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Sample records for ebd

  1. Recommendations for Teaching Physical Education to Students with EBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    A college professor who trains preservice physical education teachers was asked to design, develop, and implement a pilot physical education program at a nonpublic school primarily serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs). The teacher/researcher conducted an action research study to maximize the effectiveness of teaching and…

  2. Community Influences on E/BD Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has mandated that all students reach proficiency by 2014. This mandate places special emphasis on the performance of special education students. The purpose of this study is to use social theory to understand the factors that explain the achievement of emotionally or behaviorally disordered (E/BD) students. Results suggest a…

  3. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD): The Special Educational Need Justifying Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    Students identified with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) present a special case within special educational needs (SEN) and inclusion. EBD is perhaps the only category of SEN that exposes a child to increased risk of exclusion as a function of the very SEN identified as requiring special provision in the first instance. Students…

  4. Evidence-Based Social Skills Interventions for Students at Risk for EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) present substantial challenges for schools, teachers, parents, and peers. Social skills interventions have been shown to be effective for this population. Meta-analytic reviews of this literature show that about 65% of students with EBD will improve when given social…

  5. Future Research Directions for the Field of E/BD: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Jolivette, Kristine; Conroy, Maureen; Nelson, C. Michael; Benner, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins and evolution of the field of emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) provide a context for offering suggestions for advancing the field. Building from this historical past and the research of others in the field, four broad recommendations which focus on academic and social needs of students with E/BD are offered: (a) ensuring high…

  6. Hearts of Hope: Experiences of EBD Teachers and Factors Contributing to Career Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Val Rae Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined EBD teacher experiences through phenomenological research. Data was collated through interviews, a focus group, memos, and field notes. Questions focused on how EBD teachers described their work and the factors that contributed to career longevity. The study was conducted in one self-contained school for students…

  7. Training General Educators to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise: Effects on Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, R. Allan; Hinkson-Lee, Kim; Hudson, Tina; Neilsen-Gatti, Shelley; Kleinke, Andrew; Russel, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Students identified with or at risk for Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD) are being included in the general education classroom with teachers who have little training or exposure to characteristics of and interventions for students with EBD. In this study, we used a simple professional development intervention to train teachers to better use…

  8. The Effects of Self Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) on Reading Comprehension for Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities (EBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities (EBD) in the United States are characterized by behavioral deficits that impact their academic performance and social relationships. Students with EBD have lower academic performance in reading and math, more failed courses, higher rates of grade retention, and fewer than fifty percent graduate…

  9. Behavioral Disorders: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction of Students with EBD. Advances in Special Education. Volume 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeffrey P., Ed.; Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Volumes 22 and 23 of "Advances in Special Education" address the current top perspectives and issues in the field of EBD by providing chapters written by active researchers and scholarly university professors who specialize in this area. Volume 22 first delineates legal issues, themes, and dimensions related to the historical development of the…

  10. Defining "Effectiveness" for Students with E/BD: Teacher, Instruction, and Management Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Jolivette, Kristine; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirn, Regina Gilkey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how issues of effectiveness and efficiency are considered most logically in the field of education. More specifically, the focus is on the importance of these issues as they pertain to teaching, instruction, and management strategies for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). The driving…

  11. Meeting the Diverse Needs of Students with EBD in Inclusive Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.; Kaldenberg, Erica R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports that for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), difficulties in core academic skills may play a large role in student success or failure in science. Why? Comprehending science texts can be particularly problematic with their complex and often unknown vocabulary words. Another problem identified as an…

  12. Project Baby Care: A Parental Training Program for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Catherine; Wolman, Clara; Harris-Looby, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Statistics indicate that many victims of fatalities from abuse are children of teenage parents. Profiles of typical abuse perpetrators match the characteristics of many students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and place them at higher risk of acting impulsively and using violent and abusive behaviors. Teaching students parenting…

  13. Combating the Attrition of Teachers of Students with EBD: What Can Administrators Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancio, Edward Joseph; Albrecht, Susan Fread; Johns, Beverley Holden

    2014-01-01

    Students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) can present intensive needs, requiring the intervention and instruction of well-trained and qualified teachers who work with them in the classroom. However, schools face serious shortages in the field of special education, particularly for staff who work with this population of children (McLeskey,…

  14. Behavioral Disorders: Practice Concerns and Students with EBD. Advances in Special Education. Volume 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeffrey P., Ed.; Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Volumes 22 and 23 of the "Advances in Special Education" address the current top perspectives and issues in the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) by providing chapters written by active researchers and scholarly university professors who specialize in this area. Volume 22 first delineates legal issues, themes, and dimensions…

  15. A Review of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Writing for Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Common, Eric A.; Knowles, Meagan M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2014-01-01

    In this systematic review, we evaluated the evidence base of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD; Harris & Graham, 1992) for writing with students with and at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). First, we evaluated the quality of studies identified (n 5 13) by applying the quality indicators for single case (Horner et al.,…

  16. The Message from the Pioneers in EBD: Learning from the Past and Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan Fread

    2009-01-01

    The Minnesota Conference for Teachers of Children with Emotional and Behavior Disorders (EBD) hosted a panel discussion in the fall of 2005 to reunite pioneers in the field of research and publication who shaped the early instructional practices of educators working with disturbed and disturbing youth in schools. The distinguished researchers and…

  17. Integrating Technology in Program Development for Children/Youth with E/BD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K., Ed.; Black, Sharon, Ed.

    This monograph highlights how educational technology can benefit students at risk of school failure, particularly students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD). It discusses how technology can improve student motivation to learn, increase engagement in learning, improve academic outcomes, meet the needs of tactile/kinesthetic learners, link…

  18. Cross-Cultural Comparisons and Implications for Students with EBD: A Decade of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita; Mofield, Emily; Orellana, Karee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents cross-cultural comparisons on definitions, prevalence, and outcomes of students with emotional-behavior disorders (EBD). In addition, the paper addresses the concern of disproportionality and the need for teachers of students with behavior problems to be culturally responsive to perceived inappropriate behaviors. A review of…

  19. Three-Tiered Support for Students with E/BD: Highlights of the Universal Tier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Michael P.; George, Nancy L.; Kern, Lee; Fogt, Julie B.

    2013-01-01

    The scant data available suggest there is a critical need for improving service delivery within alternative education (AE) settings for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). A promising approach for improving student outcomes in AE settings is school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS), an…

  20. Personality Traits of Expert Teachers of Students with EBD: Clarifying a Teacher's X-Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Svenja; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan; Van den Bosch, Els

    2016-01-01

    Teaching students with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) is a challenge for many teachers in inclusive education. Much research has been done to find out what differentiates expert teachers from their less skilled colleagues. Recent evidence points to personality as an underlying core factor influencing teacher performance. In this…

  1. Understanding the Experience of Girls with EBD in a Gender-Responsive Support Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srsic, Amy; Rice, Elisabeth Hess

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of adolescent girls with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were participating in a support group. The focus of the study was to explore the perceptions of the girls' friendships, connectedness with others, ability to establish and maintain relationships, and self-perceptions within the group. The…

  2. Improving Mathematics Performance among Secondary Students with EBD: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Krezmien, Michael P.; Travers, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological review, the authors apply special education research quality indicators and standards for single case design to analyze mathematics intervention studies for secondary students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A systematic methodological review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 19 articles that…

  3. The Effect of Systematic Academic Instruction on Behavioural and Academic Outcomes of Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of systematic academic instruction on academic progress and behavioural problems of students with emotional and/or behavioural disorders (EBD) in special education. Earlier studies have noted the importance of a systematic approach as well as the significance of focusing on academic instruction instead of on…

  4. Support Services to Teachers to Increase Preparedness of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities (EBD) for Statewide Assessments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need to address the academic outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). Of the 13 federal disability categories under which a student can be classified to receive special education services, students with EBD have the highest dropout rate, the highest failure rate, and pose the most behavioral…

  5. Preliminary Psychometrics of the Participatory Evaluation and Expert Review for Classrooms Serving Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (PEER-EBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas; Walker, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    The quality of classrooms serving students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) is a continuing concern because of its influence on students' educational outcomes. Program evaluation of classrooms for students with EBD has been a recommended practice for many years since Grosenick, George, and George (1987) conducted their…

  6. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  7. SRSD in Practice: Creating a Professional Development Experience for Teachers to Meet the Writing Needs of Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Debra; FitzPatrick, Erin; Sandmel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) is one of the most effective writing interventions (Graham, McKeown, Kiuhara, & Harris, 2012) and has improved the writing skills of students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD). Practice-based professional development (PBPD) has been effective for teaching participants how to implement SRSD…

  8. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  9. Cost Effectiveness of the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) Conceptual Model as a Guide for Intervention with Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…

  10. Does the Field of EBD Need a Distinct Set of "Intensive" Interventions or More Systemic Intensity within a Continuum of Social/Emotional Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of educating children and youth with intensive social, emotional, and academic needs have been well documented. Students with emotional/ behavioral disorders (EBD) present a range of daily challenges from low intensity, high frequency chronic behaviors such as poor school attendance, disrespect addressed to adults and peers,…

  11. Validation of T Stage According to Depth of Invasion and N Stage Subclassification Based on Number of Metastatic Lymph Nodes for Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct (EBD) Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ahrim; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seoung Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Jang, Kee-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the current AJCC staging system, the T stage of distal extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (EBD) is classified according to the extent of the tumor within or beyond the bile duct wall. However many invasive carcinoma accompany stromal desmoplasia that obscure lower boundary of bile duct wall; it is frequently difficult to clearly define the extent of tumors using the current T classification system. In this study, we validated an alternative T classification system by depth of invasion (DoI; T1: < 5 mm, T2: 5 to 12 mm, and T3: ≥ 12 mm). Specifically, we evaluated DoI in 114 cases of distal EBD carcinoma using digital scan images to achieve more objective measurements of tumor DoI. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) as well as the number of total examined LNs on the survival rate in the same patient group, and performed a comparative analysis of these data to assess patient survival. We also analyzed 114 cases of distal EBD carcinoma using the current T and N classification of the AJCC staging system (7th edition). The T stage of the current AJCC staging system was not associated with significant differences in patient survival, especially between T2 and T3. However, T staging by DoI was associated with statistically significant differences in patient survival (P < 0.001 in DoI-1, P = 0.002 in DoI-2). With respect to N stage, we divided patients into 3 tiers comprising class 1 (no nodal metastasis), class 2 (1–3 nodal metastases), and class 3 (4 or more nodal metastases). In 3-tier classification analysis, the median survival times for classes 1, 2, and 3 were 79.2, 28.8, and 10.9 months, respectively. The difference in survival among the 3 classes was statistically significant (P < 0.001). We found the cut-off value of 11 LNs (1 to 10 vs ≥ 11) for N0 stage showed most significant difference (P = 0.007). We think at least 11 LNs should be examined for more

  12. Psychoeducation: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. From the Third CCBD Mini-Library Series, What Works for Children and Youth with E/BD: Linking Yesterday and Today with Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary M.; Brendtro, Larry K.; Fecser, Frank A.; Nichols, Polly

    This monograph provides an introduction to psychoeducational theory in the education of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (E/BD). An introduction reviews the history of the psychoeducational approach and stresses the need to put this theory, as well as others, into practice. Chapter 1 compares and integrates six psychoeducational…

  13. When Universal Approaches and Prevention Services Are Not Enough: The Importance of Understanding the Stigmatization of Special Education for Students with EBD--A Response to Kauffman and Badar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this commentary responds to an article titled "How We Might Make Special Education for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Less Stigmatizing," by J.M. Kaufmann and J. Bader, who maintain that identifying youth as having emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and providing treatment for them is viewed to be…

  14. The implementation of life space crisis intervention in residential care and special education for children and adolescents with EBD: an effect study.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Bram; Volckaert, Annelies; D'Oosterlinck, Franky; Broekaert, Eric

    2014-09-01

    When working with children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural disorders, conflicts are a part of daily life. At present, a variety of conflict resolution or conflict management programs, that can be divided into three categories, are described in the literature. A first category contains programs that focus on training for children and adolescents, and are often curriculum-based. The second category focuses on training for parents, and the third category contains programs that focus on training for professionals. The presents study was designed to evaluated the effectiveness of Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI), a therapeutic and verbal strategy developed by Long that fits into this third category of conflict management programs. Throughout a four-year project, al staff in a Flemish centre offering residential care and special education were trained in LSCI. On a yearly basis, data with regard to time in program, academic achievement, behavioural problems and anxiety problems were collected. The results show an increase in time spent in program and in academic achievement, and a decrease in youths' anxiety, indicating that the implementation of LSCI contributes constructively to the treatment of children and adolescents with EBD.

  15. The "B" in EBD Is Not Just for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Problems in defining emotional and behavioural difficulties of all types, including bullying, are discussed. Interactions among seeing, naming and communicating about these phenomena are considered. School and community characteristics of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties are touched upon. Major problems in definition and…

  16. Exploring Children's Responses to Interpersonal Conflict Using Bubble Dialogue in a Mainstream and EBD School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ann; Price, Emma; Selby, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a comparative study in the United Kingdom of how a group of children with emotional and behavioral difficulties and children who attend a mainstream school use the computer application, Bubble Dialogue, to express themselves. Discusses strategies the children used to resolve interpersonal conflicts and implications of results. (AEF)

  17. Four Supportive Pillars in Career Exploration and Development for Adolescents with LD and EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Smith, Shane Anthony; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    In addition to typical career development and vocational programs in general education, providing school-based programs that are directly linked to employment and career development for youth with learning and emotional and behavioral disabilities is a legally mandated service in special education. Several broad research-based strategies are…

  18. Reintegrating Elementary Students with EBD from Alternative Placement to Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery-Sterud, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Significant numbers of children with emotional and behavioral disorders receive services in settings other than general education, but it is expected they will return to a less restrictive environment. Reintegrating these students once they have completed treatment is a significant problem. Students can demonstrate improved behavior and…

  19. Classwide PBIS for Students with EBD: Initial Evaluation of an Integrity Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Jennifer L.; McCurdy, Barry L.; Ewing, Sam; Polis, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to develop a tool and a process for providing performance feedback on evidence-based classroom management strategies to teachers of students in emotional support classrooms. The project was carried out with nine classroom teachers and descriptive results are discussed. Initial results found increases in…

  20. Using Reliable Change to Calculate Clinically Significant Progress in Children with EBD: A BHRS Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoder, Vincent J.; Hesky, James G.; Cautilli, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    Children often have complex emotional and behavioral disorders (ADHD, ODD, Depression, PTSD, etc.). A large amount of research exists in the behavioral treatment of children with these disorders regarding specific behavioral problems. Much less research exists for the treatment of comprehensive problematic behaviors that these children experience…

  1. Reliability of Frequent Retrospective Behavior Ratings for Elementary School Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly; Davis, John; Davis, Cole; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of the reliability of frequent retrospective teacher behavior ratings. Frequent retrospective behavior ratings are an approach for creating scales that can be used to monitor individual behavioral progress. In this study, the approach is used to progress monitor behavioral individualized education plan goals…

  2. Ten Years after Special Education: EBD-Students in Transition to Adulthood in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku

    This study followed up on the life-courses of 23 former special education students with emotional and behavioral disabilities from a comprehensive school to further education, work, and adulthood. The students attended special classes for pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties in a small town in southern Finland in 1985-1987. The…

  3. 75 FR 70730 - EBD Hydro; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... public inspection: a. Type of Application: Conduit Exemption. b. Project No.: 13817-000. c. Date filed...- long, 96-inch diameter reinforced Krah/HDPE pipe; (3) a proposed powerhouse containing three proposed...-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov . For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. A copy is also available for review...

  4. Depression in the Schools: A Hidden Piece in the E/BD Puzzle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Holly, Shareen

    2006-01-01

    Depression is an essential component in any consideration of emotional/behavioural difficulties in the schools. Depression can occur as a disorder or as a clinically significant array of depressive symptoms, both of which should be of concern to school personnel. The present paper reviews literature concerning the identification, prevalence, and…

  5. In an EBD Population Do Looked after Children Have Specific Needs Relating to Resilience, Self-Perception and Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emily; Whitehead, Juliet; Wigford, Angie

    2010-01-01

    Poor outcomes for Looked After Children (LAC) in relation to non-LAC have been well established by research. However, a small minority of LAC do achieve positive outcomes despite having experienced a number of risk factors. It is the process of resilience which is thought to enable individuals to experience positive outcomes. This study focused on…

  6. Consumer View: What Former Students of Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classes Say about School in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a Finnish study that investigated the school experiences of former special education students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Twenty-three former students, who had attended classes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders were interviewed. The students had been out of special education and…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Video-Modeling Based Interventions for Reduction of Challenging Behaviors for Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…

  8. Implementation and effect of life space crisis intervention in special schools with residential treatment for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).

