack of powerful software to manage numerous PDF documents. In this article, we explain how to use the hidden function of iTunes (Apple Computer) to manage PDF documents as easily as managing music files.

  11. Fast determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in leafy vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze-Jun; Cao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chan; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Jin, Mao-Jun; Wang, Shan-Shan; She, Yong-Xin; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-24

    In the present study, a quick and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPxEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPxEOs) (x=2-20) in three leafy vegetables, including cabbage, lettuce, and spinach using a modified "QuEChERS" method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Under optimized conditions, the 38 target analytes were analyzed within a short period of time (5 min). The linearities of the matrix-matched standard calibrations were satisfactory with coefficients of determination (R 2 )>0.99 and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were in between 0.02-0.27 and 0.18-1.75μgkg -1 , respectively. The recovery of all target analytes spiked at three (low, medium, and high) fortification levels in various leafy vegetables were ranged from 72.8-122.6% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤18.3%. The method was successfully applied to market samples and the target analytes were found in all monitored samples, with total concentrations of 0-8.67μgkg -1 and 15.75-95.75μgkg -1 for OPxEOs and NPxEOs (x=2-20), respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed UHPSFC-ESI-MS/MS method is rapid and versatile and could be extrapolated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of APxEOs in other leafy vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  13. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5ppm) mass spectrometry. The performance of the method was evaluated according to the EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for the analysis of veterinary drugs residues. Acceptable values were obtained for: linearity (R(2)<0.99), limit of detection (LOD, 3-26μg/kg), limit of quantification (LOQ, 11-88μg/kg), accuracy (recovery 88-112%), intra- and inter-day precision 1-14 and 1-17%, respectively, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) around the maximum residue limits (MRL) of SAs (100μg/kg). The method was validated by analysis of a reference material FAPAS-02188 "Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀ<0.63. The method was applied to various matrices (kidney, liver, muscle) originated from pig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Secret to Patron-Centered Web Design: Cheap, Easy, and Powerful Usability Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Erica

    2008-01-01

    When the Johnson County Library (JoCo Library), a midsize suburban public library in Kansas City, Kansas, completely rebuilt its 2,000-plus-page website--one that had remained relatively stable for almost 5 years--the reaction from patrons and staff members was overwhelmingly positive. The web development team at the JoCo Library realized that the…

  15. Utilising Raspberry Pi as a cheap and easy do it yourself streaming device for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, F.; Soegijoko, W.; Yamani, A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in personal computing platforms have been revolutionary. With the advent of the Raspberry Pi series and the Arduino series, sub USD 100 computing platforms have changed the playing field altogether. It used to be that you would need a PC or an FPGA platform costing thousands of USD to create a dedicated device for a a dedicated task. Combining a PiCam with the Raspberry Pi allows for smaller budgets to be able to stream live images to the internet and to the public in general. This paper traces our path in designing and adapting the PiCam to a common sized eyepiece and telescope in preparation for the TSE in Indonesia this past March.

  16. Taking the Headaches out of Anesthetizing "Drosophila": A Cheap & Easy Method of Constructing Carbon Dioxide Staging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiss, Thomas; Hughes, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is an excellent alternative to conventional methods of anesthetizing fruit flies as it is non-flammable and odorless. We have devised a method of constructing carbon dioxide stages used to keep "Drosophila" immobilized cheaply and easily using empty micropipette tip containers. (Contains 6 figures.)

  17. A cheap, simple high throughput method for screening native Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors using a recombinant Escherichia coli, its validation and demonstration of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract effectivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Amar, Natalie; Peretz, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most frequent and persistent bacterial infection worldwide, and a risk factor for active gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Although combined antibiotics treatment is effective cases of antibiotic resistance are reported at an alarming rate. The H. pylori urease enzyme is essential for the bacteria establishment in the gastric mucosa, resulting urease inhibitors being sought after as effective and specific anti- H. pylori treatment. To-date, screening assays are based mostly on the analog plant urease enzyme but difference in properties of the plant and bacterial enzymes hamper these efforts. We have developed a screening assay based on recombinant Escherichia coli expressing native H. pylori urease, and validated this assay using thiourea and a methanolic extract of Pistacia atlantica. The assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance. The extract was also found to be neutral toward common probiotic bacteria, supporting its specificity and compatibility with digestive system desired microflora and suggesting it could be a good source for anti-H. pylori compounds. The assay has proven to be cheap, simple and native alternative to the plant enzyme based assay and could allow for high throughput screening for new urease inhibitors and could expedite screening and development of novel, better H. pylori remedies helping us to combat this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Easy Method to Eliminate the Effect of Lupus Anticoagulants in the Coagulation Factor Assay.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Yin, Shiyu

    2016-07-01

    To build and evaluate intrinsic coagulation factor assays which can eliminate the effect of lupus anticoagulants (LAC). Commercial silica clotting time confirmatory (SCT-C) reagent containing sufficient synthetic phospholipid and routine activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent were each used for one-stage detection of FVIII, FIX, and FXI activities, in samples with or without LAC, and the results were compared. For samples without LAC, consistent results of FVIII, FIX, and FXI using both SCT-C reagent and APTT reagent were obtained. For samples with LAC, the assays with SCT-C reagent not only could eliminate the effect of strong lupus anticoagulants but also needed fewer dilutions than that with routine APTT reagent. The intrinsic factor detections by SCT-C reagent are credible and convenient to be used for samples with LAC.

  19. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing

  20. Mayo Clinic experience with modified Vecchietti procedure for vaginal agenesis: it is easy, safe, and effective.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Samar; Yi, Johnny; Magrina, Javier

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome and the anatomic and sexual function in 10 women with Rokitansky syndrome who underwent the laparoscopic Vecchietti procedure at our center. Retrospective analysis. Data were analyzed on the basis of short-term and long-term surgical outcome and sexual function. All patients underwent clinical follow-up at 1, 2, and 6 months after surgery. In all 10 patients, the procedure produced anatomic and functional success. The laparoscopic Vecchietti technique is safe, simple, and effective for treatment of vaginal agenesis. Results are comparable to those of all European studies, and the procedure should gain more popularity in North America. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. All rights reserved.

  1. Thoracoscopic excision of the sympathetic chain: an easy and effective treatment for hyperhidrosis in children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mohamed Sameh; El-Shafee, Ehab; Safoury, Hesham; El Hay, Sameh Abd

    2012-03-01

    Thoracoscopic sympathectomy (TS) is an effective treatment for hyperhidrosis. Various surgical approaches are described in the literature. We describe the technique of thoracoscopic excision of the sympathetic chain done exclusively in children younger than 13 years. All patients younger than 13 years who underwent TS from 2006 at a single institution were prospectively identified and fully evaluated with emphasis on demographic data, age, surgical management, complications and follow-up. All patients were contacted again at the end of 2009 to complete a follow-up questionnaire. Twelve patients underwent TS between 2006 and 2009. Age ranged from 6 to 13 years. This involved T2-T3 excision for nine patients with isolated palmar hyperhidrosis, and T2-T3-T4 excision for three with additional axillary hyperhidrosis. Six underwent bilateral TS at the same session and six underwent unilateral TS for the dominant side. Four of them had their contralateral operation performed 2-3 months later. Dry limbs were immediately achieved in all patients. Compensatory sweating (CS) was noted in eight patients. Complications included transient ptosis in two and mild recurrence in one. Thoracoscopic excision of the sympathetic chain is a simple and safe procedure that relieves hyperhidrosis in all cases and significantly improves the quality of life.

  2. Measuring Young’s modulus the easy way, and tracing the effects of measurement uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2015-09-01

    The speed of sound in a solid is determined by the density and elasticity of the material. Young’s modulus can therefore be calculated once the density and the speed of sound in the solid are measured. The density can be measured relatively easily, and the speed of sound through a rod can be measured very inexpensively by setting up a longitudinal standing wave and using a microphone to record its frequency. This is a simplified version of a technique called ‘impulse excitation’. It is a good educational technique for school pupils. This paper includes the description and the free provision of custom software to calculate the frequency spectrum of a recorded sound so that the resonant peaks can be readily identified. Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees.

  3. When do chronic differences in self-regulation count? Regulatory focus effects in easy and difficult soccer tasks.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Genschow, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Research on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) suggests that performance increases if instructions fit with sportspersons' dispositions. Sportspersons who chronically focus on wins (i.e., promotion-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a promotion goal (e.g., "Try to hit!"). By contrast, sportspersons who chronically focus on losses (i.e., prevention-oriented individuals) perform best if instructions frame the objective as a prevention goal (e.g., "Try not to miss!"). Recent theorizing also suggests that regulatory focus interacts with task difficulty. In an experiment, we assessed soccer performance as a function of chronic focus, instructional focus, and task difficulty. Results support that task difficulty moderates the effects of fit on performance; fitting instructions to match the sportsperson's chronic regulatory focus improved performance in the easy rather than the difficult task. Findings are discussed regarding the role of regulatory fit in altering subjective pressure during sports performance.

  4. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual ... for Educators Search English Español Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth / For Teens / Easy Exercises for Teens Print ...

  5. [Medical and dental digital photography. Choosing a cheap and user-friendly camera].

    PubMed

    Chossegros, C; Guyot, L; Mantout, B; Cheynet, F; Olivi, P; Blanc, J-L

    2010-04-01

    Digital photography is more and more important in our everyday medical practice. Patient data, medico-legal proof, remote diagnosis, forums, and medical publications are some of the applications of digital photography in medical and dental fields. A lot of small, light, and cheap cameras are on the market. The main issue is to obtain good, reproducible, cheap, and easy-to-shoot pictures. Every medical situation, portrait in esthetic surgery, skin photography in dermatology, X-ray pictures or intra-oral pictures, for example, has its own requirements. For these reasons, we have tried to find an "ideal" compact digital camera. The Sony DSC-T90 (and its T900 counterpart with a wider screen) seems a good choice. Its small size makes it usable in every situation and its price is low. An external light source and a free photo software (XnView((R))) can be useful complementary tools. The main adjustments and expected results are discussed.

  6. Breathe Easy at Home

    PubMed Central

    Rosofsky, Anna; Reid, Margaret; Sandel, Megan; Zielenbach, Molly; Murphy, Johnna; Scammell, Madeleine K.

    2016-01-01

    The Breathe Easy at Home Program enables clinicians to refer asthmatic patients to Boston Inspectional Services Department (ISD) if they suspect housing conditions trigger symptoms. The authors conducted one-on-one interviews with clinicians (n = 10) who referred patients, and focus groups with inspectors from the ISD (n = 9) and a variety of stakeholders (n = 13), to gain insight into program function and implementation. Clinician interviews revealed inconsistencies in enrollment approaches, dissatisfaction with the web-based system, and patient follow-up difficulties. Inspectors identified barriers to working effectively with residents and landlords, and the stakeholder focus group highlighted successes of an unusual institutional collaboration. Interviews and focus groups identified strong and personal rapport between clinicians, inspectors, and patients as key to program retention, and that participating families required additional support throughout the process. Despite recommendations for improvement in program implementation, clinicians, inspectors, and stakeholders felt that the program overall improved both the home environment and asthma outcomes. PMID:28462348

  7. THE EFFECTS OF SONIC ENVIRONMENT OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN LEARNING DIFFICULT AND EASY TASKS BY HIGH ACHIEVERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARTHY, EDWARD H.

    THE SIXTH-GRADE STUDENTS OBTAINING THE 80 HIGHEST MEAN SCORES ON THE METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TEST FORM D WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS OF EASY OR DIFFICULT TASKS WITHIN EACH OF FIVE DECIBEL LEVEL GROUPS. THE LEARNING TASKS WERE TAKEN FROM THE MEANINGFULNESS OF ALL POSSIBLE CVC TRIGRAMS (ARCHER, 1960). THE APPARATUS INCLUDED A TAPE RECORDING OF…

  8. Easy-to-Make Cryophoruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    The cryophorus dramatically demonstrates the cooling effect of evaporation. This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels. The most dramatic effects occurred with cyclohexane and benzene, with water generally freezing more slowly. (Contains 4 notes, 2 tables,…

  9. Ue Project "cheap GSHPs": the Geoexchange Fieldlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Dalla Santa, Giorgia; Bertermann, David; Muller, Johannes; De Carli, Michele; Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Tuccio, Maria; Vivarelli, Arianna; Pockelé, Luc; Mezzasalma, Giulia; Psyk, Mario; Righini, Davide; Bernini, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The CHEAP - GSHPs Horizon 2020 project (No. 657982) focuses on the development of more efficient and safe shallow geothermal systems and the reduction of time consuming and installation costs. One of its most important objectives is the development of the design of new coaxial steel GSHEs and of newly designed helical heat basket type GSHE by means of innovative installation methodologies and drilling machines. For this purpose, in Molinella test site (Bologna, Italy) several types of borehole heat exchangers have been built. The Molinella test site is the open-air laboratory where several types of ground heat exchangers, such as helical heat basket and double-U and coaxial probes, can be directly compared by means of GRT tests, cores thermal measurement, and optical fibers measurements. Moreover, in this test site, new drilling machines and techniques are being tested. Given a geological setting and thermal load, the heat exchange capacity of a ground heat exchanger depends on the used materials and probe dimensions (length, diameter and thickness). In Molinella, in an area of 300m2, 7 different probes are installed: 4 coaxial probes of different materials and different length (96 and 50m) and diameters of internal and external tubes, 2 heat baskets (15m length, different diameter and different pitch) and a traditional double-U (50 m length). The monitoring equipment is constituted by a piezometer 25m long, a monitoring point instrumented with a hybrid fibre optical cable 100m long, and a standard GRT device. The local stratigraphy is known from a 100m core sample, made on purpose. The lithological sequence is typical of a quaternary floodplain deposition environment, rich in silt and silty clay deposits, alternated with sandy layers. For all the main recognized layers, the thermal properties (conductivity and capacity) have been directly measured on the collected core samples on site in order to maintain their natural water content. The thermal exchange

  10. A closer look at ‘Cheap White’ cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Hana; Vellios, Nicole; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the prominence of Cheap Whites in illicit tobacco discussions, we examined various definitions, market presence, brand proliferation, manufacturers, production locations, trademark ownership, prices and compliance with tax stamp and warning labels. Methods Data from peer-reviewed and grey literature, newspapers, trademark registries, governments/international organisation reports, and the tobacco industry were contrasted with two visual legal requirements (tax stamps and warning labels) and prices from the Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS). Results Multiple sources identified 82 Cheap White brands and 53 manufacturers operating at least 82 production facilities. One-third of these manufacturers are in the free zones of Russia, Cyprus and the UAE. Two-thirds of the 37 Cheap White brands in the TPackSS had neither the correct health warning nor the required tax stamp in at least one country where they were purchased. Cheap Whites are on average less expensive than all other brands, but the price gap is often not as large as anecdotally reported. The cheapest Cheap White cigarettes purchased in one of the TPackSS countries irrespective of the presence of legal signs were still more expensive than the least expensive other brands satisfying both legal requirements. Conclusions We confirmed that many Cheap White brands do not comply with the legal requirements in countries where they are sold, but also found that some of these cigarettes appear to be sold legally even outside their country of origin. The presence of untaxed Cheap Whites undermines tobacco tax policies, while the availability of legal cheap cigarettes is a public health concern. PMID:26418617

  11. Theory-Driven Hints in the Cheap Necklace Problem: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yun; Dewald, Andrew D.; Chronicle, Edward P.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of two hints derived from the Criterion for Satisfactory Progress theory (CSP) and Representational Change Theory (RCT) on the cheap necklace problem (insight problem). In Experiment 1, fewer participants given the CSP hint used an incorrect (maximizing) first move than participants given the RCT hint or…

  12. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  13. Fast and cheap fabrication of molding tools for polymer replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christiane; Kirschner, Nadine; Worgull, Matthias; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-02-01

    Polymer replication is a prerequisite for low-cost microstructure components for consumer and end user market. The production of cost-effective microstructure in polymers requires metal molding tools which are often fabricated by direct structuring methods like milling or laser machining both of which are time-consuming and cost-intensive. We present an alternative fabrication method based on replication processes which allows the cheap ( 50 €) and fast ( 12 h) replication of complex microstructures into metal. The process comprises three steps: 1. Generation of the microstructure in a photoresist via lithography. 2. Casting of the structure into a high-temperature silicone which serves as original mold for creation of the metal molding tool. 3. Melting of an eutectic alloy of Sn, Ag and Cu under light pressure directly inside of the silicone within an oven. After cooling to room temperature the metal molding tool can be used for polymer replication into conventional thermoplastic polymers. As a first example we structured polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) foils with a thickness of 1 mm via hot embossing and feature sizes of 100 μm could be replicated with high fidelity.

  14. Effect of the PREPARE Website vs an Easy-to-Read Advance Directive on Advance Care Planning Documentation and Engagement Among Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Boscardin, John; Feuz, Mariko A; McMahan, Ryan D; Katen, Mary T; Barnes, Deborah E

    2017-08-01

    Documentation rates of patients' medical wishes are often low. It is unknown whether easy-to-use, patient-facing advance care planning (ACP) interventions can overcome barriers to planning in busy primary care settings. To compare the efficacy of an interactive, patient-centered ACP website (PREPARE) with an easy-to-read advance directive (AD) to increase planning documentation. This was a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial from April 2013 to July 2016 conducted at multiple primary care clinics at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. Inclusion criteria were age of a least 60 years; at least 2 chronic and/or serious conditions; and 2 or more primary care visits; and 2 or more additional clinic, hospital, or emergency room visits in the last year. Participants were randomized to review PREPARE plus an easy-to-read AD or the AD alone. There were no clinician and/or system-level interventions or education. Research staff were blinded for all follow-up measurements. The primary outcome was new ACP documentation (ie, legal forms and/or discussions) at 9 months. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported ACP engagement at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months using validated surveys of behavior change process measures (ie, 5-point knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness scales) and action measures (eg, surrogate designation, using a 0-25 scale). We used intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic and linear regression, controlling for time, health literacy, race/ethnicity, baseline ACP, and clustering by physician. The mean (SD) age of 414 participants was 71 (8) years, 38 (9%) were women, 83 (20%) had limited literacy, and 179 (43%) were nonwhite. No participant characteristic differed significantly among study arms at baseline. Retention at 6 months was 90%. Advance care planning documentation 6 months after enrollment was higher in the PREPARE arm vs the AD-alone arm (adjusted 35% vs 25%; odds ratio, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.03-2.51]; P = .04). PREPARE also resulted

  15. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  16. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  17. An easy and effective method to modulate molecular energy level of the polymer based on benzodithiophene for the application in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-04-02

    Attaching meta-alkoxy-phenyl groups as conjugated side chains is an easy and effective way to modulate the molecular energy level of D-A polymer for photovoltaic application, and the polymer solar cells based on the polymer consisting meta-alkoxy-phenyl groups as conjugated side chain, PBT-OP, shows an enhanced open circuit voltage and thus higher efficiency of 7.50%, under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm(2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystalmore » pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.« less

  19. Nano-Se: Cheap and easy-to-obtain novel material for all-dielectric nano-photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. K.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Klevkov, Yu. K.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Smirnov, N. A.; Zayarny, D. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Tolordava, E. R.; Baranov, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Milligram-per-second production of selenium nanoparticles in water sols was realized through few W, kHz-rate nanosecond laser ablation of a solid selenium pellet. High-yield particle formation mechanism and ultimate mass-removal yield were elucidated by optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater depths and topographies. Deposited particles were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, while optical transmission Raman and dynamic light scattering spectroscopy characterized their hydrosols.

  20. Easy and effective--web-based information systems designed and maintained by physicians: experience with two gynecological projects.

    PubMed

    Kupka, M S; Dorn, C; Richter, O; van der Ven, H; Baur, M

    2003-08-01

    It is well established that medical information sources develop continuously from printed media to digital online sources. To demonstrate effectiveness and feasibility of decentralized performed web-based information sources for health professionals, two projects are described. The information platform of the German Working Group for Information Technologies in Gynecology and Obstetrics (AIG) and the information source concerning the German Registry for in vitro fertilization (DIR) were implemented using ordinary software and standard computer equipment. Only minimal resources and training were necessary to perform safe and reliable web-based information sources with a high correlation of effectiveness in costs and time exposure.

  1. Spectroscopy Made Easy: Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) package has become a popular tool for analyzing stellar spectra, often in connection with large surveys or exoplanet research. SME has evolved significantly since it was first described in 1996, but many of the original caveats and potholes still haunt users. The main drivers for this paper are complexity of the modeling task, the large user community, and the massive effort that has gone into SME. Aims: We do not intend to give a comprehensive introduction to stellar atmospheres, but will describe changes to key components of SME: the equation of state, opacities, and radiative transfer. We will describe the analysis and fitting procedure and investigate various error sources that affect inferred parameters. Methods: We review the current status of SME, emphasizing new algorithms and methods. We describe some best practices for using the package, based on lessons learned over two decades of SME usage. We present a new way to assess uncertainties in derived stellar parameters. Results: Improvements made to SME, better line data, and new model atmospheres yield more realistic stellar spectra, but in many cases systematic errors still dominate over measurement uncertainty. Future enhancements are outlined.

  2. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  3. An easy game for frauds? Effects of professional experience and time pressure on passport-matching performance.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benedikt Emanuel; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2017-06-01

    Despite extensive research on unfamiliar face matching, little is known about factors that might affect matching performance in real-life scenarios. We conducted 2 experiments to investigate the effects of several such factors on unfamiliar face-matching performance in a passport-check scenario. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of professional experience on passport-matching performance. The matching performance of 96 German Federal Police officers working at Munich Airport was compared with that of 48 novices without specific face-matching experience. Police officers significantly outperformed novices, but nevertheless missed a high ratio of frauds. Moreover, the effects of manipulating specific facial features (with paraphernalia like glasses and jewelry, distinctive features like moles and scars, and hairstyle) and of variations in the physical distance between the faces being matched were investigated. Whereas manipulation of physical distance did not have a significant effect, manipulations of facial features impaired matching performance. In Experiment 2, passport-matching performance was assessed in relation to time constraints. Novices matched passports either without time constraints, or under a local time limit (which is typically used in laboratory studies), or under a global time limit (which usually occurs during real-life border controls). Time pressure (especially the global time limit) significantly impaired matching performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Easy Volcanic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing by stratospheric sulfate aerosol of volcanic origin is one of the strongest drivers of natural climate variability. Transient model simulations attempting to match observed climate variability, such as the CMIP historical simulations, rely on volcanic forcing reconstructions based on observations of a small sample of recent eruptions and coarse proxy data for eruptions before the satellite era. Volcanic forcing data sets used in CMIP5 were provided either in terms of optical properties, or in terms of sulfate aerosol mass, leading to significant inter-model spread in the actual volcanic radiative forcing produced by models and in their resulting climate responses. It remains therefore unclear to what degree inter-model spread in response to volcanic forcing represents model differences or variations in the forcing. In order to isolate model differences, Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) provides an analytic representation of volcanic stratospheric aerosol forcing, based on available observations and aerosol model results, prescribing the aerosol's radiative properties and primary modes of spatial and temporal variability. In contrast to regriddings of observational data, EVA allows for the production of physically consistent forcing for historic and hypothetical eruptions of varying magnitude, source latitude, and season. Within CMIP6, EVA will be used to reconstruct volcanic forcing over the past 2000 years for use in the Paleo-Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), and will provide forcing sets for VolMIP experiments aiming to quantify model uncertainty in the response to volcanic forcing. Here, the functional form of EVA will be introduced, along with illustrative examples including the EVA-based reconstruction of volcanic forcing over the historical period, and that of the 1815 Tambora eruption.

  5. Effect of ramp configuration on easiness of handling, heart rate, and behavior of near-market weight pigs at unloading.

    PubMed

    Goumon, S; Faucitano, L; Bergeron, R; Crowe, T; Connor, M L; Gonyou, H W

    2013-08-01

    Three experiments, each using 280 pigs, were conducted in a simulated compartment to test the effect of angle of entrance (AOE) to the ramp (90°, 60°, 30°, or 0°), ramp slope (0°, 16°, 21°, or 26°), and an initial 20-cm step associated with 16° or 21° ramp slopes on the ease of handling, heart rate (HR), and behavior of near market-weight pigs during unloading. Heart rate (pigs and handler), unloading time, interventions of the handler, and reactions of the pigs were monitored. The results of the first experiment show that using a 90° AOE had detrimental effects on ease of handling (P < 0.05), HR of the pig (P < 0.05), and behavior (P < 0.05). The 0° and 30° AOE appeared to improve the ease of unloading, whereas the 60° AOE had an intermediate effect. The 30° AOE appeared to be preferable, because pigs moved at this angle balked less frequently (P < 0.01) and required less manipulation (P < 0.05) than pigs moved with a 0° AOE. The results of the second experiment show that the use of a flat ramp led to the easiest unloading, as demonstrated by the lower number of balks (P < 0.001) when pigs were moved to the ramp and less frequent use of paddle (P = 0.001) or voice (P < 0.001) on the ramp, compared with the other treatments. However, the flat ramp did not differ from the 21° ramp in many of the variables reflecting ease of handling, which may be explained by the difference in configuration between the ramps. The results also show that the use of the steepest ramp slope had the most detrimental effect on balking and backing up behavior of pigs (P < 0.001), and handling (touches, slaps, and pushes; P < 0.05 for all) when moved to the ramp and on unloading time (P < 0.01). No differences in pig HR (P < 0.05) and ease of handling on the ramp (P < 0.05) were found between a 26° and 16° ramp slope, suggesting that the length of the ramp may be one of the factors that make unloading more difficult. The results of the last experiment show that an initial

  6. Genuine Onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Genuine onion : Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication Paul Syverson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory paul.syverson@nrl.navy.mil...access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the . onion virtual domain. The focus of . onion use and discussion has traditionally... onion system can be used to provide an entirely separate benefit: basic website authentication. We also argue that not only can onionsites provide

  7. Leadership without Easy Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heifetz, Ronald A.

    This book grew out of a course at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government (Massachusetts) in leadership designed to give students insight and tools for working in various official and unofficial roles where leading others can become essential to effective performance. After an introduction, Part 1 presents an overview of the meaning of…

  8. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  9. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. Gail; Schwieder, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE videoconferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hubs monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel cost throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  10. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. Gail; Schwieder, Paul R.

    1993-02-01

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE videoconferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hubs monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel cost throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  11. Video conferencing made easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. G.; Schwieder, P. R.

    Network video conferencing is advancing rapidly throughout the nation, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, is at the forefront of the development. Engineers at INEL/EG&G designed and installed a very unique DOE video conferencing system, offering many outstanding features, that include true multipoint conferencing, user-friendly design and operation with no full-time operators required, and the potential for cost effective expansion of the system. One area where INEL/EG&G engineers made a significant contribution to video conferencing was in the development of effective, user-friendly, end station driven scheduling software. A PC at each user site is used to schedule conferences via a windows package. This software interface provides information to the users concerning conference availability, scheduling, initiation, and termination. The menus are 'mouse' controlled. Once a conference is scheduled, a workstation at the hub monitors the network to initiate all scheduled conferences. No active operator participation is required once a user schedules a conference through the local PC; the workstation automatically initiates and terminates the conference as scheduled. As each conference is scheduled, hard copy notification is also printed at each participating site. Video conferencing is the wave of the future. The use of these user-friendly systems will save millions in lost productivity and travel costs throughout the nation. The ease of operation and conference scheduling will play a key role on the extent industry uses this new technology. The INEL/EG&G has developed a prototype scheduling system for both commercial and federal government use.

  12. Conception of a cheap infrared camera using a Fresnel lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grulois, Tatiana; Druart, Guillaume; Guérineau, Nicolas; Crastes, Arnaud; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Today huge efforts are made in the research and industrial areas to design compact and cheap uncooled infrared optical systems for low-cost imagery applications. Indeed, infrared cameras are currently too expensive to be widespread. If we manage to cut their cost, we expect to open new types of markets. In this paper, we will present the cheap broadband microimager we have designed. It operates in the long-wavelength infrared range and uses only one silicon lens at a minimal cost for the manufacturing process. Our concept is based on the use of a thin optics. Therefore inexpensive unconventional materials can be used because some absorption can be tolerated. Our imager uses a thin Fresnel lens. Up to now, Fresnel lenses have not been used for broadband imagery applications because of their disastrous chromatic properties. However, we show that working in a high diffraction order can significantly reduce chromatism. A prototype has been made and the performance of our camera will be discussed. Its characterization has been carried out in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD). Finally, experimental images will be presented.

  13. Many-particle effects in adsorbed magnetic atoms with easy-axis anisotropy: the case of Fe on the CuN/Cu(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitko, R.; Pruschke, Th

    2010-06-01

    We study the effects of the exchange interaction between an adsorbed magnetic atom with easy-axis magnetic anisotropy and the conduction-band electrons from the substrate. We model the system using an anisotropic Kondo model and we compute the impurity spectral function, which is related to the differential conductance (dI/dV) spectra measured using a scanning tunneling microscope. To make contact with the known experimental results for iron atoms on the CuN/Cu(100) surface (Hirjibehedin et al 2007 Science 317 1199), we calculated the spectral functions in the presence of an external magnetic field of varying strength applied along all three spatial directions. It is possible to establish an upper bound on the coupling constant J: in the range of the magnetic fields for which the experimental results are currently known (up to 7 T), the low-energy features in the calculated spectra agree well with the measured dI/dV spectra if the exchange coupling constant J is at most half as large as that for cobalt atoms on the same surface. We show that for an even higher magnetic field (between 8 and 9 T) applied along the 'hollow direction', the impurity energy states cross, giving rise to a Kondo effect which takes the form of a zero-bias resonance. The coupling strength J could be determined experimentally by performing tunneling spectroscopy in this range of magnetic fields. On the technical side, the paper introduces an approach for calculating the expectation values of global spin operators and all the components of the impurity magnetic susceptibility tensor (including the out-of-diagonal ones) in numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations with no spin symmetry. An appendix contains a density functional theory (DFT) study of the Co and Fe adsorbates on the CuN/Cu(100) surface: we compare magnetic moments, as well as orbital energies, occupancies, centers and spreads, by calculating the maximally localized Wannier orbitals of the adsorbates.

  14. A comparison of the effects of hard rock and easy listening on the frequency of observed inappropriate behaviors: control of environmental antecedents in a large public area.

    PubMed

    Harris, C S; Bradley, R J; Titus, S K

    1992-01-01

    Observation of clients at a state mental health hospital by direct care staff indicated that they appeared to act in more inappropriate ways when "hard rock" or "rap" music was played in an open courtyard than when "easy listening" or "country" music was played. A study was conducted to compare the inappropriate behavior of clients when hard rock and rap music were played (21 days), followed by easy listening and country and western music (21 days). This comparison was followed by a reversal phase in which hard rock and rap music were again played (18 days). The behaviors of the clients were observed and recorded via a controlled methodology. The results demonstrated that more inappropriate behavior was observed under conditions in which hard rock and rap music were played than when easy listening and country western music were played. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  16. Rapid and cheap prototyping of a microfluidic cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Z; McMullin, J N; Tsui, Y Y

    2011-05-01

    Development of a microfluidic device is generally based on fabrication-design-fabrication loop, as, unlike the microelectronics design, there is no rigorous simulation-based verification of the chip before fabrication. This usually results in extremely long, and hence expensive, product development cycle if micro/nano fabrication facilities are used from the beginning of the cycle. Here, we illustrate a novel approach of device prototyping that is fast, cheap, reliable, and most importantly, this technique can be adopted even if no state-of-the-art microfabrication facility is available. A water-jet machine is used to cut the desired microfluidic channels into a thin steel plate which is then used as a template to cut the channels into a thin sheet of a transparent and cheap polymer material named Surlyn® by using a Hot Knife™. The feature-inscribed Surlyn sheet is bonded in between two microscope glass slides by utilizing the techniques which has been being used in curing polymer film between dual layer automotive glasses for years. Optical fibers are inserted from the sides of chip and are bonded by UV epoxy. To study the applicability of this prototyping approach, we made a basic microfluidic sorter and tested its functionalities. Sample containing microparticles is injected into the chip. Light from a 532-nm diode laser is coupled into the optical fiber that delivers light to the interrogation region in the channel. The emitted light from the particle is collected by a photodiode (PD) placed over the detection window. The device sorts the particles into the sorted or waste outlets depending on the level of the PD signal. We used fluorescent latex beads to test the detection and sorting functionalities of the device. We found that the system could detect all the beads that passed through its geometric observation region and could sort almost all the beads it detected. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  17. Effects of Easy-to-Use Protein-Rich Energy Bar on Energy Balance, Physical Activity and Performance during 8 Days of Sustained Physical Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Minna M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.; Uusitalo, Arja L.; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kinnunen, Hannu O.; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. Methods Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day−1. Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. Results Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. Conclusion An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such

  18. Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Minna M; Westerterp, Klaas R; Uusitalo, Arja L; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kinnunen, Hannu O; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1). Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such as mood state.

  19. Effects of temperature and purity of magnesium sulfate during extraction of pesticides residues using the QuEChERS method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite its many documented advantages, the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation approach has problems with a few unstable pesticides, partly due to the exothermic reaction generated by the use of anhydrous magnesium sulfate during extraction. These pesticide...

  20. Quick and Easy Classroom Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article offers simple design ideas on classroom transformation that are easy on the pocketbook and will make the biggest difference to teachers and their students. These include: (1) Go with a splash of color; (2) Use bright fabrics; (3) Stick with blues and greens; (4) Use color to create nooks; (5) Buddy up with a shop class; (6) Hide the…

  1. Effect of Maximal Apnoea Easy-Going and Struggle Phases on Subarachnoid Width and Pial Artery Pulsation in Elite Breath-Hold Divers.

    PubMed

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Barak, Otto; Madden, Dennis; Gruszecka, Agnieszka; Gruszecki, Marcin; Guminski, Wojciech; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in subarachnoid space width (sas-TQ), the marker of intracranial pressure (ICP), pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ) and cardiac contribution to blood pressure (BP), cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cc-TQ oscillations throughout the maximal breath hold in elite apnoea divers. Non-invasive assessment of sas-TQ and cc-TQ became possible due to recently developed method based on infrared radiation, called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS). The experimental group consisted of seven breath-hold divers (six men). During testing, each participant performed a single maximal end-inspiratory breath hold. Apnoea consisted of the easy-going and struggle phases (characterised by involuntary breathing movements (IBMs)). Heart rate (HR) was determined using a standard ECG. BP was assessed using the photoplethysmography method. SaO2 was monitored continuously with pulse oximetry. A pneumatic chest belt was used to register thoracic and abdominal movements. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was estimated by a 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasonic probe. sas-TQ and cc-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS. Wavelet transform analysis was performed to assess cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations. Mean BP and CBFV increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and were further augmented by IBMs. cc-TQ increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and remained stable during the IBMs. HR did not change significantly throughout the apnoea, although a trend toward a decrease during the easy phase and recovery during the IBMs was visible. Amplitudes of BP, CBFV and cc-TQ were augmented. sas-TQ and SaO2 decreased at the easy phase of apnoea and further decreased during the IBMs. Apnoea increases intracranial pressure and pial artery pulsation. Pial artery pulsation seems to be stabilised by the IBMs. Cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations does not change

  2. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodatemore » the visually disabled in the near future.« less

  3. A comparison of cheap talk and alternative certainty calibration techniques in contingent valuation

    Treesearch

    Mihail Samnaliev; Thomas Stevens; Thomas More

    2003-01-01

    A field test of cheap talk and two types of certainty calibration in contingent valuation of public lands indicated that cheap talk does not reduce WTP estimates. Use of a ten point certainty calibration scale reduces WTP estimates by about half. However, adjusting for uncertainty using a 'Not Sure' option does not reduce WTP estimates but increases the...

  4. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L−1 starch, 30 g L−1 soya bean and 9 g L−1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view. PMID:24516462

  5. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  6. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  7. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C.; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10–20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12–24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS. PMID:26356840

  8. Validation of a novel cost effective easy to produce and durable in vitro model for kidney-puncture and PNL-Simulation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jan Thorsten; Rassweiler, Jens; Rassweiler-Seyfried, Marie-Claire Charlotte

    2018-03-29

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common diseases in urology. According to the EAU Guidelines, a percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PNL) is recommended when treating a kidney stone >2 cm. Nowadays PNL is performed even for smaller stones (<1 cm) using miniaturized instruments. The most challenging part of any PNL is the puncture of the planned site. PNL-novice surgeons need to practice this step in a safe environment with an ideal training model. We developed and evaluated a new, easy to produce, in-vitro model for the training of the freehand puncture of the kidney. Porcine kidneys with ureters were embedded in ballistic gel. Food coloring and preservative agent were added. We used the standard imaging modalities of X-ray and ultrasound to validate the training model. An additional new technique, the iPAD guided puncture, was evaluated. Five novices and three experts conducted 12 punctures for each imaging technique. Puncture time, radiation dose, and number of attempts to a successful puncture were measured. Mann-Whitney-U, Kruskal-Wallis, and U-Tests were used for statistical analyses. The sonographic guided puncture is slightly but not significantly faster than the fluoroscopic guided puncture and the iPAD assisted puncture. Similarly, the most experienced surgeon's time for a successful puncture was slightly less than that of the residents, and the experienced surgeons needed the least attempts to perform a successful puncture. In terms of radiation exposure, the residents had a significant reduction of radiation exposure compared to the experienced surgeons. The newly developed ballistic gel kidney-puncture model is a good training tool for a variety of kidney puncture techniques, with good content, construct, and face validity.

  9. Predictable and predictive emotions: explaining cheap signals and trust re-extension.

    PubMed

    Schniter, Eric; Sheremeta, Roman M

    2014-01-01

    Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and an emotion survey to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended.

  10. Predictable and predictive emotions: explaining cheap signals and trust re-extension

    PubMed Central

    Schniter, Eric; Sheremeta, Roman M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and an emotion survey to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended. PMID:25477797

  11. Availability and Use of Cheap Tobacco in the United Kingdom 2002–2014: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Project

    PubMed Central

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the United Kingdom between 2002 and 2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Methods Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted (1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory-made packs (FM-P), and factory-made cartons (FM-C); (2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g., supermarkets and convenience stores) with non-UK/nonstore sources representing tax avoidance/evasion (e.g., outside the UK, duty free, and informal sellers); and (3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalized estimating equations tested linear changes over time. Results (1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. (2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/evasion. (3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/nonstore sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 to 2014 were statistically significant but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Conclusions Options exist driving UK smokers to minimize their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. Implications The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and

  12. Availability and Use of Cheap Tobacco in the United Kingdom 2002-2014: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Project.

    PubMed

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2018-05-03

    Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the United Kingdom between 2002 and 2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted (1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory-made packs (FM-P), and factory-made cartons (FM-C); (2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g., supermarkets and convenience stores) with non-UK/nonstore sources representing tax avoidance/evasion (e.g., outside the UK, duty free, and informal sellers); and (3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalized estimating equations tested linear changes over time. (1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. (2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/evasion. (3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/nonstore sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 to 2014 were statistically significant but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Options exist driving UK smokers to minimize their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and cartons of packs of factory-made cigarettes. Wide price ranges

  13. Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE): a study protocol for a systematic review to characterize the analysis, reporting, and claim of subgroup effects in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Briel, Matthias; Busse, Jason W; Akl, Elie A; You, John J; Mejza, Filip; Bala, Malgorzata; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Bassler, Dirk; Mertz, Dominik; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Vandvik, Per Olav; Malaga, German; Alshurafa, Mohamed; Dahm, Philipp; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Heels-Ansdell, Diane M; Bhatnagar, Neera; Johnston, Bradley C; Wang, Li; Walter, Stephen D; Altman, Douglas G; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2009-11-09

    Subgroup analyses in randomized trials examine whether effects of interventions differ between subgroups of study populations according to characteristics of patients or interventions. However, findings from subgroup analyses may be misleading, potentially resulting in suboptimal clinical and health decision making. Few studies have investigated the reporting and conduct of subgroup analyses and a number of important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the reporting of subgroup analyses and claims of subgroup effects in randomized controlled trials, 2) to assess study characteristics associated with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects, and 3) to examine the analysis, and interpretation of subgroup effects for each study's primary outcome. We will conduct a systematic review of 464 randomized controlled human trials published in 2007 in the 118 Core Clinical Journals defined by the National Library of Medicine. We will randomly select journal articles, stratified in a 1:1 ratio by higher impact versus lower impact journals. According to 2007 ISI total citations, we consider the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, and BMJ as higher impact journals. Teams of two reviewers will independently screen full texts of reports for eligibility, and abstract data, using standardized, pilot-tested extraction forms. We will conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the association of pre-specified study characteristics with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects for the primary and any other outcomes. A clear understanding of subgroup analyses, as currently conducted and reported in published randomized controlled trials, will reveal both strengths and weaknesses of this practice. Our findings will contribute to a set of recommendations to optimize the conduct and reporting of subgroup analyses, and claim

  14. Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE): a study protocol for a systematic review to characterize the analysis, reporting, and claim of subgroup effects in randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Briel, Matthias; Busse, Jason W; Akl, Elie A; You, John J; Mejza, Filip; Bala, Malgorzata; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Bassler, Dirk; Mertz, Dominik; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Vandvik, Per Olav; Malaga, German; Alshurafa, Mohamed; Dahm, Philipp; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Heels-Ansdell, Diane M; Bhatnagar, Neera; Johnston, Bradley C; Wang, Li; Walter, Stephen D; Altman, Douglas G; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2009-01-01

    Background Subgroup analyses in randomized trials examine whether effects of interventions differ between subgroups of study populations according to characteristics of patients or interventions. However, findings from subgroup analyses may be misleading, potentially resulting in suboptimal clinical and health decision making. Few studies have investigated the reporting and conduct of subgroup analyses and a number of important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the reporting of subgroup analyses and claims of subgroup effects in randomized controlled trials, 2) to assess study characteristics associated with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects, and 3) to examine the analysis, and interpretation of subgroup effects for each study's primary outcome. Methods We will conduct a systematic review of 464 randomized controlled human trials published in 2007 in the 118 Core Clinical Journals defined by the National Library of Medicine. We will randomly select journal articles, stratified in a 1:1 ratio by higher impact versus lower impact journals. According to 2007 ISI total citations, we consider the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, and BMJ as higher impact journals. Teams of two reviewers will independently screen full texts of reports for eligibility, and abstract data, using standardized, pilot-tested extraction forms. We will conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the association of pre-specified study characteristics with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects for the primary and any other outcomes. Discussion A clear understanding of subgroup analyses, as currently conducted and reported in published randomized controlled trials, will reveal both strengths and weaknesses of this practice. Our findings will contribute to a set of recommendations to optimize the conduct and reporting of

  15. What Makes a Word Easy to Acquire? The Effects of Word Class, Frequency, Imageability and Phonological Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a set of psycholinguistic factors may account for children's lexical development. Age of acquisition is compared to a measure of lexical development based on vocabulary size rather than age, and robust regression models are used to assess the individual and joint effects of word class, frequency, imageability and…

  16. Improving chronic lung disease management in rural and remote Australia: the Breathe Easy Walk Easy programme.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Catherine L; Maxwell, Lyndal J; Boyle, Eileen; Maguire, Graeme P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a chronic lung disease management training programme, Breathe Easy Walk Easy (BEWE), for rural and remote health-care practitioners. Quasi-experimental, before and after repeated measures design. Health-care practitioners (n = 33) from various professional backgrounds who attended the BEWE training workshop were eligible to participate. Breathe Easy Walk Easy, an interactive educational programme, consisted of a training workshop, access to online resources, provision of community awareness-raising materials and ongoing telephone/email support. Participant confidence, knowledge and attitudes were assessed via anonymous questionnaire before, immediately after and at 3 and 12 months following the BEWE workshop. At 12 months, local provision of pulmonary rehabilitation services and patient outcome data (6-min walk test results before and after pulmonary rehabilitation) were also recorded. Measured knowledge (score out of 19) improved significantly after the workshop (mean difference 7.6 correct answers, 95% confidence interval: 5.8-9.3). Participants' self-rated confidence and knowledge also increased. At 12-month follow up, three locally run pulmonary rehabilitation programmes had been established. For completing patients, there was a significant increase in 6-min walk distance following rehabilitation of 48 m (95% confidence interval: 18-70 m). The BEWE programme increased rural and remote health-care practitioner knowledge and confidence in delivering management for people living with chronic lung disease and facilitated the establishment of effective pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in regional and remote Australian settings where access to such programmes is limited. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Changing classroom designs: Easy; Changing instructors' pedagogies: Not so easy...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Charles, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Chris; Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Technology-rich student-centered classrooms such as SCALE-UP and TEAL are designed to actively engage students. We examine what happens when instructors adopt the classroom but not the pedagogy that goes with it. We measure the effect of using socio-technological spaces on students' conceptual change and compare learning gains made in groups using different pedagogies (active learning vs. conventional instruction). We also correlate instructors' self-reported instructional approach (teacher-centered, student-centered) with their classes' normalized FCI gains. We find that technology-rich spaces are only effective when implemented with student-centered active pedagogies. In their absence, the technology-rich classroom is not significantly different from conventional teacher-centered classrooms. We also find that instructors' self-reported perception of student-centeredness accounts for a large fraction of the variance (r2 = 0.83) in their class' average normalized gain. Adopting student-centered pedagogies appears to be a necessary condition for the effective use of technology-rich spaces. However, adopting a new pedagogy seems more difficult than adopting new technology.

  18. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation.

  19. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    Syrian energy infrastructure will not be cost effective in the current oil pricing environment. I will present a quick overview of oil’s historic role...in the Syrian economy, followed by a synopsis of the current state of Syria’s oil infrastructure . An analysis of the impact of low oil prices on...similarities between countries, a specific comparison will be made to Yemen in an effort to predict the challenges that Syria will face when entering the

  20. My School Makes Me Sick: Cheap Solutions to Environmental Problems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Robert

    This paper presents 19 solutions to problems within the school environment: (1) ventilation (e.g., keep the thermostat fan on whenever the room is occupied); (2) filters (e.g., get rid of 20 percent cheap filters); (3) clean the ductwork; (4) avoid car and bus fumes by keeping vehicles 50 feet from the building; (5) sewer vents (vents must…

  1. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  2. Bioinformatics: Cheap and robust method to explore biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo

    2015-02-01

    Indonesia has a huge amount of biodiversity, which may contain many biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. These resources potency should be explored to discover new drugs for human wealth. However, the bioactive screening using conventional methods is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a methodology for screening the potential of natural resources based on bioinformatics. The method is developed based on the fact that organisms in the same taxon will have similar genes, metabolism and secondary metabolites product. Then we employ bioinformatics to explore the potency of biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity by comparing species with the well-known taxon containing the active compound through published paper or chemical database. Then we analyze drug-likeness, bioactivity and the target proteins of the active compound based on their molecular structure. The target protein was examined their interaction with other proteins in the cell to determine action mechanism of the active compounds in the cellular level, as well as to predict its side effects and toxicity. By using this method, we succeeded to screen anti-cancer, immunomodulators and anti-inflammation from Indonesia biodiversity. For example, we found anticancer from marine invertebrate by employing the method. The anti-cancer was explore based on the isolated compounds of marine invertebrate from published article and database, and then identified the protein target, followed by molecular pathway analysis. The data suggested that the active compound of the invertebrate able to kill cancer cell. Further, we collect and extract the active compound from the invertebrate, and then examined the activity on cancer cell (MCF7). The MTT result showed that the methanol extract of marine invertebrate was highly potent in killing MCF7 cells. Therefore, we concluded that bioinformatics is cheap and robust way to explore bioactive from Indonesia biodiversity for source of drug and another

  3. Helical waves in easy-plane antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy G.; Li, Xi-Lai; Xu, Xinyi; Kim, Ki Wook

    2017-12-01

    Effective spin torques can generate the Néel vector oscillations in antiferromagnets (AFMs). Here, it is theoretically shown that these torques applied at one end of a normal AFM strip can excite a helical type of spin wave in the strip whose properties are drastically different from characteristic spin waves. An analysis based on both a Néel vector dynamical equation and the micromagnetic simulation identifies the direction of magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor as the two key parameters determining the dynamics. Helical wave propagation requires the hard axis of the easy-plane AFM to be aligned with the traveling direction, while the damping limits its spatial extent. If the damping is neglected, the calculation leads to a uniform periodic domain wall structure. On the other hand, finite damping decelerates the helical wave rotation around the hard axis, ultimately causing stoppage of its propagation along the strip. With the group velocity staying close to spin-wave velocity at the wave front, the wavelength becomes correspondingly longer away from the excitation point. In a sufficiently short strip, a steady-state oscillation can be established whose frequency is controlled by the waveguide length as well as the excitation energy or torque.

  4. EASY AT-Food for Thought: The Minibook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Not all technology requires plugs, batteries, or software updates. Sometimes the simplest tools can make all the difference in the world, and open doors (and minds) to other possibilities. One such tool is a minibook constructed by a single sheet of cleverly folded paper. A minibook is a cost-effective, easy to revise and replace,…

  5. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  6. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  7. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  8. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  9. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  10. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unitary easy quantum groups: Geometric aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banica, Teodor

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the classification problem for the unitary easy quantum groups, under strong axioms, of noncommutative geometric nature. Our main results concern the intermediate easy quantum groups ON ⊂ G ⊂ UN+ . To any such quantum group we associate its Schur-Weyl twist G ¯ , two noncommutative spheres S , S ¯ , a noncommutative torus T, and a quantum reflection group K. Studying (S , S ¯ , T , K , G , G ¯) leads then to some natural axioms, which can be used in order to investigate G itself. We prove that the main examples are covered by our formalism, and we conjecture that in what concerns the case UN ⊂ G ⊂ UN+ , our axioms should restrict the list of known examples.

  12. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories-premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Analysis of 2001-08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  13. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories—premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Methods Analysis of 2001–08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Results Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. PMID:25118219

  14. Easy and Inexpensive Technique for Removal of Round Headed, Jammed Locking Screws in Distal Tibial Interlocking Plate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Sharma, Rohit; Gupta, Sachin; Singh, Narinderjit; Singh, Simarpreet

    2015-01-01

    The advent of locking plates has brought new problems in implant removal. Difficulty in removing screws from a locking plate is well-known. These difficulties include cold welding between the screw head and locking screw hole, stripping of the recess of the screw head for the screwdriver, and cross-threading between threads in the screw head and screw hole. However, there are cases in which removal is difficult. We describe a new technique for removing a round headed, jammed locking screws from a locking plate. 55 years old male patient received a locking distal tibial plate along with distal fibular plate 3years back from UAE. Now patient came with complaint of non-healing ulcer over medial aspect of lower 1/3rd of right leg from past 1 year. Non operative management did not improve the symptoms. The patient consented to implant removal, with the express understanding that implant removal might be impossible because already one failed attempt had been performed at some other hospital six months back. We then decided to proceed with the new technique. The rest of the proximal screws were removed using a technique not previously described. We used stainless steel metal cutting blades that are used to cut door locks or pad locks to cut the remaining stripped headed screws. This technique is very quick, easy to perform and inexpensive because the metal cutting blades which are used to cut the screws are very cheap. Yet it is very effective technique to remove the stripped headed or jammed locking screws. It is also very less destructive because of very less heat production during the procedure there is no problem of thermal necrosis to the bone or the surrounding soft tissue.

  15. A cheap minimally painful and widely usable alternative for retrieving ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Söylemez, Haluk; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Atar, Murat; Penbegül, Necmettin; Yildirim, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    To describe a cheap, minimally painful and widely usable method for retrieving ureteral stents by using an ureteroscope. Sixty-seven patients with ureteral stents were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized into a cystoscopic (35 patients) and a ureteroscopic (32 patients) group. All stents were retrieved by a flexible cystoscope in the first group and by a ureteroscope in the second group under local anesthesia. Patients in each group were assessed for stented time, stent side, cause of stent placement, operative time, peroperative pain, postoperative pain, irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria. Also costs of instruments were calculated. Stents were successfully retrieved in 67 patients. There were no statistical differences in the two groups regarding patient gender and age or stent side, operative time, stented time, mean operative pain score, irritative voiding symptom scores and hematuria. Total selling price was USD 20.399 for flexible instruments and USD 10.516 for rigid ones. Total maintenance price was higher in flexible instruments than in the rigid ones (USD 197.8 and 51.7 per use, respectively). Ureteroscopic stent retrieval is a minimally painful, safe and highly tolerable method under local anesthesia as well as flexible cystoscopic retrieval. Also, it is a cheap and widely usable method. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  17. Efficacy of cheap amendments for stabilizing trace elements in contaminated paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Lai, Yun-Jie; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

    2018-05-01

    In situ stabilization of trace elements by adding cheap amendments is an emerging technology for large-scale soil remediation. Various amendments have been examined well in the literature, but related have focused predominantly on short-term laboratory scale incubation or pot experiments. This study applied dolomitic lime at 40 ton ha -1 , oyster shell (OS) at 80 ton ha -1 , and sugarcane bagasse compost (SC) at 60 ton ha -1 to a paddy field in Taiwan for two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping seasons. The aims of study were to gain an understanding of the bioavailable concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the amended soil and the metal uptake of rice for practical amendment use in field-scale remediation of contaminated soils. The treatments of lime and OS significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the 0.1 N HCl-extractable metals in the soil. The increase in soil pH was the key factor in decreasing the bioavailable pool of metals in the soil by using lime and OS. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Ni in the brown rice were substantially reduced only through the addition of OS, and thus OS met the requirement of being a cheap, locally available, and environmentally compatible amendment for field-scale soil remediation. The translocation of Cr in rice plants is heavily restricted, and thus no significant differences in Cr uptake by rice grain were observed between the different amendment treatments. However, SC is not recommended as an immobilization agent because it caused a pH decrease in the amended soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An innovative experimental sequence on electromagnetic induction and eddy currents based on video analysis and cheap data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Sapia, P.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a coherent sequence of experiments on electromagnetic (EM) induction and eddy currents, appropriate for university undergraduate students, based on a magnet falling through a drilled aluminum disk. The sequence, leveraging on the didactical interplay between the EM and mechanical aspects of the experiments, allows us to exploit the students’ awareness of mechanics to elicit their comprehension of EM phenomena. The proposed experiments feature two kinds of measurements: (i) kinematic measurements (performed by means of high-speed video analysis) give information on the system’s kinematics and, via appropriate numerical data processing, allow us to get dynamic information, in particular on energy dissipation; (ii) induced electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements (by using a homemade multi-coil sensor connected to a cheap data acquisition system) allow us to quantitatively determine the inductive effects of the moving magnet on its neighborhood. The comparison between experimental results and the predictions from an appropriate theoretical model (of the dissipative coupling between the moving magnet and the conducting disk) offers many educational hints on relevant topics related to EM induction, such as Maxwell’s displacement current, magnetic field flux variation, and the conceptual link between induced EMF and induced currents. Moreover, the didactical activity gives students the opportunity to be trained in video analysis, data acquisition and numerical data processing.

  19. Parallel programming with Easy Java Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquembre, F.; Christian, W.; Belloni, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nearly all of today's processors are multicore, and ideally programming and algorithm development utilizing the entire processor should be introduced early in the computational physics curriculum. Parallel programming is often not introduced because it requires a new programming environment and uses constructs that are unfamiliar to many teachers. We describe how we decrease the barrier to parallel programming by using a java-based programming environment to treat problems in the usual undergraduate curriculum. We use the easy java simulations programming and authoring tool to create the program's graphical user interface together with objects based on those developed by Kaminsky [Building Parallel Programs (Course Technology, Boston, 2010)] to handle common parallel programming tasks. Shared-memory parallel implementations of physics problems, such as time evolution of the Schrödinger equation, are available as source code and as ready-to-run programs from the AAPT-ComPADRE digital library.

  20. Optimization of water absorbing exopolysaccharide production on local cheap substrates by Bacillus strain CMG1403 using one variable at a time approach.

    PubMed

    Muhammadi; Afzal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Optimum culture conditions, and carbon and nitrogen sources for production of water absorbing exopolysaccharide by Bacillus strain CMG1403 on local cheap substrates were determined using one variable at a time approach. Carbon source was found to be sole substrate for EPS biosynthesis in the presence of yeast extract that supported the growth only and hence, indirectly enhanced the EPS yield. Whereas, urea only coupled with carbon source could enhance the EPS production but no effect on growth. The maximum yield of EPS was obtained when Bacillus strain CMG1403 was grown statically in neutral minimal medium with 25% volumetric aeration at 30°C for 10 days. Under these optimum conditions, a maximum yield of 2.71±0.024, 3.82±0.005, 4.33±0.021, 4.73±0.021, 4.85±0.024, and 5.52±0.016 g/L culture medium was obtained with 20 g (sugar) of sweet whey, glucose, fructose, sucrose, cane molasses and sugar beet the most efficient one respectively as carbon sources. Thus, the present study showed that under optimum culture conditions, the local cheap substrates could be superior and efficient alternatives to synthetic carbon sources providing way for an economical production of water absorbing EPS by indigenous soil bacterium Bacillus strain CMG1403.

  1. Production and characterization of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli grown on cheap renewable carbon substrates.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; de Arruda-Caulkins, Juliana Carvalho; Vasconcellos Antonio, Regina

    2008-12-01

    Although the biopolymer poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate), P[3HB], presents physicochemical properties that make it an alternative material to conventional plastics, its biotechnological production is quite expensive. As carbon substrates contribute greatly to P[3HB] production cost, the utilization of a cheaper carbon substrate and less demanding micro-organisms should decrease its cost. In the present study a 2(3) factorial experimental design was applied, aiming to evaluate the effects of using hydrolysed corn starch (HCS) and soybean oil (SBO) as carbon substrates, and cheese whey (CW) supplementation in the mineral medium (MM) on the responses, cell dried weigh (DCW), percentage P[3HB] and mass P[3HB] by recombinant Escherichia coli strains JM101 and DH10B, containing the P[3HB] synthase genes from Cupriavidus necator (ex-Ralstonia eutropha). The analysis of effects indicated that the substrates and the supplement and their interactions had positive effect on CDW. Statistically generated equations showed that, at the highest concentrations of HCS, SO and CW, theoretically it should be possible to produce about 2 g L(- 1) DCW, accumulating 50% P[3HB], in both strains. To complement this study, the strain that presented the best results was cultivated in MM added to HCS, SBO and CW (in best composition observed) and complex medium (CM) to compare the obtained P[3HB] in terms of physicochemical parameters. The obtained results showed that the P[3HB] production in MM (1.29 g L( -1)) was approximately 20% lower than in CM (1.63 g L(- 1)); however, this difference can be compensated by the lower cost of the MM achieved by the use of cheap renewable carbon sources. Moreover, using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry analyses, it was observed that the polymer produced in MM was the one which presented physicochemical properties (Tg and Tf) that were more similar to those found in the literature for P[3HB].

  2. An Easy Method for Plant Polysome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Lecampion, Cécile; Floris, Maïna; Fantino, Jean Raphaël; Robaglia, Christophe; Laloi, Christophe

    2016-08-28

    Translation of mRNA to protein is a fundamental and highly regulated biological process. Polysome profiling is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of translational regulation. The method described here is an easy and economical way for fractionating polysomes from various plant tissues. A sucrose gradient is made without the need for a gradient maker by sequentially freezing each layer. Cytosolic extracts are then prepared in a buffer containing cycloheximide and chloramphenicol to immobilize the cytosolic and chloroplastic ribosomes to mRNA and are loaded onto the sucrose gradient. After centrifugation, six fractions are directly collected from the bottom to the top of the gradient, without piercing the ultracentrifugation tube. During collection, the absorbance at 260 nm is read continuously to generate a polysome profile that gives a snapshot of global translational activity. Fractions are then pooled to prepare three different mRNA populations: the polysomes, mRNAs bound to several ribosomes; the monosomes, mRNAs bound to one ribosome; and mRNAs that are not bound to ribosomes. mRNAs are then extracted. This protocol has been validated for different plants and tissues including Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and adult plants, Nicotiana benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum, and Oryza sativa leaves.

  3. An Evolving Worldview: Making Open Source Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Worldview is an interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global satellite imagery. Worldview supports an open data policy so that academia, private industries and the general public can use NASA's satellite data to address Earth science related issues. Worldview was open sourced in 2014. By shifting to an open source approach, the Worldview application has evolved to better serve end-users. Project developers are able to have discussions with end-users and community developers to understand issues and develop new features. Community developers are able to track upcoming features, collaborate on them and make their own contributions. Developers who discover issues are able to address those issues and submit a fix. This reduces the time it takes for a project developer to reproduce an issue or develop a new feature. Getting new developers to contribute to the project has been one of the most important and difficult aspects of open sourcing Worldview. After witnessing potential outside contributors struggle, a focus has been made on making the installation of Worldview simple to reduce the initial learning curve and make contributing code easy. One way we have addressed this is through a simplified setup process. Our setup documentation includes a set of prerequisites and a set of straightforward commands to clone, configure, install and run. This presentation will emphasize our focus to simplify and standardize Worldview's open source code so that more people are able to contribute. The more people who contribute, the better the application will become over time.

  4. EASI: An electronic assistant for scientific investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Schur, A.; Feller, D.; DeVaney, M.

    1991-09-01

    Although many automated tools support the productivity of professionals (engineers, managers, architects, secretaries, etc.), none specifically address the needs of the scientific researcher. The scientist's needs are complex and the primary activities are cognitive rather than physical. The individual scientist collects and manipulates large data sets, integrates, synthesizes, generates, and records information. The means to access and manipulate information are a critical determinant of the performance of the system as a whole. One hindrance in this process is the scientist's computer environment, which has changed little in the last two decades. Extensive time and effort is demanded from the scientistmore » to learn to use the computer system. This paper describes how chemists' activities and interactions with information were abstracted into a common paradigm that meets the critical requirement of facilitating information access and retrieval. This paradigm was embodied in EASI, a working prototype that increased the productivity of the individual scientific researcher. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. An Evolving Worldview: Making Open Source Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    NASA Worldview is an interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global satellite imagery. Worldview supports an open data policy so that academia, private industries and the general public can use NASA's satellite data to address Earth science related issues. Worldview was open sourced in 2014. By shifting to an open source approach, the Worldview application has evolved to better serve end-users. Project developers are able to have discussions with end-users and community developers to understand issues and develop new features. New developers are able to track upcoming features, collaborate on them and make their own contributions. Getting new developers to contribute to the project has been one of the most important and difficult aspects of open sourcing Worldview. A focus has been made on making the installation of Worldview simple to reduce the initial learning curve and make contributing code easy. One way we have addressed this is through a simplified setup process. Our setup documentation includes a set of prerequisites and a set of straight forward commands to clone, configure, install and run. This presentation will emphasis our focus to simplify and standardize Worldview's open source code so more people are able to contribute. The more people who contribute, the better the application will become over time.

  6. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain CASL, an Efficient l-Lactic Acid Producer from Cheap Substrate Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Su, Fei; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Qin, Jiayang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a type of probiotic bacteria with industrial potential for l-lactic acid production. We announce the draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus CASL (2,855,156 bp with a G+C content of 46.6%), which is an efficient producer of l-lactic acid from cheap, nonfood substrate cassava with a high production titer. PMID:22123765

  7. Good, Fast, Cheap: How Centers of Teaching and Learning Can Capitalize in Today's Resource-Constrained Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Michael H.; Juillerat, Stephanie; Gin, Deborah H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides leaders and educational developers of Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTL) with innovative and practical strategies on how to increase their centers' capacity and impact by focusing on quality, efficiency, and cost. This "good, fast, cheap" model represents a promising way that CTL can continue to grow, scale,…

  8. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  9. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  10. Weak data do not make a free lunch, only a cheap meal

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Zhipu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2014-01-17

    Four data sets were processed at resolutions significantly exceeding the criteria traditionally used for estimating the diffraction data resolution limit. The analysis of these data and the corresponding model-quality indicators suggests that the criteria of resolution limits widely adopted in the past may be somewhat conservative. Various parameters, such asR mergeandI/σ(I), optical resolution and the correlation coefficients CC 1/2and CC*, can be used for judging the internal data quality, whereas the reliability factorsRandR freeas well as the maximum-likelihood target values and real-space map correlation coefficients can be used to estimate the agreement between the data and the refined model. However,more » none of these criteria provide a reliable estimate of the data resolution cutoff limit. The analysis suggests that extension of the maximum resolution by about 0.2 Å beyond the currently adopted limit where theI/σ(I) value drops to 2.0 does not degrade the quality of the refined structural models, but may sometimes be advantageous. Such an extension may be particularly beneficial for significantly anisotropic diffraction. Extension of the maximum resolution at the stage of data collection and structure refinement is cheap in terms of the required effort and is definitely more advisable than accepting a too conservative resolution cutoff, which is unfortunately quite frequent among the crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank.« less

  11. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  12. How Cheap Is Soaring Flight in Raptors? A Preliminary Investigation in Freely-Flying Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80–100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food. PMID:24454760

  13. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  14. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2018-05-03

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status.1-8 Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase.9,10 However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes". Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. • Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing power • Contributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco.

  15. [The transrectus sheath preperitoneal procedure: a safe, effective and cheap surgical approach to inguinal hernia?].

    PubMed

    Prins, M W Wiesje; Voropai, D A Dasha; van Laarhoven, C J H M Kees; Akkersdijk, Willem L

    2013-01-01

    The main complication of surgery for inguinal hernia is chronic postoperative pain. This is often reported following the Lichtenstein procedure. A new, open surgical technique for the repair of inguinal hernia has been developed. This procedure is called the transrectus sheath preperitoneal procedure (TREPP). At TREPP a lightweight mesh with a ring made of memory metal is introduced into the preperitoneal space through the transrectus sheath. The first results of this operative technique are very promising: short operation time, short learning curve and not many patients with chronic postoperative pain. In a randomised, multi-centre study which will start mid-2013 (ISRCTN18591339), the TREPP procedure is compared with the transinguinal preperitoneal procedure. The primary outcome measure of this study is chronic postoperative pain.

  16. Weak data do not make a free lunch, only a cheap meal

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Zhipu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Dauter, Zbigniew, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov

    2014-02-01

    Refinement and analysis of four structures with various data resolution cutoffs suggests that at present there are no reliable criteria for judging the diffraction data resolution limit and the condition I/σ(I) = 2.0 is reasonable. However, extending the limit by about 0.2 Å beyond the resolution defined by this threshold does not deteriorate the quality of refined structures and in some cases may be beneficial. Four data sets were processed at resolutions significantly exceeding the criteria traditionally used for estimating the diffraction data resolution limit. The analysis of these data and the corresponding model-quality indicators suggests that the criteria ofmore » resolution limits widely adopted in the past may be somewhat conservative. Various parameters, such as R{sub merge} and I/σ(I), optical resolution and the correlation coefficients CC{sub 1/2} and CC*, can be used for judging the internal data quality, whereas the reliability factors R and R{sub free} as well as the maximum-likelihood target values and real-space map correlation coefficients can be used to estimate the agreement between the data and the refined model. However, none of these criteria provide a reliable estimate of the data resolution cutoff limit. The analysis suggests that extension of the maximum resolution by about 0.2 Å beyond the currently adopted limit where the I/σ(I) value drops to 2.0 does not degrade the quality of the refined structural models, but may sometimes be advantageous. Such an extension may be particularly beneficial for significantly anisotropic diffraction. Extension of the maximum resolution at the stage of data collection and structure refinement is cheap in terms of the required effort and is definitely more advisable than accepting a too conservative resolution cutoff, which is unfortunately quite frequent among the crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank.« less

  17. Relationship and probabilistic stratification of EASI and oSCORAD severity scores for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hurault, G; Schram, M E; Roekevisch, E; Spuls, P I; Tanaka, R J

    2018-06-26

    The Harmonizing Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) recommended the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) as the core outcome instrument for measuring the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, EASI may not have been used in previous clinical trials, and other scores, e.g. SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis), the objective component of SCORAD (oSCORAD) and the Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), remain widely used. It is useful to establish a method to convert these scores into EASI to compare the results from different studies effectively. Indeed, EASI and oSCORAD have been found to be strongly correlated (r S pearman =0.92) 7 , suggesting a possibility to find a relationship between the two scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. EasyDIAg: A tool for easy determination of interrater agreement.

    PubMed

    Holle, Henning; Rein, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Reliable measurements are fundamental for the empirical sciences. In observational research, measurements often consist of observers categorizing behavior into nominal-scaled units. Since the categorization is the outcome of a complex judgment process, it is important to evaluate the extent to which these judgments are reproducible, by having multiple observers independently rate the same behavior. A challenge in determining interrater agreement for timed-event sequential data is to develop clear objective criteria to determine whether two raters' judgments relate to the same event (the linking problem). Furthermore, many studies presently report only raw agreement indices, without considering the degree to which agreement can occur by chance alone. Here, we present a novel, free, and open-source toolbox (EasyDIAg) designed to assist researchers with the linking problem, while also providing chance-corrected estimates of interrater agreement. Additional tools are included to facilitate the development of coding schemes and rater training.

  19. How Digital Image Processing Became Really Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Michael

    1988-02-01

    In the early and mid-1970s, digital image processing was the subject of intense university and corporate research. The research lay along two lines: (1) developing mathematical techniques for improving the appearance of or analyzing the contents of images represented in digital form, and (2) creating cost-effective hardware to carry out these techniques. The research has been very effective, as evidenced by the continued decline of image processing as a research topic, and the rapid increase of commercial companies to market digital image processing software and hardware.