    PubMed

    DOosterlinck, Franky; Goethals, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Boekaert, Eric; Schuyten, Gilberte; De Maeyer, Jessica

    2008-03-01

    The increase of violence in present-day society calls for adequate crisis interventions for students with behavioral problems. Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a systematic and formatted response to a student's crisis, based on cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic and developmental theory. The following research article evaluates a LSCI Program with students referred to special schools with residential treatment because of severe behavioral problems. The evaluation was conducted using a quasi experimental pre-test-post-test control group design. Thirty-one match paired students were pre-tested before the interventions started and post-tested after a period of 11 months. Five standardized questionnaires were examined to assess the effectiveness of the LSCI Program. General Linear Model (GLM) with repeated measures was used to analyze all data. For the total group of subjects (n = 62) it was found that students' perception about their athletic competence decrease significantly after 11 months in residential care. A positive effect of LSCI was found on direct aggression and social desirability. PMID:17955370

  9. Is There Any Point in Wearing Dead Men's Spectacles? How the Theoretical Insights of Adler and Colleagues Relate to Current Practice with Children Experiencing EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of Adlerian approaches to behaviour. Mike Blamires offers an opportunity to consider the impact of Adler's premise that education is fundamentally about encouragement and the promotion of democratic principles. In so doing he challenges us to interrogate the term "behaviour management", and its current use by…

  10. Pragmatic Language and the Child with Emotional/Behavioural Difficulties (EBD): A Pilot Study Exploring the Interaction between Behaviour and Communication Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Leila; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between mental health, behaviour and language development is widely recognized in the literature. Recent advances in assessment tools allows one to consider the role of pragmatic language skills in this co-occurrence. Aims: This pilot study aimed to investigate (1) the level of association between pragmatic language…

  11. Implementation and effect of life space crisis intervention in special schools with residential treatment for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).

    PubMed

    DOosterlinck, Franky; Goethals, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Boekaert, Eric; Schuyten, Gilberte; De Maeyer, Jessica

    2008-03-01

    The increase of violence in present-day society calls for adequate crisis interventions for students with behavioral problems. Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a systematic and formatted response to a student's crisis, based on cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic and developmental theory. The following research article evaluates a LSCI Program with students referred to special schools with residential treatment because of severe behavioral problems. The evaluation was conducted using a quasi experimental pre-test-post-test control group design. Thirty-one match paired students were pre-tested before the interventions started and post-tested after a period of 11 months. Five standardized questionnaires were examined to assess the effectiveness of the LSCI Program. General Linear Model (GLM) with repeated measures was used to analyze all data. For the total group of subjects (n = 62) it was found that students' perception about their athletic competence decrease significantly after 11 months in residential care. A positive effect of LSCI was found on direct aggression and social desirability.

  12. Effects of Sentence Instruction and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion on Elementary-Aged Students with Behavioral Concerns and EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datchuk, Shawn M.; Kubina, Richard M.; Mason, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary-aged students with behavioral concerns and disabilities struggling to construct sentences stand a high likelihood for continued academic difficulty. Several studies have used sentence instruction with picture-word prompts to improve sentence level writing skills, including construction of simple sentences, syntax, capitalization, and…

  13. Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths: Promoting Productive Contexts for Students At-Risk for EBD during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan; Murray, Robert A.; Meece, Judith L.; Brooks, Debbie Sprott

    2010-01-01

    This study involved a pilot examination of the impact of the Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Strengths (SEALS) model on the 6th grade academic and social context following the transition to middle school. Two middle schools from a high poverty Appalachian school district were randomly assigned to the intervention and control…

  14. The Effect of a Token Reinforcement System with a Time-Out Backup Consequence on the Classroom Behavior of E/BD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drege, Patricia; Beare, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of a token economy system with a time-out backup consequence in a highly structured self-contained elementary classroom for children with emotional and behavior disorders demonstrated a strong functional relationship between the intervention system and improvement in the students' behavior. (Author/DB)

  15. Do Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances Attending Schools for Special Education Have Lower Expectations Regarding the Transition to Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Hannah; Pinquart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with emotional and behavioral disturbances (EBD) and those attending special schools tend to have poorer adult outcomes than adolescents without EBD and peers from regular schools. Using a four-group comparison (students with or without EBD from special schools and students with or without EBD from regular schools), the present study…

  16. Libyan Children's Views on the Importance of School Factors Which Contributed to Their Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadour, Abdelbasit

    2006-01-01

    A group of 34 children from mainstream schools in Libya representing four Local Education Authorities (LEAs) were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) and the factors which might be responsible for their EBD. Although, in general, children's views of EBD did not yield remarkably different accounts to those already…

  17. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in South Korea: Current Status and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…

  18. Education and Services for Children and Youths with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kaili; Soon, Tan Chee

    2006-01-01

    To describe the current status of special education and services for children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Singapore, the authors highlight the country's overall structure of special education and mental health, identification of and intervention with children and youths with E/BD, perspectives about E/BD, and…

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Inclusionary Practices for Students with Emotional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-wen Grace

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined variables affecting teachers' perceptions of inclusionary practices for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in three areas: inclusion of students with E/BD, behaviors of students with E/BD, and teacher efficacy. Teachers listed in the database of one Education Service Center located in north…

  20. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Understanding the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mark D.; Williamson, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    It is important to realize that students who are diagnosed with E/BD often have or should have dual diagnoses. Regular classroom teachers may perceive a sense of ineffectiveness and consequently develop resistance in working with students with E/BD. Mainstreaming students with E/BD allows them to interact and learn more effective interaction…

  1. Characteristics of Successful Teachers of Students with Emotional Behavioral Disabilities: Teacher and Expert Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delport, John

    2012-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods design to examine the characteristics--including competencies (i.e., knowledge and skills), and personal attributes--of successful teachers of students with E/BD. The characteristics were examined through the perceptions of teachers of students with E/BD (teachers who are expert in E/BD, n = 14, MEd Graduates…

  2. Medicating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and ADHD: A State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnheim, Veronica A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Wisconsin teachers provided information on 1,300 students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were receiving medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD/EBD students comprised approximately 26% of all EBD students. The most common medication was Ritalin, and teachers believed the medication effectively…

  3. Developing Positive Behavioral Support for Students with Challenging Behaviors. From the Third CCBD Mini-Library Series, What Works for Children and Youth with E/BD: Linking Yesterday and Today with Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George, Ed.; Lewis, Timothy J., Ed.

    This monograph is a guide to positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS) and functional behavioral assessment (FBA) in the special education of students with behavior disorders as emphasized in the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA 97). An introduction explains that positive behavioral support represents the…

  4. Safe Schools: School-Wide Discipline Practices. From the Third CCBD Mini-Library Series, What Works for Children and Youth with E/BD: Linking Yesterday and Today with Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J., Ed.; Sugai, George, Ed.

    This monograph examines issues of school safety, focusing on the prevention/early intervention end of the continuum of services and on elementary and middle-school age children and youth. It highlights preventive measures schools can take to implement a proactive school-wide system of discipline to ensure school safety. Emphasis is on creating…

  5. Historical Chronology of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders 1964-1999. From the Third CBD Mini-Library Series, What Works for Children and Youth with E/BD: Linking Yesterday and Today with Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Menendez, Anthony L.

    This monograph presents a history of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD), a division of the Council for Exceptional Children. Since its founding in 1964, the CCBD has been concerned with children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 1 highlights CCBD, including its…

  6. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  7. Randomized phase 2 study: elotuzumab plus bortezomib/dexamethasone vs bortezomib/dexamethasone for relapsed/refractory MM

    PubMed Central

    Offidani, Massimo; Pégourie, Brigitte; De La Rubia, Javier; Garderet, Laurent; Laribi, Kamel; Bosi, Alberto; Marasca, Roberto; Laubach, Jacob; Mohrbacher, Ann; Carella, Angelo Michele; Singhal, Anil K.; Tsao, L. Claire; Lynch, Mark; Bleickardt, Eric; Jou, Ying-Ming; Robbins, Michael; Palumbo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept, open-label, phase 2 study, patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) received elotuzumab with bortezomib and dexamethasone (EBd) or bortezomib and dexamethasone (Bd) until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary/exploratory endpoints included overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). Two-sided 0.30 significance level was specified (80% power, 103 events) to detect hazard ratio (HR) of 0.69. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed on all randomized patients and all treated patients, respectively. Of 152 randomized patients (77 EBd, 75 Bd), 150 were treated (75 EBd, 75 Bd). PFS was greater with EBd vs Bd (HR, 0.72; 70% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.88; stratified log-rank P = .09); median PFS was longer with EBd (9.7 months) vs Bd (6.9 months). In an updated analysis, EBd-treated patients homozygous for the high-affinity FcγRIIIa allele had median PFS of 22.3 months vs 9.8 months in EBd-treated patients homozygous for the low-affinity allele. ORR was 66% (EBd) vs 63% (Bd). Very good partial response or better occurred in 36% of patients (EBd) vs 27% (Bd). Early OS results, based on 40 deaths, revealed an HR of 0.61 (70% CI, 0.43-0.85). To date, 60 deaths have occurred (28 EBd, 32 Bd). No additional clinically significant adverse events occurred with EBd vs Bd. Grade 1/2 infusion reaction rate was low (5% EBd) and mitigated with premedication. In patients with RRMM, elotuzumab, an immunostimulatory antibody, appears to provide clinical benefit without added clinically significant toxicity when combined with Bd vs Bd alone. Registered to ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01478048. PMID:27091875

  8. The winds of change revisited: progress towards building a culture of evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Dechow, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents' EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (p<0.001), while the second trained group significantly gained in this aspect and five others (p≤0.032). At the final PEAK administration, the second trained group agreed more than the untrained group that EBD was important for the practice of dentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture.

  9. How We Might Make Special Education for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Less Stigmatizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.; Badar, Jeanmarie

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that identification as having emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) is generally acknowledged to be stigmatizing. The stigma associated with identification as needing special education for EBD (or any other disability) could be reduced by talking in readily understood language about differences, accepting the reality of…

  10. An Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the CBCL 6-18 in a Sample of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with co-occurring emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) is an EBD measure that contains several norm-referenced scales derived through factor analysis of data from the general pediatric population. The…

  11. Improving the Mathematics Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Two Evidenced-Based Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Witzel, Bradley; Robbins, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Teaching mathematics to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is one of the most challenging tasks educators face today. Students with EBD are reported to have the most dismal outcomes of any other group of students with disabilities including the lowest grades, the most failing grades, higher retention rates, the highest dropout…

  12. Strategies for Success: Evidence-Based Instructional Practices for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesyn, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    The number of students with special needs, including those with emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) who are being served in the early elementary classroom, is increasing rapidly. The actual number of students with EBD in Grades K-3 is frequently underreported, as the formal process of identifying students for special education services has…

  13. The Central Role of Teaching Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Beverley H.; Crowley, E. Paula; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    According to Shores and Jack (1996), children and youth are identified as having behavioral disorders based on their excesses and their deficits of social behavior. They respond to available social stimuli in unpredictable ways. The teaching of social skills should be an integral part of any program for E/BD students. E/BD teachers work on…

  14. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Function-Based Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Susan Dagenhart

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or emotional and behavioral disabilities (E/BD) often exhibit challenging behavior including aggression, self-injury, non-compliance, or property destruction (Kamps, Kravits, Rauch, Kamps, & Chung, 2000; National Autism Center, 2009). As a result, students with ASD or E/BD often miss out…

  15. Sources of Occupational Stress for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Maculan, Amelia; Roberts, Maura L.; Ohlund, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics, working conditions, and the ability to work with children with EBD as factors. All working condition variables, professional experience, and ability to work with externalizing…

  16. Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Advanced Malignant Hilar Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dharmapuri, Sirish; Duvvuri, Abhiram; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Moole, Vishnu; Yedama, Prathyusha; Bondalapati, Naveen; Uppu, Achuta

    2016-01-01

    Background. Palliation in advanced unresectable hilar malignancies can be achieved by endoscopic (EBD) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). It is unclear if one approach is superior to the other in this group of patients. Aims. Compare clinical outcomes of EBD versus PTBD. Methods. (i) Study Selection Criterion. Studies using PTBD and EBD for palliation of advanced unresectable hilar malignancies. (ii) Data Collection and Extraction. Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. (iii) Statistical Method. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Results. Initial search identified 786 reference articles, in which 62 articles were selected and reviewed. Data was extracted from nine studies (N = 546) that met the inclusion criterion. The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in PTBD versus EBD was 2.53 (95% CI = 1.57 to 4.08). Odds ratio for overall adverse effects in PTBD versus EBD groups was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.26). Odds ratio for 30-day mortality rate in PTBD group versus EBD group was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.91). Conclusions. In patients with advanced unresectable hilar malignancies, palliation with PTBD seems to be superior to EBD. PTBD is comparable to EBD in regard to overall adverse effects and 30-day mortality.

  17. Behavioral Disorders in the School: Participant Roles and Sub-Roles in Three Types of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an attempt to widen the study of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) to include children not formally identified by the school as having EBD through examining the case of extreme school aggressors and their victims. The research describes the validation of the School Violence Inventory (SVI) and its use to map participant…

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of Numbered Heads Together for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William; Haydon, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Challenging behaviors displayed in both general education classrooms and self-contained classrooms by students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) can be a difficult challenge for novice and experienced teachers (Kennedy & Jolivette, 2008; Turnbull, Turnbull, & Wehmeyer, 2010). Furthermore, students with EBD demonstrate broad…

  19. Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Advanced Malignant Hilar Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Dharmapuri, Sirish; Duvvuri, Abhiram; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Moole, Vishnu; Yedama, Prathyusha; Bondalapati, Naveen; Uppu, Achuta; Yerasi, Charan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Palliation in advanced unresectable hilar malignancies can be achieved by endoscopic (EBD) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). It is unclear if one approach is superior to the other in this group of patients. Aims. Compare clinical outcomes of EBD versus PTBD. Methods. (i) Study Selection Criterion. Studies using PTBD and EBD for palliation of advanced unresectable hilar malignancies. (ii) Data Collection and Extraction. Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. (iii) Statistical Method. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Results. Initial search identified 786 reference articles, in which 62 articles were selected and reviewed. Data was extracted from nine studies (N = 546) that met the inclusion criterion. The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in PTBD versus EBD was 2.53 (95% CI = 1.57 to 4.08). Odds ratio for overall adverse effects in PTBD versus EBD groups was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.26). Odds ratio for 30-day mortality rate in PTBD group versus EBD group was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.91). Conclusions. In patients with advanced unresectable hilar malignancies, palliation with PTBD seems to be superior to EBD. PTBD is comparable to EBD in regard to overall adverse effects and 30-day mortality. PMID:27648439

  20. A Pilot Study Connecting Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties to Summer Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential contributions of adolescent employment to postschool success, many youth who experience emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) do not access these opportunities. This intervention study examined the effects of a package of strategies designed to increase access to summer work experiences. Fifty-seven youth with EBD from…

  1. Themes and Dimensions of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustian, April L.; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools (Kauffman, Mock, & Simpson, 2011). Many of these students also have additional disabilities in conjunction with an EBD identification, such as Learning Disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit…

  2. Critical Educational Program Components for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Science, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.; Peterson, Reece L.; Smith, Carl R.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent education reform and reorganization efforts requiring the use of research-based methods, the fundamental elements of an effective program for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have not been succinctly identified. This article presents the essential features of programs for students with EBD.…

  3. Existing Research and Future Directions for Self-Regulated Strategy Development with Students with and at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic deficits that affect their success in school. However, there are few research studies investigating what strategies work best for this population, especially in the area of writing. One promising intervention to support the writing skills of students with and at risk for E/BD is…

  4. The Influence of Professional Development for Special Education Teachers: Self-Regulated Strategy Development in Writing for Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) are well known for their challenging, demanding, unpredictable, and difficult behaviors. Many students with EBD exhibit significant academic deficits, especially in writing. Writing instruction is challenging for teachers because they lack knowledge of the writing process, strategies, and…

  5. Classroom Factors Linked with Academic Gains among Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Philip L.; Coutinho, Martha J.; Cade, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    This article presents and discusses several factors with empirical verification that are associated with effective teaching and learning in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A description follows of how one teacher implements each of the recommended practices and the positive effects on two students with EBD.…

  6. Investigation of a Multi-Component Intervention Addressing Mathematical Reasoning and Self-Regulation of Behavior for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marie B.

    2013-01-01

    For students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD), negative student outcomes are the poorest across disability categories, including high rates of school dropouts, unemployment and incarcerations. Mathematically, students with EBD receiving instruction in special education settings experience practices not consistent with recommendations…

  7. Improving Reading Comprehension and Fluency Outcomes for Adolescents with Emotional-Behavioral Disorders: Recent Research Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwood, Justin D.; Brunsting, Nelson C.; Fox, Leslie C.

    2014-01-01

    As the reading difficulties experienced by students with emotional-behavioral disorders (EBD) receive more attention, the corresponding call for evidence-based practices has become more pronounced. We conducted a systematic review of comprehension and fluency interventions for middle and high school students with EBD served outside of the general…

  8. Comorbid Diagnosis and Concomitant Medical Treatment for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristina M.; Bowman, Krista A.; Ley, Katie; Frankenberger, William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders and the corresponding medications prescribed to children enrolled in elementary Emotional Behavioral Disability (EBD) programs. The project employed a questionnaire that was distributed to elementary level teachers (EBD) to: (a) determine the proportion of …

  9. Corrective Reading as a Supplementary Curriculum for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Houchins, David E.; Terry, Nicole P.

    2013-01-01

    Reading deficits among students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) are well documented. One approach to addressing these deficits has been providing students with intensive and explicit reading instruction. In this study, 31 students with E/BD and reading deficits in self-contained settings were provided with 8 weeks of…

  10. Effective Teachers for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Active Ingredients Leading to Positive Teacher and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) have varied skills and abilities. Within the field there are some teachers, who teach students with E/BD by actively engaging them in learning tasks and who have few behavior problems in comparison to other teachers, who struggle with classroom management. Many researchers have found…

  11. Put Me in, Coach! A Powerful and Efficient Tier 2 Behavioral Intervention for Alternative Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea; Cheney, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Students with high-incidence disabilities, including emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD), learning disabilities (LD), and mild intellectual disabilities (MID), demonstrate academic, social, and behavioral deficits to varying degrees, which places them at risk for school failure. Because students with E/BD face dire consequences, it is…

  12. Using Precorrection as a Secondary-Tier Intervention for Reducing Problem Behaviors in Instructional and Noninstructional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Schwab, James Raymond; Jolivette, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic, behavioral, and social characteristics that present unique needs within schools. Educators across the country are responding to the academic, behavioral, and social needs of all students, including students with E/BD, by implementing a continuum of supports across a…

  13. The Social Lives of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Self-Contained Classrooms: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panacek, Luanne J.; Dunlap, Glen

    2003-01-01

    Social lives of 14 children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in segregated elementary school classrooms were compared with 14 typical students in general classrooms. Children with E/BD had little opportunity to engage in integrated school activities and their school social networks were dominated by individuals affiliated with…

  14. Effective Practices/Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Stacey Jones; Borders, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) present unique challenges to the families and educators supporting them. Even though families and educators report that behavioral issues can be identified by age 3 (Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004), the commonly used wait-and-see approach to intervening results in children with E/BD not…

  15. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention on the School Performance of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Naomi A.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread treatment success in clinical settings, anxiety disorders are rarely targeted for intervention in students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) who exhibit them. This study examined the effects of a school-based anxiety intervention on the performance of 3 students attending school in a self-contained EBD setting. Using…

  16. The Fight Free Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whedon, Craig K.; Bakken, Jeffrey P.; Fletcher, Reginald

    2000-01-01

    Describes implementation of the Fight Free Classroom intervention (designed to decrease fighting and aggressiveness by helping students take ownership of their behavior) in an urban elementary school that included students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Overall, aggressive acts among students with and without EBD decreased…

  17. Strategies and Procedures for Designing Proactive Interventions with a Culturally Diverse Population of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders and Their Families/Caregivers. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.; Gardner, Ralph, III

    This monograph examines the special problems of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) who are from culturally diverse backgrounds and offers strategies for designing appropriate interventions. In the introductory chapter, the student demographics in the E/BD category of special education are reviewed and efforts of one state,…

  18. The Lived Experiences of Teachers of Students with Emotional Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sheneka L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of teacher attrition among the emotional and behavior disorder (EBD) student population within a self-contained environment through the lived experiences of former EBD teachers. Attrition among special education teachers has been a perennial issue. Special education teacher…

  19. Cultivating Caring Relationships between Teachers and Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalas, Stephanie; Morse, William C.; Allsopp, David H.; Alvarez McHatton, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Educating secondary students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is often an overwhelming task that places high demands on teachers. Existing research on effective social-emotional/behavioral and academic interventions for students with EBD is limited but expanding. Unfortunately, school and life outcomes for these students are dismal…

  20. Effects of the WhyTry Social Skills Program on Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems in an Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhite, Shannon; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2012-01-01

    Social skills training (SST) is an evidence-based intervention to help increase social competence for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), but there is limited research that addresses SST for students identified as experiencing EBD at alternative campuses. A mixed methods design was utilized to examine SST at an alternative…

  1. A Comparison of Teacher Perceptions and Research-Based Categories of Student Behavior Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Laura; Marchant, Michelle; Caldarella, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are less successful in school than their peers. In order for teachers and researchers to effectively partner to identify and support these students, they must focus on the same problem behaviors. This research identified six components of EBD commonly identified in research literature:…

  2. Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Advanced Malignant Hilar Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dharmapuri, Sirish; Duvvuri, Abhiram; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Moole, Vishnu; Yedama, Prathyusha; Bondalapati, Naveen; Uppu, Achuta

    2016-01-01

    Background. Palliation in advanced unresectable hilar malignancies can be achieved by endoscopic (EBD) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). It is unclear if one approach is superior to the other in this group of patients. Aims. Compare clinical outcomes of EBD versus PTBD. Methods. (i) Study Selection Criterion. Studies using PTBD and EBD for palliation of advanced unresectable hilar malignancies. (ii) Data Collection and Extraction. Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. (iii) Statistical Method. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Results. Initial search identified 786 reference articles, in which 62 articles were selected and reviewed. Data was extracted from nine studies (N = 546) that met the inclusion criterion. The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in PTBD versus EBD was 2.53 (95% CI = 1.57 to 4.08). Odds ratio for overall adverse effects in PTBD versus EBD groups was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.26). Odds ratio for 30-day mortality rate in PTBD group versus EBD group was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.91). Conclusions. In patients with advanced unresectable hilar malignancies, palliation with PTBD seems to be superior to EBD. PTBD is comparable to EBD in regard to overall adverse effects and 30-day mortality. PMID:27648439

  3. Struggling Readers with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Their Teachers: Perceptions of Corrective Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Duchaine, Ellen L.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) experience deficits in social, behavioral, and academic areas. Of great importance in the academic area is reading achievement. Students with E/BD who struggle with reading tend to have negative in-school and post-school outcomes. Due to the severity of potential outcomes, it is essential to…

  4. Toward Improved Accuracy: A Response to Kauffman and Badar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphaus, Randy; DiStefano, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The number of children estimated to suffer mental health disorders, and therefore, creating the need for special education services for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), is between 5% and 25% of children under the age of 18 (Brauner & Stephens, 2006). Admittedly, not all children with EBD have been identified and served,…

  5. Promise and Possibility in Special Education Services for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Peacock Hill Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Adamson, Reesha; Mitchell, Barbara S.; Lierheimer, Kristin; O'Connor, Karen V.; Bailey, Natasha; Schultz, Tia; Schmidt, Carla; Jones, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an historical look at how programs and practices for students with emotional or behavior disorders (E/BD) have been evaluated since 1964, leading to a codified, although not universally recognized, set of recommendations for evaluating best practices for students with E/BD set out by The Peacock Hill Working Group (1991). The…

  6. Integrating Research, Policy, and Practice to Bring Science to the Classroom: New Leaders' Perspectives on the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Robertson, Rachel; Oliver, Regina M.; Hollo, Alex; Partin, Tara C. Moore

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the Peacock Hill Working Group provided the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) a roadmap for improving the quality of services provided to students with EBD. The working group considered issues at every level of the educational system, from the classroom to federal policy. Although many strides have been made in the past 20…

  7. Understanding Students' Interactions: Why Varied Social Tasks Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Kates, Allison D.; Welton, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Many social interactions between school-age children contain both competitive and cooperative elements. In order to gain a better understanding of how students at risk for emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) negotiate social exchanges in cooperative and competitive-related tasks in comparison with non-EBD students: (a) prosocial; (b)…

  8. Learned Helplessness and Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Deprivation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Singh, Nirbhay N.

    2004-01-01

    Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) are characterized by academic deficits and classroom behavioral problems. The relationship between problem behavior and academic difficulties is complex, and some researchers have hypothesized that the classroom behavior problems of students with E/BD are responses to aversive stimuli, namely…

  9. Caveat Emptor: Considerations before Buying In to the "New" Medical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2002-01-01

    In response to Forness and Kavale's (2001) argument that the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) should adopt a "new" medical model, this commentary argues that the benefit of psychiatric diagnoses and pharmacologic treatments have not been established. It advocates a resistance-to-intervention approach to E/BD eligibility…

  10. Defining Administrative Support and Its Relationship to the Attrition of Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancio, Edward J.; Albrecht, Susan Fread; Johns, Beverley H.

    2013-01-01

    Special education faces serious shortages of teachers, and the area of special education teaching with the greatest shortage is in the field emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This study was conducted to identify the perceptions of current teachers of students with EBD on the definition of and the extent and importance of administrative…

  11. Treatment Integrity of Literacy Interventions for Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Hagaman, Jessica L.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines the treatment integrity data of literacy interventions for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). Forty-four studies published between 1977 and 2005 were examined. Findings indicate that studies focusing on literacy interventions for students with EBD included clear operational definitions and data on…

  12. A Literature Review of Research Quality and Effective Practices in Alternative Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Andrea; McDaniel, Sara C.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Effective behavioral practices for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) are critical. Students with E/BD are often served in alternative education (AE) settings due to behavior that cannot be supported in a typical school setting or due to court adjudication based on delinquent activity. Like other settings for students with E/BD,…

  13. Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in a Residential School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic deficits that affect their success in school; however, few researchers have investigated what strategies work best for this population, especially in the area of writing. One promising intervention to support the writing skills of students with and at-risk for E/BD is…

  14. 76 FR 53532 - Jaguar Land Rover North America, LLC, on Behalf of Jaguar Cars Limited, Receipt of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ..., (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received before the close of... Distribution (EBD) fault identified, the ISO Brake Warning Symbol and the words ``Brake Fluid Low'' or ``EBD Fault'' will be displayed in the message center. b. If the park brake is applied, the ISO Parking...

  15. Improving Family Involvement for Juvenile Offenders with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Lili

    2010-01-01

    Youth with emotional and behavioral (E/BD) and other disorders, who in many cases have not received needed interventions and supports in school, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. This article considers how parents of youth with E/BDs can become more involved in the process when their child is referred to juvenile court, thereby…

  16. Effects of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring and Self-Graphing on Reading Fluency and Classroom Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Snyder, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intervention involving reciprocal peer tutoring and self-graphing of reading data on the disruptive behavior, active responding, and reading fluency of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). Four middle school students with EBD participated in this research. Results…

  17. An Update on the Use of Peer Tutoring and Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Vicky G.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Oatis, Tonia L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an update of the research on the use of peer tutoring and students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). Nine studies from 2001 to 2007 were identified in which students with EBD served as tutors and/or tutees to teach their peers academic and social behaviours. Five of these studies included elementary students,…

  18. Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ann E.; Dowling, James

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an emerging system for the study of neuromuscular disorders. In the study of neuromuscular diseases, the integrity of the muscle membrane is a critical disease determinant. To date, numerous neuromuscular conditions display degenerating muscle fibers with abnormal membrane integrity; this is most commonly observed in muscular dystrophies. Evans Blue Dye (EBD) is a vital, cell permeable dye that is rapidly taken into degenerating, damaged, or apoptotic cells; in contrast, it is not taken up by cells with an intact membrane. EBD injection is commonly employed to ascertain muscle integrity in mouse models of neuromuscular diseases. However, such EBD experiments require muscle dissection and/or sectioning prior to analysis. In contrast, EBD uptake in zebrafish is visualized in live, intact preparations. Here, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward methodology for performing EBD injections and analysis in live zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrate a co-injection strategy to increase efficacy of EBD analysis. Overall, this video article provides an outline to perform EBD injection and characterization in zebrafish models of neuromuscular disease. PMID:26649573

  19. Dental practice network of U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Monica A; Beeson, Dennis C; Hans, Mark G

    2009-12-01

    As dental schools incorporate training in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) into their curricula, students must learn how to critically evaluate systematic reviews and meta-analyses. It is important that dental education in the United States support the American Dental Association's position statement on EBD, which defines "best evidence" as data obtained from all study designs. Given that much evidence is missing when EBD is derived from Cochrane Systematic Reviews' randomized clinical trials, we propose the creation of a dental practice network of U.S. dental schools. We developed an electronic clinical dentistry research database for EBD using Epi-Info (available at www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/downloads.htm). As a free, public use software, Epi-Info provides the foundation for the development of clinical research databases that can increase the research capacity through multisite studies designed to generate outcomes data on the effectiveness of dental treatment. The creation of a dental practice network of dental schools with their large number of patients would expand the research capacity for EBD practice and advance the EBD science regarding the effectiveness of dental treatment. The next step is to link clinical dental researchers/educators at multiple dental schools through a collaborative clinical research network, so that the findings can be applied to the EBD component of problem-based learning curricula of dental education.

  20. Electrical characterization of defects introduced in n-Ge during electron beam deposition or exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, S. M. M.; Auret, F. D.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Nel, J. M.

    2013-11-07

    Schottky barrier diodes prepared by electron beam deposition (EBD) on Sb-doped n-type Ge were characterized using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Pt EBD diodes manufactured with forming gas in the chamber had two defects, E{sub 0.28} and E{sub 0.31}, which were not previously observed after EBD. By shielding the samples mechanically during EBD, superior diodes were produced with no measureable deep levels, establishing that energetic ions created in the electron beam path were responsible for the majority of defects observed in the unshielded sample. Ge samples that were first exposed to the conditions of EBD, without metal deposition (called electron beam exposure herein), introduced a number of new defects not seen after EBD with only the E-center being common to both processes. Substantial differences were noted when these DLTS spectra were compared to those obtained using diodes irradiated by MeV electrons or alpha particles indicating that very different defect creation mechanisms are at play when too little energy is available to form Frenkel pairs. These observations suggest that when EBD ions and energetic particles collide with the sample surface, inducing intrinsic non-localised lattice excitations, they modify defects deeper in the semiconductor thus rendering them observable.

  1. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an Australian perspective on students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). Consideration is given to the cultural issues, structure of special services, identification procedures, delivery system, and types of services provided.

  2. Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yincheng; Chen, Bin; Tao, Minfang

    2009-12-18

    We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

  3. Use of Mental Health Services by Children Ages Six to 11 With Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Alan E.; Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.; Huang, Larke N.; Goldstrom, Ingrid D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors reported use of mental health services among children in the United States between ages six and 11 who were described by their parents as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (EBDs). Methods Using data from the 2010–2012 National Health Interview Survey, the authors estimated the national percentage of children ages six to 11 with serious or minor EBDs (N=2,500) who received treatment for their difficulties, including only mental health services other than medication (psychosocial services), only medication, both psychosocial services and medication, and neither type of service. They calculated the percentage of children who received school-based and non–school-based psychosocial services in 2011–2012 and who had unmet need for psychosocial services in 2010–2012. Results In 2010–2012, 5.8% of U.S. children ages six to 11 had serious EBDs and 17.3% had minor EBDs. Among children with EBDs, 17.8% were receiving both medication and psychosocial services, 28.8% psychosocial services only, 6.8% medication only, and 46.6% neither medication nor psychosocial services. Among children with EBDs in 2011–2012, 18.6% received school-based psychosocial services only, 11.4% non–school-based psychosocial services only, and 17.3% both school- and non–school-based psychosocial services. In 2010–2012, 8.2% of children with EBDs had unmet need for psychosocial services. Conclusions School-age children with EBDs received a range of mental health services, but nearly half received neither medication nor psychosocial services. School-based providers played a role in delivering psychosocial services, but parents reported an unmet need for psychosocial services among some children. PMID:25975889

  4. Integrating critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry across a four-year dental curriculum: a model for independent learning.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.