  20. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  1. Expert Supervisors' Priorities When Working with Easy and Challenging Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemer, Gulsah; Borders, L. DiAnne; Yel, Nedim

    2017-01-01

    Using Kemer, Borders, and Willse's (2014) concept map as a conceptual model, the authors aimed to understand expert supervisors' priorities with their easy and challenging supervisees. Experts' priorities with easy and challenging supervisees were represented in different parts of the concept map, and they seemed to individualize their work with…

  2. Characteristics and Conceptual Framework of the Easy-Play Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Steele, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The Easy-Play Model offers a defined framework to organize games that promote an inclusive and enjoyable sport experience. The model can be implemented by participants playing sports in educational, recreational or social contexts with the goal of achieving an active lifestyle in an inclusive, cooperative and enjoyable environment. The Easy-Play…

  3. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  4. Easy Observation of Infrared Spectral Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of some chemical elements display intense infrared (IR) lines that can be used more effectively than the ones in the visible region for identification purposes. A simple setup, based on the IR sensitivity of a handycam in nightshot mode, is described to record the visible as well as the IR spectra from decorative bulbs or salts on the…

  5. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  6. Sample Size Estimation: The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a simple approach to making quick sample size estimates for basic hypothesis tests. Although there are many sources available for estimating sample sizes, methods are not often integrated across statistical tests, levels of measurement of variables, or effect sizes. A few parameters are required to estimate sample sizes and…

  7. Medicinal Effect of Nutraceutical Fruits for the Cognition and Brain Health

    PubMed Central

    Keservani, Raj K.; Sharma, Anil K.; Kesharwani, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. PMID:26966612

  8. Breathe easy with proper respiratory protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluating the need for respiratory protection in chemical process industries (CPI) plants and selecting the appropriate respirator involves several steps. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) general industry standard for respiratory protection (29 CFR 1910.134(b)) requires the employer to establish a program to help reduce exposures to occupational contaminants. When feasible, employers must eliminate contaminants by using engineering controls (such as general and local ventilation, enclosure or isolation, or substitution of a less-hazardous process or material). Establishing a respiratory protection program consists of four steps: (1) Identify respiratory hazards and concentrations; (2) Understand the contaminants` effects on workers` health;more » (3) Select appropriate respiratory protection; and (4) Train in proper respirator use and maintenance. Consult applicable state and OSHA requirements to ensure that your program satisfies these steps. Industrial respirator manufacturers can assist with on-site training and fit testing. The paper discusses these four steps, program guidelines, determination of the hazard, and styles of respirators.« less

  9. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePlus

    ... are easy to read and what is their reading level? To use the sharing features on this ... all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. MedlinePlus does not decide the literacy level ...

  10. Application driven interface generation for EASIE. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Ya-Chen

    1992-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a user interface and a set of utility programs which support the rapid integration and execution of analysis programs about a central relational database. EASIE provides users with two basic modes of execution. One of them is a menu-driven execution mode, called Application-Driven Execution (ADE), which provides sufficient guidance to review data, select a menu action item, and execute an application program. The other mode of execution, called Complete Control Execution (CCE), provides an extended executive interface which allows in-depth control of the design process. Currently, the EASIE system is based on alphanumeric techniques only. It is the purpose of this project to extend the flexibility of the EASIE system in the ADE mode by implementing it in a window system. Secondly, a set of utilities will be developed to assist the experienced engineer in the generation of an ADE application.

  11. Ridership impacts of South Florida's EASY smart card.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Smart card-based Automated Fare Collection Systems (AFCS) are being increasingly deployed in transit systems across the US. Miami-Dade Transit (MDT) has recently deployed such a system branded as the EASY Card. The South Florida Regional Transportati...

  12. Keeping it simple : easy ways to help wildlife along roads

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    This brochure highlights more than 100 simple, successful activities to benefit fish, wildlife, or their habitats. The activities were drawn from all 50 states and from FHWA's Western Federal Lands Division. All the activities described are "easy." M...

  13. An Easy Classroom Experiment on the Supercooling of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    The change from the state of supercooling to the solid state of ice is called superfreezing. This process is not uncommon and takes place in domestic freezers. It is also easy to reproduce in the laboratory. (Contains 6 figures.)

  14. Multi-residue analysis of emerging pollutants in benthic invertebrates by modified micro-quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe extraction and nanoliquid chromatography-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlioz-Barbier, Alexandra; Buleté, Audrey; Faburé, Juliette; Garric, Jeanne; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-07

    Aquatic ecosystems are continuously contaminated by agricultural and industrial sources. Although the consequences of this pollution are gradually becoming visible, their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems are poorly known, particularly regarding the risk of bioaccumulation in different trophic levels. To establish a causality relationship between bioaccumulation and disease, experiments on biotic matrices must be performed. In this context, a multi-residue method for the analysis of 35 emerging pollutants in three benthic invertebrates (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus fossarum, and Chironomus riparius) has been developed. Because the variation in response of each individual must be taken into account in ecotoxicological studies, the entire analytical chain was miniaturised, thereby reducing the required sample size to a minimum of one individual and scaling the method accordingly. A new extraction strategy based on a modified, optimised and miniaturised "QuEChERS" approach is reported. The procedure involves salting out liquid-liquid extraction of approximately 10-20mg of matrix followed by nano-liquid chromatography-nano electospray ionisation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The validated analytical procedure exhibited recoveries between 40 and 98% for all the target compounds and enabled the determination of pollutants on an individual scale in the ng g(-1) concentration. The method was subsequently applied to determine the levels of target analytes in several encaged organisms which were exposed upstream and downstream of an effluent discharge. The results highlighted a bioaccumulation of certain targeted emerging pollutants in three freshwater invertebrates, as well as inter-species differences. 18 out of 35 compounds were detected and eight were quantified. The highest concentrations were measured for ibuprofen in G. fossarum, reaching up to 105 ng g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Calibrating EASY-Care independence scale to improve accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background there is currently limited support for the reliability and validity of the EASY-Care independence scale, with little work carried out in low- or middle-income countries. Therefore, we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Objective we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Methods three primary care physicians administered EASY-Care comprehensive geriatric assessment for 150 frail and/or dependent older people in the primary care setting. A Mokken model was applied to investigate hierarchical scaling properties of EASY-Care independence scale, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the scale was also examined. Results we found that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and is a strong hierarchical scale, hence providing strong evidence for unidimensionality. However, two items in the scale (unable to use telephone and manage finances) had much lower item Loevinger H coefficients than others. Exclusion of these two items improved the overall internal consistency of the scale. Conclusions the strong performance of the EASY-Care independence scale among community-dwelling frail older people is encouraging. This study confirms that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and a strong hierarchical scale. PMID:27496925

  16. Connecting the Dots: From an Easy Method to Computerized Species Determination

    PubMed Central

    Niederegger, Senta; Döge, Klaus-Peter; Peter, Marcus; Eickhölter, Tobias; Mall, Gita

    2017-01-01

    Differences in growth rate of forensically important dipteran larvae make species determination an essential requisite for an accurate estimation of time since colonization of the body. Interspecific morphological similarities, however, complicate species determination. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns on the inside of the cuticula of fly larvae are species specific and grow proportionally with the animal. The patterns can therefore be used for species identification, as well as age estimation in forensically important dipteran larvae. Additionally, in species where determination has proven to be difficult—even when employing genetic methods—this easy and cheap method can be successfully applied. The method was validated for a number of Calliphoridae, as well as Sarcophagidae; for Piophilidae species, however, the method proved to be inapt. The aim of this article is to assess the utility of the MAS method for applications in forensic entomology. Furthermore, the authors are currently engineering automation for pattern acquisition in order to expand the scope of the method. Automation is also required for the fast and reasonable application of MAS for species determination. Using filters on digital microscope pictures and cross-correlating them within their frequency range allows for a calculation of the correlation coefficients. Such pattern recognition permits an automatic comparison of one larva with a database of MAS reference patterns in order to find the correct, or at least the most likely, species. This facilitates species determination in immature stages of forensically important flies and economizes time investment, as rearing to adult flies will no longer be required. PMID:28524106

  17. Fish contamination by polychlorobiphenyls: the mass spectrometric ortho effect in a new and easy gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of the seven indicators. The case of Bluefin Tuna.

    PubMed

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2015-01-02

    A simple instrumental procedure was developed to carry out the not simple analysis of PCBs in fish samples. PCBs with the same degree of chlorination (the isomers) are expected to be totally indistinguishable among them by all existing detectors and by all existing mass spectrometers, and there is no apparent solution in those frequent cases where two isomers chromatographically coelute. Generally such coelutions are solved by means of multidimensional GC, but it is a complex technique impractical for most laboratories. The present research focuses on the seven important "indicator PCBs" by using the mass spectrometer in an innovative way. The "mass spectrometric ortho effect" was usefully exploited in addressing coelutions between isomers. Other new important observations on mass spectra were decisive in solving the apparent problem arising from coelutions between higher chlorinated PCBs with the lower chlorinated ones when low-resolution MS is used. With the proposed procedure, the seven indicators are analyzed in a simple way and with a degree of accuracy never observed with the conventional gas chromatography. The method was applied to some Bluefin Tuna fish samples of big size suspected to have not negligible levels of PCBs due to the high position of this species in the food chain. The supposition was partly confirmed. On the basis of the results here obtained, the recently introduced EU Regulation on six of the seven indicators shows one critical point: in the present paper, an amendment to the Regulation is proposed. A number of important validation measures are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic phase transition in Heisenberg antiferromagnetic films with easy-axis single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kok-Kwei

    2012-03-01

    The staggered susceptibility of spin-1 and spin-3/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with easy-axis single-ion anisotropy on the cubic lattice films consisting of n=2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 interacting square lattice layers is studied by high-temperature series expansions. Sixth order series in J/kBT have been obtained for free-surface boundary conditions. The dependence of the Néel temperature on film thickness n and easy-axis anisotropy D has been investigated. The shifts of the Néel temperature from the bulk value can be described by a power law n with a shift exponent λ, where λ is the inverse of the bulk correlation length exponent. The effect of easy-axis single-ion anisotropy on shift exponent of antiferromagnetic films has been studied. A comparison is made with related works. The results obtained are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of finite-size scaling theory.

  19. The end of suburbia: what happens when all the cheap oil is gone and what are the health implications?

    PubMed

    Parker, Alan A

    2005-04-01

    In isolation, the depletion of the world's stocks of cheap oil is a risk management problem of global proportions. The risk would be manageable given an international agreement by all the developed nations to conserve much of the remaining cheap oil for essential purposes, but there is no such agreement nor is there any intent to create one. Evidence is presented to show that the synergetic interaction of oil depletion with other long-standing environmental problems will result in world food production peaking and then declining at a rapid rate. Australian Census data for the journey to work and the growth of car ownership are analysed. It reveals that car/ oil dependency is growing in outer suburbia, where most Australians live and where future population growth will be housed. It is argued that oil dependency, if not reduced, will develop into a serious threat to national security in a few years. Health promotion professionals have an important role in activating local, State and Commonwealth governments to implement 'travel smart' programs.

  20. How to Create a 3D Model from Scanned Data in 5 Easy Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a cost effective way to generate copies of damaged parts for demonstrations. Integrating scanned data of a damaged area into an existing model may be challenging. However, using the relatively inexpensive Nettfab software (from one can generate a "watertight" model that is easy to print.

  1. Randomized Clinical Trial: The Use of SpeechEasy® in Stuttering Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. Aims: The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Methods &…

  2. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  3. Note-Taking Made Easy. The Study Smart Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesselman-Turkel, Judi; Peterson, Franklynn

    This book describes two successful methods of organizing notes (outlining and patterning), providing shortcuts to make note taking easy. Eight chapters include: (1) "There's No Substitute for Taking Your Own Good Notes" (e.g., note taking helps in paying attention and remembering); (2) "How to Tell What's Worth Noting" (criteria for deciding what…

  4. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  5. Technical Manual: easyCBM. Technical Report #1408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Farley, Dan; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saven, Jessica L.; Wray, Kraig A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research…

  6. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  7. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  8. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-02-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  9. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 649] Market Test of Marketing Mail... recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test, addresses procedural aspects of the filing, and...

  10. Fast and Easy Searching of Files in Unisys 2200 Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been written to enable (1) fast and easy searching of symbolic files for one or more strings of characters, dates, or numerical values in specific fields or columns and (2) summarizing results of searching other fields or columns.

  11. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate…

  12. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  13. Five Easy Principles to Make Math Moments Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Carrie S.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children are learning so many skills--how to cut with scissors, zip zippers, recognize the alphabet and their names, and share toys with others. A strong academic curriculum also requires that children learn more about math (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2000). By following the five easy principles outlined here,…

  14. Miscue Analysis Made Easy: Building on Student Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Sandra

    Beginning with a series of interactive exercises, this book leads readers through the thinking processes and linguistic systems that students use to build their understanding of text. Through a review of these systems, the book then shows how to assess students' reading ability. It then presents an easy-to-use, step-by-step diagnostic procedure,…

  15. In the Summer, Getting Into College Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    1998-01-01

    Many colleges have summer academic programs for high school students; some design special courses, while others admit the students to regular college courses. Some target gifted students. While participation in the programs, which are easy to get into, does not assure later entry to the institution, many parents have that expectation. The programs…

  16. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  17. Food Byproducts as a New and Cheap Source of Bioactive Compounds: Lignans with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Le; Lou, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-08-19

    During the process of manufacturing hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) juice and jam, a significant quantity of byproducts (leaves, seeds) is generated. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of hawthorn seeds has led to the isolation of eight new lignans, hawthornnins A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra. The radical-scavenging effects of all isolated compounds were investigated. 1-6 and 8 showed moderate activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas 1-6 and 14 displayed good 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities that were even more potent than that of trolox. In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by detecting the nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by the LPS-induced murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, and compounds 1-7, 13, and 14 exhibited potent inhibition of NO and TNF-α production. The structure-activity relationships of isolated lignans were also examined, and the results obtained show that C. pinnatifida seeds can be regarded as a potential new and cheap source of antioxidants and inflammation inhibitors.

  18. Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies - War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    some interesting correlations between the effectiveness of a governmental counterinsurgent force, and the echelon of a host governance upon which U.S...advisory forces placed the most emphasis. There is a correlation that can be drawn from the research: the higher the echelon in a host country...interesting correlations between the effectiveness of a governmental counterinsurgent force, and the echelon of a host governance upon which U.S

  19. Easy Come, Easy Go: Capillary Forces Enable Rapid Refilling of Embolized Primary Xylem Vessels.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Vivien; Bergstrom, Dana M; Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Chen, Hua; Wolfe, Joe; Holbrook, N Michele; Stanton, Daniel E; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-08-01

    Protoxylem plays an important role in the hydraulic function of vascular systems of both herbaceous and woody plants, but relatively little is known about the processes underlying the maintenance of protoxylem function in long-lived tissues. In this study, embolism repair was investigated in relation to xylem structure in two cushion plant species, Azorella macquariensis and Colobanthus muscoides, in which vascular water transport depends on protoxylem. Their protoxylem vessels consisted of a primary wall with helical thickenings that effectively formed a pit channel, with the primary wall being the pit channel membrane. Stem protoxylem was organized such that the pit channel membranes connected vessels with paratracheal parenchyma or other protoxylem vessels and were not exposed directly to air spaces. Embolism was experimentally induced in excised vascular tissue and detached shoots by exposing them briefly to air. When water was resupplied, embolized vessels refilled within tens of seconds (excised tissue) to a few minutes (detached shoots) with water sourced from either adjacent parenchyma or water-filled vessels. Refilling occurred in two phases: (1) water refilled xylem pit channels, simplifying bubble shape to a rod with two menisci; and (2) the bubble contracted as the resorption front advanced, dissolving air along the way. Physical properties of the protoxylem vessels (namely pit channel membrane porosity, hydrophilic walls, vessel dimensions, and helical thickenings) promoted rapid refilling of embolized conduits independent of root pressure. These results have implications for the maintenance of vascular function in both herbaceous and woody species, because protoxylem plays a major role in the hydraulic systems of leaves, elongating stems, and roots. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. EasyModeller: A graphical interface to MODELLER

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MODELLER is a program for automated protein Homology Modeling. It is one of the most widely used tool for homology or comparative modeling of protein three-dimensional structures, but most users find it a bit difficult to start with MODELLER as it is command line based and requires knowledge of basic Python scripting to use it efficiently. Findings The study was designed with an aim to develop of "EasyModeller" tool as a frontend graphical interface to MODELLER using Perl/Tk, which can be used as a standalone tool in windows platform with MODELLER and Python preinstalled. It helps inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models in a simple and straightforward way. Conclusion EasyModeller provides a graphical straight forward interface and functions as a stand-alone tool which can be used in a standard personal computer with Microsoft Windows as the operating system. PMID:20712861

  1. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate around a vertical axis. LEGO rockers (see Fig. 1) are much more reliable and versatile.

  2. [Simple and easy method for measurement of ambulatory activity in mice (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, M; Iizuka, M; Tadokoro, S

    1978-07-01

    A hand-made apparatus which is easily manipulative, cheap, durable and clean was used to measure ambulatory activity of a mouse. The apparatus was assembled with the same type of two plastic round basins commercially available (25 cm in diameter) put one upon another. A pivot was fixed at the center of the outsurface of the inner basin (A), and its open end was inserted into the open socket fixed at the center on the bottom of the outer basin (B). Three microswitches equipped on the brim of (B) at equal intervals were activated and the counts were recorded according to the tiltings of (A) through the movements of the mouse. In order to examine accuracy of the measurement, effects of d-amphetamine (1.25 approximately 5.0 mg/kg), methamphetamine (1.0 approximately 4.0 mg/kg), cocaine (10 approximately 40 mg/kg) and morphine (5.0 approximately 20.0 mg/kg) on the ambulatory activity were investigated. Marked accelerating effects were observed dose dependently after the administrations of all the drugs. Furthermore, the patterns of the activity showed characteristic properties of each drug. This method is especially useful to measure the acute effect of drugs on the ambulatory activity in mice, and many units can be set up at the same time.

  3. Getting shops to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers and ciders: a time-series analysis evaluating impacts on alcohol availability and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Pliakas, T; Lock, K; Jones, A; Aalders, S; Egan, M

    2018-02-13

    'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) is a public health initiative encouraging retailers to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers/ciders (≥6.5% alcohol by volume). This study evaluates the impact of RtS initiatives on alcohol availability and purchasing in three English counties with a combined population of 3.62 million people. We used a multiple baseline time-series design to examine retail data over 29 months from a supermarket chain that experienced a two-wave, area-based role out of RtS: initially 54 stores (W1), then another 77 stores (W2). We measured impacts on units of alcohol sold (primary outcome: beers/ciders; secondary outcome: all alcoholic products), economic impacts on alcohol sales and substitution effects. We observed a non-significant W1 increase (+3.7%, 95% CI: -11.2, 21.0) and W2 decrease (-6.8%, 95% CI: -20.5, 9.4) in the primary outcome. We observed a significant W2 decrease in units sold across all alcohol products (-10.5%, 95% CI: -19.2, -0.9). The direction of effect between waves was inconsistent for all outcomes, including alcohol sales, with no evidence of substitution effects. In the UK, voluntary RtS initiatives appear to have little or no impact on reducing alcohol availability and purchase from the broader population of supermarket customers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. easyDAS: Automatic creation of DAS servers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) has proven to be a successful way to publish and share biological data. Although there are more than 750 active registered servers from around 50 organizations, setting up a DAS server comprises a fair amount of work, making it difficult for many research groups to share their biological annotations. Given the clear advantage that the generalized sharing of relevant biological data is for the research community it would be desirable to facilitate the sharing process. Results Here we present easyDAS, a web-based system enabling anyone to publish biological annotations with just some clicks. The system, available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/panda-srv/easydas is capable of reading different standard data file formats, process the data and create a new publicly available DAS source in a completely automated way. The created sources are hosted on the EBI systems and can take advantage of its high storage capacity and network connection, freeing the data provider from any network management work. easyDAS is an open source project under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusions easyDAS is an automated DAS source creation system which can help many researchers in sharing their biological data, potentially increasing the amount of relevant biological data available to the scientific community. PMID:21244646

  5. Utilization of busted CFL in developing cheap and efficient segmented compact LED bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N. S.; Ponce, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Today’s generation will not survive a day without the help of lighting. In fact, someone’s productivity, particularly at night, depends on the presence of a good lighting and it seems that it is a daily necessity. Lighting takes a large part on the consumption of household electrical energy particularly in the Philippines. There are different type of lighting bulbs used at home can affect the overall lighting consumption. Nowadays, most commonly and widely used bulb in the household is the Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL). However, the main problem of CFL is the mercury they contain. In addition to this is the harmful effect of mercury such as Emission of UV Radiation. In response to the said problem, this project study gives solution to the problem of the society concerning environment, health and safety as well energy conservation, by developing a segmented compact light-emitting diode (SCLED) bulb from busted CFL that are efficient, economical, and does not contain toxic chemicals.

  6. Easy-to-read texts for students with intellectual disability: linguistic factors affecting comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Ávila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio; Tavares, Gema; Gómez, Marcos; Hernández, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The use of 'easy-to-read' materials for people with intellectual disabilities has become very widespread but their effectiveness has scarcely been evaluated. In this study, the framework provided by Kintsch's Construction-Integration Model (1988) is used to examine (i) the reading comprehension levels of different passages of the Spanish text that have been designed following easy-to-read guidelines and (ii) the relationships between reading comprehension (literal and inferential) and various linguistic features of these texts. Sixteen students with mild intellectual disability and low levels of reading skills were asked to read easy-to-read texts and then complete a reading comprehension test. The corpus of texts was composed of a set of forty-eight pieces of news selected from www.noticiasfacil.es, a Spanish digital newspaper that publishes daily journalistic texts following international guidelines for the design of easy-to-read documents (IFLA, Tronbacke B. (1997) Guidelines for Easy-to-read Materials. IFLA, The Hague). Participants correctly answered 80% of the comprehension questions, showing significantly higher scores for literal questions than for inferential questions. The analyses of the texts' linguistic features revealed that the number of coreferences was the variable that best predicted literal comprehension, but contrary to what the previous literature seemed to indicate, the relationship between the two variables was inverse. In the case of inferential comprehension, the number of sentences was a significant negative predictor; that is, the higher the sentence density, the lower the ability of these students to find relationships between them. The effects of the rest of linguistic variables, such as word frequency and word length, on comprehension were null. These results provide preliminary empirical support for the use of easy-to-read texts but bring into question the validity of some popular design guidelines (e.g. augmenting word frequency) to

  7. The use of cylindrical lenses in easy experiments for physics education and the magic arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by staging tricks, effects or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats.

  8. Production of Fungal Amylases Using Cheap, Readily Available Agriresidues, for Potential Application in Textile Industry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanamdeep; Bali, Vrinda; Mangla, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at isolation and screening of fungal amylase producer, optimization of solid state fermentation conditions for maximum amylase production by the best amylase producer, and characterization of the crude amylases, so produced. Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 showed the highest amylase activity (164.1 U/mL) in secondary screening under SSF conditions and was selected for further studies. The test strain showed maximum amylase production (341.7 U/mL) and supernatant protein concentration (9.7 mg/mL) for incubation period (6 days), temperature (35°C), initial pH (6.0), nutrient salt solution as moistening agent, and beef extract as nitrogen source. Pomegranate peel produced maximum amylase activity, but wheat bran (only slightly lesser amylase activity as compared to that of pomegranate peel) was chosen for further studies, keeping in mind the seasonal availability of pomegranate peel. TLC confirmed the amylase produced to be α-type and 60 kDa was the molecular weight of the partially purified amylase. The enzyme showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 6.0, temperature of 55°C, and incubation time of 60 minutes. UV (616.0 U/mL) and chemical (814.2 U/mL) mutation enhanced amylase activity as compared to wild test strain. The study indicates that Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222 can be an important source of amylase and the crude enzyme, hence obtained, can be cost effectively applied in multiple sections of textile wet processing. PMID:24527439

  9. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    PubMed Central

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  10. Patient expectations and costs of immediate reporting of screening mammography: talk isn't cheap.

    PubMed

    Raza, S; Rosen, M P; Chorny, K; Mehta, T S; Hulka, C A; Baum, J K

    2001-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether patients prefer immediate or delayed results of screening mammography and to determine the cost of immediate reporting at our institution. A survey was anonymously and randomly distributed to 129 women who were 35-70 years old during a visit to their primary care physician, asking the women's preference for receiving mammography results by one of two systems: by letter with a return visit for any additional tests; or by speaking at once with the radiologist, with the option of additional tests being performed during the same visit. Patients' willingness to pay for the latter service was also determined. A cost identification model was constructed using commercially available software. We considered the impact on radiologists' and technologists' time and the need for additional equipment and space, and we analyzed the effect on the cost of immediate reporting. One hundred twenty (93%) surveys were completed. Eighty women (67%) preferred immediate reporting, and 62 (78%) of these 80 patients would wait 30-60 min. The additional cost of immediate reporting is $28.22 per patient. Only 11% of patients were willing to pay this additional cost. When new equipment and space were not required, the cost would increase by $4.38. This cost was most influenced by the time required to give patients normal results. Most surveyed patients preferred speaking with a radiologist immediately but were unwilling to pay additional fees. Radiologists, hospital administrators, and health care planners must be aware of the costs of immediate reporting and must factor these costs into any change in hospital or national policy.

  11. Anabolic androgen use in the management of hereditary angioedema: Not so cheap after all.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kevin Y; Zuraw, Bruce L; Chen, Qiaoling; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (HAE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that imposes a significant burden on affected patients. 17α-alkylated androgens (anabolic androgens) decrease attack frequency and severity but carry the risk of potentially serious dose-related adverse effects. Despite the emergence of targeted therapies for HAE, continued anabolic androgen use has been driven in part by their low cost. To examine the hidden cost of anabolic androgen use related to the risk of developing non-HAE comorbidities. Patients with HAE were identified in the Southern California Kaiser Permanente database using clinical and laboratory findings compatible with HAE. These patients were stratified into anabolic androgen exposed and nonexposed groups. Matched controls were selected from the Kaiser database who did not have HAE or anabolic androgen exposure. Using multivariate analysis, we determined the number of non-HAE comorbidities linked to anabolic androgen use. We next determined the association between dosing and increasing exposure to anabolic androgens and the likelihood of having various comorbidities. Patients with HAE exposed to anabolic androgens had a 28% increase (P = .04) in non-HAE comorbidities when compared with their matched (nonexposed) controls. With each gram per month increase in exposure, a 12% increase in non-HAE comorbidities is observed (P < .01). The most commonly occurring non-HAE comorbidities were psychiatric, muscle cramps, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Our data suggest that long-term anabolic androgen use enhances the risk of developing comorbid health conditions, thus amplifying the cost of care. Our report provides additional support for the preferred use of newer, targeted therapies for the management of HAE. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  13. CheapStat: an open-source, "do-it-yourself" potentiostat for analytical and educational applications.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Aaron A; Bonham, Andrew J; White, Ryan J; Zimmer, Michael P; Yadgar, Ramsin J; Hobza, Tony M; Honea, Jim W; Ben-Yaacov, Ilan; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2011-01-01

    Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80), open-source (software and hardware), hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license.

  14. Nickel electrodes as a cheap and versatile platform for studying structure and function of immobilized redox proteins.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao Xia; Li, Junbo; Öner, Ibrahim Halil; Zhao, Bing; Leimkühler, Silke; Hildebrandt, Peter; Weidinger, Inez M

    2016-10-19

    Practical use of many bioelectronic and bioanalytical devices is limited by the need of expensive materials and time consuming fabrication. Here we demonstrate the use of nickel electrodes as a simple and cheap solid support material for bioelectronic applications. The naturally nanostructured electrodes showed a surprisingly high electromagnetic surface enhancement upon light illumination such that immobilization and electron transfer reactions of the model redox proteins cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) could be followed via surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. It could be shown that the nickel surface, when used as received, promotes a very efficient binding of the proteins upon preservation of their native structure. The immobilized redox proteins could efficiently exchange electrons with the electrode and could even act as an electron relay between the electrode and solubilized myoglobin. Our results open up new possibility for nickel electrodes as an exceptional good support for bioelectronic devices and biosensors on the one hand and for surface enhanced spectroscopic investigations on the other hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reinforced silver-embedded silica matrix from the cheap silica source for the controlled release of silver ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilonga, A.; Kim, J. K.; Sarawade, P. B.; Kim, H. T.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, a reinforced silver-embedded silica matrix was designed by utilizing the interaction between the [AlO 4] - tetrahedral and the Ag + in sol-gel process using sodium silicate as a silica precursor. The Ag + mole ratio in each sample was significantly varied to examine the influence of silver concentration on the properties of the final product. Aluminium ions were added to reinforce and improve the chemical durability of silver-embedded silica. A templated sample at Al/Ag = 1 atomic ratio was also synthesized to attempt a possibility of controlling porosity of the final product. Also, a sample neither embedded with silver nor templated was synthesized and characterized to serve as reference. The material at Al/Ag = 1 was found to have a desirable properties, compared to its counterparts, before and even after calcination up to 1000 °C. The results demonstrate that materials with desirable properties can be obtained by this unprecedented method while utilizing sodium silicate, which is relatively cheap, as a silica precursor. This may significantly boost the industrial production of the silver-embedded silicas for various applications.

  16. Optimization of dextran production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512 using cheap and local sources of carbohydrate and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Behravan, Javad; Bazzaz, B Seddigheh Fazly; Salimi, Zohreh

    2003-12-01

    Using pure components for the fermentation medium in dextran production imposes high costs on the industry. In the present study, the economic production of dextran using local and cheap sources of carbohydrate and nitrogen was investigated. Different concentrations of molasses and wheat-bran extract, after filtration, steam sterilization and pH adjustment, were inoculated with a fresh suspension of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Cultures were incubated, and then diluted with an equal volume of ethanol. The bacteria were pelleted, and an aliquot of the supernatant was diluted with ethanol and dextran was precipitated. The supernatant was removed and the precipitate was dissolved in a minimal volume of water. Activated charcoal was added and the solution was boiled. The solution was filtered and protein impurities removed by 2-methylbutan-2-ol/chloroform extraction. Dextran was again precipitated with cold ethanol as described above, and the precipitate was dried in a desiccator. Optimum conditions and composition of culture media for dextran production using sugar-beet molasses and wheat bran were determined. The best results were obtained when 20% (w/v) molasses and 15% (w/v) wheat bran were used. The optimal initial pH for dextran production was 7.5.

  17. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings.

    PubMed

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2017-09-03

    This paper deals with the thermal transmittance measurement focused on buildings and specifically in building energy retrofitting. Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great amount of devices are used at once along with intensive and tedious post-processing and analysis work. In this paper, from well-known physical laws, authors develop a methodology based on three temperatures measurements, which is implemented by a novel thermal transmittance metre. The paper shows its development step by step. As a result the developed device is modular, scalable, and fully wireless; it is capable of taking as many measurements at once as user needs. The developed system is compared working together on a same test to the currently used one based on heat flow. The results show that the developed metre allows carrying out thermal transmittance measurements in buildings in a cheap, quick, reliable and simple way.

  18. CheapStat: An Open-Source, “Do-It-Yourself” Potentiostat for Analytical and Educational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Aaron A.; Bonham, Andrew J.; White, Ryan J.; Zimmer, Michael P.; Yadgar, Ramsin J.; Hobza, Tony M.; Honea, Jim W.; Ben-Yaacov, Ilan; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80), open-source (software and hardware), hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license. PMID:21931613

  19. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  20. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  1. [Statistical analysis using freely-available "EZR (Easy R)" software].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    Clinicians must often perform statistical analyses for purposes such evaluating preexisting evidence and designing or executing clinical studies. R is a free software environment for statistical computing. R supports many statistical analysis functions, but does not incorporate a statistical graphical user interface (GUI). The R commander provides an easy-to-use basic-statistics GUI for R. However, the statistical function of the R commander is limited, especially in the field of biostatistics. Therefore, the author added several important statistical functions to the R commander and named it "EZR (Easy R)", which is now being distributed on the following website: http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/. EZR allows the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates and so on, by point-and-click access. In addition, by saving the script automatically created by EZR, users can learn R script writing, maintain the traceability of the analysis, and assure that the statistical process is overseen by a supervisor.

  2. That Sounds Easy Enough: An Exploration of Data Management Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.; Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data; Information Service (Acadis)

    2013-05-01

    Creating an infrastructure that is not ad hoc or ephemeral when much of technology today is itself ad hoc and ephemeral is not an easy task. This paper examines the collaboration process between various stakeholders within the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) in order to provide insight into data management, data preservation, and data discovery. Specifically, this paper addresses the partnership of Arctic Research Mapping Application Program (ARMAP) and ACADIS. This partnership shows that what may seem like an easy or straight forward request can, in fact, prove challenging. These challenges can only be met through collaboration and good communication. The ACADIS project fosters scientific synthesis and discovery by providing services that make data freely available for access and analysis across multiple disciplines. The goals of ACADIS are to bring together experts to create tools at the forefront of how science will be done. Essentially, we improve the usability and interdisciplinary reuse of arctic data. ACADIS is a joint effort by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Unidata, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to provide data archival services, preservation, and access for all projects funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Arctic Science Program (ARC).

  3. Computation in Classical Mechanics with Easy Java Simulations (EJS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2006-12-01

    Let your students enjoy creating animations and incorporating some computational physics into your Classical Mechanics course. This talk will demonstrate the use of an Open Source Physics package, Easy Java Simulations (EJS), in an already existing sophomore/junior level Classical Mechanics course. EJS allows for incremental introduction of computational physics into existing courses because it is easy to use (for instructors and students alike) and it is open source. Students can use this tool for numerical solutions to problems (as they can with commercial systems: Mathcad and Mathematica), but they can also generate their own animations. For example, students in Classical Mechanics use Lagrangian mechanics to solve a problem, and then use EJS not only to numerically solve the differential equations, but to show the associated motion (and check their answers). EJS, developed by Francisco Esquembre (http://fem.um.es/Ejs/), is built on the OpenSource Physics framework (http://www.opensourcephysics.org/) supported through NSF DUE0442581.

  4. Randomized clinical trial: the use of SpeechEasy® in stuttering treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Two groups of adults who stutter participated: group 1 consisted of 10 men and one woman aged 21-42 years (mean = 30.0). Group 2 consisted of six men and one woman aged 20-50 years (mean = 35.6). Participants in group 1 were fit with a SpeechEasy® device and were not given any additional training (i.e., supplementary fluency enhancing techniques). Participants used the device daily for 6 months. Participants in group 2 received treatment in the form of a 12-week fluency promotion protocol with techniques based on both fluency shaping and stuttering modification. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) between groups in participants' stuttered syllables following treatment. That is, both therapeutic protocols achieved approximately 40% reduction in number of stuttered syllables from baseline measures, with no significant relapse after 3 or 6 months post-treatment. The results suggest that the SpeechEasy® device can be a viable option for the treatment of stuttering. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  5. Cheap, High-Performance, and Wearable Mn Oxide Supercapacitors with Urea-LiClO4 Based Gel Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-Jay; Chen, Kai-Wen; Che, Yo-Cheng; Wang, I-Ju; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lu, Kueih-Tzu; Liao, Yen-Fa; Ishii, Hirofumi

    2017-01-11

    Here we report a simple, scalable, and low-cost method to enhance the electrochemical properties of Mn oxide electrodes for highly efficient and flexible symmetrical supercapacitors. The method involving printing on a printer, pencil-drawing, and electrodeposition is established to fabricate Mn oxide/Ni-nanotube/graphite/paper hybrid electrodes operating with a low-cost, novel urea-LiClO 4 /PVA as gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSSC) devices. The Mn oxide nanofiber/Ni-nanotube/graphite/paper (MNNGP) electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA gel electrolyte show specific capacitance (C sp ) 960 F/g in voltage region 0.8 V at 5 mV/s and exhibit excellent rates of capacitance retention more than 85% after 5000 cycles. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior of the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA at operating temperatures 27-110 °C was investigated; the results show that the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA exhibit outstanding performance (1100 F/g), even at 90 °C. The assembled FSSC devices based on the MNNGP electrodes in urea-LiClO 4 /PVA exhibit great C sp (380 F/g in potential region of 2.0 V at 5 mV/s, exhibiting superior energy density 211.1 W h/kg) and great cycle stability (less than 15% loss after 5000 cycles at 25 mV/s). The oxidation-state change was examined by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. FSSC devices would open new opportunities in developing novel portable, wearable, and roll-up electric devices owing to the cheap, high-performance, wide range of operating temperature, and simple procedures for large-area fabrication.

  6. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    PubMed

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  7. Cheap and Effective: The Impact of Student-Led Recitation Classes on Learning Outcomes in Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Ward, Kevin; Folsom, Justin; Borrenpohl, Teresa; Mumford, Sophie; Pershin, Zach; Carriere, Danielle; Smart, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine the impacts of enrollment in a voluntary one-credit recitation class for ECON 101 students, focusing on course grades, course retention, and outcomes in later economics courses. The recitation classes were taught by undergraduate peer leaders with experience in upper-level microeconomics. Instead of being paid, the peer leaders…

  8. Matrix effects in pesticide multi-residue analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kruve, Anneli; Künnapas, Allan; Herodes, Koit; Leito, Ivo

    2008-04-11

    Three sample preparation methods: Luke method (AOAC 985.22), QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) were applied to different fruits and vegetables for analysis of 14 pesticide residues by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). Matrix effect, recovery and process efficiency of the sample preparation methods applied to different fruits and vegetables were compared. The Luke method was found to produce least matrix effect. On an average the best recoveries were obtained with the QuEChERS method. MSPD gave unsatisfactory recoveries for some basic pesticide residues. Comparison of matrix effects for different apple varieties showed high variability for some residues. It was demonstrated that the amount of co-extracting compounds that cause ionization suppression of aldicarb depends on the apple variety as well as on the sample preparation method employed.

  9. Effect of food processing on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers in milk.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sujatha; Nelapati, Krishnaiah

    2017-03-01

    To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk. Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification. The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments. Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers.

  10. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  11. When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Seaton, Daniel T.; Cardamone, Caroline N.; Rayyan, Saif; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics [1] built using the LON-CAPA [2] open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them [3]. We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.

  12. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  13. DooSo6: Easy Collaboration over Shared Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, Claudia-Lavinia; Oster, Gérald; Molli, Pascal

    Existing tools for supporting parallel work feature some disadvantages that prevent them to be widely used. Very often they require a complex installation and creation of accounts for all group members. Users need to learn and deal with complex commands for efficiently using these collaborative tools. Some tools require users to abandon their favourite editors and impose them to use a certain co-authorship application. In this paper, we propose the DooSo6 collaboration tool that offers support for parallel work, requires no installation, no creation of accounts and that is easy to use, users being able to continue working with their favourite editors. User authentication is achieved by means of a capability-based mechanism.

  14. Measuring phosphate with an inexpensive, easy to build photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Weijs, Steven; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    In the context of a course for first year students to get hands-on experience with measuring in the environment, a photometric system for measuring phosphate concentration was developed. The system makes use of a single LED as a light source, a Si photodiode-based light to frequency conversion IC and an Arduino electronic card as acquisition system. The instrument is designed as an easy to assemble system and assembling and alignment is part of the exercise. The phosphate measurement is based on the formation of phosphor-molybdate complex which is eventually reduced to a blue component. The absorbance at 710 nm of a phosphate-containing fluid with added indicator is then measured and calibrated with a known solution. The initial test has demonstrated the ability of the instrument to detect phosphates in tap water. Other components as nitrates or chlorophyll could be easily measured with the instrument using LED emitting at the respective wavelengths.

  15. Estimating the Wavelength of Sodium Emission in Flame--The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Simple "box spectroscopes" are not new. Different methods of building them at home using cheap diffraction gratings have been described. However, their use has often been confined to looking at street lights, discharge tubes, and enjoying the beautiful spectra of various lamps. Construction of the box spectroscope usually involves a narrow slit…

  16. Banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kindo, A J; Tupaki-Sreepurna, A; Yuvaraj, M

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. Identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. An indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting. Ripe banana peel pieces, sterilised in an autoclave at 121°C temperature and 15 lbs pressure for 15 min promoted good growth of hyphae and pycnidia or acervuli in coelomycetes, flabelliform and medusoid fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes and fruit bodies such as cleistothecium in ascomycetes. The growth from the primary isolation medium was taken and inoculated onto the pieces of double-autoclaved ripe banana peel pieces in a sterile glass Petri dish with some moisture (sprinkles of sterile distilled water). A few sterile coverslips were placed randomly inside the Petri dish for the growing fungus to stick on to it. The plates were kept at room temperature and left undisturbed for 15-20 days. At a time, one coverslip was taken out and placed on a slide with lactophenol cotton blue and focused under the microscope to look for fruit bodies. Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora sphaerica, Chaetomium murorum, Nattrassia mangiferae and Schizophyllum commune were identified by characteristic features from growth on banana peel culture. Banana peel culture is a cheap and effective medium resembling the natural substrate of fungi and is useful for promoting characteristic reproductive structures that aid identification.

  17. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  18. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  19. The IBA Easy-E-Beam™ Integrated Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam™ for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  20. Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha

    2007-05-01

    For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis.

  1. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition. PMID:25579988

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons: easy come, slow go.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2008-03-01

    Operons are widespread in prokaryotes, but are uncommon in eukaryotes, except nematode worms, where approximately 15% of genes reside in over 1100 operons in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unclear how operons have become abundant in nematode genomes. The "one-way street" hypothesis asserts that once formed by chance, operons are very difficult to break, because the breakage would leave downstream genes in an operon without a promoter, and hence, unexpressed. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the presence and absence of C. elegans operons in Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, and Caenorhabditis brenneri, using Pristionchus pacificus and Brugia malayi as outgroups, and identified numerous operon gains and losses. Coupled with experimental examination of trans-splicing patterns, our comparative genomic analysis revealed diverse molecular mechanisms of operon losses, including inversion, insertion, and relocation, but the presence of internal promoters was not found to facilitate operon losses. In several cases, the data allowed inference of mechanisms by which downstream genes are expressed after operon breakage. We found that the rate of operon gain is approximately 3.3 times that of operon loss. Thus, the evolutionary dynamics of nematode operons is better described as "easy come, slow go," rather than a "one-way street." Based on a mathematic model of operon gains and losses and additional assumptions, we projected that the number of operons in C. elegans will continue to rise by 6%-18% in future evolution before reaching equilibrium between operon gains and losses.

  3. Designing easy DNA extraction: Teaching creativity through laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Susantini, Endang; Lisdiana, Lisa; Isnawati; Tanzih Al Haq, Aushia; Trimulyono, Guntur

    2017-05-01

    Subject material concerning Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) structure in the format of creativity-driven laboratory practice offers meaningful learning experience to the students. Therefore, a laboratory practice in which utilizes simple procedures and easy-safe-affordable household materials should be promoted to students to develop their creativity. This study aimed to examine whether designing and conducting DNA extraction with household materials could foster students' creative thinking. We also described how this laboratory practice affected students' knowledge and views. A total of 47 students participated in this study. These students were grouped and asked to utilize available household materials and modify procedures using hands-on worksheet. Result showed that this approach encouraged creative thinking as well as improved subject-related knowledge. Students also demonstrated positive views about content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking skills. This study implies that extracting DNA with household materials is able to develop content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking of the students. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):216-225, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. An off-the-shelf guider for the Palomar 200-inch telescope: interfacing amateur astronomy software with professional telescopes for an easy life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a simple but effective guider for use with the Oxford-SWIFT integral field spectrograph on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. The guider uses mainly off-the-shelf components, including commercial amateur astronomy software to interface with the CCD camera, calculating guiding corrections, and send guide commands to the telescope. The only custom piece of software is an driver to provide an interface between the Palomar telescope control system and the industry standard 'ASCOM' system. Using existing commercial software provided a very cheap guider (<$5000) with minimal (<15 minutes) commissioning time. The final system provides sub-arcsecond guiding, and could easily be adapted to any other professional telescope

  5. Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Janet E; Wakelin, Melanie; Ellis, Jayne E

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect on pregnancy rates through use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor (CEFM) in women trying to conceive. Prospective study, in which volunteers were randomly assigned either to use or not to use the CEFM. All participants could also use other aids to conception. Data were self-reported by volunteers using daily diaries, supplied and collected by mail. Home use, under conditions normally experienced by over-the-counter purchasers of the marketed device. Women who were trying to conceive; 653 (CEFM 305, control 348) provided evaluable information. CEFM was used for two cycles. Cumulative pregnancy rates over two cycles of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate for 2 cycles was significantly higher in the CEFM group (22.7%) compared with the control group (14.4%). More women who had been trying to conceive for <6 months became pregnant than women who had been trying to conceive for >6 months (odds ratio: 2.67). Previous pregnancy and younger age of partners were also significant prognostic factors, but use of other aids to conception was not. After adjustment for other factors, CEFM use remained a significant factor affecting the chance of conceiving within two cycles (odds ratio: 1.89). CEFM users found the device to be easy/very easy to use (90%) and convenient/very convenient (80%). Use of the CEFM increases the likelihood of getting pregnant during the first two cycles of use compared with its nonuse, in women who had been trying to conceive for up to 2 years.

  6. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0): an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm) aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  7. Multimodality image integration for radiotherapy treatment: an easy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andres; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Santos, Juan A.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Benito, Carlos; Garcia-Barreno, Rafael

    2001-05-01

    The interest of using combined MR and CT information for radiotherapy planning is well documented. However, many planning workstations do not allow to use MR images, nor import predefined contours. This paper presents a new simple approach for transferring segmentation results from MRI to a CT image that will be used for radiotherapy planning, using the same original CT format. CT and MRI images of the same anatomical area are registered using mutual information (MI) algorithm. Targets and organs at risk are segmented by the physician on the MR image, where their contours are easy to track. A locally developed software running on PC is used for this step, with several facilities for the segmentation process. The result is transferred onto the CT by slightly modifying up and down the original Hounsfield values of some points of the contour. This is enough to visualize the contour on the CT, but does not affect dose calculations. The CT is then stored using the original file format of the radiotherapy planning workstation, where the technician uses the segmented contour to design the correct beam positioning. The described method has been tested in five patients. Simulations and patient results show that the dose distribution is not affected by the small modification of pixels of the CT image, while the segmented structures can be tracked in the radiotherapy planning workstation-using adequate window/level settings. The presence of the physician is not requires at the planning workstation, and he/she can perform the segmentation process using his/her own PC. This new approach makes it possible to take advantage from the anatomical information present on the MRI and to transfer the segmentation to the CT used for planning, even when the planning workstation does not allow to import external contours. The physician can draw the limits of the target and areas at risk off-line, thus separating in time the segmentation and planning tasks and increasing the efficiency.

  8. The Esophageal Anastomotic Stricture Index (EASI) for the management of esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linda Yi-Chan; Laberge, Jean-Martin; Yousef, Yasmine; Baird, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Anastomotic stricture is the most common complication following repair of esophageal atresia. An Esophageal Anastomotic Stricture Index (EASI) based on the postoperative esophagram may identify patients at high risk of stricture formation. Digital images of early postoperative esophagrams of patients undergoing EA repair from 2005 to 2013 were assessed. Demographics and outcomes including dilations were prospectively collected. Upper (U-EASI) and lower (L-EASI) pouch ratios were generated using stricture diameter divided by maximal respective pouch diameter. Score performances were evaluated with area under the receiver operator curves (AUC) and the Fisher's exact test for single and multiple (>3) dilatations. Interrater agreement was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Forty-five patients had esophagrams analyzed; 28 (62%) required dilatation and 19 received >3 (42%). U-EASI and L-EASI ratios ranged from 0.17 to 0.70, with L-EASI outperforming the U-EASI as follows: L-EASI AUC: 0.66 for a single dilatation, 0.65 for >3 dilatations; U-EASI AUC: 0.56 for a single dilatation, 0.67 for >3 dilatations. All patients with an L-EASI ratio of ≤0.30 (n=8) required multiple esophageal dilatations, p=0.0006. The interrater ICC was 0.87. The EASI is a simple, reproducible tool to predict the development and severity of anastomotic stricture after esophageal atresia repair and can direct postoperative surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct characterization of commercial lecithins by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gabriel D; Alberici, Rosana M; Pereira, Gustavo G; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Commercial lecithins are composed mainly of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The analysis of the commercial lecithins, including their fraction of phospholipids, normally involves laborious and expensive protocols. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be an efficient technique for the analysis of lipids. Samples of commercial lecithins including standards, refined, deoiled and modified soy lecithin were tested. Characteristic profiles of phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols are detected by EASI(+)-MS, whereas EASI(-)-MS provided phosphatidylethanolamines, glycophospholipids and free fatty acids profiles. Acetylated lecithins also displayed characteristic acetylated derivatives. EASI-MS data was also compared to MALDI-MS, and found to display richer compositional information. The industrial process applied to lecithin fabrication was also characterised via typical EASI-MS profiles. EASI-MS both in its positive and negative ion modes offers a direct, fast and efficient technique able to characterise commercial lecithin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety and tolerability of the Easy Vax™ clinical epidermal electroporation system in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    El-Kamary, Samer S; Billington, Melissa; Deitz, Stephen; Colby, Elaina; Rhinehart, Howard; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William; Edelman, Robert; Lee, Albert; King, Alan

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines are cost-effective and versatile, though intracellular delivery has been challenging in humans. Alternative delivery modalities such as electroporation have demonstrated improved immune responses, but are painful. In this single-center, double-blind, medical device trial, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of Easy Vax™ dermal electroporation system, alone (without DNA) in healthy adults. Three randomized protocol doses were administered to 10 subjects (80% white, 60% female, mean age: 32.1 years) in each of two areas (total of six doses). Two subjects complained of shooting pain, burning and/or tingling when doses were administered to the forearm region, but not the lateral deltoid regions. Subsequent doses for the remaining eight subjects were restricted to the deltoid regions only. Tolerability pain scores never exceeded 3 of 10 in the 11-Point Pain Rating scale, and 12 of 100 in the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and lower in follow-up evaluations (P < 0.0001), with no significant difference between the three dosing protocols. Electrical properties of the skin, measured automatically by the device, showed no correlation between pain intensity and skin conductance. In conclusion, the Easy Vax™ electroporation device is safe and well tolerated when administered over the lateral deltoid skin regions in healthy volunteers.

  11. easyGWAS: A Cloud-Based Platform for Comparing the Results of Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Dominik G; Roqueiro, Damian; Salomé, Patrice A; Kleeberger, Stefan; Greshake, Bastian; Zhu, Wangsheng; Liu, Chang; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Weigel, Detlef; Borgwardt, Karsten M

    2017-01-01

    The ever-growing availability of high-quality genotypes for a multitude of species has enabled researchers to explore the underlying genetic architecture of complex phenotypes at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The systematic comparison of results obtained from GWAS of different traits opens up new possibilities, including the analysis of pleiotropic effects. Other advantages that result from the integration of multiple GWAS are the ability to replicate GWAS signals and to increase statistical power to detect such signals through meta-analyses. In order to facilitate the simple comparison of GWAS results, we present easyGWAS, a powerful, species-independent online resource for computing, storing, sharing, annotating, and comparing GWAS. The easyGWAS tool supports multiple species, the uploading of private genotype data and summary statistics of existing GWAS, as well as advanced methods for comparing GWAS results across different experiments and data sets in an interactive and user-friendly interface. easyGWAS is also a public data repository for GWAS data and summary statistics and already includes published data and results from several major GWAS. We demonstrate the potential of easyGWAS with a case study of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana , using flowering and growth-related traits. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time analysis of self-assembled nucleobases by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Shi, Ruixia; Long, Zi; Lu, Xin; Jiang, Fubin; Ouyang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the real-time analysis of self-assembled nucleobases was employed by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (V-EASI-MS). With the analysis of three nucleobases including 6-methyluracil (6MU), uracil (U) and thymine (T) as examples, different orders of clusters centered with different metal ions were recorded in both positive and negative modes. Compared with the results obtained by traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under the same condition, more clusters with high orders, such as [6MU7+Na](+), [6MU15+2NH4](2+), [6MU10+Na](+), [T7+Na](+), and [T15+2NH4](2+) were detected by V-EASI-MS, which demonstrated the soft ionization ability of V-EASI for studying the non-covalent interaction in a self-assembly process. Furthermore, with the injection of K(+) to the system by a syringe pumping, the real-time monitoring of the formation of nucleobases clusters was achieved by the direct extraction of samples from the system under the Venturi effect. Therefore, the effect of cations on the formation of clusters during self-assembly of nucleobases was demonstrated, which was in accordance with the reports. Free of high voltage, heating or radiation during the ionization, this technique is much soft and suitable for obtaining the real-time information of the self-assembly system, which also makes it quite convenient for extraction samples from the reaction system. This "easy and soft" ionization technique has provided a potential pathway for monitoring and controlling the self-assembly processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A highly sensitive detection of chloramphenicol based on chemiluminescence immunoassays with the cheap functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Linyu, Wang; Manwen, Yao; Chengzhi, Fang; Xi, Yao

    2017-09-01

    A strategy has been applied to chloramphenicol (CAP) detection with chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on cheap functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe-MNPs). The strategy that bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized on cheap functionalized Fe-MNPs and that the CAP molecules were then immobilized on BSA, avoided the long process of dialysis for preparation of the BSA-CAP conjugates. The samples were detected for both methods that utilized two different kinds of functionalized Fe-MNPs (amine-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 and carboxylic acid-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 ). The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared based on inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.024 ng ml -1 and 0.046 ng ml -1 respectively and LODs were approximately 0.0002 ng ml -1 and 0.001 ng ml -1 respectively. These methods were much more sensitive than that of any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) previously reported. Therefore, such chemiluminescence methods could be easily adapted for small molecule detection in a variety of foods using Fe-MNPs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. OTTER: An Optimized Transit Tool And Easy Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    as stated in the CNO’s Position Report: 2014. While a number of fuel -saving measures have been implemented in recent years, the effects of...saving measures have been implemented in recent years, the effects of operational transit speed on fuel consumption have not been adequately...their estimated savings As clearly seen, operating configuration has the most effect by far on fuel savings. Source: Fonte S (2009). In 2015

  15. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  16. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  17. The Problem of Latent Attentional Capture: Easy Visual Search Conceals Capture by Task-Irrelevant Abrupt Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. We propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, we show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. We argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which employed an easy visual search. PMID:26854530

  18. The problem of latent attentional capture: Easy visual search conceals capture by task-irrelevant abrupt onsets.

    PubMed

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-08-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. The authors propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, the authors show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. The authors argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which used an easy visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Breathe Easy at Home: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Pediatric Asthma Intervention.

    PubMed

    Rosofsky, Anna; Reid, Margaret; Sandel, Megan; Zielenbach, Molly; Murphy, Johnna; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2016-01-01

    The Breathe Easy at Home Program enables clinicians to refer asthmatic patients to Boston Inspectional Services Department (ISD) if they suspect housing conditions trigger symptoms. The authors conducted one-on-one interviews with clinicians ( n = 10) who referred patients, and focus groups with inspectors from the ISD ( n = 9) and a variety of stakeholders ( n = 13), to gain insight into program function and implementation. Clinician interviews revealed inconsistencies in enrollment approaches, dissatisfaction with the web-based system, and patient follow-up difficulties. Inspectors identified barriers to working effectively with residents and landlords, and the stakeholder focus group highlighted successes of an unusual institutional collaboration. Interviews and focus groups identified strong and personal rapport between clinicians, inspectors, and patients as key to program retention, and that participating families required additional support throughout the process. Despite recommendations for improvement in program implementation, clinicians, inspectors, and stakeholders felt that the program overall improved both the home environment and asthma outcomes.

  20. When science becomes too easy: Science popularization inclines laypeople to underrate their dependence on experts.

    PubMed

    Scharrer, Lisa; Rupieper, Yvonne; Stadtler, Marc; Bromme, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    Science popularization fulfills the important task of making scientific knowledge understandable and accessible for the lay public. However, the simplification of information required to achieve this accessibility may lead to the risk of audiences relying overly strongly on their own epistemic capabilities when making judgments about scientific claims. Moreover, they may underestimate how the division of cognitive labor makes them dependent on experts. This article reports an empirical study demonstrating that this "easiness effect of science popularization" occurs when laypeople read authentic popularized science depictions. After reading popularized articles addressed to a lay audience, laypeople agreed more with the knowledge claims they contained and were more confident in their claim judgments than after reading articles addressed to expert audiences. Implications for communicating scientific knowledge to the general public are discussed.

  1. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    PubMed Central

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  2. No easy answers: issues in accounting for hospital acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, K R; Alexander, D E

    1986-07-01

    A real and often overlooked concern created by the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 is the effect these amendments have on the cash flow generated by an acquisition. Financial managers, therefore, should be aware of the accounting issues created by the act--depreciation and its effect on appraised values, reevaluation to the present value of assumed indebtness, and capitalization of acquisition costs--to accurately evaluate the feasibility of an acquisition.

  3. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Washington State. Technical Report #1008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample…

  4. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Oregon. Technical Report #1009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The easyCBM[R] assessment system is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency…

  5. Web-Based Student Evaluations of Professors: The Relations between Perceived Quality, Easiness and Sexiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, James; Mitchell, John; Stinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    College students critique their professors' teaching at RateMyProfessors.com, a web page where students anonymously rate their professors on Quality, Easiness, and Sexiness. Using the self-selected data from this public forum, we examine the relations between quality, easiness, and sexiness for 3190 professors at 25 universities. For faculty with…

  6. Fingerprinting and aging of ink by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Priscila M; Sanvido, Gustavo B; Garcia, Jerusa S; Haddad, Renato; Cosso, Ricardo G; Maia, Denison R J; Zacca, Jorge J; Maldaner, Adriano O; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-04-01

    Using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), fast and non-destructive fingerprinting identification and aging of ballpoint pen ink writings have been performed directly from paper surfaces under ordinary ambient conditions. EASI-MS data obtained directly from the ink lines showed that pens from different brands provide typical ink chemical profiles. Accelerated ink aging has also been monitored by EASI-MS revealing contrasting degradation behaviors for six different common ink dyes. As demonstrated for Basic Violet 3, some dyes display a cascade of degradation products whose abundances increase linearly with time thus functioning as 'chemical clocks' for ink aging. Analysis of questionable documents has confirmed the ink aging capabilities of EASI-MS. The order of superimposition at a crossing point has also been determined by EASI-MS. For two superimposed ink lines, continuous EASI-MS analysis has also shown that the EASI spray is able to penetrate through the layers and therefore both ink layers could be characterized.

  7. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Oregon State Test. Technical Report #1011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study examining the relation between the math measures available on the easyCBM[R] online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system and the Oregon statewide assessment of mathematics. Designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, easyCBM[R] is intended to help…

  8. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  9. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  10. School Security Solutions: Bringing Corporate Safety to Schools and Colleges with EasyLobbyTM Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendzick, Richard E.; Downs, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes software for electronic visitor management (EVM) called EasyLobbyTM, currently in use in thousands of federal and corporate installations throughout the world and its application for school and campus environments. Explains EasyLobbyTM's use to replace visitor logs, capture and store visitor data electronically, and provide badges that…

  11. New Database Manipulation Tools in the Easy-Learning On-Line Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radescu, Radu; Davidescu, Andrei; Pupezescu, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the new ORM (object-relational mapping) tool introduced in the easy-learning platform. Propel 1.5 is the latest version of Propel, one of the ORMs fully compatible with the Symfony framework, and in comparison with the older versions and it has drastically improved the way the easy-learning platform can manipulate its…

  12. EASY-II Renaissance: n, p, d, α, γ-induced Inventory Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Eastwood, J. W.; Morgan, J. G.

    2014-04-01

    The European Activation SYstem has been re-engineered and re-written in modern programming languages so as to answer today's and tomorrow's needs in terms of activation, transmutation, depletion, decay and processing of radioactive materials. The new FISPACT-II inventory code development project has allowed us to embed many more features in terms of energy range: up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence and covariance, so as to cover all anticipated application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, stockpile and fuel cycle stewardship, materials characterization and life, and storage cycle management. In parallel, the maturity of modern, truly general purpose libraries encompassing thousands of target isotopes such as TENDL-2012, the evolution of the ENDF-6 format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF have allowed the activation code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles (n, p, d, α, γ), are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code system, EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It includes many new features and enhancements, but also benefits already from the feedback from extensive validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

  13. A Quick and Easy Simplification of Benzocaine's NMR Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Suzanne R.; Wallace, Richard H.

    2006-04-01

    The preparation of benzocaine is a common experiment used in sophomore-level organic chemistry. Its straightforward procedure and predictable good yields make it ideal for the beginning organic student. Analysis of the product via NMR spectroscopy, however, can be confusing to the novice interpreter. An inexpensive, quick, and effective method for simplifying the NMR spectrum is reported. The method results in a spectrum that is cleanly integrated and more easily interpreted.

  14. A biorefinery approach based on fractionation with a cheap industrial by-product for getting value from an invasive woody species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Elena; Romaní, Aloia; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, Juan Carlos; Yáñez, Remedios

    2014-12-01

    Acacia dealbata wood (an invasive species) was subjected to fractionation with glycerol (a cheap industrial by-product), and the resulting solid phase was used as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycerol fractionation allowed an extensive delignification while preserving cellulose in solid phase. The solids from the fractionation stage showed high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. Solids obtained under selected fractionation conditions (glycerol content of media, 80 wt%; duration, 1h; liquid to solid ratio, 6 g/g; alkaline and neutral washing stages) were subjected to enzymatic saccharification to achieve glucose concentrations up to 85.40 g/L, with almost complete cellulose conversion into glucose. The results confirmed the potential of glycerol as a fractionation agent for biorefineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microneedles: quick and easy delivery methods of vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most efficient method for infectious disease prevention. Parenteral injections such as intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injections have several advantages in vaccine delivery, but there are many drawbacks. Thus, the development of a new vaccine delivery system has long been required. Recently, microneedles have been attracting attention as new vaccination tools. Microneedle is a highly effective transdermal vaccine delivery method due to its mechanism of action, painlessness, and ease of use. Here, we summarized the characteristics of microneedles and the possibilities as a new vaccine delivery route. PMID:28775980

  16. Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Alabi, Taofic; Nieus, Clément; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Éric; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-30

    The health status of the indigenous people of Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared with that of the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The development of crickets, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest. Diets based on cassava leaves seem to be the most promising. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiments must be devised in which cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. EASY-HIT: HIV full-replication technology for broad discovery of multiple classes of HIV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validation of the assay with a panel of nine reference inhibitors yielded effective inhibitory concentrations consistent with published data and allowed discrimination between inhibitors of early and late phases of HIV replication. Finer resolution of the effects of reference drugs on different steps of HIV replication was achieved in secondary time-of-addition assays. The EASY-HIT assay yielded high Z' scores (>0.9) and signal stabilities, confirming its robustness. Screening of the LOPAC(1280) library identified 10 compounds (0.8%), of which eight were known to inhibit HIV, validating the suitability of this assay for screening applications. Studies evaluating anti-HIV activities of natural products with the EASY-HIT technology led to the identification of three novel inhibitory compounds that apparently act at different steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate successful evaluation of plant extracts for HIV-inhibitory activities, suggesting application of this technology for the surveillance of biological extracts with anti-HIV activities. We conclude that the EASY-HIT technology is a versatile tool for the discovery and characterization of HIV inhibitors.

  18. Loop-the-Loop: An Easy Experiment, A Challenging Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.

    2010-07-01

    A loop-the-loop built by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) was used in Thai high school teachers training program to demonstrate a circular motion and investigate the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy. We took videos using high speed camera to record the motions of a spherical steel ball moving down the aluminum inclined track at different released positions. The ball then moved into the circular loop and underwent a projectile motion upon leaving the track. We then asked the teachers to predict the landing position of the ball if we changed the height of the whole loop-the-loop system. We also analyzed the videos using Tracker, a video analysis software. It turned out that most teachers did not realize the effect of the friction between the ball and the track and could not obtain the correct relationship hence their predictions were inconsistent with the actual landing positions of the ball.

  19. Easy-To-Use Connector-Assembly Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, John W., Jr.; Jankowski, Fred

    1988-01-01

    Tool compensates for user's loss of dexterity under awkward conditions. Has jaws that swivel over 180 degree so angle adjusts with respect to handles. Oriented and held in position most comfortable and effective for user in given situation. Jaws lined with rubber pads so they conform to irregularly shaped parts and grips firmly but gently. Once tool engages part, it locks on it so user can release handles without losing part. Ratchet mechanism in tool allows user to work handles back and forth in confined space to connect or disconnect part. Quickly positioned, locked, and released. Gives user feel of its grip on part. Frees grasping muscles from work during part of task, giving user greater freedom to move hand. Operates with only one hand, leaving user's other hand free to manipulate wiring or other parts. Also adapts to handling and positioning extremely-hot or extremely-cold fluid lines, contaminated objects, abrasive or sharp objects, fragile items, and soft objects.

  20. Protect the sick: health insurance reform in one easy lesson.

    PubMed

    Stone, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In thinking about how to expand insurance coverage, the issue that matters is whether insurance enables sick and high-risk people to get medical care. Over the course of three decades, market-oriented insurance reforms have shifted more costs of illness onto people who need and use medical care. By making the users of care pay for it (or even some of it), cost-sharing discourages sick people from getting care, even if they have insurance, and for people with low-incomes and tight budgets, cost-sharing can effectively deny them access to care. Thus, covering or not covering sick people is the core issue of health insurance reform, both as a determinant of support and opposition to proposals, and as the proper yardstick for evaluating reform ideas.

  1. Five un-easy pieces of pharmaceutical policy reform.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Improper dependencies slant policy over a drug's life span, biasing the development of new drugs, the testing and marketing approval for new drugs, and the monitoring of patient safety after drugs are marketed. This article examines five ways in which the public improperly depends on pharmaceutical firms that compromise the integrity of pharmaceutical policy. Today the public relies on pharmaceutical firms: (1) to set priorities on drug research and development; (2) to conduct clinical trials to test whether drugs are safe and effective; (3) to decide what clinical trial data to disclose to the public; (4) to monitor post marketing drug safety; (5) to supply product information to physicians and to finance continuing medical education and other professional activities. The article suggests options to overcome each of these dependencies. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. It looks easy! Heuristics for combinatorial optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Chronicle, Edward P; MacGregor, James N; Ormerod, Thomas C; Burr, Alistair

    2006-04-01

    Human performance on instances of computationally intractable optimization problems, such as the travelling salesperson problem (TSP), can be excellent. We have proposed a boundary-following heuristic to account for this finding. We report three experiments with TSPs where the capacity to employ this heuristic was varied. In Experiment 1, participants free to use the heuristic produced solutions significantly closer to optimal than did those prevented from doing so. Experiments 2 and 3 together replicated this finding in larger problems and demonstrated that a potential confound had no effect. In all three experiments, performance was closely matched by a boundary-following model. The results implicate global rather than purely local processes. Humans may have access to simple, perceptually based, heuristics that are suited to some combinatorial optimization tasks.

  3. Five easy equations for patient flow through an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Thomas Lill; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, Allan

    2011-10-01

    Queue models are effective tools for framing management decisions and Danish hospitals could benefit from awareness of such models. Currently, as emergency departments (ED) are under reorganization, we deem it timely to empirically investigate the applicability of the standard "M/M/1" queue model in order to document its relevance. We compared actual versus theoretical distributions of hourly patient flow from 27,000 patient cases seen at Frederiksberg Hospital's ED. Formulating equations for arrivals and capacity, we wrote and tested a five equation simulation model. The Poisson distribution fitted arrivals with an hour-of-the-day specific parameter. Treatment times exceeding 15 minutes were well-described by an exponential distribution. The ED can be modelled as a black box with an hourly capacity that can be estimated either as admissions per hour when the ED operates full hilt Poisson distribution or from the linear dependency of waiting times on queue number. The results show that our ED capacity is surprisingly constant despite variations in staffing. These findings led to the formulation of a model giving a compact framework for assessing the behaviour of the ED under different assumptions about opening hours, capacity and workload. The M/M/1 almost perfectly fits our. Thus modeling and simulations have contributed to the management process. not relevant. not relevant.

  4. Easy-interactive and quick psoriasis lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guoli; He, Bei; Yang, Wenming; Shu, Chang

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes an interactive psoriasis lesion segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Psoriasis is an incurable skin disease and affects large population in the world. PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) is the gold standard utilized by dermatologists to monitor the severity of psoriasis. Computer aid methods of calculating PASI are more objective and accurate than human visual assessment. Psoriasis lesion segmentation is the basis of the whole calculating. This segmentation is different from the common foreground/background segmentation problems. Our algorithm is inspired by GrabCut and consists of three main stages. First, skin area is extracted from the background scene by transforming the RGB values into the YCbCr color space. Second, a rough segmentation of normal skin and psoriasis lesion is given. This is an initial segmentation given by thresholding a single gaussian model and the thresholds are adjustable, which enables user interaction. Third, two GMMs, one for the initial normal skin and one for psoriasis lesion, are built to refine the segmentation. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Datalist: A Value Added Service to Enable Easy Data Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Angela; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Bryant, Keith; Seiler, Edward; Shie, Chung-Lin; Teng, William; Liu, Zhong; Hearty, Thomas; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven; hide

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a user wanting to study hurricane events. This could involve searching and downloading multiple data variables from multiple data sets. The currently available services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) only allow the user to select one data set at a time. The GES DISC started a Data List initiative, in order to enable users to easily select multiple data variables. A Data List is a collection of predefined or user-defined data variables from one or more archived data sets. Target users of Data Lists include science teams, individual science researchers, application users, and educational users. Data Lists are more than just data. Data Lists effectively provide users with a sophisticated integrated data and services package, including metadata, citation, documentation, visualization, and data-specific services, all available from one-stop shopping. Data Lists are created based on the software architecture of the GES DISC Unified User Interface (UUI). The Data List service is completely data-driven, and a Data List is treated just as any other data set. The predefined Data Lists, created by the experienced GES DISC science support team, should save a significant amount of time that users would otherwise have to spend.