  5. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to evidence-based dentistry among dental students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health that requires the application and examination of relevant scientific data related to the patient's oral health and his priorities. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students of Isfahan about EBD. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 168 dental students in 3 final years of their education who engaged in clinical practice by consensus sampling were recruited. For data collection, a validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was consisted of demographic questions and some questions about four issues: Knowledge of self-assess (KSA), evidence-based practice, actual knowledge and attitude about EBD. Data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear regression with SPSS 16. Results: One hundred and thirty-six students from 168 students were filled the questionnaire. The mean of KSA was 13 ± 4.3, mean of usage of useful references in EBD was 16.9 ± 7.6. One-third of students were studied their last article in last 6 months before. The mean of actual knowledge and attitude was 7.4 ± 2.3 and 24 ± 3.8, respectively. The relation between 4 main issues was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: By considering overall interest and positive attitude toward learning EBD in dental students, it is highly recommended that practical educational courses about EBD be planned by dental faculties. PMID:27500165

  6. Identification of Important Regions for Ethylene Binding and Signaling in the Transmembrane Domain of the ETR1 Ethylene Receptor of Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wuyi; Esch, Jeff J.; Shiu, Shin-Han; Agula, Hasi; Binder, Brad M.; Chang, Caren; Patterson, Sara E.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2006-01-01

    The ethylene binding domain (EBD) of the Arabidopsis thaliana ETR1 receptor is modeled as three membrane-spanning helices. We surveyed ethylene binding activity in different kingdoms and performed a bioinformatic analysis of the EBD. Ethylene binding is confined to land plants, Chara, and a group of cyanobacteria but is largely absent in other organisms, consistent with our finding that EBD-like sequences are overrepresented among plant and cyanobacterial species. We made amino acid substitutions in 37 partially or completely conserved residues of the EBD and assayed their effects on ethylene binding and signaling. Mutations primarily in residues in Helices I and II midregions eliminated ethylene binding and conferred constitutive signaling, consistent with the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling and indicating that these residues define the ethylene binding pocket. The largest class of mutations, clustered near the cytoplasmic ends of Helices I and III, gave normal ethylene binding activity yet still conferred constitutive signaling. Therefore, these residues may play a role in turning off the signal transmitter domain of the receptor. By contrast, only two mutations were loss of function with respect to signaling. These findings yield insight into the structure and function of the EBD and suggest a conserved role of the EBD as a negative regulator of the signal transmitter domain. PMID:17189345

  7. Proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic germ cell derivatives in bioactive polymeric fibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yim, Evelyn K F; Leong, Kam W

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic germ cell derivatives, a heterogeneous population of uncommitted embryoid body derived (EBD) cells, were studied in a bioactive three-dimensional (3D) fibrous culture. Their proliferation, morphology, gene expression and differentiation were investigated to gain insights on development of 3D bioactive scaffold for pluripotent stem cells. The expansion of the EBD cells in 3D environment was significantly higher than their two-dimensional controls after 21 days. No apparent differentiation of the EBD cells cultured in the 3D environment, as indicated by histology and gene expression profile analysis, was evident. Extracellular matrix production was weak in the long-term 3D culture, and the EBD cells maintained their multilineage gene expressions for the period studied. When nerve growth factor (NGF) was surface-immobilized on the fibrous scaffold via chemically-modified Pluronic, the EBD cells cultured in this scaffold showed evidence of entering the neural pathway. An upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression was observed when EBD cells were cultured in the NGF-immobilized fibrous scaffold, as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The study suggests the value of such fibrous 3D culture in manipulating stem cell proliferation/differentiation and as a model for developing a bioactive scaffold. PMID:16268248

  8. Knowledge and Use of Evidence-based Dentistry among Iranian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Navabi, Nader; Shahravan, Arash; Pourmonajem, Sepideh; Hashemipour, Maryam A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) among Iranian dentists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire among dentists attending the 52nd National Annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association in Tehran in April 2012. The questions covered the participants’ level of knowledge and use of EBD. Results: The mean knowledge score of the 310 respondents was 3.66 ± 1.19 out of a maximum of 5. The majority of the dentists had little (56.1%) or no (20.7%) knowledge of EBD. The main reported barrier to the use of EBD was lack of time (44.1% of respondents) with 42.8% of dentists using the Internet less than one hour per week. Conclusion: EBD was not a familiar concept to these Iranian dentists; the majority of them preferred consultation with colleagues over seeking evidence from electronic databases. PMID:24790746

  9. The research-design interaction: lessons learned from an evidence-based design studio.

    PubMed

    Haq, Saif; Pati, Debajyoti

    2010-01-01

    As evidence-based design (EBD) emerges as a model of design practice, considerable attention has been given to its research component. However, this overshadows another essential component of EBD-the change agent, namely the designer. EBD introduced a new skill set to the practitioner: the ability to interact with scientific evidence. Industry sources suggest adoption of the EBD approach across a large number of design firms. How comfortable are these designers in integrating research with design decision making? Optimizing the interaction between the primary change agent (the designer) and the evidence is crucial to producing the desired outcomes. Preliminary to examining this question, an architectural design studio was used as a surrogate environment to examine how designers interact with evidence. Twelve students enrolled in a healthcare EBD studio during the spring of 2009. A three-phase didactic structure was adopted: knowing a hospital, knowing the evidence, and designing with knowledge and evidence. Products of the studio and questionnaire responses from the students were used as the data for analysis. The data suggest that optimization of the research-design relationship warrants consideration in four domains: (1) a knowledge structure that is easy to comprehend; (2) phase-complemented representation of evidence; (3) access to context and precedence information; and (4) a designer-friendly vocabulary.

  10. Thinking Developmentally: The Next Evolution in Models of Health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    As the basic sciences that inform conceptions of human health advance, so must the models that are used to frame additional research, to teach the next generation of providers, and to inform health policy. This article briefly reviews the evolution from a biomedical model to a biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model. Like the BPS model, the EBD model reaffirms the biological significance of psychosocial features within the patient's ecology, but it does so at the molecular and cellular levels. More importantly, the EBD model adds the dimension of time, forcing providers to "think developmentally" and to acknowledge the considerable biological and psychological consequences of previous experiences. For the health care system to move from a reactive "sick care" system to a proactive "well care" system, all providers must begin thinking developmentally by acknowledging the dynamic but cumulative dance between nature and nurture that drives development, behavior, and health, not only in childhood, but across the lifespan. PMID:27429356

  11. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William

    2009-04-01

    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  12. Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I

    2008-11-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.

  13. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Izumi, H; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H; Fukuma, T

    2015-03-13

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.

  14. Sparkling extreme-ultraviolet bright dots observed with Hi-C

    SciTech Connect

    Régnier, S.; Alexander, C. E.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; Korreck, K. E.; Weber, M.; Mitchell, N.; Platt, S.; De Pontieu, B.; Title, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Kuzin, S.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-04-01

    Observing the Sun at high time and spatial scales is a step toward understanding the finest and fundamental scales of heating events in the solar corona. The high-resolution coronal (Hi-C) instrument has provided the highest spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in the EUV wavelength range to date. Hi-C observed an active region on 2012 July 11 that exhibits several interesting features in the EUV line at 193 Å. One of them is the existence of short, small brightenings 'sparkling' at the edge of the active region; we call these EUV bright dots (EBDs). Individual EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength; however, they can be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA, which suggests a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on their frequency in the Hi-C time series, we define four different categories of EBDs: single peak, double peak, long duration, and bursty. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale, trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV heating events at the base of these coronal loops, which have a free magnetic energy of the order of 10{sup 26} erg.

  15. Mechanism and influencing factors on critical pulse width of oil-immersed polymer insulators under short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jian Cang; Li, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Yu, Bin Xiong; Wu, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xi Bo; Pan, Ya Feng

    2015-04-01

    The critical pulse width (τc) is a pulse width at which the surface flashover threshold (Ef) is equal to the bulk breakdown threshold (EBD) for liquid-polymer composite insulation systems, which is discovered by Zhao et al. [Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Shenzhen, China, 2013), Vol. 2, pp. 854-857]. In this paper, the mechanism of τc is interpreted in perspective of the threshold and the time delay (td) of surface flashover and bulk breakdown, respectively. It is found that two changes appear as the pulse width decreases which are responsible for the existence of τc: (1) EBD is lower than Ef; (2) td of bulk breakdown is shorter than td of surface flashover. In addition, factors which have influences on τc are investigated, such as the dielectric type, the insulation length, the dielectric thickness, the dielectrics configuration, the pulse number, and the liquid purity. These influences of factors are generalized as three types if τc is expected to increase: (1) factors causing EBD to decrease, such as increasing the pulse number or employing a dielectric of lower EBD; (2) factors causing Ef to increase, such as complicating the insulator's configuration or increasing the liquid purity; (3) factors causing EBD and Ef to increase together, but Ef increases faster than EBD, such as decreasing the dielectric thickness or the insulation length. With the data in references, all the three cases are verified experimentally. In the end, a general method based on τc for solid insulation design is presented and the significance of τc on solid insulation design and on solid demolition are discussed.

  16. The role of stents in the treatment of Crohn’s disease strictures

    PubMed Central

    Loras Alastruey, Carme; Andújar Murcia, Xavier; Esteve Comas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Stenosis is one of the most frequent local complications in Crohn’s disease (CD). Surgery is not the ideal treatment because of the high rate of postoperative recurrence. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) currently is the current treatment of choice for short strictures amenable to the procedure. However, it is not applicable or effective in all the cases, and it is not without related complications. Our goal was to summarize the published information regarding the use and the role of the stents in the treatment of CD stricture. A Medline search was performed on the terms “stricture,” “stenosis,” “stent” and “Crohn’s disease.” Results: a total of 19 publications met our search criteria for an overall number of 65 patients. Placing a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) may be a safe and effective alternative to EBD and/or surgical intervention in the treatment of short stenosis in patients with CD. Indications are the same as those for EBD. In addition, SEMS may be useful in stenosis refractory to EBD and may be suitable in the treatment of longer or more complex strictures that cannot be treated by EBD. With the current information, it seems that the best treatment option is the placement of a fully covered stent for a mean time of 4 weeks. Regarding the use of biodegradable stents, the information is limited and showing poor results. Conclusions: the use of stents in the treatment of strictures in CD should be taken into account either as a first endoscopic therapy or in case of EBD failure. PMID:27014743

  17. Steroid Administration is Effective to Prevent Strictures After Endoscopic Esophageal Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjin; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal stricture is a severe adverse event after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Steroid administration is a new method to prevent stricture formation. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of steroid administration to prevent esophageal stricture after circumferential ESD. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Studies on steroid administration + endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) versus EBD alone for esophageal stricture were included and pooled analyzed in random-effects models. Besides, subgroup analysis and network analysis were performed to define the influence of ESD type and steroid administration method. Twelve studies involving 513 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that steroid administration significantly achieved a lower stricture rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20–0.81) and less required EBD sessions (mean difference [MD], −4.33; 95% CI, −6.10 to −2.57) than control. Subgroup analysis indicated that steroid was effective after both semi- and complete circumferential ESD. Network meta-analysis showed that compared with oral steroid, local injected steroid had a similar effect to prevent stricture (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.48–2.85), whereas a better effect to reduce required EBD sessions (MD, 7.77; 95%CI, 0.26–15.3). Additional steroid administration is effective to reduce the stricture rate and required EBD sessions. And local injected steroid was superior to oral steroid in EBD reduction, whereas due to the varied method and dose of steroid administration, the finding needs to be clarified in the future. PMID:26426665

  18. Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Validity studies of measures for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) for use with preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lacking. The Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL; Achenbach and Rescorla, Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families,…

  20. The Effects of Strategy Instruction for Writing and Revising Persuasive Quick Writes on Middle School Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Maryanne Mong

    2011-01-01

    A multiple baseline alternating treatment (A-B-C-D) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for teaching persuasive writing and peer revision. Eight middle school students enrolled in an alternative program for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) received Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction…

  1. Effects of Direct Instruction Plus Procedural Facilitation on the Expository Writing of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities in Residential Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Mark W.; Houchins, David E.; Viel-Ruma, Kimberly A.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the "Expressive Writing (EW)" direct instruction curriculum on the expository writing skills of secondary grade students with serious emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). The "EW" program targets writing mechanics, sentence writing, and editing but does not include pre-writing…

  2. BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  3. Language Competence and Social Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to explore a model of communicative competence (Abbeduto & Nuccio, 1989) and identify whether its components could (a) predict pragmatic language difficulties for children with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and (b) describe the semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language ability as well as the social skills of…

  4. Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

  5. Teacher Involvement in the Development of Function-Based Behaviour Intervention Plans for Students with Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article examines literature published since 1997 on functional behaviour assessment (FBA) and behaviour intervention plans (BIPs), involving school-based personnel, for children identified as having or being at risk of emotional/behavioural disorder (E/BD) in school settings. Of interest was the level of involvement of school-based personnel…

  6. The Effects of Praise Notes on the Disruptive Behaviors of Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two secondary tier positive behavioral support strategies, teacher praise notes (TPNs) and peer praise notes (PPNs), were investigated using an alternating treatments single-subject design in residential classroom settings with eight elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in grades one…

  7. Teaching Academic Skills as an Answer to Behavioural Problems of Students with Emotional or Behavioural Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to study the effect of interventions developed to…

  8. The Effect of Having Classmates with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and the Protective Nature of Peer Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Harven, Aletha

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored how classroom gender composition moderated the relationship between having classmates with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and peers' academic achievement in both kindergarten and Grade 1 classrooms. Given the behavioral and social-cognitive styles of girls, it was hypothesized that classrooms with a higher…

  9. The Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Time Spent outside the Classroom for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Christina; Jolivette, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively instruct the entire class, teachers of students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) often choose to send students who display inappropriate behavior out of the room. A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of increasing teacher positive verbal reinforcement on the amount of time 2 students…

  10. Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Ruberto, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of an intensive training protocol on levels of paraeducator fidelity to a group contingency intervention used to manage the classroom behavior of students with EBD. A multiple baseline design across classrooms was used to determine whether the training was associated with initial and sustained increases…

  11. Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Micheline S.; Austin, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    A six-week investigation utilizing a standard mindfulness for adolescents curriculum and norm-based standardized resiliency scale was implemented in a self-contained school for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). Informal integration of mindfulness activities into a classroom setting was examined for ecological appropriateness and…

  12. Early Classification of Reading Performance in Children Identified or At Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Discriminant Analysis Using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reid, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the kindergarten and first grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), measures of early literacy development, to discriminate among low average, average, and above average students considered at risk emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) on the Total Reading cluster of the Woodcock…

  13. Perspectives on Select Field-Based Experiences for Pre-Service Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Maureen N.; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2013-01-01

    The proficiency with which teachers of students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) plan for, provide instructional activities, and address the challenging behaviour of their students is influenced by the nature of their preservice teacher preparation. The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions of the…

  14. Relations between Secondary Art Teachers' Personal Education Theories and Attitudes about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjack, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was multifold: to define secondary art teachers. personal practical theories about the purposes of art education; to examine teachers. attitudes toward the inclusion of students with learning disabilities (LD) and those with emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD) into their classrooms; and to determine the relation between…

  15. Transition Tips for Educators Working with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) have had difficulties in achieving educational, vocational, and community outcomes that would lead to personal success and satisfaction. Some of these outcomes relate to how special education transition programs integrate effective approaches to support success with these students. In this…

  16. Problems Related to Underservice: A Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.; Simpson, Richard L.; Mock, Devery R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective data provide overwhelming evidence that children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are underidentified and underserved. This was the central argument in our November 2007 Forum article to which Harry, Hart, Klingner, Cramer, and Sturges responded. In this rejoinder, we continue to assert the dramatic need to offer…

  17. The NHERF2 sequence adjacent and upstream of the ERM-binding domain affects NHERF2-ezrin binding and dexamethasone stimulated NHE3 activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianbo; Sarker, Rafiquel; Singh, Varsha; Sarker, Prateeti; Yin, Jianyi; Chen, Tian-E; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Li, Xuhang; Tse, C Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-08-15

    In the brush border of intestinal and kidney epithelial cells, scaffolding proteins ezrin, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)1 and NHERF2 play important roles in linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton and assembling signalling regulatory complexes. The last 30 carboxyl residues of NHERF1 and NHERF2 form the EBDs [ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM)-binding domain]. The current study found that NHERF1/2 contain an ERM-binding regulatory sequence (EBRS), which facilitates the interaction between the EBD and ezrin. The EBRSs are located within 24 and 19 residues immediately upstream of EBDs for NHERF1 and NHERF2 respectively. In OK (opossum kidney) epithelial cells, EBRSs are necessary along with the EBD to distribute NHERF1 and NHERF2 exclusively to the apical domain. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Ser(303) located in the EBRS of NHERF2, decreases the binding affinity for ezrin, dislocates apical NHERF2 into the cytosol and increases the NHERF2 microvillar mobility rate. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Ser(303) was functionally significant preventing acute stimulation of NHE3 (Na(+)-H(+) exchanger 3) activity by dexamethasone. PMID:26251448

  18. Pioneers--The "Engineering byDesign[TM]" Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Barry N.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the standards-based instruction model, Engineering byDesign[TM] (EbD), and a network of teachers called the Engineering byDesign[TM] Network. Engineering byDesign[TM] is the only standards-based national model for Grades K-12 that delivers technological literacy which was developed by the International Technology Education…

  19. Reflections on the Future of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders: A Response to Colvin, Forness, and Nelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Alec F.; Albrecht, Susan Fread; George, Cheryl L.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Paget, Mike; Ryan, Joseph B.; White, Richard B.; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In issue 37(1) of this journal, the authors published the findings of three studies addressing the status of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) as an organization and of the field of special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). In order to continue discussion of the status of CCBD, the editors…

  20. Social Skills Training for Students Who Demonstrate Poor Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, DaShaunda S.; Jolivette, Kristine; Crosby, Shane

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a scenario which is a classic example of a student becoming frustrated because her needs are not being met. Unequipped to advocate for herself in a socially acceptable manner, Marcy, a 12-year-old, sixth-grade student diagnosed with an emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD), used the most effective strategy in her…

  1. Science Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Taylor, Jonte C.; Watt, Sarah; Kaldenberg, Erica R.

    2014-01-01

    This review examined classroom science instruction for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A total of 11 group and single-subject studies were analyzed. Across all group studies, a conservatively calculated mean effect size of 0.471 was obtained indicating the interventions as a whole had at least a small to moderate impact on…

  2. Placement of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Programs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Contemporary Trends and Research Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; Bal, Aydin; Trent, Stanley C.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted regarding the disproportionate representation of minority learners in programs for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). To date, the majority of the disproportionality literature examines multiple eligibility categories, most frequently the high incidence disabilities of Mild Intellectual…