  6. EASY: a simple tool for simultaneously removing background, deadtime and acoustic ringing in quantitative NMR spectroscopy--part I: basic principle and applications.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Christian; Hemmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of Artifacts in NMR SpectroscopY (EASY) is a simple but very effective tool to remove simultaneously any real NMR probe background signal, any spectral distortions due to deadtime ringdown effects and -specifically- severe acoustic ringing artifacts in NMR spectra of low-gamma nuclei. EASY enables and maintains quantitative NMR (qNMR) as only a single pulse (preferably 90°) is used for data acquisition. After the acquisition of the first scan (it contains the wanted NMR signal and the background/deadtime/ringing artifacts) the same experiment is repeated immediately afterwards before the T1 waiting delay. This second scan contains only the background/deadtime/ringing parts. Hence, the simple difference of both yields clean NMR line shapes free of artefacts. In this Part I various examples for complete (1)H, (11)B, (13)C, (19)F probe background removal due to construction parts of the NMR probes are presented. Furthermore, (25)Mg EASY of Mg(OH)2 is presented and this example shows how extremely strong acoustic ringing can be suppressed (more than a factor of 200) such that phase and baseline correction for spectra acquired with a single pulse is no longer a problem. EASY is also a step towards deadtime-free data acquisition as these effects are also canceled completely. EASY can be combined with any other NMR experiment, including 2D NMR, if baseline distortions are a big problem. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Make It Short and Easy: Username Complexity Determines Trustworthiness Above and Beyond Objective Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rita R.; Chrobot, Nina; Newman, Eryn; Schwarz, Norbert; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Can the mere name of a seller determine his trustworthiness in the eye of the consumer? In 10 studies (total N = 608) we explored username complexity and trustworthiness of eBay seller profiles. Name complexity was manipulated through variations in username pronounceability and length. These dimensions had strong, independent effects on trustworthiness, with sellers with easy-to-pronounce or short usernames being rated as more trustworthy than sellers with difficult-to-pronounce or long usernames, respectively. Both effects were repeatedly found even when objective information about seller reputation was available. We hypothesized the effect of name complexity on trustworthiness to be based on the experience of high vs. low processing fluency, with little awareness of the underlying process. Supporting this, participants could not correct for the impact of username complexity when explicitly asked to do so. Three alternative explanations based on attributions of the variations in name complexity to seller origin (ingroup vs. outgroup), username generation method (seller personal choice vs. computer algorithm) and age of the eBay profiles (10 years vs. 1 year) were tested and ruled out. Finally, we show that manipulating the ease of reading product descriptions instead of the sellers’ names also impacts the trust ascribed to the sellers. PMID:29312062

  8. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    PubMed

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg -1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  9. Comparing the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on umbilical cord separation time in healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadi, Azar; Zafari, Mandana; Moslemi, Leila

    2012-06-01

    Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time. This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns. Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. The umbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ(2), Fisher were used in this study. Median time of cord separation in human milk application group (150.95±28.68 hours) was significantly shorter than dry cord care group (180.93±37.42 hours) (P<0.001). Topical application of human milk on the remaining part of the cord reduces the cord separation time and it can be used as an easy, cheap and non invasive way for cord care.

  10. LSD and 9,10-dihydro-LSD analyses in street drug blotter samples via easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS).

    PubMed

    Romão, Wanderson; Sabino, Bruno D; Bueno, Maria Izabel M S; Vaz, Boniek G; Júnior, Amadeu C; Maldaner, Adriano O; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; Lordeiro, Rogério A; Nascentes, Clésia C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei

    2012-09-01

    Normally, the identification of the LSD drug is performed by forensic laboratories, using the Ehrlich spot test. However, this is a nonspecific analysis. Additionally, the Brazilian Federal Police has identified the presence of a new compound in seized blotters: 9,10-dihydro-LSD, an uncontrolled substance. In this work, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode, EASI(+)-MS, was used to characterize LSD and 9,10-dihydro-LSD compositions directly from the surface of blotters. The presence of LSD in the seized blotter samples were also confirmed via high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. In a set of 41 blotters analyzed by EASI(+)-MS, 28 showed positive results for LSD, seven for 9,10-dihydro-LSD, and another six samples showed negative results for both LSD and 9,10-dihydro-LSD. The combination of thin layer chromatography with EASI-MS also demonstrated to be a relatively simple and powerful screening tool for forensic analysis of street drugs. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Evaluation of the accuracy of the EasyTest™ malaria Pf/Pan Ag, a rapid diagnostic test, in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chom-Kyu; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jin-Soo; Lee, Sung-Keun; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Yun-Kyu; Cha, Seok Ho; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely used for malaria detection, primarily because of their simple operation, fast results, and straightforward interpretation. The Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag is one of the most commonly used malaria RDTs in several countries, including Korea and India. In this study, we tested the diagnostic performance of this RDT in Uganda to evaluate its usefulness for field diagnosis of malaria in this country. Microscopic and PCR analyses, and the Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag rapid diagnostic test, were performed on blood samples from 185 individuals with suspected malaria in several villages in Uganda. Compared to the microscopic analysis, the sensitivity of the RDT to detect malaria infection was 95.8% and 83.3% for Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum, respectively. Although the diagnostic sensitivity of the RDT decreased when parasitemia was ≤500 parasites/µl, it showed 96.8% sensitivity (98.4% for P. falciparum and 93.8% for non-P. falciparum) in blood samples with parasitemia ≥100 parasites/µl. The specificity of the RDT was 97.3% for P. falciparum and 97.3% for non-P. falciparum. These results collectively suggest that the accuracy of the Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag makes it an effective point-of-care diagnostic tool for malaria in Uganda.

  12. Evaluation of the Accuracy of the EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag, a Rapid Diagnostic Test, in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chom-Kyu; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jin-Soo; Lee, Sung-Keun; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Yun-Kyu; Cha, Seok Ho

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely used for malaria detection, primarily because of their simple operation, fast results, and straightforward interpretation. The Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag is one of the most commonly used malaria RDTs in several countries, including Korea and India. In this study, we tested the diagnostic performance of this RDT in Uganda to evaluate its usefulness for field diagnosis of malaria in this country. Microscopic and PCR analyses, and the Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag rapid diagnostic test, were performed on blood samples from 185 individuals with suspected malaria in several villages in Uganda. Compared to the microscopic analysis, the sensitivity of the RDT to detect malaria infection was 95.8% and 83.3% for Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum, respectively. Although the diagnostic sensitivity of the RDT decreased when parasitemia was ≤500 parasites/µl, it showed 96.8% sensitivity (98.4% for P. falciparum and 93.8% for non-P. falciparum) in blood samples with parasitemia ≥100 parasites/µl. The specificity of the RDT was 97.3% for P. falciparum and 97.3% for non-P. falciparum. These results collectively suggest that the accuracy of the Asan EasyTest™ Malaria Pf/Pan Ag makes it an effective point-of-care diagnostic tool for malaria in Uganda. PMID:25352698

  13. Is talk "cheap"? An initial investigation of the equivalence of alcohol purchase task performance for hypothetical and actual rewards.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Stojek, Monika K; Murphy, James G; MacKillop, James

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral economic alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are self-report measures of alcohol demand that assess estimated consumption at escalating levels of price. However, the relationship between estimated performance for hypothetical outcomes and choices for actual outcomes has not been determined. The present study examined both the correspondence between choices for hypothetical and actual outcomes, and the correspondence between estimated alcohol consumption and actual drinking behavior. A collateral goal of the study was to examine the effects of alcohol cues on APT performance. Forty-one heavy-drinking adults (56% men) participated in a human laboratory protocol comprising APTs for hypothetical and actual alcohol and money, an alcohol cue reactivity paradigm, an alcohol self-administration period, and a recovery period. Pearson correlations revealed very high correspondence between APT performance for hypothetical and actual alcohol (ps < 0.001). Estimated consumption on the APT was similarly strongly associated with actual consumption during the self-administration period (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). Exposure to alcohol cues significantly increased subjective craving and arousal and had a trend-level effect on intensity of demand, in spite of notable ceiling effects. Associations among motivational indices were highly variable, suggesting multidimensionality. These results suggest there may be close correspondence both between value preferences for hypothetical alcohol and actual alcohol, and between estimated consumption and actual consumption. Methodological considerations and priorities for future studies are discussed. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    PubMed

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Development of an Easy-to-Use Tool for the Assessment of Emergency Department Physical Design.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Alireza; Tabatabaey, Ali; Motamed, Hassan; Motamedi, Maryam; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Physical design of the emergency department (ED) has an important effect on its role and function. To date, no guidelines have been introduced to set the standards for the construction of EDs in Iran. In this study, we aim to devise an easy-to-use tool based on the available literature and expert opinion for the quick and effective assessment of EDs in regards to their physical design. For this purpose, based on current literature on emergency design, a comprehensive checklist was developed. Then, this checklist was analyzed by a panel consisting of heads of three major EDs and contradicting items were decided. 178 crude items were derived from available literature. The Items were categorized in to three major domains of Physical space, Equipment, and Accessibility. The final checklist approved by the panel consisted of 163 items categorized into six domains. Each item was phrased as a "Yes or No" question for ease of analysis, meaning that the criterion is either met or not.

  16. Perceiving racism in ambiguous situations: who relies on easy-to-use information?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2010-01-01

    In situations that are ambiguous with regard to the presence of discrimination, how do people arrive at their conclusions that discrimination has (or has not) taken place? This question was examined from a motivated social cognition perspective via the interaction of two factors: the prototype effect--the notion that ambiguously discriminatory behavior is more likely to be perceived as discriminatory when the executor is prototypical and the need for cognitive closure--the tendency to jump hastily to and seize on an answer. Results provided replicating evidence of the prototype effect among European American participants but not among African American participants. Specifically, European Americans were likely to perceive ambiguously racist behavior enacted by a prototypical executor (i.e., a White person) as more discriminatory than the same behavior exhibited by a non-prototypical executor (i.e., a Black person). African American participants, on the other hand, showed no reliance on this simple cognitive heuristic. Furthermore, results showed that European Americans with a higher need for cognitive closure were more likely to rely on the easy-to-use information offered by prototypes. These findings are discussed from a motivated social cognition perspective.

  17. Data collection in IMS: It's not as easy as it looks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Maswadeh, Waleed; Shoff, Donald B.; Harden, Charles S.; Snyder, A. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data collection in Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is not as easy an endeavor as it appears. Despite the advent of high speed personal computers and fast analog-to-digital converters (ADC's), care must be taken to ensure that reliable data are obtained in a timely fashion. This is especially true in hyphenated techniques, e.g. GC-IMS, where the amount of data increases dramatically when gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) data is being collected. Using the Graseby GC-IMS, with a gate repetition rate of 33 Hz, it is theoretically possible to collect 33 spectra per second. This collection rate is not realistically obtained due to a number of factors. Among these factors are inaccuracy of the timing signal from the IMS, the necessity to store the data, disk input/output limitations, disk operating system limitations, and program overhead. Taking these factors into account, we have achieved a data collection rate of 20 spectra per second. This paper will describe these problems, demonstrate the practical effects these problems present, and present methods for minimizing these effects.

  18. Meniscus delivery: a maneuver for easy arthroscopic access to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Said, Hatem Galal; Goyal, Saumitra; Fetih, Tarek Nabil

    2016-03-16

    Pathology of posterior horn of medial meniscus is common and often presents a difficult approach during arthroscopy for various reasons. We describe an easy maneuver to facilitate "delivery of the medial meniscus" during arthroscopy.

  19. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  20. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  1. Breathing Easy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides practical information and guidance to auto refinish shops on proper ventilation of paint mixing rooms, including ventilation system basics and diagrams, risk reduction ideas, common mistakes, tips, and design considerations.

  2. Hydration properties and texture fingerprints of easy- and hard-to-cook bean varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kinyanjui, Peter K; Njoroge, Daniel M; Makokha, Anselimo O; Christiaens, Stefanie; Ndaka, Daniel S; Hendrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the factors that affect the hydration and cooking profiles of different bean varieties. During this study, nine bean varieties were classified as either easy-to-cook (ETC) or hard-to-cook (HTC) based on a subjective finger pressing test and an objective cutting test. Rose coco, Red haricot, and Zebra beans were classified as ETC, while Canadian wonder, Soya fupi, Pinto, non-nodulating, Mwezi moja, Gwaku, and New mwezi moja were HTC. The effect of different soaking (pre)-treatments on the cooking behavior and/or water absorption of whole or dehulled beans was investigated. Dehulling, soaking in high pH and monovalent salt solutions reduced the cooking time of beans, while soaking in low pH and CaCl2 solutions increased the cooking time. Moisture uptake was faster in ETC and dehulled beans. Soaking at high temperatures also increased the hydration rate. The results point to pectin-related aspects and the rate of water uptake as possible factors that influence the cooking rate of beans. PMID:25650021

  3. Development of Matched (migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) Method for Satellite-Tracked Migratory Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, Tomoko; Chen, Wenbo; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Satellite tracking technology has been used to reveal the migration patterns and flyways of migratory birds. In general, bird migration can be classified according to migration status. These statuses include the wintering period, spring migration, breeding period, and autumn migration. To determine the migration status, periods of these statuses should be individually determined, but there is no objective method to define 'a threshold date' for when an individual bird changes its status. The research objective is to develop an effective and objective method to determine threshold dates of migration status based on satellite-tracked data. The developed method was named the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method". In order to demonstrate the method, data acquired from satellite-tracked Tundra Swans were used. MATCHED method is composed by six steps: 1) dataset preparation, 2) time frame creation, 3) automatic identification, 4) visualization of change points, 5) interpretation, and 6) manual correction. Accuracy was tested. In general, MATCHED method was proved powerful to identify the change points between migration status as well as stopovers. Nevertheless, identifying "exact" threshold dates is still challenging. Limitation and application of this method was discussed.

  4. CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu. PMID:22916227

  5. RatLab: an easy to use tool for place code simulations

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the RatLab toolkit, a software framework designed to set up and simulate a wide range of studies targeting the encoding of space in rats. It provides open access to our modeling approach to establish place and head direction cells within unknown environments and it offers a set of parameters to allow for the easy construction of a variety of enclosures for a virtual rat as well as controlling its movement pattern over the course of experiments. Once a spatial code is formed RatLab can be used to modify aspects of the enclosure or movement pattern and plot the effect of such modifications on the spatial representation, i.e., place and head direction cell activity. The simulation is based on a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) network that has been shown before to establish a spatial encoding of new environments using visual input data only. RatLab encapsulates such a network, generates the visual training data, and performs all sampling automatically—with each of these stages being further configurable by the user. RatLab was written with the intention to make our SFA model more accessible to the community and to that end features a range of elements to allow for experimentation with the model without the need for specific programming skills. PMID:23908627

  6. Monitoring Enzymatic Reactions in Real Time Using Venturi Easy Ambient Sonic-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed a technique to monitor spatially confined surface reactions with mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without the need for voltage or organic solvents. Fused-silica capillaries immersed in an aqueous solution, positioned in close proximity to each other and the functionalized surface, created a laminar flow junction with a resulting reaction volume of ∼5 pL. The setup was operated with a syringe pump, delivering reagents to the surface through a fused-silica capillary. The other fused-silica capillary was connected to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization source, sampling the resulting analytes at a slightly higher flow rate compared to the feeding capillary. The combined effects of the inflow and outflow maintains a chemical microenvironment, where the rate of advective transport overcomes diffusion. We show proof-of-concept where acetylcholinesterase was immobilized on an organosiloxane polymer through electrostatic interactions. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase into choline was monitored in real-time for a range of acetylcholine concentrations, fused-silica capillary geometries, and operating flow rates. Higher reaction rates and conversion yields were observed with increasing acetylcholine concentrations, as would be expected. PMID:27249533

  7. Easy-to-read consumer communications: a missing link in Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Root, J; Stableford, S

    1999-02-01

    Effective consumer communication is key to successfully moving Medicaid recipients into managed care systems and realizing the promised cost savings from the upheaval. Yet, little attention has been paid to educating these consumers with easy-to-read materials. The Maine Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Health Literacy Center, with the support of the Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc., addressed the problem by offering three national skills training workshops called Writing for the Medicaid Market. The training was marketed to public and private organizations providing Medicaid managed care services, including state Medicaid officials, health benefit counselor staff (enrollment brokers), managed care plan (HMO) staff, and consumer advocates. The training addressed the core issue in health literacy: the mismatch between the low literacy skills of the target population and the high reading level of most health and managed care materials. Posttraining survey data revealed that training was successful in skill building, but also that it addressed only the tip of the iceberg. Faulty and/or nonexistent communication planning limits the success not only of Medicaid, but of other large health and social programs as well. The authors outline the broad scope of the national health literacy problem, share their posttraining survey data, discuss lessons extrapolated from both their data and their experience, and propose a national agenda to address a vast and generally ignored public problem.

  8. Potentiometric detection in UPLC as an easy alternative to determine cocaine in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Daems, Devin; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2015-07-01

    The analytical methods which are often used for the determination of cocaine in complex biological matrices are a prescreening immunoassay and confirmation by chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. We suggest an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with a potentiometric detector, as a fast and practical method to detect and quantify cocaine in biological samples. An adsorption/desorption model was used to investigate the usefulness of the potentiometric detector to determine cocaine in complex matrices. Detection limits of 6.3 ng mL(-1) were obtained in plasma and urine, which is below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 25 ng mL(-1). A set of seven plasma samples and 10 urine samples were classified identically by both methods as exceeding the MRL or being inferior to it. The results obtained with the UPLC/potentiometric detection method were compared with the results obtained with the UPLC/MS method for samples spiked with varying cocaine concentrations. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.997 for serum (n =7) and 0.977 for urine (n =8). As liquid chromatography is an established technique, and as potentiometry is very simple and cost-effective in terms of equipment, we believe that this method is potentially easy, inexpensive, fast and reliable. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Dirt Cheap and Without Prescription: How Susceptible are Young US Consumers to Purchasing Drugs From Rogue Internet Pharmacies?

    PubMed Central

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O´Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    advised to buy cheaper drugs at pharmacies such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. Conclusions At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers. PMID:20439253

  10. Dirt cheap and without prescription: how susceptible are young US consumers to purchasing drugs from rogue internet pharmacies?

    PubMed

    Ivanitskaya, Lana; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O Boyle, Irene; Vibbert, Danielle; Erofeev, Dmitry; Fulton, Lawrence

    2010-04-26

    such as these but the majority (62%) suggested that people should be warned against buying drugs from such internet sellers. Over 22% of respondents would recommend pharmacy A to friends and family (10% pharmacy B). One-third of participants supplied online health information to others for decision-making purposes. After controlling for the effects of education, health major, and age, these respondents had significantly worse judgment of Internet pharmacies than those who did not act as information suppliers. At least a quarter of students, including those in health programs, cannot see multiple signs of danger displayed by rogue Internet pharmacies. Many more are likely to be misled by online sellers that use professional design, veil untrustworthy features, and mimic reputable websites. Online health information consumers would benefit from education initiatives that (1) communicate why it can be dangerous to buy medications online and that (2) develop their information evaluation skills. This study highlights the importance of regulating rogue Internet pharmacies and curbing the danger they pose to consumers.

  11. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-12-08

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g(-1) and 33 Wh kg(-1) (1798 F g(-1) and 54 Wh kg(-1) per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach.

  12. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g−1 and 33 Wh kg−1 (1798 F g−1 and 54 Wh kg−1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach. PMID:26643665

  13. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g-1 and 33 Wh kg-1 (1798 F g-1 and 54 Wh kg-1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach.

  14. Amorphous silicon-carbon nanospheres synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using cheap methyltrichlorosilane as improved anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zailei; Zhang, Meiju; Wang, Yanhong; Tan, Qiangqiang; Lv, Xiao; Zhong, Ziyi; Li, Hong; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-21

    We report the preparation and characterization of amorphous silicon-carbon (Si-C) nanospheres as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. These nanospheres were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C using methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3) as both the Si and C precursor, which is a cheap byproduct in the organosilane industry. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermal gravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the synthesized Si-C nanospheres composed of amorphous C (about 60 wt%) and Si (about 40 wt%) had a diameter of 400-600 nm and a surface area of 43.8 m(2) g(-1). Their charge capacities were 483.6, 331.7, 298.6, 180.6, and 344.2 mA h g(-1) at 50, 200, 500, 1000, and 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than that of the commercial graphite anode. The Si-C amorphous structure could absorb a large volume change of Si during Li insertion and extraction reactions and hinder the cracking or crumbling of the electrode, thus resulting in the improved reversible capacity and cycling stability. The work opens a new way to fabricate low cost Si-C anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  15. Experimental amine-epoxide sealer: a physicochemical study in comparison with AH Plus and EasySeal.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, D; Ritter, A; Burkhart, A; Fischer, J; Mondrzyk, A; Ritter, H

    2015-08-01

    thickness, the highest value was measured for EvoSeal A with a film thickness of 27 μm, comparing to 6 μm for EasySeal (P ≤ 0.001) and 8 μm for AH Plus (P ≤ 0.001). Comparing the flow, all values corresponded to EasySeal with a diameter of 17.3 mm. The only significant difference was determined for AH Plus compared to EvoSeal A (P = 0.0353). Volume shrinkage of EvoSeal A was 48% smaller compared to EasySeal and approximately 20% lower compared to AH Plus. The shortest curing time was determined for EvoSeal A (3.0 h) followed by EasySeal (4.1 h) and AH Plus (24 h). For all groups, significant differences were observed (P ≤ 0.001). EvoSeal A had a significantly higher radiopacity than EasySeal (P ≤ 0.001) but significantly lower values than AH Plus (P ≤ 0.001). The solubility of AH Plus and EvoSeal A was <0.5% (P = 0.2435). Compared to EasySeal with a solubility of 2.7%, significant differences were observed (P ≤ 0.02). Three weeks after setting, EasySeal and EvoSeal A still had an antibacterial effect against S. oralis in contrast to AH Plus. In this respect, comparing AH Plus with EvoSeal A and EasySeal, respectively, significant differences were observed (P ≤ 0.001). No significant differences between EasySeal with EvoSeal A (P = 0.540) were determined. The physical and chemical properties of the experimental sealer EvoSeal A were comparable to the two commercially established sealers EasySeal and AH Plus. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ion irradiation-induced easy-cone anisotropy in double-MgO free layers for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, B. M. S.; Timopheev, A. A.; Caçoilo, N. F. F.; Auffret, S.; Sousa, R. C.; Dieny, B.; Alves, E.; Sobolev, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have used the ferromagnetic resonance in the X-band (9.37 GHz) to investigate the effect of 400 keV Ar+ irradiation on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and Gilbert damping parameter, α, of double-MgO free layers designed for application in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions. The samples comprised a MgO/Fe72Co8B20/X(0.2 nm)/Fe72Co8B20/MgO layer stack, where X stands for an ultrathin Ta or W spacer. Samples with two different total FeCoB layer thicknesses, tFCB = 3.0 nm and tFCB = 2.6 nm, were irradiated with ion fluences ranging from 1012 cm-2 to 1016 cm-2. The effective first-order PMA field, BK1, decreased nearly linearly with the logarithm of the fluence for both FeCoB thicknesses and spacer elements. The decrease in BK1, which is likely caused by an ion-induced intermixing at the FeCoB/MgO interfaces, resulted in a reorientation of the magnetization of the free layers with tFCB = 2.6 nm, initially exhibiting a perpendicular easy-axis anisotropy. For intermediate fluences, 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, easy-cone states with different cone angles could be induced in the free layer with a W spacer. Importantly, no corresponding increase in the Gilbert damping was observed. This study shows that ion irradiation can be used to tune the easy-cone anisotropy in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions, which is interesting for spintronic applications such as spin-torque magnetic memory devices, oscillators, and sensors.

  17. Virtue...On the Cheap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, James Davison

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the neo-classical backlash to a therapeutic liberalism in moral education that has attempted to revive the character education system established in the early decades of the 20th century. Notes the importance of generating habits of good moral conduct, then discusses literature and moral understanding, the move from theory to practical…

  18. Words Aren't Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks are a crushingly substantial portion of students' costs every semester, and they're getting more expensive every year. With the cost of some individual textbooks surpassing a monthly cable television bill, students are moving to relieve that economic pressure by renting textbooks instead of buying them new or used. The idea of renting…

  19. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry combined with thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Renato; Milagre, Humberto M S; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2008-04-15

    On-spot detection and analyte characterization on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is performed via ambient desorption/ionization and (tandem) mass spectrometry detection, that is, via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS). As proof-of-principle cases, mixtures of semipolar nitrogenated compounds as well as pharmaceutical drugs and vegetable oils have been tested. The technique has also been applied to monitor a chemical reaction of synthetic importance. EASI is the simplest and gentlest ambient ionization technique currently available, assisted solely by N2 (or air). It uses no voltages, no electrical discharges; no UV or laser beams, and no high temperature and is most easily implemented in all API mass spectrometers. TLC is also the simplest, fastest, and most easily performed chromatographic technique. TLC plus EASI-MS therefore provide a simple and advantageous combination of chromatographic separation and sensitive detection of the TLC spots as well as on-spot MS or MS/MS characterization. The favorable characteristics of TLC-EASI-MS indicate advantageous applications in several areas such as drug and oil analysis, phytochemistry and synthetic chemistry, forensics via reliable counterfeit detection, and quality control.

  20. Single-step CE for miniaturized and easy-to-use system.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koichi; Kaneda, Shohei; Fujii, Teruo

    2013-03-01

    We developed a novel single-step capillary electrophoresis (SSCE) scheme for miniaturized and easy to use system by using a microchannel chip, which was made from the hydrophilic material polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), equipped with a capillary stop valve. Taking the surface tension property of liquids into consideration, the capillary effect was used to introduce liquids and control capillary stop valves in a partial barrier structure in the wall of the microchannel. Through the combined action of stop valves and air vents, both sample plug formation for electrophoresis and sample injection into a separation channel were successfully performed in a single step. To optimize SSCE, different stop valve structures were evaluated using actual microchannel chips and the finite element method with the level set method. A partial barrier structure at the bottom of the channel functioned efficiently as a stop valve. The stability of stop valve was confirmed by a shock test, which was performed by dropping the microchannel chip to a floor. Sample plug deformation could be reduced by minimizing the size of the side partial barrier. By dissolving hydroxyl ethyl cellulose and using it as the sample solution, the EOF and adsorption of the sample into the PMMA microchannel were successfully reduced. Using this method, a 100-bp DNA ladder was concentrated; good separation was observed within 1 min. At a separation length of 5 mm, the signal was approximately 20-fold higher than a signal of original sample solution by field-amplified sample stacking effect. All operations, including liquid introduction and sample separation, can be completed within 2 min by using the SSCE scheme. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    PubMed

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  2. EasyKSORD: A Platform of Keyword Search Over Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Wang, Shan

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual users to use keyword queries (a set of keywords) to search relational databases just like searching the Web, without any knowledge of the database schema or any need of writing SQL queries. Based on our previous work, we design and implement a novel KSORD platform named EasyKSORD for users and system administrators to use and manage different KSORD systems in a novel and simple manner. EasyKSORD supports advanced queries, efficient data-graph-based search engines, multiform result presentations, and system logging and analysis. Through EasyKSORD, users can search relational databases easily and read search results conveniently, and system administrators can easily monitor and analyze the operations of KSORD and manage KSORD systems much better.

  3. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational database management system. Volume 1, Executive Overview, gives an overview of the functions provided by EASIE and describes their use. Three operational design systems based upon the EASIE software are briefly described.

  4. Bubble and skyrmion crystals in frustrated magnets with easy-axis anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Hayami, Satoru; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D.

    2016-05-12

    We clarify the conditions for the emergence of multiple-Q structures out of lattice and easy-axis spin anisotropy in frustrated magnets. By considering magnets whose exchange interaction has multiple global minima in momentum space, we find that both types of anisotropy stabilize triple-Q orderings. Moderate anisotropy leads to a magnetic field-induced skyrmion crystal, which evolves into a bubble crystal for increasing spatial and spin anisotropy. Finally, the bubble crystal exhibits a quasi-continuous (devil’s staircase) temperature dependent ordering wave-vector, characteristic of the competition between frustrated exchange and strong easy-axis anisotropy.

  5. Easy GROMACS: A Graphical User Interface for GROMACS Molecular Dynamics Simulation Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizkirici, Ayten; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    GROMACS is a widely used molecular dynamics simulation package. Since it is a command driven program, it is difficult to use this program for molecular biologists, biochemists, new graduate students and undergraduate researchers who are interested in molecular dynamics simulations. To alleviate the problem for those researchers, we wrote a graphical user interface that simplifies protein preparation for a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our program can work with various GROMACS versions and it can perform essential analyses of GROMACS trajectories as well as protein preparation. We named our open source program `Easy GROMACS'. Easy GROMACS can give researchers more time for scientific research instead of dealing with technical intricacies.

  6. Construction of an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system by patching a newly designed EXIT circuit.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Lou, Chunbo; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Plasmid-borne genetic editing tools, including the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 system, have greatly facilitated bacterial programming to obtain novel functionalities. However, the lack of effective post-editing plasmid elimination methods impedes follow-up genetic manipulation or application. Conventional strategies including exposure to physical and chemical treatments, or exploiting temperature-sensitive replication origins have several drawbacks (e.g., they are limited for efficiency and are time-consuming). Therefore, the demand is apparent for easy and rapid elimination of the tool plasmids from their bacterial hosts after genetic manipulation. To bridge this gap, we designed a novel EXIT circuit with the homing endonuclease, which can be exploited for rapid and efficient elimination of various plasmids with diverse replication origins. As a proof of concept, we validated the EXIT circuit in Escherichia coli by harnessing homing endonuclease I- Sce I and its cleavage site. When integrated into multiple plasmids with different origins, the EXIT circuit allowed them to be eliminated from the host cells, simultaneously. By combining the widely used plasmid-borne CRISPR-Cas9 system and the EXIT circuit, we constructed an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system that eliminated the Cas9- and the single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-encoding plasmids in one-step. Within 3 days, we successfully constructed an atrazine-degrading E. coli strain, thus further demonstrating the advantage of this new CRISPR-Cas9 system for bacterial genome editing. Our novel EXIT circuit, which exploits the homing endonuclease I- Sce I, enables plasmid(s) with different replication origins to be eliminated from their host cells rapidly and efficiently. We also developed an easy-to-use CRISPR-Cas9 system with the EXIT circuit, and this new system can be widely applied to bacterial genome editing.

  7. Easy regulation of metabolic flux in Escherichia coli using an endogenous type I-E CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yizhao; Su, Tianyuan; Qi, Qingsheng; Liang, Quanfeng

    2016-11-15

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) is a recently developed powerful tool for gene regulation. In Escherichia coli, the type I CRISPR system expressed endogenously shall be easy for internal regulation without causing metabolic burden in compared with the widely used type II system, which expressed dCas9 as an additional plasmid. By knocking out cas3 and activating the expression of CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade), we constructed a native CRISPRi system in E. coli. Downregulation of the target gene from 6 to 82% was demonstrated using green fluorescent protein. Regulation of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) in the TCA cycle affected host metabolism. The effect of metabolic flux regulation was demonstrated by the poly-3-hydroxbutyrate (PHB) accumulation in vivo. By regulating native gltA in E. coli using an engineered endogenous type I-E CRISPR system, we redirected metabolic flux from the central metabolic pathway to the PHB synthesis pathway. This study demonstrated that the endogenous type I-E CRISPR-Cas system is an easy and effective method for regulating internal metabolic pathways, which is useful for product synthesis.

  8. Management of maternal-offspring behavior to improve lamb survival in easy care sheep systems.

    PubMed

    Everett-Hincks, J M; Dodds, K G

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the environmental and management factors affecting lamb survival on high-performing sheep farms in New Zealand. Improved lambing percentage is the biggest contributor to higher profits on New Zealand sheep farms. Many sheep breeders have selected and bred ewes for increased fecundity over the last 4 decades. The increased proportion of ewes having triplets is of concern to farmers and to industry because neonatal lamb mortality is highest in triplets. The majority of lamb deaths occur in the first 3 d after birth and range from 5 to 30% for individual sheep flocks. The ability of a lamb to survive to weaning is determined by genetics, behavior, physiology, and the environment, including on-farm management practices. We investigated the effects of dam body condition in pregnancy, weather during lambing, lamb birth weight, and maternal behavior on single, twin, and triplet lamb viability at birth, lamb death risks from dystocia, and starvation exposure and survival through to weaning for 20 industry flocks from 2003 to 2004 (15,821 lambs). Ewes with higher body condition scores in mid pregnancy had heavier lambs at birth (P < 0.01). Lambs weighing 5.5 to 6 kg at birth (P < 0.01) were more likely to be viable at birth and survive to weaning than heavier or lighter lambs. Weather conditions during late pregnancy (P < 0.05) proved more important than conditions during lambing (P < 0.05) in determining lamb viability and survival through to weaning. Older ewes and ewes with triplets require considerably more attention for farmers to realize their production potential. This information can help formulate appropriate management programs to improve lamb survival rates under easy care farming systems.

  9. Digital Technology in the Visual Arts Classroom: An [un]Easy Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Cutcher, Alexandra; Wilks, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the dichotomy of the uneasy and easy partnerships that exist between digital technology and visual arts education. The claim that by putting computers into schools "we have bought 'one half of a product'... we've bought the infrastructure and the equipment but we haven't bought the educational…

  10. Student vs. Faculty Perspectives on Quality Instruction: Gender Bias, "Hotness," and "Easiness" in Evaluating Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer, Devin M.; Wood, William C.

    2017-01-01

    This article systematically examines differences between student and faculty perspectives on quality instruction, using local data for a regional university's college of business matched to RateMyProfessors.com evaluations. Particular attention is focused on gender bias, "hotness," and "easiness." In addition to documenting a…

  11. The Characterization of an Easy-to-Operate Inexpensive Student-Built Fluorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigton, Benjamin T.; Chohan, Balwant S.; Kreuter, Rod; Sykes, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A compact, rugged, and portable fluorimeter was designed and constructed using a 460 nm light-emitting diode for the excitation and a silicon photodiode for detection. The total cost of such an instrument is less than $110, thus allowing for deployment of multiple instruments at low cost. The fluorimeter is easy to operate and has been…

  12. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongju; Shin, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA. PMID:29065610

  13. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System.

    PubMed

    Sim, Bo Kyun; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Guk Hyun; Ju, Kyung Won; Shin, Yoo Jin; Kim, Man Yong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.

  14. Quick and Easy: Use Screen Capture Software to Train and Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Screen capture (screen cast) software can be used to develop short videos for training purposes. Developing videos is quick and easy. This article describes how these videos are used as tools to reinforce face-to-face and interactive TV curriculum training in a nutrition education program. Advantages of developing these videos are shared.…

  15. American History Time Lines. Grades 4-8. Big, Reproducible, Easy-To-Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Susan Washburn

    This resource is designed to enhance learning about topics in United States history. The reproducible time lines are easy to use and is designed to encourage students to research other dates and events of the era under study. Suggestions are given for classroom use. The introduction has instructional subjects, such as: "12 Great Ways To Use…

  16. Mangrove Forests: a Tough System to Invade but an Easy one to Rehabilitate

    Treesearch

    ARIEL E. LUGO

    1998-01-01

    Mangrove forests are tough ecosystems to invade because few species can tolerate the hydrological and edaphic conditions that prevail in mangrove habitats. The small pantropical mangrove species pool is also the basis for asserting that mangrove forests are easy to rehabilitate, at least in terms of tree species composition. The high complexity of the animal and...

  17. The Relation between easyCBM and Smarter Balanced Reading and Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the easyCBM Benchmark Assessments in both mathematics and reading and the Smarter Balanced assessment, widely adopted across the United States. Data for the study were obtained from a convenience sample of approximately 1,000 students per grade in grades 3-8 provided by two school districts in the…

  18. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  19. Diffraction-Unlimited Fluorescence Imaging with an EasySTED Retrofitted Confocal Microscope.

    PubMed

    Klauss, André; Hille, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The easySTED technology provides the means to retrofit a confocal microscope to a diffraction-unlimited stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope.Although commercial STED systems are available today, for many users of confocal laser scanning microscopes the option of retrofitting their confocal system to a STED system ready for diffraction-unlimited imaging may present an attractive option. The easySTED principle allowing for a joint beam path of excitation and depletion light promises some advantages concerning technical complexity and alignment effort for such an STED upgrade. In the one beam path design of easySTED the use of a common laser source, either a supercontinuum source or two separate lasers coupled into the same single-mode fiber, becomes feasible. The alignment of the focal light distribution of the STED beam relative to that of the excitation beam in all three spatial dimensions is therefore omitted respectively reduced to coupling the STED laser into the common single-mode fiber. Thus, only minor modifications need to be applied to the beam path in the confocal microscope to be upgraded. Those comprise adding polarization control elements and the easySTED waveplate, and adapting the beamsplitter to the excitation/STED wavelength combination.

  20. NREL, EasyMile Collaboration to Usher in New Wave of Autonomous Vehicle R&D

    Science.gov Websites

    technology such as wireless charging, connected and managed charging, and advanced energy storage. EasyMile International Airport. The NREL collaboration will explore opportunities for how wireless charging could enable wireless charging are a natural fit with autonomous and connected vehicles. We're excited this opportunity

  1. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  2. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  3. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  4. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  5. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  6. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  7. 78 FR 73915 - Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc., and Transworld Benefits International, Inc.; Order... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Industry Concept...

  8. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  9. The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 3. Technical Report #1221

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students' ability to respond to…

  10. Understanding Resonance Graphs Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and Why We Use EJS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of…

  11. Hey! Somebody Read to Me! Ten Easy Ways to Include Reading Every Day. Family Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmen, Marie Christine

    2005-01-01

    If a child does not learn to read in the early grades, there are few opportunities for them to catch up. Therefore, the extent of a child's exposure to reading before the early school years is not only important, but critical. In this column, the author suggests ten easy ways to make reading a part of every young child's day: (1) Read and reread…

  12. Local Normative Data on easyCBM[R] Reading and Mathematics: Fall 2009. Technical Report # 0918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie; Anderson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We developed equivalent, alternate forms of easyCBM[R] in reading (n=20 forms) and mathematics (n=13 forms) with different skills reflective of the National Reading Panel (NRP) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), respectively. We then took three forms to use as screening measures in the fall, winter, and spring so educators…

  13. The Alignment of easyCBM[R] Math Measures to Curriculum Standards. Technical Report #1002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Anderson, Daniel; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the alignment of the easyCBM[R] mathematics benchmark and progress monitoring measures to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics "Curriculum Focal Points" (NCTM, 2006). Based on Webb's alignment model (1997, 2002), we collected expert judgments on individual math items across a sampling of forms…

  14. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  15. An easy way to apply orthodontic extraction for impacted lower third molar compressing to the inferior alveolar nerve.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; He, Dongmei; Yang, Chi; Wang, Baoli; Qian, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    To study the results of an easy orthodontic extraction method for impacted lower third molar removal which had roots compressing to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). Forty patients were divided into two groups according to their desire. Orthodontic traction group (n=20) had brackets or mini bone screws on the antagonist maxillary molars as anchorage for orthodontic traction from 3 to 10 weeks until the roots' tip was away from the IAN, the tooth was then removed. Traditional extraction group (n=20) had the tooth removed immediately by the same surgeon. Post-operative results were compared between the two groups. All 20 patients in the orthodontic extraction group had their lower impacted third molar removed easily without lower lip numbness after surgery, while 5 patients in the traditional extraction group had transient IAN injury and went away 1 week later. There were no anchorage teeth and adjacent mandibular second molar loose or displacement. Application of orthodontic brackets or mini bone screws on the antagonist maxillary molars is an easy way for orthodontic extraction of impacted lower third molar with roots' tip compressed to the IAN. It is an effective way to avoid IAN injury during tooth extraction. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    PubMed

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Easy come, easy go: a simple and effective orthodontic enamel anchor for endotracheal tube stabilization in a child with extensive facial burns.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Hallett, Kerrod B; Brandon, Matthew S; McBride, Craig A

    2009-11-01

    Endotracheal tube stabilization in patients with facial burns is crucial and often challenging. We present a simple method of securing an endotracheal tube using two orthodontic brackets bonded to the maxillary central incisor teeth and a 0.08'' stainless steel ligature wire. Our technique is less traumatic, and is easier to maintain oral hygiene than with previously described methods. This anchorage system takes 5 min to apply and can be removed on the ward without the need for a general anaesthetic.

  18. UNICON: A Powerful and Easy-to-Use Compound Library Converter.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Kai; Friedrich, Nils-Ole; Bietz, Stefan; Hilbig, Matthias; Inhester, Therese; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-06-27

    The accurate handling of different chemical file formats and the consistent conversion between them play important roles for calculations in complex cheminformatics workflows. Working with different cheminformatic tools often makes the conversion between file formats a mandatory step. Such a conversion might become a difficult task in cases where the information content substantially differs. This paper describes UNICON, an easy-to-use software tool for this task. The functionality of UNICON ranges from file conversion between standard formats SDF, MOL2, SMILES, PDB, and PDBx/mmCIF via the generation of 2D structure coordinates and 3D structures to the enumeration of tautomeric forms, protonation states, and conformer ensembles. For this purpose, UNICON bundles the key elements of the previously described NAOMI library in a single, easy-to-use command line tool.

  19. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  20. [A study of culture-based easy identification system for Malassezia].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takamasa

    2011-01-01

    Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur.

  1. NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the many factors entailed in flight - and cabin-crew fatigue and documenting the decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight - and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable flight crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases, much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  2. Second Interim Report NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight and cabin-crew fatigue, and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  3. Easy Fabrication of Thin Membranes with Through Holes. Application to Protein Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Arasi, Bakya; Gauthier, Nils; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2012-01-01

    Since protein patterning on 2D surfaces has emerged as an important tool in cell biology, the development of easy patterning methods has gained importance in biology labs. In this paper we present a simple, rapid and reliable technique to fabricate thin layers of UV curable polymer with through holes. These membranes are as easy to fabricate as microcontact printing stamps and can be readily used for stencil patterning. We show how this microfabrication scheme allows highly reproducible and highly homogeneous protein patterning with micron sized resolution on surfaces as large as 10 cm2. Using these stencils, fragile proteins were patterned without loss of function in a fully hydrated state. We further demonstrate how intricate patterns of multiple proteins can be achieved by stacking the stencil membranes. We termed this approach microserigraphy. PMID:22952944

  4. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint animations in less than a day that are suitable for teaching in high school through college/university. After developing the animation it can be easily converted to any appropriate movie file format using Camtasia Studio for Internet or classroom presentations. Thus anyone who can use PowerPoint has the potential to make animations. Students who viewed the approximately 3-min PowerPoint/Camtasia Studio animation “Calcium and the Dual Signalling Pathway” over 15 min scored significantly higher marks on a subsequent quiz than those who had viewed still graphics with text for an equivalent time. In addition, results from student evaluations provided some data validating the use of such animations in cell biology teaching with some interesting caveats. Information is also provided on how such animations can be modified or updated easily or shared with others who can modify them to fit their own needs. PMID:17012217

  5. Measuring Young's Modulus the Easy Way, and Tracing the Effects of Measurement Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2015-01-01

    The speed of sound in a solid is determined by the density and elasticity of the material. Young's modulus can therefore be calculated once the density and the speed of sound in the solid are measured. The density can be measured relatively easily, and the speed of sound through a rod can be measured very inexpensively by setting up a longitudinal…

  6. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  7. Superparamagnetic magnesium ferrite nanoadsorbent for effective arsenic (III, V) removal and easy magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenshu; Su, Yu; Li, Qi; Gao, Shian; Shang, Jian Ku

    2013-07-01

    By doping a proper amount of Mg(2+) (~10%) into α-Fe2O3 during a solvent thermal process, ultrafine magnesium ferrite (Mg0.27Fe2.50O4) nanocrystallites were successfully synthesized with the assistance of in situ self-formed NaCl "cage" to confine their crystal growth. Their ultrafine size (average size of ~3.7 nm) and relatively low Mg-content conferred on them a superparamagnetic behavior with a high saturation magnetization (32.9 emu/g). The ultrafine Mg0.27Fe2.50O4 nanoadsorbent had a high specific surface area of ~438.2 m(2)/g, and demonstrated a superior arsenic removal performance on both As(III) and As(V) at near neutral pH condition. Its adsorption capacities on As(III) and As(V) were found to be no less than 127.4 mg/g and 83.2 mg/g, respectively. Its arsenic adsorption mechanism was found to follow the inner-sphere complex mechanism, and abundant hydroxyl groups on its surface played the major role in its superior arsenic adsorption performance. It could be easily separated from treated water bodies with magnetic separation, and could be easily regenerated and reused while maintaining a high arsenic removal efficiency. This novel superparamagnetic magnesium ferrite nanoadsorbent may offer a simple single step adsorption treatment option to remove arsenic contamination from water without the pre-/post-treatment requirement for current industrial practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prepping the Brain: Easy and Effective Ways to Get Students Ready for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal Springs Books, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Teachers do not have to be neuroscientists to design brain-friendly lessons for their students- and they do not have to change their curriculum either. This resource is packed with strategies and activities that teachers will refer to often as they help their students: (1) build background knowledge; (2) Activate prior knowledge; (3) process and…

  9. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  10. Quarantine, isolation and the duty of easy rescue in public health.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Douglas, Thomas; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2018-06-01

    We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities. The principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue gives rise to an Obligation Enforcement Requirement: the state should create the conditions such that submitting to coercive or compulsive measures becomes a fundamental moral duty of individuals, i.e. a duty of easy rescue. When the state can create such conditions, it has the strongest justification possible for implementing coercive or compulsive measures, because individuals have a moral duty to temporarily relinquish the rights that such measures would infringe. Our argument has significant implications for how public health emergencies in the developing world should be tackled. Where isolation and quarantine measures are necessary, states or the international community have a moral obligation to provide certain benefits to those quarantined or isolated. © 2017 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Costing nursing education programs. It's as easy as 1-2-3.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M L; Hume, R; Emerick, R

    1998-01-01

    Staff development departments are pressured to reveal the costs of their educational programs and to compete with outside vendors for programming. The process of implementing a spreadsheet template for costing out staff development programs is described. The template is easy to use and supports "what if" analysis. This model allows educators to evaluate cost implications of curricular decisions and to better negotiate with internal and external customers.

  12. Generating high-quality single droplets for optical particle characterization with an easy setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Ge, Baozhen; Meng, Rui

    2018-06-01

    The high-performance and micro-sized single droplet is significant for optical particle characterization. We develop a single-droplet generator (SDG) based on a piezoelectric inkjet technique with advantages of low cost and easy setup. By optimizing the pulse parameters, we achieve various size single droplets. Further investigations reveal that SDG generates single droplets of high quality, demonstrating good sphericity, monodispersity and a stable length of several millimeters.

  13. Coherent versus incoherent resonant emission: an experimental method for easy discrimination and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, S.; Colocci, M.; Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.

    1998-11-01

    The distinction between the coherent and the incoherent component of the radiation emitted from resonantly excited material systems is difficult experimentally, particularly when ultra-short optical pulses are used for excitation. We propose an experimental procedure allowing an easy measurement of the two components. The method is completely general and applicable to any kind of physical system; its feasibility is demonstrated on the resonant emission from excitons in a semiconductor quantum well.

  14. Easy-to-Read Informed Consent Forms for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Denzen, Ellen M; Santibáñez, Martha E Burton; Moore, Heather; Foley, Amy; Gersten, Iris D; Gurgol, Cathy; Majhail, Navneet S; Spellecy, Ryan; Horowitz, Mary M; Murphy, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Informed consent is essential to ethical research and is requisite to participation in clinical research. Yet most hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) informed consent forms (ICFs) are written at reading levels that are above the ability of the average person in the US. The recent development of ICF templates by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the National Heart Blood and Lung Instituthas not resulted in increased patient comprehension of information. Barriers to creating Easy-to-Read ICFs that meet US federal requirements and pass Institutional Review Board (IRB) review are the result of multiple interconnected factors. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) formed an ad hoc review team to address concerns regarding the overall readability and length of ICFs used for BMT CTN trials. This paper summarizes recommendations of the review team for the development and formatting of Easy-to-Read ICFs for HCT multicenter clinical trials, the most novel of which is the use of a two-column layout. These recommendations intend to guide the ICF writing process, simplify local IRB review of the ICF, enhance patient comprehension and improve patient satisfaction. The BMT CTN plans to evaluate the impact of the Easy-to-Read format compared to the traditional format on the informed consent process. PMID:21806948

  15. Easy sellar reconstruction in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery with polyester-silicone dural substitute and fibrin glue: technical note.

    PubMed

    Cappabianca, P; Cavallo, L M; Mariniello, G; de Divitiis, O; Romero, A D; de Divitiis, E

    2001-08-01

    To describe a simple method of sellar reconstruction after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery that will allow rapid watertight closure of the sellar floor. A bent sheet of a polyester-silicone dural substitute, fashioned for this purpose with scissors, is introduced into the sella after removal of the lesion. Because of the consistency of the sheet, it opens spontaneously and becomes stuck. Autologous fat tissue or gelatin foam is positioned thereafter, followed by another layer of the dural substitute; a film of fibrin glue completes the sealing. Fifteen patients underwent this method and no postoperative cerebrospinal leak or other complication was experienced. This easy method of sellar reconstruction represents an effective and fast possibility to perform the final step of the endoscopic transsphenoidal procedure, which otherwise may cause maneuverability problems in the limited space of one nostril.

  16. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-03-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  17. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute. PMID:23613684

  18. The Psychosocial Development and Increased Fluency of Users of the SpeechEasyRTM Device: A Multiple Unit Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, David James

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study explored the efficacy of the SpeechEasy[R] device for individuals who are gainfully employed stutterers and who participated in workplace education learning activities. This study attempted to fill a gap in the literature regarding efficacy of the SpeechEasy[R] device. It employed a qualitative multiple unit case study…

  19. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  20. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between…

  1. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Washington: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Washington state. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 900 students per grade, randomly split into two…

  2. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  3. Making the Good Even Better: Feedback from easyCBM Focus Groups, School Year 2009/2010. Technical Report # 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Lai, Cheng-Fei

    2010-01-01

    This technical report provides a summary of feedback from teachers, administrators, and support personnel who used the easyCBM progress monitoring and benchmark assessment system during school year 2009/2010. Data were gathered from semi-structured focus groups conducted during the 2010 easyCBM August Institute at the University of Oregon. Results…

  4. Paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    2015-02-20

    Paracetamol is safe and effective at the therapeutic dose. It is beneficial as an analgesic and is an effective antipyretic. Paracetamol is cheap and easy to buy over the counter, which makes it a common choice in intentional overdose.

  5. EasyLCMS: an asynchronous web application for the automated quantification of LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Downstream applications in metabolomics, as well as mathematical modelling, require data in a quantitative format, which may also necessitate the automated and simultaneous quantification of numerous metabolites. Although numerous applications have been previously developed for metabolomics data handling, automated calibration and calculation of the concentrations in terms of μmol have not been carried out. Moreover, most of the metabolomics applications are designed for GC-MS, and would not be suitable for LC-MS, since in LC, the deviation in the retention time is not linear, which is not taken into account in these applications. Moreover, only a few are web-based applications, which could improve stand-alone software in terms of compatibility, sharing capabilities and hardware requirements, even though a strong bandwidth is required. Furthermore, none of these incorporate asynchronous communication to allow real-time interaction with pre-processed results. Findings Here, we present EasyLCMS (http://www.easylcms.es/), a new application for automated quantification which was validated using more than 1000 concentration comparisons in real samples with manual operation. The results showed that only 1% of the quantifications presented a relative error higher than 15%. Using clustering analysis, the metabolites with the highest relative error distributions were identified and studied to solve recurrent mistakes. Conclusions EasyLCMS is a new web application designed to quantify numerous metabolites, simultaneously integrating LC distortions and asynchronous web technology to present a visual interface with dynamic interaction which allows checking and correction of LC-MS raw data pre-processing results. Moreover, quantified data obtained with EasyLCMS are fully compatible with numerous downstream applications, as well as for mathematical modelling in the systems biology field. PMID:22884039

  6. Easy-to-fabricate thin-film coating on PDMS substrate with super hydrophilicity and stability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Luo, Yong; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2015-03-01

    With the fast expansion of microfluidic applications, stable, and easy-to-fabricate PDMS surface coating with super hydrophilicity is highly desirable. In this study, we introduce a new kind of copolymer-based, single-layer thin-film coating for PDMS. The coating can exist in air at room temperature for at least 6 months without any noticeable deterioration in the super hydrophilicity (water contact angle ∼7°), resistance of protein adsorption, or inhibition of the EOF. In addition, this coating enables arbitrary patterning of cells on planar surfaces. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Tailor-made resealable micro(bio)reactors providing easy integration of in situ sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viefhues, Martina; Sun, Shiwen; Valikhani, Donya; Nidetzky, Bernd; Vrouwe, Elwin X.; Mayr, Torsten; Bolivar, Juan M.

    2017-06-01

    Flow microreactors utilizing immobilized enzymes are of great interest in biocatalysis development. Most of the common devices are permanently closed, single-use systems, which allow limited physical and chemical surface modifications and evaluation methods. In this paper we will present resealable flowcells that overcome these limitations and moreover allow a quick and easy integration of sensor systems, because of the use of modular building blocks. The devices were utilized to study the enzyme activity of glucose oxidase immobilized on chemically modified glass surfaces under flow conditions, employing integrated optical oxygen sensors for on-line monitoring.

  8. Compact and Easy-Operation Magnetocardiograph With Four-Channel Planar Gradiometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    AND EASY-OPERATION MAGNETOCARDIOGRAPH WITH FOUR-CHANNEL PLANAR GRADIOMETERS K. Yokosawa1, D. Suzuki1, A. Tsukamoto2, T . Miyashita1, A. Kandori1, K...gradient direction was selected by rotating each rod individually. The QRS-complex and T -wave were traced clearly. The peak-to-peak noise, nB p-p, is...outside (b) the shielding cylinder. The environmental noise is also shown (c). M ag ne tic fi el d no is e (p T / H z 1/ 2 ) 80 fT/Hz1/2 Proceedings

  9. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  10. Performance assessment of Vita Easy Shade spectrophotometer on colour measurement of aesthetic dental materials.

    PubMed

    AlGhazali, N; Burnside, G; Smith, R W; Preston, A J; Jarad, F D

    2011-12-01

    Four different shades were used to produce 20 samples of resin-based composite and 20 samples of porcelain to evaluate the performance ability of an intra oral test spectrophotometer compared to a reference spectrophotometer. The absolute colour coordinates CIELAB values measured with both spectrophotometers were significantly different (p < 0.001). However, a high correlation was found (p < 0.001) despite the low concordance noticed. The colour difference deltaE* values calculated between different shades also were significantly different between both spectrophotometers (p < 0.05). Therefore, the Easy Shade can be used in dental practice and dental research with some limitations.

  11. An easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides - just by shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, M.; Scholz, G.; Kemnitz, E.

    2012-04-01

    High energy ball milling as fast, direct and solvent free method allows an easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides MF2 (M: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). Comparable metal sources (acetates, carbonates, hydroxides, alkoxides) were used for the reaction with NH4F as fluorinating agent. Even very simple manual shaking experiments between NH4F and the corresponding hydroxides in the stoichiometric ratio (M:F = 1:2, M: Ca, Sr, Ba) give phase pure fluorides. Moreover, comparable classical thermal reactions in closed crucibles at higher temperatures provide phase pure crystalline fluorides in nearly all cases as well.

  12. Identifying key soil cyanobacteria easy to isolate and culture for arid soil restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncero-Ramos, Beatriz; Ángeles Muñoz-Martín, M.; Chamizo, Sonia; Román, Raúl; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Drylands represent an important fraction of the Earth land's surface. Low cover of vascular plants characterizes these regions, and the large open areas among plants are often colonized by cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, algae, bryophytes, bacteria and fungi, known as biocrusts. Because these communities are on or within the soil surface, they contribute to improve physicochemical properties of the uppermost soil layers and have important effects on soil fertility and stability, so they could play an important role on soil restoration. Cyanobacteria appear to be a cross component of biocrusts and they have been demonstrated to enhance water availability, soil fertility (fixing atmospheric C and N), and soil aggregation (thanks to their filamentous morphology and the exopolysaccharides they excrete), and significantly reduce water and wind erosion. Besides, they are able to tolerate high temperatures and UV radiation. All these features convert cyanobacteria in pioneer organisms capable of colonizing degraded soils and may be crucial in facilitating the succession of more developed organisms such as vascular plants. Therefore, the use of native cyanobacteria, already adapted to site environmental conditions, could guarantee a successful restoration approach of degraded soils. However, previous to their application for soil restoration, the most representative species inhabiting these soils should be identified. The objective of this study was to identify (morphologically and genetically) and isolate representative native cyanobacteria species from arid soils in SE Spain, characterized for being easily isolated and cultured with the aim of using them to inoculate degraded arid soil. We selected two study areas in Almería, SE Spain, where biocrust cover most of the open spaces between plants: El Cautivo experimental site located in the Tabernas desert and a limestone quarry located at the southeastern edge of the Gádor massif. The first site is characterized by

  13. Wood typification by Venturi easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry: the case of the endangered Mahogany tree.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Elaine C; Simas, Rosineide C; Santos, Vanessa G; Queiroga, Carmen L; da Cunha, Valnei S; de Sá, Gilberto F; Daroda, Romeu J; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2012-01-01

    Venturi easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry in both its liquid (V(L) -EASI-MS) and solid sample modes (V(S) -EASI-MS) is shown to provide nearly immediate and secure typification of woods, as demonstrated for Mahogany, an endangered and most valuable type of tropical wood. This reddish wood displays unique phytochemical markers (phragmalin-type limonoids) which are rapidly detected from the wood surface by V(S) -EASI-MS or from a simple methanol extract of a tiny wood chip by V(L) -EASI-MS. Unique profiles were obtained for Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) whereas genuine samples of six other similar types of woods, which are commonly falsified by artificial coloring and commercialized as Mahogany, display also typical but dissimilar pythochemical profiles as compared to that of the authentic wood. Variable and atypical chemical profiles were observed for artificially colored woods. Secure chemical characterization via V(S) -EASI-MS or V(s) -EASI-MS fingerprints of Mahogany and other types of woods with similar appearance should help to control the illegal logging and trade of this and other endangered woods and their falsification, and to create certified standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Easy and Fast Reconstruction of a 3D Avatar with an RGB-D Sensor.

    PubMed

    Mao, Aihua; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yuxin; Zheng, Yinglong; Li, Guiqing; Han, Guoqiang

    2017-05-12

    This paper proposes a new easy and fast 3D avatar reconstruction method using an RGB-D sensor. Users can easily implement human body scanning and modeling just with a personal computer and a single RGB-D sensor such as a Microsoft Kinect within a small workspace in their home or office. To make the reconstruction of 3D avatars easy and fast, a new data capture strategy is proposed for efficient human body scanning, which captures only 18 frames from six views with a close scanning distance to fully cover the body; meanwhile, efficient alignment algorithms are presented to locally align the data frames in the single view and then globally align them in multi-views based on pairwise correspondence. In this method, we do not adopt shape priors or subdivision tools to synthesize the model, which helps to reduce modeling complexity. Experimental results indicate that this method can obtain accurate reconstructed 3D avatar models, and the running performance is faster than that of similar work. This research offers a useful tool for the manufacturers to quickly and economically create 3D avatars for products design, entertainment and online shopping.

  15. Quebec Trophoblastic Disease Registry: how to make an easy-to-use dynamic database.

    PubMed

    Sauthier, Philippe; Breguet, Magali; Rozenholc, Alexandre; Sauthier, Michaël

    2015-05-01

    To create an easy-to-use dynamic database designed specifically for the Quebec Trophoblastic Disease Registry (RMTQ). It is now well established that much of the success in managing trophoblastic diseases comes from the development of national and regional reference centers. Computerized databases allow the optimal use of data stored in these centers. We have created an electronic data registration system by producing a database using FileMaker Pro 12. It uses 11 external tables associated with a unique identification number for each patient. Each table allows specific data to be recorded, incorporating demographics, diagnosis, automated staging, laboratory values, pathological diagnosis, and imaging parameters. From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, we used our database to register 311 patients with 380 diseases and have seen a 39.2% increase in registrations each year between 2009 and 2012. This database allows the automatic generation of semilogarithmic curves, which take into account β-hCG values as a function of time, complete with graphic markers for applied treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery). It generates a summary sheet for a synthetic vision in real time. We have created, at a low cost, an easy-to-use database specific to trophoblastic diseases that dynamically integrates staging and monitoring. We propose a 10-step procedure for a successful trophoblastic database. It improves patient care, research, and education on trophoblastic diseases in Quebec and leads to an opportunity for collaboration on a national Canadian registry.

  16. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup −9} can be achieved for the device of thermalmore » stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.« less

  17. [Mothers of visually impaired children: difficult and easy aspects faced in care].

    PubMed

    Pintanel, Aline Campelo; Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Xavier, Daiani Modernel

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the difficult and easy aspects faced by mothers of visually impaired (VI) children in their care. It is a descriptive qualitative study, developed in the second semester of 2011, with ten mothers of children with visual impairment from an Educational Center for the Visually Impaired located in southern Brazil. Data were collected by means of semistructured interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis. The identified difficulties were the lack of knowledge regarding the disease and how to take care of the child, the lack of access to health services, overload generated by the dependence of the child and lack of support and prejudice within their own family. The easy aspects involved the desire for the child's healthy development the chance of being in touch with qualified professionals for their education, and the contact with other VI children. Therefore, it is important to qualify the family for the care of VI children so as to ensure the development of skills and competencies enabling them to live with quality.

  18. A cheap protocol for colour measure and for diagnostic in planning a cultural heritage restoration. Case study: main façade of Palazzo Governi (Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sammartino, M P; Genova, C; Ronca, S; Cau, G; Visco, G

    2017-06-01

    Due to the bad state of conservation, "Palazzo Governi", a seventeenth-century building located in the old town district of "Stampace" in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), was subjected to restoration. Thus, according to the Italian Law n. 1089, the main façade colour must be reproduced, and therefore, its identification was required. The available samples looked fairly degraded, in particular as an easy plaster to crumble; so, some other analyses able to identify the degradation cause were performed. Two different approaches were adopted to attain the first goal, the visual colour assessment by a sensory panel (subjective) and the instrumental measurement by colorimetry (objective). Ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analyses, as well as conductivity and pH measurements, were performed to evaluate the presence of water-soluble salts inside the plaster, as possible cause of degradation; the binder/aggregate ratio was also evaluated. A full mineralogical and petrographic characterisation of the materials constituting the samples, as well as the identification of their stratigraphy and some other morphologic and structural features suitable to highlight eventual forms of degradation, were performed by optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray microanalysis was been also used in order to confirm and/or to integrate data obtained by optical microscopy. The samples have been compared with two samples coming from two other buildings, also located in Sardinia, that looked in good conservation state. The results evidenced that the causes of degradation come from a high salt (especially sulphate) content and a scarce presence of binder in the plaster that can be imputed to a wrong initial composition and/ or to a leaching by acidic rain.

  19. Effect of food processing on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers in milk

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sujatha; Nelapati, Krishnaiah

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk. Materials and Methods: Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification. Results: The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments. Conclusion: Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers. PMID:28435187

  20. Design of gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces with strong attachment and easy-removal properties: a numerical analysis of peel-zone

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Wan, Jin; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu; Tian, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Despite successful fabrication of gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces with strong adhesion forces, how to achieve an easy-removal property becomes a major concern that may restrict the wide applications of these bio-inspired surfaces. Research on how geckos detach rapidly has inspired the design of novel adhesive surfaces with strong and reversible adhesion capabilities, which relies on further fundamental understanding of the peeling mechanisms. Recent studies showed that the peel-zone plays an important role in the peeling off of adhesive tapes or fibrillar surfaces. In this study, a numerical method was developed to evaluate peel-zone deformation and the resulting mechanical behaviour due to the deformations of fibrillar surfaces detaching from a smooth rigid substrate. The effect of the geometrical parameters of pillars and the stiffness of backing layer on the peel-zone and peel strength, and the strong attachment and easy-removal properties have been analysed to establish a design map for bio-inspired fibrillar surfaces, which shows that the optimized strong attachment and easy-removal properties can vary by over three orders of magnitude. The adhesion and peeling design map established provides new insights into the design and development of novel gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces. PMID:22572030

  1. Early closure of temporary ileostomy—the EASY trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Marinez, Adiela; Angenete, Eva; Skullmann, Stefan; Haglind, Eva; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective is to evaluate efficiency based on data on morbidity and mortality, health-related quality of life and healthcare-related costs after early reversal of temporary ileostomy after rectal resection for cancer compared with the standard procedure (late reversal). Background Reversal of a temporary ileostomy is generally associated with a low morbidity and mortality. However, ostomy reversal may cause complications requiring reoperation with subsequent major complications, in ranges from 0% to 7–9% and minor complications varying from 4–5% to 30%. Based on studies exploring and describing the time of closure in previous studies which are mostly of low quality, a recent review concluded that closing a temporary stoma within 2 weeks did not seem to be associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Design and methods Early closure of temporary ileostomy (EASY), a randomised controlled trial, is a prospective randomised controlled multicentre study which is performed within the framework of the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group (http://www.ssorg.net/) and plans to include 200 patients from Danish and Swedish hospitals. The primary end-point of the study is the frequency of complications 0–12 months after surgery (the stoma creation operation). The secondary end-points of the study are (1) comparison of the total costs of the two groups at 6 and 12 months after surgery (stoma creation); (2) comparison of health-related quality of life in the two groups evaluated with the 36-item short-form and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-CR29/CR30 at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery (stoma creation); and (3) comparison of disease-specific quality of life in the two groups at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery (stoma creation). Discussion The aim of the EASY trial is to evaluate the efficiency of early reversal of temporary ileostomy after surgery for rectal cancer versus

  2. Infrared Analysis Using Tissue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Noel L.; Wood, Steven G.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a quick, easy, and cheap, but effective method of obtaining infrared spectra of solids and nonvolatile liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The technique uses tissue paper as a support matrix. (RH)

  3. Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2010-04-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general.

  4. Easy synthesis of hierarchical carbon spheres with superior capacitive performance in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinhua; Kim, Seok; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Suh, Hongsuk; Kim, Il

    2013-10-01

    An easy template-free approach to the fabrication of pure carbon microspheres has been achieved via direct pyrolysis of as-prepared polyaromatic hydrocarbons including polynaphthalene and polypyrene. The polyaromatics were synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker. The experimental results show that the methylene bridges between phenyl rings generate a hierarchical porous polyaromatic precursor to form three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous networks during carbonization. These hierarchical porous carbon aggregates of spherical carbon spheres exhibit faster ion transport/diffusion behavior and increased surface area usage in electric double-layer capacitors. Furthermore, micropores are present in the 3D interconnected network inside the cross-linked AHC-based carbon microspheres, thus imparting an exceptionally large, electrochemically accessible surface area for charge accumulation.

  5. A web interface for easy flexible protein-protein docking with ATTRACT.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Schindler, Christina E M; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Zacharias, Martin

    2015-02-03

    Protein-protein docking programs can give valuable insights into the structure of protein complexes in the absence of an experimental complex structure. Web interfaces can facilitate the use of docking programs by structural biologists. Here, we present an easy web interface for protein-protein docking with the ATTRACT program. While aimed at nonexpert users, the web interface still covers a considerable range of docking applications. The web interface supports systematic rigid-body protein docking with the ATTRACT coarse-grained force field, as well as various kinds of protein flexibility. The execution of a docking protocol takes up to a few hours on a standard desktop computer. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. esATAC: An Easy-to-use Systematic pipeline for ATAC-seq data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huan; Li, Yanda; Wang, Xiaowo

    2018-03-07

    ATAC-seq is rapidly emerging as one of the major experimental approaches to probe chromatin accessibility genome-wide. Here, we present "esATAC", a highly integrated easy-to-use R/Bioconductor package, for systematic ATAC-seq data analysis. It covers essential steps for full analyzing procedure, including raw data processing, quality control and downstream statistical analysis such as peak calling, enrichment analysis and transcription factor footprinting. esATAC supports one command line execution for preset pipelines, and provides flexible interfaces for building customized pipelines. esATAC package is open source under the GPL-3.0 license. It is implemented in R and C ++. Source code and binaries for Linux, MAC OS X and Windows are available through Bioconductor https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/esATAC.html). xwwang@tsinghua.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. SPLICEFINDER – A Fast and Easy Screening Method for Active Protein Trans-Splicing Positions

    PubMed Central

    Eppmann, Simone; Busche, Alena; Dikovskaya, Dina; Dötsch, Volker; Mootz, Henning D.

    2013-01-01

    Split intein enabled protein trans-splicing (PTS) is a powerful method for the ligation of two protein fragments, thereby paving the way for various protein modification or protein function control applications. PTS activity is strongly influenced by the amino acids directly flanking the splice junctions. However, to date no reliable prediction can be made whether or not a split intein is active in a particular foreign extein context. Here we describe SPLICEFINDER, a PCR-based method, allowing fast and easy screening for active split intein insertions in any target protein. Furthermore we demonstrate the applicability of SPLICEFINDER for segmental isotopic labeling as well as for the generation of multi-domain and enzymatically active proteins. PMID:24023792

  8. Mobile patient applications within diabetes - from few and easy to advanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Årsand, Eirik; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Hejlesen, Ole; Horsch, Alexander; Godtliebsen, Fred; Grøttland, Astrid; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patient diaries as apps on mobile phones are becoming increasingly common, and can be a good support tool for patients who need to organize information relevant for their disease. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals and can be a tool for lifestyle changes for patients with Type 2 diabetes. The autoimmune disease Type 1 diabetes requires a more intensive management than Type 2 - thus more advanced functionalities is desirable for users. Both simple and easy-to-use and more advanced diaries have their respective benefits, depending on the target user group and intervention. In this poster we summarize main findings and experience from more than a decade of research and development in the diabetes area. Several versions of the mobile health research platform-the Few Touch Application (FTA) are presented to illustrate the different approaches and results.

  9. Designing an Easy-to-use Executive Conference Room Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Maribeth; Golovchinsky, Gene; Qvarfordt, Pernilla; van Melle, William; Boreczky, John; Dunnigan, Tony; Carter, Scott

    The Usable Smart Environment project (USE) aims at designing easy-to-use, highly functional, next-generation conference rooms. Our first design prototype focuses on creating a “no wizards” room for an American executive; that is, a room the executive could walk into and use by himself, without help from a technologist. A key idea in the USE framework is that customization is one of the best ways to create a smooth user experience. As the system needs to fit both with the personal leadership style of the executive and the corporation’s meeting culture, we began the design process by exploring the work flow in and around meetings attended by the executive.

  10. Motofit - integrating neutron reflectometry acquisition, reduction and analysis into one, easy to use, package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The efficient use of complex neutron scattering instruments is often hindered by the complex nature of their operating software. This complexity exists at each experimental step: data acquisition, reduction and analysis, with each step being as important as the previous. For example, whilst command line interfaces are powerful at automated acquisition they often reduce accessibility by novice users and sometimes reduce the efficiency for advanced users. One solution to this is the development of a graphical user interface which allows the user to operate the instrument by a simple and intuitive "push button" approach. This approach was taken by the Motofit software package for analysis of multiple contrast reflectometry data. Here we describe the extension of this package to cover the data acquisition and reduction steps for the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer. Consequently, the complete operation of an instrument is integrated into a single, easy to use, program, leading to efficient instrument usage.