  3. Conservatism and the Underidentification of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Kauffman, James M.; Plageman, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Underidentification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; emotional disturbance or ED in federal language) is a critical issue, perhaps explainable in part by causal attributions of problem behavior associated with conservatism. Conservatism in 58 counties in the state of California was measured by finding the percentage of…

  4. Challenges of Serving Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Legal and Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl R.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    Significant issues still confront the field of emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) in providing a free, appropriate, public educational (FAPE) program for these students. This paper reviews recent case law for several critical areas of concern to the field today, including: (a) response to intervention (RTI) and child find procedures, (b)…

  5. Teaching Disturbed and Disturbing Students: An Integrative Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zionts, Paul

    This book examines intervention with children having emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD), through the use of many case studies, activities, and examples. The text is organized in a developmental manner, with behavioral interventions recommended for lower grades and cognitive-behavioral approaches recommended for older students. The first unit…

  6. Best Practices in Programs for Children with Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) are educated in restrictive placements at higher rates than students in other disability categories due to their challenging behavior and inability to function in the general educational environment (Bullock & Gable, 2006). The increasing utilization of alternative programming to educate…

  7. Special Education Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Emotional Impairments and Their Same-Sex Behaviors: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrieta, Stefanie A.; Palladino, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Although recent trends in educational research have addressed the educational plight of LGBT [lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, and queer/questioning] students, a dearth of literature exists about the subpopulation of LGBT youth with disabilities, namely those with verified emotional-behavior disorders (EBDs). Discussions throughout what…

  8. The Effects of Using Direct Instruction and the Equal Additions Algorithm to Promote Subtraction with Regrouping Skills of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Angela Christine

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) display severe social and academic deficits that can adversely affect their academic performance in mathematics and result in higher rates of failure throughout their schooling compared to other students with disabilities (U.S. Department of Education, 2005; Webber & Plotts, 2008).…

  9. The Effects of Instruction in Peer-Revision on the Persuasive Writing of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) to improve the writing skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This single subject multiple baseline, multiple probe design study extends this research base by investigating the effects of peer-revision instruction on the persuasive…

  10. Romanian Preschool Teachers' Understanding of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties: Implications for Designing Teacher Trainings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Rebega, Oana L.; Cosma, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the role of the teacher-child relationship on children's adjustment. Children lacking such positive relationships are placed at increased risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). We propose a qualitative approach to exploring Romanian teachers' knowledge and strategies related to preschoolers who…

  11. Considering Systematic Direct Observation after a Century of Research--Commentary on the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Systematic Direct Observation (SDO) has played a pivotal role in the field of Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders (EBD) since its inception as a key part of understanding more about the behaviors, contexts that impact them, and the effective supports necessary for this population. This methodology is an ongoing charge for everyone. The authors…

  12. The Perceptions of Urban School Principals Regarding the Education of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoh, Jean-Dominique Herve

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the perceptions and attitudes of principals and headmasters about the inclusion of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the factors supporting or inhibiting school leaders in their effort to implement inclusive practices, and the approaches they use to initiate, facilitate, support and sustain the…

  13. Assessing the Transition-Related Strengths and Needs of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Sun, Ye; Owens, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Although meaningful assessment is considered the cornerstone of transition planning, little empirical guidance is available to inform this assessment process. This study examined the transition-related strengths and needs of 160 students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) or learning disabilities (LD) from the perspectives of special…

  14. A Comparison of the Instructional Context for Students with Behavioral Issues Enrolled in Self-Contained and General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Moore Partin, Tara C.; Robertson, Rachel; Oliver, Reginal M.

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are often placed into self-contained settings to provide more focused academic and behavioral supports. Little is known, however, about differences in the instructional contexts of self-contained and general education classrooms. Using direct observation and self-report measures, the present…

  15. Preparation of Teachers of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. Retrospective Series on Critical Issues in Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.

    The third in a series, this collection of previously published monographs examines the challenges of preparing teachers to work with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Monographs include: (1) "Issues in Training Teachers for the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed" (Frank H. Wood), which discusses preparing regular and special…

  16. Associations between Social Potential and Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Egyptian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    A number of Egyptian children experience psychiatric or mental health problems owing to a variety of internal and external qualities in their social context. These problems may mask strengths, particularly their social potential represented in their prosocial behaviour (PB). Research on emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBDs) should thus…

  17. Rediscovering the Art of Developmental Therapy: An Interview with Mary M. Wood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teagarden, James M.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Zabel, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Mary Margaret Wood is best known for developing psychoeducational programs that integrate mental health and special education interventions for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Developmental Therapy (DT) includes comprehensive assessment of student behavior, communication, social, and cognitive development,…

  18. Erect Wing facilitates context-dependent Wnt/Wingless signaling by recruiting the cell-specific Armadillo-TCF adaptor Earthbound to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Nan; Benchabane, Hassina; Tian, Ai; Nguyen, Kerrie; Klofas, Lindsay; Ahmed, Yashi

    2011-01-01

    During metazoan development, the Wnt/Wingless signal transduction pathway is activated repetitively to direct cell proliferation, fate specification, differentiation and apoptosis. Distinct outcomes are elicited by Wnt stimulation in different cellular contexts; however, mechanisms that confer context specificity to Wnt signaling responses remain largely unknown. Starting with an unbiased forward genetic screen in Drosophila, we recently uncovered a novel mechanism by which the cell-specific co-factor Earthbound 1 (Ebd1), and its human homolog jerky, promote interaction between the Wnt pathway transcriptional co-activators β-catenin/Armadillo and TCF to facilitate context-dependent Wnt signaling responses. Here, through the same genetic screen, we find an unanticipated requirement for Erect Wing (Ewg), the fly homolog of the human sequence-specific DNA-binding transcriptional activator nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), in promoting contextual regulation of Wingless signaling. Ewg and Ebd1 functionally interact with the Armadillo-TCF complex and mediate the same context-dependent Wingless signaling responses. In addition, Ewg and Ebd1 have similar cell-specific expression profiles, bind to each other directly and also associate with chromatin at shared genomic sites. Furthermore, recruitment of Ebd1 to chromatin is abolished in the absence of Ewg. Our findings provide in vivo evidence that recruitment of a cell-specific co-factor complex to specific chromatin sites, coupled with its ability to facilitate Armadillo-TCF interaction and transcriptional activity, promotes contextual regulation of Wnt/Wingless signaling responses. PMID:22028028

  19. Teacher-Mediated Instructional Strategies for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirn, Regina Gilkey; Park, Kristy L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) may exhibit both learning and behavioral needs that affect the teacher's ability to provide effective instruction. Extending beyond simple academic content knowledge, effective teacher-based interventions include preventive and predictive actions that manage the disruptive behaviors often…

  20. The Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Primary School Children with Poor Attendance Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two complementary studies of poor and better attenders are presented. To measure emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) different teacher-completed rating scales were employed, and to determine social difficulties, the studies used sociometry and some items from the scales. One study had a longitudinal design. It revealed that, after…

  1. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders "Can" Manage Their Own Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Beverly; Jolivette, Kristine; Ramsey, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) often display one or more of the following characteristics: (1) an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; (2) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers or teachers; (3) inappropriate types of behavior or…

  2. Irish Physical Educators' Attitude toward Teaching Students with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meegan, Sarah; MacPhail, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among the specific special educational needs (SEN) of emotional/behavioural disorder (EBD), specific learning disabled (SLD), mild-moderate mentally impaired (MMMI), and moderate-severe mentally impaired (MSMI) and the selected attributes of gender, academic preparation and previous experience in teaching…

  3. Changing Attitudes: Supporting Teachers in Effectively Including Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Geraldine; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are often considered the most challenging group to manage within mainstream education. The challenges perceived by teachers may be due, in part, to negative attitudes towards this cohort of pupils, which may exacerbate feelings of inadequacy and impact negatively upon direct interactions…

  4. A Corrective Teaching Approach to Replace Undesired Behaviors in Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edith Garcia; Malian, Ida M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) typically exhibit significant behavioral excesses or deficits that interfere with their learning and sometimes that of their peers in the classroom. These behaviors can generally be described as either external and easily noticed (e.g., disruption, aggression) or internal and easily overlooked…

  5. Capacity and Opportunity: Predicting Engagement for Middle School Students with Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, Marsha Dempsey; Martin, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity and opportunity scores of 36 middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) on the student version of the "American Institutes for Research (AIR) Self-Determination Scale" across three school engagement factors: grade point averages (GPA), school absences, and frequency of school…

  6. Special Educators as Intervention Specialists: Dynamic Systems and the Complexity of Intensifying Intervention for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Talbott, Elizabeth; Brooks, Debbie S.; Norwalk, Kate; Huneke, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present a dynamic systems perspective for the intensification of interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). With this framework, we suggest behavior involves the contributions of multiple factors and reflects the interplay between the characteristics of the student and the ecologies in which he or she is embedded.…

  7. Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions for Students with or at Risk for Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in School: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stichter, Janine P.

    2012-01-01

    Of the myriad practices currently utilized for students with disabilities, particularly students with or at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorder (EBD), functional behavior assessment (FBA) is a practice with an emerging solid research base. However, the FBA research base relies on single-subject design (SSD) and synthesis has relied on…

  8. Stakeholders' Voices: Defining Needs of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Transitioning between School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rohanna; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Clark, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) too often do not receive adequate services or care in their school settings, particularly during transitions in educational placements. In addition, school support teams often struggle with creating transition plans that honor the needs of students with input from key stakeholders responsible…

  9. Technology and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtad, Carrie Anna; Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of evidence existing on technology specifically to support students with emotional-behavior disorder (EBD) in schools (Fitzpatrick & Knowlton, 2009). However, assistive technology (AT) considerations for all students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) must still occur. Evidence exists that technology can…

  10. Burnout Experience of Teachers Serving Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders in Grades PreK-8 within Non-Public Special Education Day Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kendra A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships between five predictor variables identified by the literature (age, years of special education teaching experience, level of emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) preparation, principal support, and principal feedback) and two higher order terms (age and years of special education teaching…

  11. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorder How to Write Persuasive Essays Fluently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerar, Nancy Irby

    2012-01-01

    A multiprobe, multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive writing strategy instruction. Six middle school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) received two instructional phases of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for writing persuasive essays over 33 days of intervention.…

  12. Nitric oxide donors improve prednisone effects on muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Upadhaya, Ritika; Burczynski, Frank J; Wang, Guqi; Anderson, Judy E

    2011-05-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), palliative glucocorticoid therapy can produce myopathy or calcification. Since increased nitric oxide synthase activity in dystrophic mice promotes regeneration, the outcome of two nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs, MyoNovin (M) and isosorbide dinitrate (I), on the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drug prednisone (P) in alleviating progression of dystrophy was tested. Dystrophic mdx mice were treated (18 days) as controls or with an NO donor ± P. Fiber permeability and DNA synthesis were labeled by Evans blue dye (EBD) and bromodeoxyuridine uptake, respectively. P decreased body weight gain, M increased quadriceps mass, and I increased heart mass. P increased fiber permeability (%EBD+ fibers) and calcification in diaphragm. Treatment with NO donors + P (M+P, I+P) reduced %EBD+ fibers and calcification vs. P alone. %EBD+ fibers in M+P diaphragm did not differ from control. NO donor treatment reduced proliferation and the population of c-met+ cells and accelerated fiber regeneration. Concurrent with P, NO donor treatment suppressed two important detrimental effects of P in mice, possibly by accelerating regeneration, rebalancing satellite cell quiescence and activation in dystrophy, and/or increasing perfusion. Results suggest that NO donors could improve current therapy for DMD.

  13. The Education of Students with Emotional and Behavior Disabilities in Australia: Current Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    A discussion about the current state of special education, more specifically the field of emotional and behavior disabilities (EBD), in Australia cannot take place without first providing an overview of the Australian education system. Education comes under the jurisdiction of state and territory responsibility. The federal government coordinates…

  14. Canadian School Programs for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: An Updated Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworet, Don; Maich, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Canada is a country composed of 10 provinces and three territories with very limited federal control over the public K-12 education system. This lack of consistent direction has led to a range of diverse educational policies for educating students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD). This article investigates the current state of policies…

  15. Perceived Social Support and Domain-Specific Adjustment of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…

  16. Writing Performance of Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Wilson, Joshua; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.

    2014-01-01

    Students with emotional and/or behavioral disabilities (E/BD), including students with emotional disturbance and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, receiving special education services perform significantly worse on academic performance measures than same age peers. Researchers have focused on reading and math performance while less is…

  17. Using Comparison Peers as an Objective Measure of Social Validity: Recommendations for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, students with challenging behaviors (SWCB) in a classroom may include those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD), intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and those at risk of these disabilities. These students may present…

  18. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  19. Placement of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) receive educational and related services within a continuum of placement options per the Individual with Disabilities Education Act. The continuum of placement options ranges from fully included general education type classrooms to more restrictive environments such as alternative education…

  20. The Impact of Teaching Self-Determination Skills on the On-Task and Off-Task Behaviors of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John R.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline across participants design was used to examine the functional relation between the "Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction" (SDLMI) intervention and the on- and off-task behaviors of high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The results showed that all four students significantly…

  1. The Past Is Prologue: Suggestions for Moving Forward in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, C. Michael; Kauffman, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors' association goes back more than 40 years, when they were both starting doctoral studies in special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) at the University of Kansas. In this article, the authors provide a balanced (albeit biased) account of the good and the bad, including some of the many achievements…

  2. What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

  3. Ecological Factors in Social Skill Acquisition: High School Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in the United States and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) in "sister" cities located in the United States (Site One) and in Norway (Site Two). Theory development was…

  4. Influence of Peer Buddy Program Interventions for Adolescents with Disabilities in a High School Setting: Impact on Social and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Ragea Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was chosen for this study in order to examine the effectiveness of the Peer Buddy Program across one year on the social and academic skill acquisition of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD). Specifically, this research focused on identifying the…

  5. The Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development with Content Area Prompts for Persuasive Essays on the Planning and Written Language Performance of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauth, Clara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of self-regulating strategies (SRSD) to support students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) in the academic area of writing. Eight, eighth grade students identified as having emotional disabilities participated in a multiple baseline multiple probe designed to assess the effects of teaching persuasive…

  6. Function-Based Planning for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahgahgwon, Kari N.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Turton, Amina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of function-based intervention for young children at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in inclusive environments. Participants were two kindergarten students and one first-grade student, all of whom exhibited chronic disruptive behavior in the classroom despite previous interventions implemented…

  7. Social Skills Instruction for Urban Learners with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Culturally Responsive and Computer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…

  8. Job Stressors and Teacher Job Satisfaction in Programs Serving Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adera, Beatrice A.; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher turnover is problem that continues to plague the field of special education, given the associated costs when a teacher leaves his or her job. The challenges associated with recruitment and retention of quality teachers, especially in programs serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have been attributed to a variety…

  9. Best Practices to Support Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Kelley S.; Michaud, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act" mandates that teachers employ evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the classroom in order to improve student performance. For students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) to be successful, particularly in inclusive settings, the most salient practices would probably be those promoting classroom organization…

  10. Teaching Paragraph Composition to Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Using the Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Tina Marlene; Hinkson-Lee, Kim; Collins, Belva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching paragraph composition to 4, 5th grade students identified with emotional behavioral disorder (EBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The instructor taught students how to construct and proofread a 5-sentence paragraph…

  11. Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Different Learning Environments: Academic and Self-Concept Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisolm, Terrence Ranier

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) perform poorly both academically and behaviorally, and this performance tends not to improve over time. There is a need to understand the effect of learning environments on the academic achievement and self-concept of this population. In this quantitative, archival study, academic achievement…

  12. Cross-Setting Correspondence in Sociometric Nominations among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hoza, Betsy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Peer problems are common among children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). However, the extent to which children's peer functioning varies across settings is unknown, as is the incremental power of peer functioning in different settings in predicting subsequent psychopathology. Participants were 57 children with…

  13. Prove Them Wrong: Be There for Secondary Students with an Emotional or Behavioral Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Students with an emotional or behavioral disability (EBD) are sometimes judged and feared based on their label before teachers even meet them. These students are different than other students that walk into a classroom, but they should never be feared. They have had more "loops" in their roller coaster ride of adolescent life than the average…

  14. After High School: The Status of Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rhonda; Bunsen, Teresa D.

    1995-01-01

    This literature review examined the current status of young adults with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) two to five years after leaving high school, in employment, residential environment, social and interpersonal networks, dependency, and learned helplessness. Suggestions for school-implemented community adjustment programs are offered. (DB)

  15. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard P.; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Laylin, Jeff; Szoke, Carolyn; Petrillo, Tai; Culey, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). The CW-FIT program includes four elements designed from…

  16. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  17. What Are They Thinking? The Moral Judgment of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the moral judgment of 12 third- through fifth-grade children with and without emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and to explore how feelings affected their thought processes. Data were gathered via three individually conducted moral dilemma interviews with each child participant. These procedures produced…

  18. Three Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Tell Why People Do Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a small preliminary investigation of the moral judgment of three children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) using case study research methodology to describe their moral orientations and explore how their reasoning patterns might affect the development of a cooperative moral orientation. Data were…

  19. From High School to Juvenile Corrections: The Downward Spiral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Jessica A.; Trice, John Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) require pervasive supports that are typically addressed through behavior intervention plans. This article illustrates one student's ("Mark") journey from the general education high school campus, to an alternative discipline campus, and subsequent placement at a juvenile corrections setting. Also,…

  20. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2012-01-01

    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  1. Medicine in the Classroom: A Review of Psychiatric Medications for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Naomi A.; Konopasek, Dean

    2007-01-01

    There are many ways to help children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) succeed in school. Behavior intervention plans provide support to help students adjust their actions to fit school norms. Inclusive philosophy and practices continue to break the cycle of restricted and segregated placements, whereas schoolwide intervention models…

  2. Role Models, Approaches to Studying, and Self-Efficacy in Forensic and Mainstream High School Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Michael; Dede, Yemi U.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between role models, approaches to studying, and self-efficacy in students attending a high school specialising in educating those with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD, n = 30) and students attending a mainstream high school (n = 41) in the UK. Types and quantity of role models held by students…

  3. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: Empowering Staff to Implement Meaningful Program Evaluation and Improvement to Better Serve Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bridget; Clancy, Michaela; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Doug

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years researchers have published lists of evidence-based practices that research indicates "should" be in place in programs and supports for students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) (e.g., Farley, Torres, Wailehua, & Cook, 2012; Ryan, Pierce, & Mooney, 2008; Simpson, Peterson, & Smith, 2011). Some…

  4. Preparing Teachers for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disabilities in Professional Development Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belknap, Nancy; Mosca, Frank J.