  11. Continuous Easy-Plane Deconfined Phase Transition on the Kagome Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; He, Yin-Chen; Eggert, Sebastian; Moessner, Roderich; Pollmann, Frank

    2018-03-01

    We use large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study an extended Hubbard model of hard core bosons on the kagome lattice. In the limit of strong nearest-neighbor interactions at 1 /3 filling, the interplay between frustration and quantum fluctuations leads to a valence bond solid ground state. The system undergoes a quantum phase transition to a superfluid phase as the interaction strength is decreased. It is still under debate whether the transition is weakly first order or represents an unconventional continuous phase transition. We present a theory in terms of an easy plane noncompact C P1 gauge theory describing the phase transition at 1 /3 filling. Utilizing large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations with parallel tempering in the canonical ensemble up to 15552 spins, we provide evidence that the phase transition is continuous at exactly 1 /3 filling. A careful finite size scaling analysis reveals an unconventional scaling behavior hinting at deconfined quantum criticality.

  12. Maximum Likelihood Item Easiness Models for Test Theory Without an Answer Key

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) is a data aggregation technique with many applications in the social and behavioral sciences. We describe the intuition and theory behind a set of CCT models for continuous type data using maximum likelihood inference methodology. We describe how bias parameters can be incorporated into these models. We introduce two extensions to the basic model in order to account for item rating easiness/difficulty. The first extension is a multiplicative model and the second is an additive model. We show how the multiplicative model is related to the Rasch model. We describe several maximum-likelihood estimation procedures for the models and discuss issues of model fit and identifiability. We describe how the CCT models could be used to give alternative consensus-based measures of reliability. We demonstrate the utility of both the basic and extended models on a set of essay rating data and give ideas for future research. PMID:29795812

  13. Vibrotactile Feedbacks System for Assisting the Physically Impaired Persons for Easy Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, M.; Geetha, G.; Elakkiya, U.; Saranya, D.

    2018-04-01

    NAYAN architecture is for a visually impaired person to help for navigation. As well known, all visually impaired people desperately requires special requirements even to access services like the public transportation. This prototype system is a portable device; it is so easy to carry in any conduction to travel through a familiar and unfamiliar environment. The system consists of GPS receiver and it can get NEMA data through the satellite and it is provided to user's Smartphone through Arduino board. This application uses two vibrotactile feedbacks that will be placed in the left and right shoulder for vibration feedback, which gives information about the current location. The ultrasonic sensor is used for obstacle detection which is found in front of the visually impaired person. The Bluetooth modules connected with Arduino board is to send information to the user's mobile phone which it receives from GPS.

  14. Easy access to firearms: juveniles' risks for violent offending and violent victimization.

    PubMed

    Ruback, R Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N; Clark, Valerie A

    2011-07-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to firearms was higher for males, Whites, and adolescents having two parents, especially fathers. Current access to firearms at home significantly increased the odds of both violent offending and violent victimization, even after controlling for prior access, prior offending, and prior victimization. This relationship persisted into early adulthood; access to firearms still significantly increased the odds of violent offending and violent victimization.

  15. Nearest-cell: a fast and easy tool for locating crystal matches in the PDB

    SciTech Connect

    Ramraj, V., E-mail: varun@strubi.ox.ac.uk; Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE; Evans, G.

    2012-12-01

    A fast and easy tool to locate unit-cell matches in the PDB is described. When embarking upon X-ray diffraction data collection from a potentially novel macromolecular crystal form, it can be useful to ascertain whether the measured data reflect a crystal form that is already recorded in the Protein Data Bank and, if so, whether it is part of a large family of related structures. Providing such information to crystallographers conveniently and quickly, as soon as the first images have been recorded and the unit cell characterized at an X-ray beamline, has the potential to save time and effort asmore » well as pointing to possible search models for molecular replacement. Given an input unit cell, and optionally a space group, Nearest-cell rapidly scans the Protein Data Bank and retrieves near-matches.« less

  16. Comparison of concepts in easy-to-use methods for MSD risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of easy-to-use methods for assessing musculoskeletal load and the risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. In all such methods, assessment of load consists in defining input data, the procedure and the system of assessment. This article shows what assessment steps the methods have in common; it also shows how those methods differ in each step. In addition, the methods are grouped according to their characteristic features. The conclusion is that the concepts of assessing risk in different methods can be used to develop solutions leading to a comprehensive method appropriate for all work tasks and all parts of the body. However, studies are necessary to verify the accepted premises and to introduce some standardization that would make consolidation possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. ImageJ: A Free, Easy, and Reliable Method to Measure Leg Ulcers Using Digital Pictures.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; Aragón-Hernández, Cristina; Hernández-Herero, María José

    2017-12-01

    Wound measurement to document the healing course of chronic leg ulcers has an important role in the management of these patients. Digital cameras in smartphones are readily available and easy to use, and taking pictures of wounds is becoming a routine in specialized departments. Analyzing digital pictures with appropriate software provides clinicians a quick, clean, and easy-to-use tool for measuring wound area. A set of 25 digital pictures of plain foot and leg ulcers was the basis of this study. Photographs were taken placing a ruler next to the wound in parallel with the healthy skin with the iPhone 6S (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA), which has a camera of 12 megapixels using the flash. The digital photographs were visualized with ImageJ 1.45s freeware (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; http://imagej.net/ImageJ ). Wound area measurement was carried out by 4 raters: head of the department, wound care nurse, physician, and medical student. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability using the interclass correlation coefficient. To determine intraobserver reliability, 2 of the raters repeated the measurement of the set 1 week after the first reading. The interrater model displayed an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 with 95% confidence interval of 0.999 to 1.000, showing excellent reliability. The intrarater model of both examiners showed excellent reliability. In conclusion, analyzing digital images of leg ulcers with ImageJ estimates wound area with excellent reliability. This method provides a free, rapid, and accurate way to measure wounds and could routinely be used to document wound healing in daily clinical practice.

  18. Easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis system for hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Masaya; Inui, Ayano; Shin-I, Tadasu; Komatsu, Haruki; Mukaide, Motokazu; Masaki, Naohiko; Murata, Kazumoto; Ito, Kiyoaki; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Mizokami, Masashi

    2011-10-01

      The molecular phylogenetic analysis has been broadly applied to clinical and virological study. However, the appropriate settings and application of calculation parameters are difficult for non-specialists of molecular genetics. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis tool was developed for the easy determination of genotypes and transmission route.   A total of 23 patients of 10 families infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) were enrolled and expected to undergo intrafamilial transmission. The extracted HBV DNA were amplified and sequenced in a region of the S gene.   The software to automatically classify query sequence was constructed and installed on the Hepatitis Virus Database (HVDB). Reference sequences were retrieved from HVDB, which contained major genotypes from A to H. Multiple-alignments using CLUSTAL W were performed before the genetic distance matrix was calculated with the six-parameter method. The phylogenetic tree was output by the neighbor-joining method. User interface using WWW-browser was also developed for intuitive control. This system was named as the easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis system (E-PAS). Twenty-three sera of 10 families were analyzed to evaluate E-PAS. The queries obtained from nine families were genotype C and were located in one cluster per family. However, one patient of a family was classified into the cluster different from her family, suggesting that E-PAS detected the sample distinct from that of her family on the transmission route.   The E-PAS to output phylogenetic tree was developed since requisite material was sequence data only. E-PAS could expand to determine HBV genotypes as well as transmission routes. © 2011 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  19. Easy-going, rational, susceptible and struggling eaters: A segmentation study based on eating behaviour tendencies.

    PubMed

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Arvola, Anne; Karhunen, Leila; Pennanen, Kyösti

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations. Finnish (n = 1060) and German (n = 1070) samples were segmented on the basis of their responses to a modified Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R15). Well-being, coping strategies and food consumption habits of the segments were studied. Segmentation revealed four segments: "Susceptible", "Easy-going", "Rational" and "Struggling". These segments were similar in both countries with regard to well-being, coping strategies and food choices. EE and UE co-occurred, and these tendencies were mainly responsible for differentiating the segments. Members of the "Rational" and "Easy-going" segments, who had low scores for EE and UE, tended to experience vitality and positive emotions in life, and contentment with their eating. By contrast, the "Susceptible" and "Struggling" segments, with more pronounced tendencies towards EE and UE, experienced lower levels of vitality and less frequently positive emotions, applied less adaptive coping strategies and experienced more discontent with eating. The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to identify segments, with differing eating habits, coping strategies and well-being on the basis of the eating behaviour tendencies EE, UE and CR. We discuss possible viewpoints for the design of interventions and food products to help people towards psychologically and physiologically healthier eating styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  20. Chorionic morphine, naltrexone and pentoxifylline effect on hypophyso-gonadal hormones of male rats.

    PubMed

    Moradi, M; Mahmoodi, M; Raoofi, A; Ghanbari, A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about harmful effects of morphine on hormone secretion seems to be necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pentoxifylline on side effects derived by morphine on hypophyso-gonadal hormones of male rats. 32 male rats were divided into the 4 groups of OSS: control (received 40 g Sucrose/l drinking water and intraperitoneal injection of 1 l/kg normal saline), OMS: morphine group (received 0.4 mg/l + 40 g Sucrose/l in drinking water and intraperitoneal injection of 1 l/kg normal saline), NMS: morphine+naltrexane group (received 0.4 mg/l + 40 g Sucrose/l in drinking water and IP injection dose of 10 mg/kg/ml/day Naltrexane) and PMS: morphine + pentoxifylline group (received 0.4 mg/dl + 40 g Sucrose/l in drinking water and IP injection dose of 12 mg/kg/ml/day Pentoxifylline) for 56 days, respectively. Serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH hormones were measured. Pentoxifylline increased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH hormones compared to control, morphine and morphine-naltrexane groups. Pentoxifylline has a significant efficacy for increasing serum levels of sexual hormones. Considering that Pentoxifylline is safe and cheap, with easy application, we suggest for the usage of this drug for improving semen parameter's quality before performing ART for the treatment of morphine addicts (Fig. 1, Ref. 31).

  1. EasyFRAP-web: a web-based tool for the analysis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data.

    PubMed

    Koulouras, Grigorios; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Rapsomaniki, Maria A; Giakoumakis, Nickolaos N; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi

    2018-06-13

    Understanding protein dynamics is crucial in order to elucidate protein function and interactions. Advances in modern microscopy facilitate the exploration of the mobility of fluorescently tagged proteins within living cells. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is an increasingly popular functional live-cell imaging technique which enables the study of the dynamic properties of proteins at a single-cell level. As an increasing number of labs generate FRAP datasets, there is a need for fast, interactive and user-friendly applications that analyze the resulting data. Here we present easyFRAP-web, a web application that simplifies the qualitative and quantitative analysis of FRAP datasets. EasyFRAP-web permits quick analysis of FRAP datasets through an intuitive web interface with interconnected analysis steps (experimental data assessment, different types of normalization and estimation of curve-derived quantitative parameters). In addition, easyFRAP-web provides dynamic and interactive data visualization and data and figure export for further analysis after every step. We test easyFRAP-web by analyzing FRAP datasets capturing the mobility of the cell cycle regulator Cdt2 in the presence and absence of DNA damage in cultured cells. We show that easyFRAP-web yields results consistent with previous studies and highlights cell-to-cell heterogeneity in the estimated kinetic parameters. EasyFRAP-web is platform-independent and is freely accessible at: https://easyfrap.vmnet.upatras.gr/.

  2. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes somatic embryogenesis in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.).

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Tammy; Browne, Robin; Dong, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) offers vast potential for the clonal propagation of high-value roses. However, some recalcitrant cultivars unresponsive to commonly employed SE-inducing agents and low induction rates currently hinder the commercialization of SE technology in rose. Rose SE technology requires improvement before it can be implemented as a production system on a commercial scale. In the present work, we assessed 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin not previously tested in rose, for its effectiveness to induce SE in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.). We ran a parallel comparison to the commonly used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). We tested each auxin with two different basal media: Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and woody plant medium (WPM). MS medium resulted in somatic embryo production, whereas WPM did not. 2,4,5-T induced SE over a greater concentration range than 2,4-D's and resulted in significantly greater embryo yields. 2,4,5-T at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM was better for embrygenic tissue initiation than 2,4,5-T at 5 microM. Further embryo development occurred when the tissue was transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR) free medium or media with 40% the original auxin concentration. However, the PGR-free medium resulted in a high percentage of abnormal embryos (32.31%) compared to the media containing auxins. Upon transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos successfully converted into plantlets at rates ranging from 33.3 to 95.2%, depending on treatment. Survival rates 3 months ex vitro averaged 14.0 and 55.6% for 2,4-D- and 2,4,5-T-derived plantlets, respectively. Recurrent SE was observed in 60.2% of the plantlets growing on germination medium. This study is the first report of SE in the commercially valuable rose cultivar 'Livin' Easy' (Rosa sp.) and a suitable methodology was developed for SE of this rose cultivar.

  3. AME - Asteroseismology Made Easy. Estimating stellar properties by using scaled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundkvist, Mia; Kjeldsen, Hans; Silva Aguirre, Victor

    2014-06-01

    Context. Stellar properties and, in particular stellar radii of exoplanet host stars, are essential for measuring the properties of exoplanets, therefore it is becoming increasingly important to be able to supply reliable stellar radii fast. Grid-modelling is an obvious choice for this, but that only offers a low degree of transparency to non-specialists. Aims: Here we present a new, easy, fast, and transparent method of obtaining stellar properties for stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations. The method, called Asteroseismology Made Easy (AME), can determine stellar masses, mean densities, radii, and surface gravities, as well as estimate ages. We present AME as a visual and powerful tool that could be useful, in particular, in light of the large number of exoplanets being found. Methods: AME consists of a set of figures from which the stellar parameters can be deduced. These figures are made from a grid of stellar evolutionary models that cover masses ranging from 0.7 M⊙ to 1.6 M⊙ in steps of 0.1 M⊙ and metallicities in the interval -0.3 dex ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.3 dex in increments of 0.1 dex. The stellar evolutionary models are computed using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) code with simple input physics. Results: We have compared the results from AME with results for three groups of stars: stars with radii determined from interferometry (and measured parallaxes), stars with radii determined from measurements of their parallaxes (and calculated angular diameters), and stars with results based on modelling their individual oscillation frequencies. We find that a comparison of the radii from interferometry to those from AME yields a weighted mean of the fractional differences of just 2%. This is also the level of deviation that we find when we compare the parallax-based radii to the radii determined from AME. Conclusions: The comparison between independently determined stellar parameters and those found using AME show that our method

  4. Easy and fast method for expression and native extraction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein fragments.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Darwin Andrés; Baquero, Luis Alfredo; Bermúdez, Maritza; Gómez-Muñoz, Laura Alejandra; Varela, Yahson; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2018-02-08

    The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) has been the most studied ligand binding human reticulocytes to date. This molecule has a cysteine-rich domain in region II (RII) which has been used as control for evaluating the target cell binding activity of several parasite molecules. However, obtaining rPvDBP-RII in a soluble form using the Escherichia coli expression system usually requires laborious and time-consuming steps for recovering the molecule's structure and function, considering it is extracted from inclusion bodies. The present study describes an easy and fast method for expressing and obtaining several PvDBP fragments which should prove ideal for use in protein-cell interaction assays. Two PvDBP encoding regions (rii and riii/v) were cloned in pEXP5-CT vector and expressed in E. coli and extracted from the soluble fraction (rPvDBP-RII S and rPvDBP-RIII/V S ) using a simple freezing/thawing protocol. After the purification, dichroism analysis enabled verifying high rPvDBP-RII S and rPvDBP-RIII/V S secondary structure α-helix content, which was lowered when molecules were extracted from inclusion bodies (rPvDBP-RII IB and rPvDBP-RIII/V IB ) using a denaturing step. Interestingly, rPvDBP-RII S , but not rPvDBP-RII IB , bound to human reticulocytes, while rPvDBP-RIII/V S and rPvDBP-RIII/V IB bound to such cells in a similar way to negative control (cells incubated without recombinant proteins). This research has shown for the first time how rPvDBP-RII can be expressed and obtained in soluble form using the E. coli system and avoiding the denaturation and refolding steps commonly used. The results highlight the usefulness of the rPvDBP-RIII/V S fragment as a non-binding control for protein-cell target interaction assays. The soluble extraction protocol described is a good alternative to obtain fully functional P. vivax proteins in a fast and easy way, which will surely prove useful to laboratories working in studying this parasite's biology.

  5. Effects of therapeutic touch on the vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zahra; Shahsavari, Hooman; Moeini, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently healthy heart word considered to be the objective of community health applications in many countries of the world because cardiovascular diseases are the most important factor in mortality of humans, worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is one of the most common surgery procedures for these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of therapeutic touch on medical vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: The present study is a clinical trial with 44 samples that were selected by easy sampling method and based on two separate lists of random numbers for both men and women; they were divided into two groups. In the therapeutic touch group, intervention therapy was applied on patents for 20 minutes. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Test results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean pulse rate before and after intervention in both groups (p < 0.001). Results also showed that there was a significant difference between the average number of breathing before and after intervention in both groups (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the effects of therapeutic touch therapy as a safe and effective intervention on the patients which were revealed in this study, this technique can be used as a simple, cheap and applicable technique in all health care centers to help these patients. PMID:21589748

  6. Outcomes and process evaluation of a programme integrating physical activity into the primary school mathematics curriculum: The EASY Minds pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Young, Myles

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of the 'Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young (EASY) Minds' programme, a school-based intervention for integrating physical activity (PA) into mathematics lessons. Randomised controlled trial. Two classes from a single school (n = 54) were randomised to receive either the 6-week EASY Minds intervention (n = 27) or follow their usual school programme (n = 27). The intervention involved the embedding of PA across the pre-existing mathematics programme for 3 × 60 min sessions per week. Changes in PA were measured using accelerometers and 'on task' behaviour was measured using momentary time sampling observation. Using intention-to-treat analysis, significant intervention effects were found for MVPA (9.7%, 95%CI = 7.6, 11.8, p ≤ 0.001) and sedentary time (-22.4%, CI = -24.9, -12.2, p ≤ 0.001) for the intervention group during Mathematics lessons (9.30 am-10.30 am). Significant intervention effects were also shown for MVPA 8.7% (95% CI = 5.8, 11.6, p ≤ 0.001 and sedentary time -18.6% (95% CI = -24.9, -12.2, p ≤ 0.001) across the whole school day. Furthermore, children displayed significantly greater 'on-task' behaviour across the intervention period with a 19.9% (95%CI = 2.4, 37.4, p ≤ 0.03) mean difference between groups. The EASY Minds programme demonstrated that integrating movement across the primary mathematics syllabus is feasible and efficacious in enhancing school based-PA and improving on-task behaviour in mathematics lessons. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way.

    PubMed

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes.

  8. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way

    PubMed Central

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. METHODS: A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. RESULTS: During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26409380

  9. The chopstick-noodle twist: an easy technique of percutaneous patellar fixation in minimally displaced patellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Ahmad, Nawaz; Ahmad, Aejaz; Ahmad, Nissar

    2012-01-01

    We report six cases of minimally displaced two-part patellar fractures with skin injury over the patella that were treated with percutaneous K wire fixation and compression applied using stainless steel (SS) wire. This technique makes it possible to perform early operative treatment in cases where unhealthy skin is not amenable to conventional tension band wiring. The technique employs two K wires inserted through the two fracture fragments under local or regional anaesthesia. They are then compressed using simple SS wire knots at the two ends - making it look like noodles at the end of two chopsticks. The fixation is subsequently augmented with a cylindrical plaster-of-Paris cast. The technique is simple, cheap and does not cause soft tissue injury.

  10. [Adolescents find it easy to collect their own samples to study sexually transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Huneeus, Andrea; Fernández, Mario I; Schilling, Andrea; Parra, Paulina; Zakharova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    As alternative for patients that fear genital examination, we assessed adolescent's comfort and ease with self-collected samples for nucleic acid amplification testing for sexually transmitted infections. Sexually active Chilean adolescents and youth under 25 years (174 males and 117 females) were enrolled. Females used self-collected vaginal swabs and males collected first-stream urine. A satisfaction survey evaluating self-sampling system was applied. Self-collection was considered easy in 99.3% of the interviewees (CI 95% 0.88-0.98). In women, 79.3% preferred vaginal self-collected samples than pelvic exam (CI 95% 0.73-0.85). In men, 80.3% preferred self-collected first-stream urine to urethral swabs (CI 95% 0.73-0.87). Assuming that self-collected sampling were available, 89.6% of women (CI 95% 0.85-0.94) and 93.2% of men (CI 95% 0.89-0.98) would be prone to be tested more often. Ease of self-collected sampling is not associated with age, gender, educational level or poverty. Chile currently does not have sexually transmitted infections surveillance or screening programs for youth and adolescents. Given self-collected sampling's good acceptability, it could be successfully used when these programs are implemented.

  11. Machine vision method for online surface inspection of easy open can ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Perfecto; Pastoriza, Vicente; Santamaría, Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Easy open can end manufacturing process in the food canning sector currently makes use of a manual, non-destructive testing procedure to guarantee can end repair coating quality. This surface inspection is based on a visual inspection made by human inspectors. Due to the high production rate (100 to 500 ends per minute) only a small part of each lot is verified (statistical sampling), then an automatic, online, inspection system, based on machine vision, has been developed to improve this quality control. The inspection system uses a fuzzy model to make the acceptance/rejection decision for each can end from the information obtained by the vision sensor. In this work, the inspection method is presented. This surface inspection system checks the total production, classifies the ends in agreement with an expert human inspector, supplies interpretability to the operators in order to find out the failure causes and reduce mean time to repair during failures, and allows to modify the minimum can end repair coating quality.

  12. Integrated microreactor for enzymatic reaction automation: An easy step toward the quality control of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Yoann; Mas, Silvia; Coussot, Gaelle; Bartley, Killian; Montels, Jérôme; Morel, Jacques; Perrin, Catherine

    2017-12-15

    The main purpose of the present work is to provide a fully integrated miniaturized electrophoretic methodology in order to facilitate the quality control of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This methodology called D-PES, which stands for Diffusion-mediated Proteolysis combined with an Electrophoretic Separation, permits to perform subsequently mAb tryptic digestion and electrophoresis separation of proteolysis products in an automated manner. Tryptic digestion conditions were optimized regarding the influence of enzyme concentration and incubation time in order to achieve similar enzymatic digestion efficiency to that obtained with the classical methodology (off-line). Then, the optimization of electrophoretic separation conditions concerning the nature of background electrolyte (BGE), ionic strength and pH was realized. Successful and repeatable electrophoretic profiles of three mAbs digests (Trastuzumab, Infliximab and Tocilizumab), comparable to the off-line digestion profiles, were obtained demonstrating the feasibility and robustness of the proposed methodology. In summary, the use of the proposed and optimized in-line approach opens a new, fast and easy way for the quality control of mAbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Easy clip to treat anal fistula tracts: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Godeberge, P; Ganansia, R; Bozio, G; Godart, B; Bigard, M A; Barthet, M; Siproudhis, L

    2015-05-01

    Closing the internal opening by a clip ovesco has been recently proposed for healing the fistula tract, but, to date, data on benefit are poorly analyzed. The aim was to report a preliminary multicenter experience. Retrospective study was undertaken in six different French centers: surgical procedure, immediate complications, and follow-up have been collected. Nineteen clips were inserted in 17 patients (M/F, 4/13; median age, 42 years [29-54]) who had an anal fistula: 12 (71%) high fistulas (including 4 rectovaginal fistulas), 5 (29%) lower fistulas (with 3 rectovaginal fistulas), and 6 (35%) Crohn's fistulas. Out of 17 patients, 15 had a seton drainage beforehand. The procedure was easy in 8 (47%) patients and the median operative time was 27.5 min (20-36.5). Postoperative period was painful for 11 (65%) patients. A clip migration was noted in 11 patients (65%) after a median follow-up of 10 days (5.5-49.8). Eleven patients (65%) who failed had reoperation including 10 new drainages within the first month (0.5-5). After a mean follow-up of 4 months (2-7),, closing the tract was observed in 2 patients (12%) following the first insertion of the clip and in another one after a second insertion. Treatment of anal fistula by placing a clip on the internal opening is disappointing and deleterious for some patients. A better assessment before dissemination is recommended.

  14. Pathology crossword competition: an active and easy way of learning pathology in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Htwe, T T; Sabaridah, I; Rajyaguru, K M; Mazidah, A M

    2012-02-01

    In line with the trend to engage students in active learning, it is imperative to introduce new strategies that make learning more interesting, especially in undergraduate curricula. This study aimed to determine students' performance and perception in pathology crosswords as an active way of learning and to assess their ability to memorise difficult terms in pathology. A crossword competition in pathology was conducted for two batches (year 2009 and 2010) of Phase 2 medical students in Malaysia. Crossword puzzles were prepared using an online application. Two sets of puzzles were prepared, with 20 questions for the assessment of general pathology and 20 for systemic pathology. The purpose was to compare the students' recent and remote memorising abilities, as general pathology was taught a year before proceeding to systemic pathology teaching. There were 12 groups per batch, with 8-10 students in a group. Survey questionnaires were used to assess the students' perception of the competition. Descriptive analysis was performed for comparison of performance. The mean score of correctly answered questions in general pathology was 12.75 and 11.50 in batch 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean score for systemic pathology was 14.50 in 2009 and 13.83 in 2010. Students in the 2009 batch performed better, but this was not statistically significant (p-value > 0.05). A positive response was observed from the questionnaires. Applying crossword puzzles as a new strategy is a useful and easy way for undergraduate medical students to learn pathology.

  15. INNOVATIVE EASY-TO-USE PASSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR 222RN AND 220RN DECAY PRODUCT DETECTION.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Rout, R; Prajith, R; Jalalluddin, S; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2016-10-01

    The decay products of radon and thoron are essentially the radioisotopes of polonium, bismuth and lead, and are solid particulates, which deposit in different parts of the respiratory tract upon inhalation, subsequently emitting high-energy alpha particles upon their radioactive decay. Development of passive deposition-based direct progeny sensors known as direct radon and thoron progeny sensors have provided an easy-to-use technique for time-integrated measurements of the decay products only. These dosemeters are apt for large-scale population dosimetry to assign inhalation doses to the public. The paper gives an insight into the technique, the calibration, comparison with the prevalently used active grab filter paper sampling technique, alpha track diameter analysis in these progeny sensors, progeny deposition velocity measurements carried out using these detector systems in the indoor as well as outdoor environment, and applications of these sensors for time-integrated unattached fraction estimation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Easy preparation of a large-size random gene mutagenesis library in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    You, Chun; Percival Zhang, Y-H

    2012-09-01

    A simple and fast protocol for the preparation of a large-size mutant library for directed evolution in Escherichia coli was developed based on the DNA multimers generated by prolonged overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (POE-PCR). This protocol comprised the following: (i) a linear DNA mutant library was generated by error-prone PCR or shuffling, and a linear vector backbone was prepared by regular PCR; (ii) the DNA multimers were generated based on these two DNA templates by POE-PCR; and (iii) the one restriction enzyme-digested DNA multimers were ligated to circular plasmids, followed by transformation to E. coli. Because the ligation efficiency of one DNA fragment was several orders of magnitude higher than that of two DNA fragments for typical mutant library construction, it was very easy to generate a mutant library with a size of more than 10(7) protein mutants per 50 μl of the POE-PCR product. Via this method, four new fluorescent protein mutants were obtained based on monomeric cherry fluorescent protein. This new protocol was simple and fast because it did not require labor-intensive optimizations in restriction enzyme digestion and ligation, did not involve special plasmid design, and enabled constructing a large-size mutant library for directed enzyme evolution within 1 day. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast and easy enzyme immobilization by photoinitiated polymerization for efficient bioelectrochemical devices.

    PubMed

    Suraniti, Emmanuel; Studer, Vincent; Sojic, Neso; Mano, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    Immobilization and electrical wiring of enzymes is of particular importance for the elaboration of efficient biosensors and can be cumbersome. Here, we report a fast and easy protocol for enzyme immobilization, and as a proof of concept, we applied it to the immobilization of bilirubin oxidase, a labile enzyme. In the first step, bilirubin oxidase is mixed with a redox hydrogel "wiring" the enzyme reaction centers to electrodes. Then, this adduct is covered by an outer layer of PEGDA made by photoinitiated polymerization of poly(ethylene-glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and a photoclivable precursor, DAROCUR. This two-step protocol is 18 times faster than the current state-of-the-art protocol and leads to currents 25% higher. In addition, the outer layer of PEGDA acts as a protective layer increasing the lifetime of the electrode by 100% when operating continuously for 2000 s and by 60% when kept in dry state for 24 h. This new protocol is particularly appropriate for labile enzymes that quickly denaturate. In addition, by tuning the ratio PEGDA/DAROCUR, it is possible to make the enzyme electrodes even more active or more stable.

  18. Making it Easy to Construct Accurate Hydrological Models that Exploit High Performance Computers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Terrel, A.; Certik, O.; Seljebotn, D.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will focus on two barriers to progress in the hydrological modeling community, and research and development conducted to lessen or eliminate them. The first is a barrier to sharing hydrological models among specialized scientists that is caused by intertwining the implementation of numerical methods with the implementation of abstract numerical modeling information. In the Proteus toolkit for computational methods and simulation, we have decoupled these two important parts of computational model through separate "physics" and "numerics" interfaces. More recently we have begun developing the Strong Form Language for easy and direct representation of the mathematical model formulation in a domain specific language embedded in Python. The second major barrier is sharing ANY scientific software tools that have complex library or module dependencies, as most parallel, multi-physics hydrological models must have. In this setting, users and developer are dependent on an entire distribution, possibly depending on multiple compilers and special instructions depending on the environment of the target machine. To solve these problem we have developed, hashdist, a stateless package management tool and a resulting portable, open source scientific software distribution.

  19. A Novel Assay for Easy and Rapid Quantification of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Skindersoe, Mette E; Rasmussen, Lone; Andersen, Leif P; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Reducing adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells could be a new way to counteract infections with this organism. We here present a novel method for quantification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to cells. Helicobacter pylori is allowed to adhere to AGS or MKN45g cells in a 96-well microtiter plate. Then wells are added saponin, which lyses the cells without affecting the bacteria. After addition of alamarBlue(®) (resazurin) and 1- to 2-hour incubation, fluorescence measurements can be used to quantify the number of adherent bacteria. By use of the method, we demonstrate that adhesion of both a sabA and babA deletion mutant of H. pylori is significantly reduced compared to the wild type. The method offers a number of applications and may be used to compare the adherence potential of different strains of H. pylori to either cells or different materials or to screen for potential anti-adhesive compounds. The results presented here suggest that this easy and reproducible assay is well suited for quantitative investigation of H. pylori adhesion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trehalose, an easy, safe and efficient cryoprotectant for the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yan-Zi; Su, Bi-Xiu; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Hide, Geoff; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lai, De-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Trehalose, a non-permeating cryoprotective agent (CPA), has been documented as less toxic and highly efficient at cryopreserving different kinds of cells or organisms. In the present study, trehalose was evaluated for its application in cryopreservation of both Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream form cells. The cryopreservation efficiency was determined by the motility of trypanosomes after thawing, as well as a subsequent recovery and infectivity assessment. The viability of trypanosomes from cultivation that were frozen in a serial concentrations of trehalose showed similar results to classical CPAs of glycerol and DMSO. Nevertheless, trypanosomes cryopreserved in 0.2M trehalose showed the best growth characteristic during subsequent cultivation. In addition, CPA cocktails with trehalose and permeating CPA glycerol or DMSO were developed and evaluated. Interestingly, trypanosomes in host (mouse) blood cryopreserved in 0.4M trehalose plus 5% glycerol showed higher infectivity than those preserved in trehalose/DMSO cocktails as well as individually. Further investigations showed that, in comparison with slow freezing at -80°C, flash freezing in liquid nitrogen provided better cryopreservation for bloodstream form cells than slow freezing. In conclusion, trehalose is an easy, safe and efficient CPA for cryopreservation of T. brucei and potentially for other protozoan species and cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How do they make it look so easy? The expert orienteer's cognitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Eccles, David W; Arsal, Guler

    2015-01-01

    Expertise in sport can appear so extraordinary that it is difficult to imagine how "normal" individuals may achieve it. However, in this review, we show that experts in the sport of orienteering, which requires on-foot navigation using map and compass through wild terrain, can make the difficult look easy because they have developed a cognitive advantage. Specifically, they have acquired knowledge of cognitive and behavioural strategies that allow them to circumvent natural limitations on attention. Cognitive strategies include avoiding peaks of demand on attention by distributing the processing of map information over time and reducing the need to attend to the map by simplifying the navigation required to complete a race. Behavioural strategies include reducing the visual search required of the map by physically arranging and rearranging the map display during races. It is concluded that expertise in orienteering can be partly attributed to the circumvention of natural limitations on attention achieved via the employment of acquired cognitive and behavioural strategies. Thus, superior performance in sport may not be the possession of only a privileged few; it may be available to all aspiring athletes.

  2. The moral obligation to be vaccinated: utilitarianism, contractualism, and collective easy rescue.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Douglas, Thomas; Savulescu, Julian

    2018-02-10

    We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (both for adults and for children) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies. We show that two types of arguments-namely a utilitarian argument based on Parfit's Principle of Group Beneficence and a contractualist argument-can ground an individual moral obligation to be vaccinated, in spite of the imperceptible contribution that any single vaccination makes to vaccine coverage rates. We add a further argument for a moral obligation to be vaccinated that does not require embracing problematic comprehensive moral theories such as utilitarianism or contractualism. The argument is based on a "duty of easy rescue" applied to collectives, which grounds a collective moral obligation to realise herd immunity, and on a principle of fairness in the distribution of the burdens that must be borne to realise herd immunity.

  3. Development of an easy-debonding orthodontic adhesive using thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Takashi; Namura, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2007-01-01

    We produced experimentally a new bonding material that consisted of a mixture of a base resin (4-META/MMA-TBB resin adhesive) and thermoexpandable microcapsules for safe, easy debonding. Microcapsules in the base resin would start expansion at 80 degrees C, leading to a remarkable decrease in bond strength. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to bovine permanent mandibular incisors using bonding materials containing the microcapsules at different contents. After thermal cycling or heating, the shear bond strength of the brackets was measured. Shear bond strength of the bonding materials containing 30-40 wt% microcapsules decreased to about one-third or one-fifth that of the base resin on heating. Heating the brackets for eight seconds increased the temperature in the pulp chamber by 2 degrees C, which should not induce pulp damage. Results obtained suggested that the new bonding material should prove useful for removing brackets easily at the time of bracket debonding without any pain or enamel cracks, while maintaining the bonding strength during active orthodontic treatment.

  4. Hypophosphataemia: an easy strategy for diagnosis and treatment in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Karie, Svetlana; Deray, Gilbert; Essig, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Because HIV infection has become a chronic disease, it is crucial that metabolic complications secondary to HIV infection or prolonged therapy be diagnosed and managed appropriately over time. Therefore the optimal follow-up becomes complex and time consuming. Our review aimed to provide physicians in charge of HIV-infected patients with key data helping them to diagnose and understand hypophosphataemia in HIV patients. Hypophosphataemia is frequent and sometimes secondary to renal phosphate wasting. It is very rarely a component of a complex proximal tubular disorder, such as Fanconi syndrome. When isolated, hypophosphataemia is easy to rule out and treat. In rare cases, prolonged hypophosphataemia, when related to renal phosphate wasting and tubular dysfunction, might have potential consequences on bone outcome, however, more studies are needed. HIV infection by itself might be a risk factor for bone metabolism abnormalities; antiretroviral drugs might also be involved. Therefore, it seems valuable for patients that the minimal screening should be performed routinely, in order to prevent long-term disabilities.

  5. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poullain, Gilles; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    TbxDy1-xFe2/Pt/Pb(Zrx, Ti1-x)O3 thin films were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient αΗΜΕ was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large αΗΜΕ of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance.

  6. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  7. Fast and Easy 3D Reconstruction with the Help of Geometric Constraints and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annich, Afafe; El Abderrahmani, Abdellatif; Satori, Khalid

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to describe new method of 3D reconstruction from one or more uncalibrated images. This method is based on two important concepts: geometric constraints and genetic algorithms (GAs). At first, we are going to discuss the combination between bundle adjustment and GAs that we have proposed in order to improve 3D reconstruction efficiency and success. We used GAs in order to improve fitness quality of initial values that are used in the optimization problem. It will increase surely convergence rate. Extracted geometric constraints are used first to obtain an estimated value of focal length that helps us in the initialization step. Matching homologous points and constraints is used to estimate the 3D model. In fact, our new method gives us a lot of advantages: reducing the estimated parameter number in optimization step, decreasing used image number, winning time and stabilizing good quality of 3D results. At the end, without any prior information about our 3D scene, we obtain an accurate calibration of the cameras, and a realistic 3D model that strictly respects the geometric constraints defined before in an easy way. Various data and examples will be used to highlight the efficiency and competitiveness of our present approach.

  8. The Easy Way of Finding Parameters in IBM (EWofFP-IBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Turkan, Nureddin

    E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios of even-even nuclei in transitional region can be calculated as soon as B(E2) and B(M1) values by using the PHINT and/or NP-BOS codes. The correct calculations of energies must be obtained to produce such calculations. Also, the correct parameter values are needed to calculate the energies. The logic of the codes is based on the mathematical and physical Statements describing interacting boson model (IBM) which is one of the model of nuclear structure physics. Here, the big problem is to find the best fitted parameters values of the model. So, by using the Easy Way ofmore » Finding Parameters in IBM (EWofFP-IBM), the best parameter values of IBM Hamiltonian for {sup 102-110}Pd and {sup 102-110}Ru isotopes were firstly obtained and then the energies were calculated. At the end, it was seen that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. In addition, it was carried out that the presented energy values obtained by using the EWofFP-IBM are dominantly better than the previous theoretical data.« less

  9. Synthesis of fluorinated graphene oxide by using an easy one-pot deoxyfluorination reaction.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Bolados, Héctor; Contreras-Cid, Ahirton; Yazdani-Pedram, Mehrdad; Acosta-Villavicencio, Gabriela; Flores, Marcos; Fuentealba, Pablo; Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Verdejo, Raquel; López-Manchado, Miguel A

    2018-08-15

    The fluorination of two types of graphene oxides conducted by an easy and scalable deoxyfluorination reaction is reported. This reaction was carried out using diethylaminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate, a stable compound and an efficient reagent for replacing oxygenated functional groups of graphene oxide by fluoride. The graphene oxide produced by the Hummers' method (GOH) showed lower reactivity than that produced by the Brodie's method (GOB). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the highest fluorination degree achieved was 4.7 at.% when GOB was used, and the CF character corresponds to semi-ionic bonds. Additionally, a partial reduction of GO was concomitant with the functionalization reaction. The deoxyfluorination reaction changed the crystalline structure of GO, favoring the reconstruction of Csp 2 structure of the graphene lattice and reducing the number of stacked layers. The fluorination led to the modification of the electronic band structure of this material, increasing the band gap from 2.05 eV for GOB to 3.88 eV for fluorinated GOB, while for GOH the low flurionation led to a slight increase of the band gap, from 3.48 eV to 3.57 eV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Easy-to-use microfluidic chip for long-term 3D-cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Frank; van den Driesche, Sander; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a microfluidic chip for an easy setup of a 3D-culture of mammalian cells. The chip contains feeding structures and gas supply for long-term cultivation of mammalian cells. The device is fabricated out of hard materials like silicon and glass that are all highly biocompatible. The chip uses the concept of surficial phaseguides that allows the partial filling of a microfluidic chip with liquids based on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Here, a suspension of mammalian cells and melted agarose is filled into the chip and is pulled by the capillary pressure on the hydrophilic areas but not on the hydrophobic phaseguides. Consequently, only a part of the chip is filled with the agarose which gels by cooling a form the 3D-cell culture. The unfilled areas are used as supply structures for nutrition and gases. So the supply is based on diffusion and the supply of nutrition and gases is controlled independently. We cultured HaCaT-cells over 24 hours in our device and achieve a good viability.

  11. Qigong/Tai Chi Easy for fatigue in breast cancer survivors: Rationale and design of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda; Huberty, Jennifer; Pedersen, Maja; Weihs, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) often report fatigue that persists for years following treatment. Despite a growing body of evidence for meditative movement practices to improve symptoms among BCSs, few studies have explored using Qigong/Tai Chi to reduce fatigue. Additionally, few have examined the biological mechanisms through which fatigue may be reduced using Qigong/Tai Chi. We will recruit 250 fatigued, post-menopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer (stage 0-III), between 6months and 5years past primary treatment and randomize to a standardized Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE) intervention, a "sham" Qigong group (movements without a focus on the breath and meditative state) (SQG), or an educational support (ES) group. The primary outcome (fatigue), secondary outcomes (anxiety, depression, sleep quality, cognitive function, physical activity), and a biomarker of HPA axis dysregulation (diurnal cortisol) will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 6months postintervention, and biomarkers of inflammation (IL1ra, IL6, TNFα and INFᵧ) at pre/post-intervention. We hypothesize that QG/TCE will reduce fatigue (and improve other symptoms associated with fatigue) in BCSs experiencing persistent cancer-related fatigue more than SQG and ES. Biomarkers will be examined for relationships to changes in fatigue. Findings from this study may reveal the effects of the unique mind-body aspects of QG/TCE on fatigue in BCSs with a complex design that separates the effects of low-intensity physical activity (SQG) and social support/attention (ES) from the primary intervention. Further, results will likely contribute greater understanding of the biological mechanisms of these practices related to improved symptoms among BCSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perfume fingerprinting by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry: nearly instantaneous typification and counterfeit detection.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Renato; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Marques, Lygia Azevedo; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2008-11-01

    Perfume counterfeiting is an illegal worldwide practice that involves huge economic losses and potential consumer risk. EASI is a simple, easily performed and rapidly implemented desorption/ionization technique for ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Herein we demonstrate that EASI-MS allows nearly instantaneous perfume typification and counterfeit detection. Samples are simply sprayed onto a glass rod or paper surface and, after a few seconds of ambient drying, a profile of the most polar components of the perfume is acquired. These components provide unique and reproducible chemical signatures for authentic perfume samples. Counterfeiting is readily recognized since the exact set and relative proportions of the more polar chemicals, sometimes at low concentrations, are unknown or hard to reproduce by the counterfeiters and hence very distinct and variable EASI-MS profiles are observed for the counterfeit samples.

  13. Characterization of anti-theft devices directly from the surface of banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Cuelbas, Claudio José; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Using Brazilian banknotes as a test case, forensic examination and identification of Rhodamine B dye anti-theft device (ATD) staining on banknotes were performed. Easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used since it allows fast and simple analysis with no sample preparation providing molecular screening of the surface with direct desorption and ionization of the security dye. For a more accurate molecular characterization of the ATD dye, Q Exactive Orbitrap™ Fourier transform (tandem) mass spectrometry using eletrospray ionization (ESI-HRMS/MS) was also applied. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple, cheap, one-minute method to mount insect pins for use as sharp-tipped probes in plant dissection.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Michael W

    2005-08-01

    A new method is presented for twist mounting insect pins onto standard dissecting (teasing) needles. Insect pins, with their sharp points, are ideal for fine dissection of plants, especially of shoot tips and early developing flower buds. Twist mounting makes them convenient and effective dissecting tools to prepare specimens for SEM.

  15. Positioning of the patient during shoulder surgery: an inexpensive, safe and easy technique.

    PubMed

    Van Tongel, Alexander; Hardeman, François; Karelse, Anne; de Wilde, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of shoulder pathology has improved tremendously in the last decades, and shoulder surgery is increasingly performed because of new treatment options and better operative results. Nowadays most surgical shoulder procedures are performed in the sitting or semi-sitting (beach chair) position. Stability of the patient and the ability to flex, extend and rotate the shoulder during surgery are crucial to improve exposure of the surgical field and lower the risk of perioperative complications. We developed an easy, safe and inexpensive surgical set-up providing a very good posterior, superior and anterior access to the shoulder in the sitting or semi-sitting position. In this technique, the patient is placed supine with the head at the foot end of the table and the body positioned slightly eccentrically with the back being supported by the leg plate contralateral to the operative side, avoiding any contact with the scapula of the operative side. A neck support is attached on an extra bar at the contralateral side and accommodated to the patient's lordosis. Next, the leg plate on the operative side is removed, and the head and the body are secured to the table with adhesive dressing. This way a stable positioning of the patient is obtained during the whole procedure, and the shoulder girdle is completely free. The set-up can accommodate patients of different stature and weight without the need to adapt the technique. This position also gives the possibility to provide an excellent radiographic view of the shoulder during operative fracture treatment. Our technique further allows a significant reduction in costs. A surgical table, extra bar, additional arm support and neck support are usually available and can be used in different settings, without the need for a specific shoulder table.

  16. An easy-to-build and re-usable microfluidic system for live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Babic, Julien; Griscom, Laurent; Cramer, Jeremy; Coudreuse, Damien

    2018-06-20

    Real-time monitoring of cellular responses to dynamic changes in their environment or to specific treatments has become central to cell biology. However, when coupled to live-cell imaging, such strategies are difficult to implement with precision and high time resolution, and the simultaneous alteration of multiple parameters is a major challenge. Recently, microfluidics has provided powerful solutions for such analyses, bringing an unprecedented level of control over the conditions and the medium in which cells under microscopic observation are grown. However, such technologies have remained under-exploited, largely as a result of the complexity associated with microfabrication procedures. In this study, we have developed simple but powerful microfluidic devices dedicated to live-cell imaging. These microsystems take advantage of a robust elastomer that is readily available to researchers and that presents excellent bonding properties, in particular to microscopy-grade glass coverslips. Importantly, the chips are easy-to-build without sophisticated equipment, and they are compatible with the integration of complex, customized fluidic networks as well as with the multiplexing of independent assays on a single device. We show that the chips are re-usable, a significant advantage for the popularization of microfluidics in cell biology. Moreover, we demonstrate that they allow for the dynamic, accurate and simultaneous control of multiple parameters of the cellular environment. While they do not possess all the features of the microdevices that are built using complex and costly procedures, the simplicity and versatility of the chips that we have developed make them an attractive alternative for a range of applications. The emergence of such devices, which can be fabricated and used by any laboratory, will provide the possibility for a larger number of research teams to take full advantage of these new methods for investigating cell biology.

  17. Understanding resonance graphs using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and why we use EJS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of equal amplitude but different driving frequencies, and (2) different amounts of damping. The simulation aims to create a visually intuitive way of understanding how the series of amplitude versus driving frequency graphs are obtained by showing how the displacement of the system changes over time as it transits from the transient to the steady state. A suggested ‘how to use’ the model is added to help educators and students in their teaching and learning, where we explain the theoretical steady-state equation time conditions when the model begins to allow data recording of maximum amplitudes to closely match the theoretical equation, and the steps to collect different runs of the degree of damping. We also discuss two of the design features in our computer model: displaying the instantaneous oscillation together with the achieved steady-state amplitudes, and the explicit world view overlay with scientific representation with different degrees of damping runs. Three advantages of using EJS include: (1) open source codes and creative commons attribution licenses for scaling up of interactively engaging educational practices; (2) the models made can run on almost any device, including Android and iOS; and (3) it allows the redefinition of physics educational practices through computer modeling.

  18. An easy access to retrieve dental implants displaced into the maxillary sinus: the bony window technique.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Chiapasco, Matteo

    2014-12-01

    To present the authors' experience concerning the removal of dental implants displaced in the maxillary sinus via an intraoral approach consisting of the creation of a bony window pedicled to the maxillary sinus membrane. Thirty-six systemically healthy patients, presenting with oral implants displaced into the maxillary sinus, but with no signs of acute or chronic sinusitis, were consecutively treated between 2002 and 2012 via an intraoral approach with the bony window technique. Removal of oral implants from the maxillary sinus was achieved in all patients, and postoperative recovery was uneventful in all of them. Computed tomographies performed after surgery showed no signs of residual sinus infection in all patients and a complete ossification of the bony window margins. Twelve of the 36 treated patients were treated with a sinus grafting procedure 12-18 months after in the same areas previously treated with the bone lid technique. Seventeen implants were placed in the grafted areas 6-9 months later and, after a further waiting period needed for osseointegration, the treated patients were rehabilitated with implant-supported prostheses. The survival rate of implants was 100%, and no complications related to the sinuses and implants were recorded. Results from this study seem to demonstrate that the bony window technique is a safe and easy way to remove oral implants from the maxillary sinus under local anesthesia. The surgical access is hardly visible 6-12 months after surgery, and maxillary sinuses appeared free from residual pathology in all treated patients. Finally, this procedure allows a second-stage sinus grafting procedure via a lateral approach as in a previously untreated maxillary sinus, thus allowing an implant-supported prosthetic restoration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An easy and efficient strategy for KEL genotyping in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Arnoni, Carine Prisco; Muniz, Janaína Guinhem; de Paula, Tatiane Aparecida; Person, Rosangela Duarte de Medeiros; Gazito, Diana; Baleotti, Wilson; Barreto, José Augusto; Castilho, Lilian; Latini, Flavia Roche Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The Kell blood group system expresses high and low frequency antigens with the most important in relation to transfusion including the antithetic KEL1 and KEL2; KEL3 and KEL4; KEL6 and KEL7 antigens. Kell is a clinically relevant system, as it is highly immunogenic and anti-KEL antibodies are associated with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although required in some situations, Kell antigen phenotyping is restricted due to technical limitations. In these cases, molecular approaches maybe a solution. This study proposes three polymerase chain reaction genotyping protocols to analyze the single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for six Kell antithetic antigens expressed in a Brazilian population. DNA was extracted from 800 blood donor samples and three polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols were used to genotype the KEL*1/KEL*2, KEL*3/KEL*4 and KEL*6/KEL*7 alleles. KEL*3/KEL*4 and KEL*6/KEL*7 genotyping was standardized using the NlaIII and MnlI restriction enzymes and validated using sequencing. KEL*1/KEL*2 genotyping was performed using a previously reported assay. KEL genotyping was successfully implemented in the service; the following distribution of KEL alleles was obtained for a population from southeastern Brazil: KEL*1 (2.2%), KEL*2 (97.8%), KEL*3 (0.69%), KEL*4 (99.31%), KEL*6 (2.69%) and KEL*7 (97.31%). Additionally, two individuals with rare genotypes, KEL*1/KEL*1 and KEL*3/KEL*3, were identified. KEL allele genotyping using these methods proved to be reliable and applicable to predict Kell antigen expressions in a Brazilian cohort. This easy and efficient strategy can be employed to provide safer transfusions and to help in rare donor screening.

  20. Susceptibility screening of hyphae-forming fungi with a new, easy, and fast inoculum preparation method.

    PubMed

    Schmalreck, Arno; Willinger, Birgit; Czaika, Viktor; Fegeler, Wolfgang; Becker, Karsten; Blum, Gerhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2012-12-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of clinically important fungi becomes more and more essential due to the rising number of fungal infections in patients with impaired immune system. Existing standardized microbroth dilution methods for in vitro testing of molds (CLSI, EUCAST) are not intended for routine testing. These methods are very time-consuming and dependent on sporulating of hyphomycetes. In this multicentre study, a new (independent of sporulation) inoculum preparation method (containing a mixture of vegetative cells, hyphae, and conidia) was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole of 180 molds were determined with two different culture media (YST and RPMI 1640) according to the DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) microdilution assay. 24 and 48 h MIC of quality control strains, tested per each test run, prepared with the new inoculum method were in the range of DIN. YST and RPMI 1640 media showed similar MIC distributions for all molds tested. MIC readings at 48 versus 24 h yield 1 log(2) higher MIC values and more than 90 % of the MICs read at 24 and 48 h were within ± 2 log(2) dilution. MIC end point reading (log(2 MIC-RPMI 1640)-log(2 MIC-YST)) of both media demonstrated a tendency to slightly lower MICs with RPMI 1640 medium. This study reports the results of a new, time-saving, and easy-to-perform method for inoculum preparation for routine susceptibility testing that can be applied for all types of spore-/non-spore and hyphae-forming fungi.

  1. Use of Natural Transformation To Establish an Easy Knockout Method in Riemerella anatipestifer.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Biville, Francis; Zhu, DeKang; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Chen, Shun; Sun, KunFeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, XiaoYue; Cheng, AnChun

    2017-05-01

    . anatipestifer RA-CH-1. Then, we established an easy gene knockout method in R. anatipestifer based on natural transformation. This information is important for further studies of the genetic diversity and pathogenesis in R. anatipestifer . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Development of a sensitive, generic and easy to use organophosphate skin disclosure kit.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Wosar, Andreas; Baumann, Madlen; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2017-10-05

    Various organophosphorus compounds (OP), primarily the nerve agent VX and other V-agents, are highly toxic to humans after skin exposure. Percutaneous exposure by such OP results in a delayed onset of toxic signs which enables the initiation of specific countermeasures if contamination is detected rapidly. Presently available mobile detection systems can hardly detect skin exposure by low volatile OP. In order to fill this gap an OP skin disclosure kit was developed which should fulfill different requirements, i.e. a high sensitivity, coverage of human toxic OP, easy handling, rapid results, small dimension and weight. The kit includes a cotton swab to sample skin, human AChE as target and chemicals for a color reaction based on the Ellman assay which is recorded by visual inspection. OP is dissolved from the sampler in a test tube filled with phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 7.4) and incubated with lyophilized human AChE for 1min. The reaction with acetylthiocholine and 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (1min) results in a rich yellow color in the absence of OP and in contrast, in transparent or pale yellow buffer in the presence of OP. At the recommended conditions, the limit of detection is 100ng VX and Russian VX and 50ng Chinese VX on plain surface and 200ng VX on rat skin. With activated pesticides, paraoxon and malaoxon, a concentration of ∼10μg can be detected on plain surface. The ready-to-use kit has a weight of 16g and a size of 10×12×1cm. In the end, this kit has the potential to fill a major gap and to enable timely detection of OP skin exposure and initiation of life-saving countermeasures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. VIEWDEX: an efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Markus; Svensson, Sune; Zachrisson, Sara; Svalkvist, Angelica; Båth, Magnus; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The development of investigation techniques, image processing, workstation monitors, analysing tools etc. within the field of radiology is vast, and the need for efficient tools in the evaluation and optimisation process of image and investigation quality is important. ViewDEX (Viewer for Digital Evaluation of X-ray images) is an image viewer and task manager suitable for research and optimisation tasks in medical imaging. ViewDEX is DICOM compatible and the features of the interface (tasks, image handling and functionality) are general and flexible. The configuration of a study and output (for example, answers given) can be edited in any text editor. ViewDEX is developed in Java and can run from any disc area connected to a computer. It is free to use for non-commercial purposes and can be downloaded from http://www.vgregion.se/sas/viewdex. In the present work, an evaluation of the efficiency of ViewDEX for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, free-response ROC (FROC) studies and visual grading (VG) studies was conducted. For VG studies, the total scoring rate was dependent on the number of criteria per case. A scoring rate of approximately 150 cases h(-1) can be expected for a typical VG study using single images and five anatomical criteria. For ROC and FROC studies using clinical images, the scoring rate was approximately 100 cases h(-1) using single images and approximately 25 cases h(-1) using image stacks ( approximately 50 images case(-1)). In conclusion, ViewDEX is an efficient and easy-to-use software for observer performance studies.

  4. A reversibly sealed, easy access, modular (SEAM) microfluidic architecture to establish in vitro tissue interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung -Yan

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allowsmore » several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. As a result, we anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.« less

  5. SSTAR, a Stand-Alone Easy-To-Use Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Predictor.

    PubMed

    de Man, Tom J B; Limbago, Brandi M

    2016-01-01

    We present the easy-to-use Sequence Search Tool for Antimicrobial Resistance, SSTAR. It combines a locally executed BLASTN search against a customizable database with an intuitive graphical user interface for identifying antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes from genomic data. Although the database is initially populated from a public repository of acquired resistance determinants (i.e., ARG-ANNOT), it can be customized for particular pathogen groups and resistance mechanisms. For instance, outer membrane porin sequences associated with carbapenem resistance phenotypes can be added, and known intrinsic mechanisms can be included. Unique about this tool is the ability to easily detect putative new alleles and truncated versions of existing AR genes. Variants and potential new alleles are brought to the attention of the user for further investigation. For instance, SSTAR is able to identify modified or truncated versions of porins, which may be of great importance in carbapenemase-negative carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. SSTAR is written in Java and is therefore platform independent and compatible with both Windows and Unix operating systems. SSTAR and its manual, which includes a simple installation guide, are freely available from https://github.com/tomdeman-bio/Sequence-Search-Tool-for-Antimicrobial-Resistance-SSTAR-. IMPORTANCE Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is quickly becoming a routine method for identifying genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AR). However, for many microbiologists, the use and analysis of WGS data present a substantial challenge. We developed SSTAR, software with a graphical user interface that enables the identification of known AR genes from WGS and has the unique capacity to easily detect new variants of known AR genes, including truncated protein variants. Current software solutions do not notify the user when genes are truncated and, therefore, likely nonfunctional, which makes phenotype predictions less accurate. SSTAR

  6. CrossQuery: a web tool for easy associative querying of transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Toni U; Fischer, Andreas; Thoma, Eva C; Schartl, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Enormous amounts of data are being generated by modern methods such as transcriptome or exome sequencing and microarray profiling. Primary analyses such as quality control, normalization, statistics and mapping are highly complex and need to be performed by specialists. Thereafter, results are handed back to biomedical researchers, who are then confronted with complicated data lists. For rather simple tasks like data filtering, sorting and cross-association there is a need for new tools which can be used by non-specialists. Here, we describe CrossQuery, a web tool that enables straight forward, simple syntax queries to be executed on transcriptome sequencing and microarray datasets. We provide deep-sequencing data sets of stem cell lines derived from the model fish Medaka and microarray data of human endothelial cells. In the example datasets provided, mRNA expression levels, gene, transcript and sample identification numbers, GO-terms and gene descriptions can be freely correlated, filtered and sorted. Queries can be saved for later reuse and results can be exported to standard formats that allow copy-and-paste to all widespread data visualization tools such as Microsoft Excel. CrossQuery enables researchers to quickly and freely work with transcriptome and microarray data sets requiring only minimal computer skills. Furthermore, CrossQuery allows growing association of multiple datasets as long as at least one common point of correlated information, such as transcript identification numbers or GO-terms, is shared between samples. For advanced users, the object-oriented plug-in and event-driven code design of both server-side and client-side scripts allow easy addition of new features, data sources and data types.

  7. A reversibly sealed, easy access, modular (SEAM) microfluidic architecture to establish in vitro tissue interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Wu, Meiye; Koh, Chung -Yan; ...

    2016-05-26

    Microfluidic barrier tissue models have emerged as advanced in vitro tools to explore interactions with external stimuli such as drug candidates, pathogens, or toxins. However, the procedures required to establish and maintain these systems can be challenging to implement for end users, particularly those without significant in-house engineering expertise. Here we present a module-based approach that provides an easy-to-use workflow to establish, maintain, and analyze microscale tissue constructs. Our approach begins with a removable culture insert that is magnetically coupled, decoupled, and transferred between standalone, prefabricated microfluidic modules for simplified cell seeding, culture, and downstream analysis. The modular approach allowsmore » several options for perfusion including standard syringe pumps or integration with a self-contained gravity-fed module for simple cell maintenance. As proof of concept, we establish a culture of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and report combined surface protein imaging and gene expression after controlled apical stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating hydrated biomaterial interfaces into the microfluidic architecture by integrating an ultra-thin (< 1 μm), self-assembled hyaluronic acid/peptide amphiphile culture membrane with brain-specific Young’s modulus (~ 1kPa). To highlight the importance of including biomimetic interfaces into microscale models we report multi-tiered readouts from primary rat cortical cells cultured on the self-assembled membrane and compare a panel of mRNA targets with primary brain tissue signatures. As a result, we anticipate that the modular approach and simplified operational workflows presented here will enable a wide range of research groups to incorporate microfluidic barrier tissue models into their work.« less

  8. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training.

  9. Polar2Grid 2.0: Reprojecting Satellite Data Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoese, D.; Strabala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Polar-orbiting multi-band meteorological sensors such as those on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite pose substantial challenges for taking imagery the last mile to forecast offices, scientific analysis environments, and the general public. To do this quickly and easily, the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin has created an open-source, modular application system, Polar2Grid. This bundled solution automates tools for converting various satellite products like those from VIIRS and MODIS into a variety of output formats, including GeoTIFFs, AWIPS compatible NetCDF files, and NinJo forecasting workstation compatible TIFF images. In addition to traditional visible and infrared imagery, Polar2Grid includes three perceptual enhancements for the VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB), as well as providing the capability to create sharpened true color, sharpened false color, and user-defined RGB images. Polar2Grid performs conversions and projections in seconds on large swaths of data. Polar2Grid is currently providing VIIRS imagery over the Continental United States, as well as Alaska and Hawaii, from various Direct-Broadcast antennas to operational forecasters at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) offices in their AWIPS terminals, within minutes of an overpass of the Suomi NPP satellite. Three years after Polar2Grid development started, the Polar2Grid team is now releasing version 2.0 of the software; supporting more sensors, generating more products, and providing all of its features in an easy to use command line interface.

  10. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y. M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh. H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J. Zh.

    2017-04-01

    Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil transportation, energy harvesting, microfluidics, and so forth. The approach reported in this paper may easily realize the industrial production of superamphiphobic Al surfaces owing to the advantage of facile, low cost and environmentally-friendly.

  11. AFAST - Adult Female Acne Scoring Tool: an easy-to-use tool for scoring acne in adult females.

    PubMed

    Auffret, N; Claudel, J-P; Leccia, M-T; Poli, F; Farhi, D; Dréno, B

    2016-05-01

    Acne is a concern in adults, especially in women. The specifications in current acne grading systems are not applicable to this particular population. To develop and validate a measurement tool (AFAST: adult female acne scoring tool) for acne in women by taking into account the specific locations of adult female acne, and to evaluate the impact of the photographic modalities on rating reproducibility. Six experts in dermatology rated pictures of 54 women with a phototype from I to IV during two sessions, with an interval of 24 h. They rated the acne severity on the face using the GEA scale (Score 1) together with a new scale to assess acne on the mandibular zone (Score 2). Pictures of 30 women were taken using a standardized photographic device; pictures of the other 24 women were taken by their own dermatologists during daily practice. At session 1, the inter-rater's reproducibility was good for Score 1 with an ICC of 0.77 [0.72-0.83], and excellent for Score 2 with an ICC of 0.87 [0.82-0.91]. Between sessions 1 and 2, the mean intra-rater's reproducibility was excellent for both scores with an ICC of 0.88 [0.84-0.92] for Score 1, and an ICC of 0.87 [0.78-0.92] for Score 2. Photographic modalities had no significant effect on the inter- and intra-rater's reproducibility. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that AFAST can accurately rate acne severity in women. It is a promising, easy-to-use tool for both daily practice and clinical investigation. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Beta-lactams in continuous infusion for Gram-negative bacilli osteoarticular infections: an easy method for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Alba; Soldevila, Laura; Rigo-Bonnin, Raul; Tubau, Fe; Padullés, Ariadna; Gómez-Junyent, Joan; Ariza, Javier; Murillo, Oscar

    2018-04-01

    Continuous infusion (CI) of beta-lactams could optimize their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices, especially in difficult-to-treat infections. To validate an easy-to-use method to guide beta-lactams dosage in CI (formula). A retrospective analysis was conducted of a prospectively collected cohort (n = 24 patients) with osteoarticular infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) managed with beta-lactams in CI. Beta-lactams dose was calculated using a described formula (daily dose = 24 h × beta-lactam clearance × target "steady-state" concentration) to achieve concentrations above the MIC. We correlated the predicted concentration (C pred  = daily dose/24 h × beta-lactam clearance) with the patient's observed concentration (C obs ) measured by UPLC-MS/MS (Spearman's coefficient). The most frequent microorganism treated was P. aeruginosa (21 cases; 9 MDR). Beta-lactams in CI were ceftazidime (n = 14), aztreonam (7), and piperacillin/tazobactam (3), mainly used in combination (12 with colistin, 5 with ciprofloxacin) and administered without notable side effects. The plasma C obs was higher overall than C pred ; the Spearman correlation between both concentrations was rho = 0.6 (IC 95%: 0.2-0.8) for all beta-lactams, and rho = 0.8 (IC 95%: 0.4-1) for those treated with ceftazidime. The formula may be useful in clinical practice for planning the initial dosage of beta-lactams in CI, while we await a systematic therapeutic drug monitoring. The use of beta-lactams in CI was safe.

  13. Easy one pot synthesis of NiO/Nitrogen doped carbon spheres for highly sensitive enzyme free amperometric glucose sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Yin, Haoyong; Gong, Jianying; Al-Furjan, M. S. H.; Nie, Qiulin

    2018-06-01

    The NiO/Nitrogen doped carbon sphere (NiO/NCS) composites were successfully achieved via an easy one pot synthetic method with urea acting as both nitrogen source and Ni precipitator. The electrocatalytic performances of the obtained NiO/NCS modified glass carbon electrodes showed superior activity for direct electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose than that of nitrogen free NiO/carbon sphere (NiO/CS), which might be due to the synergistic effect of the properties of NCS and NiO nanoparticles. The introduce of nitrogen can improve the conductivity of the NiO/NCS and accordingly accelerate the electron transport within the composites, which was very beneficial to improve the sensitivity to glucose detection for NiO/NCS modified electrodes. The NiO/NCS electrodes exhibited two corresponding linear regions of 1-800 μM and 4-9 mM with the sensitivity of 398.57 μA mM-1 cm-2 and 17.81 μA mM-1 cm-2, and the detection limit of 0.25 μM and 0.05 mM respectively. Moreover, the NiO/NCS composites have also exhibited good selectivity by adding certain amount of urea, NaCl, L-proline, L-valine, L-Leucine and ascorbic acid into the 0.1 M NaOH solution, respectively. The high sensitivity, wide glucose detection range and good selectivity of the electrodes may ensure its potential applications in the clinical diagnosis of diabetes.

  14. A Re-evaluation of the Ferrozine Method for Dissolved Iron: The Effect of Organic Interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balind, K.; Barber, A.; Gelinas, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Among the most commonly used analytical methods in geochemistry is the ferrozine method for determining dissolved iron concentration in water (1). This cheap and easy-to-use spectrophotometric method involves a complexing agent (ferrozine), a reducing agent (hydroxylamine-HCl) and buffer (ammonium acetate with ammonium hydroxide). Previous studies have demonstrated that complex organic matter (OM) originating from the Suwannee River did not lead to a significantly underestimation of the measured iron content in OM amended iron solutions (2). The authors concluded that this method could be used even in organic rich (i.e., 25 mg/L) waters. Here we compare the concentration of Fe measured using this spectrophotometric method to the total Fe as measured by ICP-MS in the presence/absence of specific organic molecules to ascertain if they interfere with the ferrozine method. We show that certain molecules with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups as well as multi-dentate chelating species have a significant effect on the measured iron concentrations. Two possible mechanisms likely are responsible for the inefficiency of this method in the presence of specific organic molecules; 1) incomplete reduction of Fe(III) bound to organic molecules, or 2) competition between the OM and ferrozine for the available iron. We address these possibilities separately by varying the experimental conditions. These methodological artifacts may have far reaching implications due to the extensive use of this method. Stookey, L. L., Anal. Chem., 42, 779 (1970). Viollier, E., et al., Applied Geochem., 15, 785 (2000).

  15. Female patients in fertile age with chronic hepatitis C, easy genotype, and persistently normal transaminases have a 100% chance to reach a sustained virological response.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Cazzagon, Nora; Boemo, Deris Gianni; Baldovin, Tatjana; Baldo, Vincenzo; Egoue, Joel; Antoniazzi, Sara; Minola, Eliseo

    2011-11-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal alanine transaminase levels have recently been included in the guidelines for antiviral treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of PEG-interferon α-2a and weight-based ribavirin doses in patients with these characteristics in a single Italian centre. Patients with chronic hepatitis C and at least three normal alanine transaminase values over a 12-month period were offered a treatment with PEG-interferon α-2a 180 mg/week and ribavirin (800 mg/day for weight <60 kg; 1000 mg/day for weight >60 and <75 kg; 1200 mg/day for weight >75 kg) for 24 weeks (according to genotype 2 or 3) or for 48 weeks (according to genotype 1 or 4). Each patient at baseline underwent liver stiffness (LS) examination using Fibroscan. Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat criteria. A total of 227 patients (55 men, 172 women) were enrolled into the study: 65 (28.6%) had genotype 1, 144 (63.4%) genotype 2, nine (4.0%) genotype 3 and nine (4.0%) genotype 4. Patients with genotype 2 or 3 (N=153 with easy genotypes) were allocated in group 1 and those with genotype 1 or 4 (N=74 with difficult genotypes) in group 2. According to the LS measurement, patients were classified as follows: 159 (70.0%) presented absent or mild fibrosis (LS=2.5-7.0 kPa), 61 (26.9%) patients had significant fibrosis (LS=7.1-9.5) and seven (3.1%) patients had severe fibrosis (LS >9.6). Twelve patients (5.3%) dropped out within 4 months because of side-effects, whereas 215 patients completed the study. Overall, 13 patients were considered nonresponders (5.7%) and six patients (2.6%) were relapsers to the therapy. The sustained virological response (SVR) rate was 85.4% and it was higher in 'easy' genotypes (2 or 3) compared with 'difficult' genotypes (1 or 4) (92.2 vs. 74.3%, P<0.001). No statistical difference was found in the SVR rate between patients presenting absent or mild fibrosis as against those with significant fibrosis. Multivariate analysis

  16. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements.

    PubMed

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh

    2017-05-01

    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  17. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 213 RIN 0750-AH07 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card[supreg] and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case 2009-D019) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of...

  18. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 213 RIN 0750-AH07 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card[supreg] and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case 2009-D019) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of...

  19. Alignment with the Common Core State Standards: easyCBM K-3 Word Reading. Technical Report #1303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáez, Leilani; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred and seventeen words from the easyCBM Word Reading assessment (n = 57 kindergarten, 117 first grade, 172 second grade, and 171 third grade) were examined by 15 teachers for their correspondence with the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. In particular, the degree of correspondence between Standard 3 ("Phonics…

  20. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…