    This paper describes George Washington University's Teacher Preparation Programs for Children with Emotional Disturbance, which uses a Professional Development School (PDS) model to deepen understanding about the specific needs of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) and prepare outstanding classroom teachers. Goals are to improve…

  5. Disability as Metaphor: Examining the Conceptual Framing of Emotional Behavioral Disorder in American Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth, Scot

    2007-01-01

    A growing, interdisciplinary field of cognitive linguistics has developed in recent decades, bringing together research from many fields to explore the ways that metaphors provide structure and semantic content to thought and language. In this article, the American public school disability emotional/behavioral disorder (E/BD) is examined in regard…

  6. Social Acceptability of Five Screening Instruments for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) screening occurs in only two percent of our schools. This is unfortunate because universal screening is linked to prevention and early intervention with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in children and youth, a population who continues to experience a plethora of poor outcomes. The social…

  7. Differences in Drinking Expectancies and Motives for Regular Education and Special Education High School Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Harbke, Colin R.; Blake, Dawn; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives were compared for regular education students (n = 159) and students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving special education services (n = 51). Differences existed between groups with respect to expected negative social consequences and emotional and physical outcomes associated with drinking.…

  8. Teachers Working Together: How to Communicate, Collaborate, and Facilitate Positive Behavior in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chan; Weiss, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a school wide positive behavior intervention and support (PBIS) framework is well established as a beneficial model for the majority of students taught in general education classrooms (e.g., Bradshaw, Mitchell, & Leaf, 2010). Some students, whether at-risk for or school-identified with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) or other…

  9. Engaging Students with Behavior Disorders in Mathematics Practice Using the High-"p" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.

    2011-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate significant academic deficits across content areas (Coutinho, 1986; Lane, Barton-Arwood, Nelson, & Wehby, 2008; Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith, 2004; Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004; Ruhl & Berlinghoff, 1992). Mathematics, however, appears to be especially…

  10. Measuring Technology and Engineering Literacy in the Engineering by Design™ Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Tanner; Burke, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Engineering byDesign™ (EbD) provides teachers and students with reflective, formative, and comprehensive summative assessment tools throughout the curriculum. Each lesson, unit, and course is created with a list of essential questions that are meant to guide students to a deeper understanding of national standards across the STEM domains (STL,…

  11. Improving the Consistency of Interventions in a Public Middle School Therapeutic Program for Students with Severe Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Robert P.

    This study was designed to improve teachers' abilities to respond effectively to 8 students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) in a self-contained class in a public middle school through the implementation of individualized treatment plans (ITPs), a form of individualized behavior plans. ITPs are intended to stimulate staff to think…

  12. Who Is Writing? Author Affiliation across Peer-Reviewed Journals of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Naomi A.; Janney, Donna M.; Rekart, Jerome L.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of practitioner participation in identifying and maintaining use of best educational practice is well established; however, little is known about the ways in which practitioners contribute to the development and dissemination of those practices within the field of emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). This review examines…

  13. Understanding the Emotional Development of Twice Exceptional Rural Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Beverly; Montgomery, Diane

    Twice exceptional students are those who have emotional disturbances or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and who also display characteristics of high intellectual ability. Case studies were developed over a 3-year period on three male junior high school students who fit this definition. Data were interpreted using Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of…

  14. The Effects of a Dog Reading Visitation Program on Academic Engagement Behavior in Three Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities: A Single Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…

  15. Using the Computer with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Gail

    This guide examines the computer's role in the educational environment of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The computer's power to reinforce students who are reluctant learners, in a personalized learning environment without the complications of adult interactions or behavioral control issues, is noted. Characteristics of EBD…

  16. Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment…

  17. Effects of Student Response Systems on Participation and Learning of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a student response system (SRS) on the participation, classroom behavior, and academic achievement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The purpose of this research was to determine if using an SRS, in place of typical classroom methods of student response, would generate increases in…

  18. Effects of Oral Reading Fluency on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders' Latency to Continue Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) present deficits in literacy skills, in part because their disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement. Antecedent manipulations, such as those based on behavioral momentum theory, can increase students' contact with reinforcement, leading to greater task engagement. This study…

  19. Behavioral Momentum during a Continuous Reading Task: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often fail to master literacy skills, in part because disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement and persistence. The theory of behavioral momentum explains the persistence of behavior in the face of changing environmental conditions. The current exploratory study examined…

  20. Expert-Recommended Strategies for Teaching the Twice-Exceptional Student in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Cherylynn Jody

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the best practice strategies, those that bring the most value for the twice-exceptional (2e) student (giftedness with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], specific learning disabilities [SLD], and/or emotional and behavioral disorder [EBD]) in the…

  1. Canadian Children's Mental Health: Building Capacity in School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing identification of children with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that innovative ways of addressing these concerns are explored. Fewer than half of students identified with mental illness receive treatment, leaving a significant proportion of students to cope with mental illness without support. One…

  2. Promising Practices for Effective Transition for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore

    2012-01-01

    Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) have been consistently experiencing dismal outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of outcomes for this population, examine school-based instructional and behavioral strategies, and discuss transition related practices intended to improve present and future…

  3. Measuring Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs Targeting Young Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Conceptual Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Cox, Julia R.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with and at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) present challenges for early childhood teachers. Evidence-based programs designed to address these young children's behavior problems exist, but there are a number of barriers to implementing these programs in early childhood settings. Advancing the science of treatment…

  4. Update on endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) and surgical intervention are two most common and effective treatments for gastric outlet obstruction. Correction of gastric outlet obstruction without the need for surgery is an issue that has been tried to be resolved in these decades; this management has developed with EBD, advanced treatments like local steroid injection, electrocauterization, and stent have been added recently. The most common causes of pediatric gastric outlet obstruction are idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, peptic ulcer disease followed by the ingestion of caustic substances, stenosis secondary to surgical anastomosis; antral web, duplication cyst, ectopic pancreas, and other rare conditions. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with complimentary histopathologic studies. EBD are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over surgical intervention depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the gastric outlet obstruction. Local steroid injection and electrocauterization can augment the effect of EBD. The future of endoscopic treatment seems to be aimed at the use of endoscopic electrocauterization and balloon dilatations. PMID:27803770

  5. Validation of the Ford Score as a Measure for Predicting the Level of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Mainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…

  6. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  7. Increasing Secondary Teachers' Behavior-Specific Praise Using a Video Self-Modeling and Visual Performance Feedback Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    Teachers working with students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) in elementary schools can be helped to increase use of an important behavioral strategy, behavior-specific praise statements (BSPS). Unfortunately, teachers' behaviors return to baseline levels when researchers leave, and little is known about the use of praise on high school…

  8. Perspectives of Pre-Service Teachers on Students with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Andrea P.; Yocum, Russell G.; Pinkie, Elyse C.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of working with students of emotional disabilities or who are considered Emotionally/Behaviorally Disturbed (E/BD) is varied across the spectrum. However, one constant that does hold true is that all pre-service teachers have some hesitation in working with such students, especially if they lack any previous exposure to students with…

  9. Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David L.; Vostal, Brooks; Lylo, Brooke; Hua, Youjia

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends toward the inclusion of students with disabilities mean that a majority of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) now spend at least 40% of their day in general education settings. With this change in location, teachers in general education settings are now asked to perform tasks that were not given much emphasis…

  10. Equivalence by descent: pedigree analysis with inbreeding and gametic phase disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Denniston, C

    2000-01-01

    In the presence of gametic phase disequilibrium and inbreeding, multiple locus genotype frequencies cannot be written solely in terms of identity by descent (IBD) probabilities. Following Cockerham & Weir (1973) we introduce the concept of 'equivalence by descent' (EBD), an extension of the concept of IBD to include non-allelic genes. Two genes are said to be EBD if they derive ultimately from the same founding gamete of a pedigree. Allelic genes that are EBD are also IBD. For two loci 11 EBD probabilities, the 'J-coefficients,' are required and for three loci 117 J-coefficients are required to write genotype probabilities. It is shown how the 117 J-coefficients for three loci can be reduced to a basic set of 37. Computer programs, written in the algebraic programming language, MAPLE, are described which are capable of calculating the two- and three-locus J-coefficients for any pedigree, subject only to size limitations. The MAPLE packages are available from the author upon request.

  11. Individual and Systemic Approaches to Collaboration and Consultation on Behalf of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. From the Second CCBD Mini Library Series: Successful Interventions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A.; Sugai, George; Lewis, Tim; Nelson, J. Ron; Cheney, Douglas; Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    This monograph discusses using collaboration and consultation to teach children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in the general education classroom. After an introductory chapter, Chapter 2, "Collaboration and Consultation: Promises and Limitations," compares collaboration and consultation as they relate to serving students…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  13. Peer Relations and Emotion Regulation of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties with and without a Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Sasha; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Cobham, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) and those who also have developmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can experience the same adverse consequences in their peer interactions and relationships. This present study compared the emotion regulation and peer…

  14. Validating Curriculum-Based Measurement for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, Cecil, III; Boon, Richard T.; Burke, Mack D.; Martin, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in middle school using the Maze (MAZE); Oral Reading Fluency (ORF); and the "Woodcock-Johnson, Third Edition" (WJ-III), Passage Comprehension (WJ-PC) and Reading Fluency (WJ-RF)…

  15. Reading Instruction in Secondary Day Treatment and Residential Schools for Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan; Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain the first national picture of the characteristics of special educators who provide reading or English instruction in secondary day treatment and residential schools for youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) as well as their approach to reading instruction. Also, information was collected concerning…

  16. Mirror Neuron Dysfunction and Ego-Boundary Disturbances in Schizophrenia: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego-boundary disturbance (EBD) is a unique symptom cluster characterized by passivity experiences (involving thoughts, actions, emotions and sensations) attributed by patients to some external agency. The neurobiology of these “first rank” symptoms is poorly understood. Aberrant mirror neuron activation may explain impaired self-monitoring and agency attribution underlying these symptoms. We aim to study mirror neuron activity (MNA) in schizophrenia patients with and without EBD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Materials and Methods: 50 right-handed schizophrenia patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were evaluated using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. They completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. Motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) with (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke MEP of motor threshold 1 mV amplitude (MT1), (c) two paired pulse paradigms (short- and long interval intra-cortical inhibition). These were done in three states: Actual observation of an action using the FDI, virtual-observation (video) of this action and resting state. The percent change of MEP from resting to action-observation states formed the measure of putative MNA. Results: MNA measured using MT1 and 120% RMT paradigms was significantly lower in the 18 patients with EBD (thought-broadcast/withdrawal/insertion, made-act/impulse/affect and somatic passivity) than the 32 patients without EBD (t = 2.431, P = 0.020; t = 2.051, P = 0.04 respectively for the two paradigms). The two groups did not differ on age, gender, education and total symptom scores. Conclusion: Schizophrenia patients with EBD have lower premotor MNA. This highlights the role of MNA dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this unique and intriguing symptom cluster in

  17. Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers for High Breakdown Strength Polymer Film Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Samant, Saumil P; Grabowski, Christopher A; Kisslinger, Kim; Yager, Kevin G; Yuan, Guangcui; Satija, Sushil K; Durstock, Michael F; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2016-03-01

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (EBD) and dielectric permittivity (εr) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher EBD over that of component polymers. Multilayered films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS-b-PMMA system show ∼50% enhancement in EBD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in EBD is attributed to the "barrier effect", where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in EBD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. This approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials. PMID:26942835

  18. Refractory strictures despite steroid injection after esophageal endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256

  19. Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for high breakdown strength polymer film capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Samant, Saumil P.; Grabowski, Christopher A.; Kisslinger, Kim; Yager, Kevin G.; Yuan, Guangcui; Satija, Sushil K.; Durstock, Michael F.; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2016-03-04

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (EBD) and dielectric permittivity (εr) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher EBD over that of component polymers. Multilayeredmore » films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS-b-PMMA system show ~50% enhancement in EBD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in EBD is attributed to the “barrier effect”, where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in EBD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. Lastly, this approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials.« less

  20. Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers for High Breakdown Strength Polymer Film Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Samant, Saumil P; Grabowski, Christopher A; Kisslinger, Kim; Yager, Kevin G; Yuan, Guangcui; Satija, Sushil K; Durstock, Michael F; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2016-03-01

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (EBD) and dielectric permittivity (εr) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher EBD over that of component polymers. Multilayered films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS-b-PMMA system show ∼50% enhancement in EBD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in EBD is attributed to the "barrier effect", where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in EBD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. This approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials.

  1. Nanolaminates: increasing dielectric breakdown strength of composites.

    PubMed

    Fillery, Scott P; Koerner, Hilmar; Drummy, Lawrence; Dunkerley, Erik; Durstock, Michael F; Schmidt, Daniel F; Vaia, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    Processable, low-cost, high-performance hybrid dielectrics are enablers for a vast array of green technologies, including high-temperature electrical insulation and pulsed power capacitors for all-electric transportation vehicles. Maximizing the dielectric breakdown field (E(BD)), in conjunction with minimization of leakage current, directly impacts system performance because of the field's quadratic relationship with electrostatic energy storage density. On the basis of the extreme internal interfacial area and ultrafine morphology, polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (PNCs) have demonstrated modest increases in E(BD) at very low inorganic loadings, but because of insufficient control of the hierarchal morphology of the blend, have yielded a precipitous decline in E(BD) at intermediate and high inorganic volume fractions. Here in, we demonstrate that E(BD) can be increased up to these intermediate inorganic volume fractions by creating uniform one-dimensional nanocomposites (nanolaminates) rather than blends of spherical inorganic nanoparticles and polymers. Free standing nanolaminates of highly aligned and dispersed montmorillonite in polyvinyl butyral exhibited enhancements in E(BD) up to 30 vol % inorganic (70 wt % organically modified montmorillonite). These relative enhancements extend up to five times the inorganic fraction observed for random nanoparticle dispersions, and are anywhere from two to four times greater than observed at comparable volume fraction of nanoparticles. The breakdown characteristics of this model system suggested a trade-off between increased path tortuosity and polymer-deficient structural defects. This implies that an idealized PNC morphology to retard the breakdown cascade perpendicular to the electrodes will occur at intermediate volume fractions and resemble a discotic nematic phase where highly aligned, high-aspect ratio nanometer thick plates are uniformly surrounded by nanoscopic regions of polymer.

  2. Crystal structure of the AmpR effector binding domain provides insight into the molecular regulation of inducible ampc beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Balcewich, Misty D; Reeve, Thomas M; Orlikow, Evan A; Donald, Lynda J; Vocadlo, David J; Mark, Brian L

    2010-07-30

    Hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC) is a formidable mechanism of resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. AmpC expression is regulated by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator AmpR. ampR and ampC genes form a divergent operon with overlapping promoters to which AmpR binds and regulates the transcription of both genes. AmpR induces ampC by binding to one member of the family of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl peptides, which are cytosolic catabolites of peptidoglycan that accumulate during beta-lactam challenge. To gain structural insights into AmpR regulation, we determined the crystal structure of the effector binding domain (EBD) of AmpR from Citrobacter freundii up to 1.83 A resolution. The AmpR EBD is dimeric and each monomer comprises two subdomains that adopt alpha/beta Rossmann-like folds. Located between the monomer subdomains is a pocket that was found to bind the crystallization buffer molecule 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid. The pocket, together with a groove along the surface of subdomain I, forms a putative effector binding site into which a molecule of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide could be modeled. Amino acid substitutions at the base of the interdomain pocket either were found to render AmpR incapable of inducing ampC (Thr103Val, Ser221Ala and Tyr264Phe) or resulted in constitutive ampC expression (Gly102Glu). While the substitutions that prevented ampC induction did not alter the overall AmpR EBD structure, circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the nonconservative Gly102Glu mutation affected EBD secondary structure, confirming previous work suggesting that Gly102Glu induces a conformational change to result in constitutive AmpC production. PMID:20594961

  3. Properties of optical thin films and coatings prepared by reactive electron-beam deposition with and without ion bombardments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Rung Y.; Shiau, Sen C.; Lee, Chii H.; Ho, Fang C.; Hua, Mu-Yi

    1997-12-01

    The structural, microstructural, optical, and mechanical properties of MgF2, SiO2, and TiO2 films prepared by reactive electron-beam deposition (EBD) and reactive ion- assisted deposition (IAD) were systematically investigated using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD), a transmission electron microscope, a spectrophotometer, and a microhardness tester, respectively. A mixture gas of pure argon and pure oxygen was used as the reactant. The mean ion energy was about 90 eV for the IAD process. Results show that the preferred orientation, refractive index, and hardness of the films were strongly influenced by ion bombardments, although the variations of the phases and grain sizes were insignificant. With the fixed x- ray incident angle of 2 deg, the measured preferred orientation of polycrystalline MgF2 films deposited on unheated glass substrate by IAD was [110], which was consistent with the powder XRD pattern of MgF2, whereas that of the film deposited by EBD at a substrate temperature of 280 degrees Celsius was [111]. The refractive index and hardness of the films deposited by IAD were always higher than those of the respective films deposited by EBD at a substrate temperature of 280 degrees Celsius, which were due to the higher packing density caused by energetic ion bombardments. A 24-layer near-IR cutoff filter of alternating SiO2 and TiO2 layers prepared by IAD was more efficient on near-IR isolation and more thermally stable than that prepared by EBD. The optical thickness variation for the filter prepared by IAD over a substrate holder radius of 30 cm was less than 1%.

  4. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Anaerobic Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenase, a Novel Mo-Fe-S Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Hope A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2001-01-01

    The first step in anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization in denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 is the oxidation of ethylbenzene to (S)-(−)-1-phenylethanol. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, which catalyzes this reaction, is a unique enzyme in that it mediates the stereoselective hydroxylation of an aromatic hydrocarbon in the absence of molecular oxygen. We purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase to apparent homogeneity and showed that the enzyme is a heterotrimer (αβγ) with subunit masses of 100 kDa (α), 35 kDa (β), and 25 kDa (γ). Purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase contains approximately 0.5 mol of molybdenum, 16 mol of iron, and 15 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of holoenzyme, as well as a molydopterin cofactor. In addition to ethylbenzene, purified ethylbenzene dehydrogenase was found to oxidize 4-fluoro-ethylbenzene and the nonaromatic hydrocarbons 3-methyl-2-pentene and ethylidenecyclohexane. Sequencing of the encoding genes revealed that ebdA encodes the α subunit, a 974-amino-acid polypeptide containing a molybdopterin-binding domain. The ebdB gene encodes the β subunit, a 352-amino-acid polypeptide with several 4Fe-4S binding domains. The ebdC gene encodes the γ subunit, a 214-amino-acid polypeptide that is a potential membrane anchor subunit. Sequence analysis and biochemical data suggest that ethylbenzene dehydrogenase is a novel member of the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes. PMID:11443088

  6. Hybrid therapy with locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid sheets to prevent stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nagami, Yasuaki; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Ominami, Masaki; Fukunaga, Shusei; Sugimori, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The incidence of stricture formation caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for widespread lesions is high, and stricture formation can reduce quality of life. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets with fibrin glue to prevent stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients in whom we predicted stricture formation would be difficult to prevent with a single prophylactic steroid injection. Methods: Ten patients who underwent esophageal ESD were enrolled (entire-circumference: n = 6; sub-circumference, more than 5/6 of the circumference: n = 4). A single locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue were used after ESD. We evaluated the incidence of stricture formation, the number of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) procedures needed to treat the stricture formation, and adverse events of the therapy. Results: Esophageal stricture formation occurred in 50.0 % of patients (5/10) (median EBD sessions 0.5, range 0 – 16). Subanalysis showed that stricture formation occurred in 37.5 % of patients (3/8) excluded the lesions located near a previous scar from ESD or surgical anastomosis site (median EBD sessions 0, range 0 – 4). Conclusion: Hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue may have the potential to prevent esophageal stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients.

  7. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  8. Hybrid therapy with locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid sheets to prevent stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nagami, Yasuaki; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Ominami, Masaki; Fukunaga, Shusei; Sugimori, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The incidence of stricture formation caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for widespread lesions is high, and stricture formation can reduce quality of life. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets with fibrin glue to prevent stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients in whom we predicted stricture formation would be difficult to prevent with a single prophylactic steroid injection. Methods: Ten patients who underwent esophageal ESD were enrolled (entire-circumference: n = 6; sub-circumference, more than 5/6 of the circumference: n = 4). A single locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue were used after ESD. We evaluated the incidence of stricture formation, the number of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) procedures needed to treat the stricture formation, and adverse events of the therapy. Results: Esophageal stricture formation occurred in 50.0 % of patients (5/10) (median EBD sessions 0.5, range 0 – 16). Subanalysis showed that stricture formation occurred in 37.5 % of patients (3/8) excluded the lesions located near a previous scar from ESD or surgical anastomosis site (median EBD sessions 0, range 0 – 4). Conclusion: Hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue may have the potential to prevent esophageal stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients. PMID:27652294

  9. Evidence based dental care: integrating clinical expertise with systematic research.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Mallika; Panat, Sunil R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Agarwal, Nupur; Upadhyay, Nitin; Alok, Abhijeet

    2014-02-01

    Clinical dentistry is becoming increasingly complex and our patients more knowledgeable. Evidence-based care is now regarded as the "gold standard" in health care delivery worldwide. The basis of evidence based dentistry is the published reports of research projects. They are, brought together and analyzed systematically in meta analysis, the source for evidence based decisions. Activities in the field of evidence-based dentistry has increased tremendously in the 21(st) century, more and more practitioners are joining the train, more education on the subject is being provided to elucidate the knotty areas and there is increasing advocacy for the emergence of the field into a specialty discipline. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD), if endorsed by the dental profession, including the research community, may well- influence the extent to which society values dental research. Hence, dental researchers should understand the precepts of EBD, and should also recognize the challenges it presents to the research community to strengthen the available evidence and improve the processes of summarizing the evidence and translating it into practice This paper examines the concept of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), including some of the barriers and will discuss about clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24701551

  10. Evidence-based dentistry as it relates to dental materials.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Stephen C; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is reviewed in depth to underscore the limitations for evidence-based dental materials information that exist at this time. Anecdotal estimates of evidence for dental practice are in the range of 8 percent to 10 percent. While the process of evaluating the literature base for dental evidence began 20 years ago, it was not practical to implement it until high-speed wireless connections, open access to journals, and omnipresent connections via smart phones became a reality. EBD includes five stages of information collection and analysis, starting with a careful definition of a clinical question using the PICO(T) approach. Clinical evidence in randomized control trials is considered the best. Clinical trial perspectives (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) and outcome designs (RCTs, SCTs, CCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies) are quite varied. Aggregation techniques (including meta-analyses) allow meaningful combinations of clinical data from trials with similar designs but with fewer rigors. Appraisals attempt to assess the entire evidence base without bias and answer clinical questions. Varying intensities to these approaches, Cochrane Collaboration, ADA-EBD Library, UTHSCSA CATs Library, are used to answer questions. Dental materials evidence from clinical trials is infrequent, short-term, and often not compliant with current guidelines (registration, CONSORT, PRISMA). Reports in current evidence libraries indicate less than 5 percent of evidence is related to restorative dental materials. PMID:24571523

  11. An approach to define semantics for BPM systems interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, Mariela; Caliusco, María Laura; Chiotti, Omar; Rosa Galli, María

    2015-04-01

    This article proposes defining semantics for Business Process Management systems interoperability through the ontology of Electronic Business Documents (EBD) used to interchange the information required to perform cross-organizational processes. The semantic model generated allows aligning enterprise's business processes to support cross-organizational processes by matching the business ontology of each business partner with the EBD ontology. The result is a flexible software architecture that allows dynamically defining cross-organizational business processes by reusing the EBD ontology. For developing the semantic model, a method is presented, which is based on a strategy for discovering entity features whose interpretation depends on the context, and representing them for enriching the ontology. The proposed method complements ontology learning techniques that can not infer semantic features not represented in data sources. In order to improve the representation of these entity features, the method proposes using widely accepted ontologies, for representing time entities and relations, physical quantities, measurement units, official country names, and currencies and funds, among others. When the ontologies reuse is not possible, the method proposes identifying whether that feature is simple or complex, and defines a strategy to be followed. An empirical validation of the approach has been performed through a case study.

  12. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Christina; Forrest, Christopher B; Stumbo, Scott; Gombojav, Narangerel; Carle, Adam; Irwin, Charles E

    2012-04-01

    School success predicts many pathways for health and well-being across the life span. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success are critical to understand for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), whose life course trajectories are already impacted by their chronic health problems. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used (1) to estimate national and state prevalence and within and across states disparities in factors promoting school success (engagement, participation, safety) or potentially impeding success (missing school, grade repetition, school identified problems) for all children and CSHCN and (2) to evaluate associations with CSHCN service need complexity and presence of emotional, behavioral or developmental problems (EBD) as well as with school case management policies in states. Among school age children, 60 % experienced all three factors promoting school success (49.3-73.8 % across states), dropping to 51.3 % for CSHCN (39.4-64.7 % across states) and to 36.2 % for the 40 % of all CSHCN who have both more complex service needs and EBD. CSHCN were more likely to experience factors potentially impeding school success. After accounting for child factors, CSHCN living in states requiring case management in schools for children with disabilities were less likely to experience grade repetition (OR 0.65). Within-state disparities between non-CSHCN and CSHCN varied across states. Threats to school success for US children are pervasive and are especially pronounced for CSHCN with more complex needs and EBD. Findings support broad, non-condition specific efforts to promote school success for CSHCN and consideration of state school policies, such as case management.

  13. Comparison of biophysical factors influencing on emphysema quantification with low-dose CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Chang Yong; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2014-03-01

    Emphysema Index(EI) measurements in MDCT is known to be influenced by various biophysical factors such as total lung volume, and body size. We investigated the association of the four biophysical factors with emphysema index in low-dose MDCT. In particular, we attempted to identify a potentially stronger biophysical factor than total lung volume. A total of 400 low-dose MDCT volumes taken at 120kVp, 40mAs, 1mm thickness, and B30f reconstruction kernel were used. The lungs, airways, and pulmonary vessels were automatically segmented, and two Emphysema Indices, relative area below -950HU(RA950) and 15th percentile(Perc15), were extracted from the segmented lungs. The biophysical factors such as total lung volume(TLV), mode of lung attenuation(ModLA), effective body diameter(EBD), and the water equivalent body diameter(WBD) were estimated from the segmented lung and body area. The association of biophysical factors with emphysema indices were evaluated by correlation coefficients. The mean emphysema indices were 8.3±5.5(%) in RA950, and -930±18(HU) in Perc15. The estimates of biophysical factors were 4.7±1.0(L) in TLV, -901±21(HU) in ModLA, 26.9±2.2(cm) in EBD, and 25.9±2.6(cm) in WBD. The correlation coefficients of biophysical factors with RA950 were 0.73 in TLV, 0.94 in ModLA, 0.31 in EBD, and 0.18 WBD, the ones with Perc15 were 0.74 in TLV, 0.98 in ModLA, 0.29 in EBD, and 0.15 WBD. Study results revealed that two biophysical factors, TLV and ModLA, mostly affects the emphysema indices. In particular, the ModLA exhibited strongest correlation of 0.98 with Perc15, which indicating the ModLA is the most significant confounding biophysical factor in emphysema indices measurement.

  14. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco fracture zone, Northeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Dunham, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude. In addition, a unique opal-CT (cristobalite-tridymite)-hematite mound was discovered, and mineralized sediments and rock were collected and analyzed. Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor. The light-weight rock of the porous mound consists predominantly of opal-CT and hematite filaments, rods, and strands, and averages 77.8% SiO2 and 11.8% Fe2O3. The hematite and opal-CT precipitated from a low-temperature (???115?? C), strongly oxidized, silica- and iron-rich, sulfur-poor hydrothermal fluid; a bacterial mat provided the framework for precipitation. Samples collected from a volcaniclastic rock outcrop consist primarily of quartz with lesser plagioclase, smectite, pyroxene, and sulfides; SiO2 content averages 72.5%. Formation of these quartz-rich samples is best explained by cooling in an up-flow zone of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids within a low permeability system. Opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz mineralization found in different places within the EBD hydrothermal field likely reflects decreasing silica saturation and increasing temperature of the mineralizing fluid with increasing silica crystallinity. Six push cores recovered gravel, coarse sand, and mud mineralized variously by Fe or Mn oxides, silica, and sulfides. Total rare-earth element concentrations are low for both the rock and push core samples. Ce and Eu anomalies reflect high and low temperature hydrothermal components and detrital phases. A remarkable variety of types of mineralization occur within the EBD field, yet a consistent suite of elements is enriched (relative to basalt and unmineralized cores) in all samples analyzed: Ag, Au, S, Mo, Hg, As, Sb, Sr, and U; most samples are also enriched in Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn. On the basis of these element enrichments, the EBD hydrothermal field might best be described as a base

  15. Effects of buffer layer and thermal annealing on the performance of hybrid Cu2S/PVK electrically bistable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Yue; Guan, Li; Li, Jiantao; Wang, Yichao; Dong, Guoyi; Tang, Aiwei; Teng, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electrically bistable devices (EBDs) based on Cu2S/PVK nanocomposites have been fabricated by using a simple spin-coating method. An obvious electrical bistability is observed in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices, and the presence of the buffer layer and the annealing process have an important effect on the enhancement of the ON/OFF current ratios. Different electrical conduction mechanisms are responsible for the charge switching of the devices in the presence and absence of the buffer layer.

  16. Detection of and response to a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm on the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dziak, R.P.; Fox, C.G.; Embley, R.W.; Lupton, J.E.; Johnson, G.C.; Chadwick, W.W.; Koski, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The East Blanco Depression (EBD), a pull-apart basin within the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ), was the site of an intense earthquake T-wave swarm that began at 1317Z on January 9, 1994. Although tectonically generated earthquakes occur frequently along the BTFZ, this swarm was unusual in that it was preceded and accompanied by periodic, low-frequency, long-duration acoustic signals, that originated from near the swarm epicenters. These tremor-like signals were very similar in character to acoustic energy produced by a shallow-submarine eruption near Socorro Island, a seamount several hundred km west of Baja, California. The ???69 earthquakes and ???400 tremor-like events at the EBD occurred sporadically, with two periods of peak activity occurring between January 5-16 and 27-31. The swarm-like character of the earthquakes and the similarity of the tremor activity to the Socorro eruption indicated that the EBD was undergoing an intrusion or eruption episode. On January 27, six CTD/rosette casts were conducted at the site. Water samples from two of the stations yielded anomalous 3He concentrations, with maxima at ???2800 m depth over the main basin. In June 1994 two camera tows within the basin yielded evidence of pillow-lava volcanism and hydrothermal deposits, but no conclusive evidence of a recent seafloor eruption. In September 1994, deployments of the U.S. Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle resulted in the discovery of an active hydrothermal mound on the flanks of a pillow-lava volcano. The hydrothermal mound consists of Fe-rich hydrothermal precipitate and bacterial mats. Temperatures to 60??C were measured 30 cm below the surface. This is the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Although no conclusive evidence of volcanic activity associated with the T-wave event swarm was found during these response efforts, the EBD has been the site of recent seafloor eruptions. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical

  17. Strengths and limitations of evidence-based dermatology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel C

    2014-03-01

    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also

  18. Strengths and Limitations of Evidence-Based Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Hywel C

    2014-01-01

    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also

  19. Effects of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata on blood-brain barrier permeability in migraine rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Shen, Lan; Ma, Shiyu; Chen, Meiwan; Lin, Xiao; Hong, Yanlong; Liang, Shuang; Feng, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The two herbs Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) Hort. (Umbelliferae) and Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume (Orchidaceae), are widely used in the clinic for the treatment of migraine. This article aims to understand the effects of LC and GE on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in migraine rats. Serotonin, excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined at different sampling times to assess BBB disruption during a migraine attack. BBB permeability was examined by fluorescence imaging and Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation. The results showed that the expression of serotonin in migraine rat brain was enhanced from 30 min to 120 min and glutamate (Glu) was suppressed from 30 min to 60 min in LC-GE group compared with the model group (p < 0.05 or 0.01), while the MMP-9 levels in migraine rat blood was increased at 30 min as well as decreased at 120 min in LC-GE group compared with the model group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). EBD levels in rat brain were significantly lower at 30-60 min and 120-150 min in LC-GE group than that of the model group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Our findings demonstrated that LC and GE might decrease BBB permeability and maintain its integrity through regulating serotonin, EAAs and MMP-9 in migraine rats. PMID:26189306

  20. Extended Burnup Demonstration Reactor Fuels Program. Annual progress report, April 1983-March 1984. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, C.A.

    1985-06-20

    The US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation have participated since 1979 in a cooperative Extended Burnup Demonstration Program. Under the program, standard ENC-fabricated reload fuel in the Big Rock Point and Oyster Creek reactor cores has been irradiated to discharge burnups at or beyond 35,000 MWD/MTU, one to two cycles beyond its originally projected exposure life. The program provides for examination of the fuel at poolside before and after each extended burnup cycle as well as for limited destructive hot cell examination. The 1984 progress report covers work performed under the EBD program between April 1983 and March 1984. Major milestones reached during the period include completion of a hot cell examination on four high burnup rods from Big Rock Point and of a poolside on the Oyster Creek EBD fuel at discharge. The hot cell examination of four rods at burnups to 37.2 GWD/MTU confirmed poolside measurements on the same fuel, showing the urania and gadolinia-bearing fuel rods to be in excellent condition. No major cladding degradation, pellet restructuring, or pellet-clad interaction was found in any of the samples examined. The Oyster Creek fuel, examined at an assembly average exposure of 34.5 GWD/MTU, showed good performance with regard to both diametral creepdown and clad oxide accumulation.

  1. Selective determination of thiram residues in fruit and vegetables by hydrophilic interaction LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ringli, Daniela; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Thiram belongs to the most important class of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides including dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDs), ethylenebis(dithiocarbamtes) (EBDs) and propylenebis(dithiocarbamates) (PBDs). During the surface extraction of fruit and vegetables for the LC-MS determination of residues of DMDs, EBDs and PBDs, thiram is reduced by the penicillamine buffer to the DMD anion, thus resulting in false-positive findings of DMD fungicides like ziram. Therefore, an alkaline sulfite buffer was applied for surface extraction, quantitatively transforming thiram into the DMD anion and a stable DMD-sulfite adduct that was used as a selective marker for thiram. Separation was performed isocratically on a ZIC-pHILIC column with acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium hydroxide solution (85/15). Mass selective detection was carried out on a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to an electrospray ionisation interface operating in negative mode. Using d12-thiram as the internal standard, recoveries of 80-108% were obtained from apples, tomatoes, grapes and sweet peppers, spiked in the range of 0.02-1 mg kg(-1). Limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 2 µg kg(-1), respectively.

  2. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in special education schools: a United Kingdom study.

    PubMed

    Eapen, V; Robertson, M M; Zeitlin, H; Kurlan, R

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in children with severe school problems requiring a residential facility and comparison groups of children in regular day schools, we performed direct clinical examinations for the presence of tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) in 20 children from a residential school for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD); 25 children from a residential school for learning disabilities; 17 "problem" children (PC) (identified by teachers as having academic or behaviour problems) and 19 normal children (NC) selected at random (using random numbers) from a regular school. Of the EBD students, 65% were judged to have definite tics as compared with 24% of students with learning difficulties (P < 0.05), 6% of PC (P < 0.003) and none of the NC (P < 0.0006) group. Most of the affected students met diagnostic criteria for GTS. Our findings suggest that GTS is commonly associated with the need for special education and that this association is particularly robust for children with severe school problems. In these children, the presence of tics may be an indicator of an underlying dysfunction of neurological development.

  3. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2011-10-15

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  4. An experimental and theoretical investigation into the ``worm-hole'' effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Pan, Yafeng; Wang, Limin; Fang, Jinpeng; Sun, Xu; Li, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie

    2013-08-01

    On a nanosecond time scale, solid insulators abnormally fail in bulk rather than on surface, which is termed as the "worm-hole" effect. By using a generator with adjustable output pulse width and dozens of organic glass (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) samples, experiments to verify this effect are conducted. The results show that under short pulses of 10 ns, all the samples fail due to bulk breakdown, whereas when the pulse width is tuned to a long pulse of 7 μs, the samples fail as a result of surface flashover. The experimental results are interpreted by analyzing the conditions for the bulk breakdown and the surface flashover. It is found that under short pulses, the flashover threshold would be as high as the bulk breakdown strength (EBD) and the flashover time delay (td) would be longer than the pulse width (τ), both of which make the dielectrics' cumulative breakdown occur easily; whereas under long pulses, that Ef is much lower than EBD and td is smaller than τ is advantageous to the occurrence of the surface flashover. In addition, a general principle on solid insulation design under short pulse condition is proposed based on the experimental results and the theoretical analysis.

  5. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD.

  6. Selective determination of thiram residues in fruit and vegetables by hydrophilic interaction LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ringli, Daniela; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Thiram belongs to the most important class of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides including dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDs), ethylenebis(dithiocarbamtes) (EBDs) and propylenebis(dithiocarbamates) (PBDs). During the surface extraction of fruit and vegetables for the LC-MS determination of residues of DMDs, EBDs and PBDs, thiram is reduced by the penicillamine buffer to the DMD anion, thus resulting in false-positive findings of DMD fungicides like ziram. Therefore, an alkaline sulfite buffer was applied for surface extraction, quantitatively transforming thiram into the DMD anion and a stable DMD-sulfite adduct that was used as a selective marker for thiram. Separation was performed isocratically on a ZIC-pHILIC column with acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium hydroxide solution (85/15). Mass selective detection was carried out on a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to an electrospray ionisation interface operating in negative mode. Using d12-thiram as the internal standard, recoveries of 80-108% were obtained from apples, tomatoes, grapes and sweet peppers, spiked in the range of 0.02-1 mg kg(-1). Limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 2 µg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:24070320

  7. Androctonus australis hector venom contributes to the interaction between neuropeptides and mast cells in pulmonary hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chaïr-Yousfi, Imène; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome are frequent symptoms observed in the most severe cases of scorpion envenomation. The uncontrolled transmigration of leukocyte cells into the lung interstitium and alveolar space and pulmonary edema may be the cause of death. Mast cells can release various inflammatory mediators known to be involved in the development of lung edema following scorpion venom injection. The present study was designed to determine the evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor and the involvement of mast cell activation to induce pulmonary edema and to increase vascular permeability after Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom administration. To this end, mast cells were depleted using compound 48/80 (C48/80). Furthermore, the involvement of tachykinin NK1 receptors expressed on mast cell membranes was elucidated by their blocking with an antagonist. On the other hand, the ability of Aah venom to increase vascular permeability and to induce edema was also assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lungs of mice. Pulmonary edema, as assessed by the levels of EBD extravasation, was completely inhibited in compound 48/80-treated animals. Depletion by stimuli non-immunological C48/80 component markedly reduced induced inflammatory response following the venom administration. The mast cells seem to play an important role in the development of lung injury and the increase of vascular permeability in mice following the subcutaneous administration of Aah scorpion venom through the NK1 receptor. PMID:25601496

  8. Fabrication of wide-bandgap transparent electrodes by using conductive filaments: performance breakthrough in vertical-type GaN LED.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Shin, Hee Woong; Han, Il Ki; Kim, Tae Geun

    2014-01-01

    For realizing next-generation solid-state lighting devices, performance breakthroughs must be accomplished for nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Highly transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) may be key to achieving this goal, as they provide uniform current injection and distribution across a large device area, eventually increasing the light output power. However, the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of LEDs must be addressed. Herein, we introduce a novel strategy based on TCEs fabricated using wide-bandgap (WB) materials such as SiNx, incorporated beneath the n-type electrode of vertical-type LEDs, and show the feasibility of this strategy. We employ a novel electrical breakdown (EBD) technique to form conductive filaments (or current paths) between a TCE and n-GaN (GaN: gallium nitride). By employing the EBD process, we obtain both ohmic behavior for SiNx TCE/n-GaN and a current spreading effect across n-GaN. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of WB-TCEs for use in high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:25059757

  9. Intraparenchymal ultrasound application and improved distribution of infusate with convection-enhanced delivery in rodent and nonhuman primate brain.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yui; Saito, Ryuta; Haga, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Tadao; Zhang, Rong; Chonan, Masashi; Haryu, Shinya; Shoji, Takuhiro; Sato, Aya; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tsuruoka, Noriko; Nishiyachi, Keisuke; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an effective drug delivery method that delivers high concentrations of drugs directly into the targeted lesion beyond the blood-brain barrier. However, the drug distribution attained using CED has not satisfactorily covered the entire targeted lesion in tumors such as glioma. Recently, the efficacy of ultrasound assistance was reported for various drug delivery applications. The authors developed a new ultrasound-facilitated drug delivery (UFD) system that enables the application of ultrasound at the infusion site. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the UFD system and to examine effective ultrasound profiles. METHODS The authors fabricated a steel bar-based device that generates ultrasound and enables infusion of the aqueous drug from one end of the bar. The volume of distribution (Vd) after infusion of 10 ml of 2% Evans blue dye (EBD) into rodent brain was tested with different frequencies and applied voltages: 252 kHz/30 V; 252 kHz/60 V; 524 kHz/13 V; 524 kHz/30 V; and 524 kHz/60 V. In addition, infusion of 5 mM gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) was tested with 260 kHz/60 V, the distribution of which was evaluated using a 7-T MRI unit. In a nonhuman primate (Macaca fascicularis) study, 300 μl of 1 mM Gd-DTPA/EBD was infused. The final distribution was evaluated using MRI. Two-sample comparisons were made by Student t-test, and 1-way ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS After infusion of 10 μl of EBD into the rat brain using the UFD system, the Vds of EBD in the UFD groups were significantly larger than those of the control group. When a frequency of 252 kHz was applied, the Vd of the group in which 60 V was applied was significantly larger than that of the group in which 30 V was used. When a frequency of 524 kHz was applied, the Vd tended to increase with application of a higher voltage; however, the differences were not significant (1-way

  10. [Social network analysis and eating disorders: a study concerning blogs].

    PubMed

    Bastianelli, Alessia; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the structure of relations among blogs referring to Eating Disorders (ED). Through the use Of Social Network Analysis (SNA) we investigated both the groups and their structure in order to study the social processes within the network. A formal analysis of the ED blogs' characteristics has been carried out. This analysis provided us with information about network Centrality and Cohesion parameters. Results allow us to highlight the most relevant blogs in the network. Even if the extremely variable nature of the blogs does not allow to have a precise picture of the blogosphere referring to ED, this first attempt to apply SNA in this field allowed us to suggest interesting remarks about EBD both from the research and from the social perspective.

  11. The American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry: a critical resource for 21st century dental practice.

    PubMed

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Jeske, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Through its website (http:// www.ada.org/prof/resources/ebd/index.asp), the American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry offers dental health professionals access to systematic reviews of oral health-related research findings, as well as Clinical Recommendations, which summarize large bodies of scientific evidence in the form of practice recommendations, e.g., the use of professionally-applied topical fluoride and pit-and-fissure sealants. Another feature of the site of great practical importance to the practicing dentist is the Critical Summary, which is a concise review of an individual systematic review's methodology and findings, as well as the importance and context of the outcomes, and the strengths and weaknesses of the systematic review and its implications for dental practice.

  12. New Small Hydropower Technology to be Deployed in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Opsahl, Egil; Gordon, Jim; Bishop, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Earth By Design Inc, (EBD), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Knight Pi sold and Co., and CleanPower AS, has responded to a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) published by the Department of Energy (DOE) in April 2011. EBD submitted a proposal to install an innovative, small hydropower technology, the Turbinator, a Norwegian technology from CleanPower. The Turbinator combines an axial flow, fixed-blade Kaplan turbine and generator in a compact and sealed machine. This makes it a very simple and easy technology to be deployed and installed. DOE has awarded funding for this two-year project that will be implemented in Culver, Oregon. ORNL with the collaboration of CleanPower, will assess and evaluate the technology before and during the manufacturing phase and produce a full report to DOE. The goal of this phase-one report is to provide DOE Head Quarters (HQ), water power program management, a report with findings about the performance, readiness, capability, strengths and weakness, limitation of the technology, and potential full-scale deployment and application in the United States. Because of the importance of this information to the conventional hydropower industry and regulators, preliminary results will rapidly be distributed in the form of conference presentations, ORNL/DOE technical reports (publically available online, and publications in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. These reports will emphasize the relevance of the activities carried out over the two-year study (i.e., performance, robustness, capabilities, reliability, and cost of the Turbinator). A final report will be submitted to a peer-reviewed publication that conveys the experimental findings and discusses their implications for the Turbinator application and implementation. Phase-two of the project consists of deployment, construction, and project operations. A detailed report on assessment and the performance of the project will be presented and communicated

  13. Bis-butanediol-mercapturic acid (bis-BDMA) as a urinary biomarker of metabolic activation of butadiene to its ultimate carcinogenic species

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) undergoes metabolic activation to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethylvinyl ketone (HMVK), 3,4-epoxy-1,2-butanediol (EBD) and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). Among these, DEB is by far the most genotoxic metabolite and is considered the ultimate carcinogenic species of BD. We have shown previously that BD-exposed laboratory mice form 8- to 10-fold more DEB–DNA adducts than rats exposed at the same conditions, which may be responsible for the enhanced sensitivity of mice to BD-mediated cancer. In the present study, we have identified 1,4-bis-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)butane-2,3-diol (bis-BDMA) as a novel DEB-specific urinary biomarker. Isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was employed to quantify bis-BDMA and three other BD-mercapturic acids, 2-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxy-but-3-ene (MHBMA, from EB), 4-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA, from HMVK) and 4-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutane (THBMA, from EBD), in urine of confirmed smokers, occupationally exposed workers and BD-exposed laboratory rats. Bis-BDMA was formed in a dose-dependent manner in urine of rats exposed to 0–200 p.p.m. BD by inhalation, although it was a minor metabolite (1%) as compared with DHBMA (47%) and THBMA (37%). In humans, DHBMA was the most abundant BD-mercapturic acid excreted (93%), followed by THBMA (5%) and MHBMA (2%), whereas no bis-BDMA was detected. These results reveal significant differences in metabolism of BD between rats and humans. PMID:24531806

  14. Electron beam exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and in-situ electron beam induced desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Olynick, D.L.; Cord, B.; Schipotinin, A.; Ogletree, D.F.; Schuck, P.J.

    2009-11-13

    Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) is used as a high-resolution resist with resolution down below 10nm half-pitch. This material or materials with related functionalities could have widespread impact in nanolithography and nanoscience applications if the exposure mechanism was understood and instabilities controlled. Here we have directly investigated the exposure mechanism using vibrational spectroscopy (both Raman and Fourier transform Infrared) and electron beam desorption spectrocscopy (EBDS). In the non-networked HSQ system, silicon atoms sit at the corners of a cubic structure. Each silicon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and bridges 3 oxygen atoms (formula: HSiO3/2). For the first time, we have shown, via changes in the Si-H2 peak at ~;;2200 cm -1 in the Raman spectra and the release of SiHx products in EBID, that electron-bam exposed materials crosslinks via a redistribution reaction. In addition, we observe the release of significantly more H2 than SiH2 during EBID, which is indicative of additional reaction mechanisms. Additionally, we compare the behavior of HSQ in response to both thermal and electron-beam induced reactions.

  15. Cardiopulmonary bypass increases pulmonary microvascular permeability through the Src kinase pathway: Involvement of caveolin-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUNWEN; JIANG, ZHAOLEI; BAO, CHUNRONG; MEI, JU; ZHU, JIAQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Changes in pulmonary microvascular permeability following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the underlying mechanisms have not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the alterations in pulmonary microvascular permeability following CPB and the underlying mechanism. The pulmonary microvascular permeability was measured using Evans Blue dye (EBD) exclusion, and the neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine secretion was investigated. In addition, the activation of Src kinase and the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) was examined. The results revealed that CPB increased pulmonary microvascular leakage, neutrophil count and proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and activated Src kinase. The administration of PP2, an inhibitor of Src kinase, decreased the activation of Src kinase and attenuated the increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability observed following CPB. Two important proteins associated with vascular permeability, caveolin-1 and VE-cadherin, were significantly activated at 24 h in the lung tissues following CPB, which correlated with the alterations in pulmonary microvascular permeability and Src kinase. PP2 administration inhibited their activation, suggesting that they are downstream factors of Src kinase activation. The data indicated that the Src kinase pathway increased pulmonary microvascular permeability following CPB, and the activation of caveolin-1 and VE-cadherin may be involved. Inhibition of this pathway may provide a potential therapy for acute lung injury following cardiac surgery. PMID:26847917

  16. The e-SCRUB Machine: an 800-kV, 500-kW average power pulsed electron beam generator for flue-gas scrubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, James R.; Briggs, Ray; Crewson, Walter F.; Johnson, R. D.; Ratafia-Brown, J. A.; Richardson, W. K.; Rienstra, W. W.; Ballard, Perry G.; Cukr, Jeffrey; Cassel, R. L.; Schlitt, Leland; Genuario, R. D.; Morgan, R. D.; Tripoli, G. A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS) to remove SOx and NOx from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. It also describes the e-SCRUB program, a program currently underway to commercialize this process with an integrated pulsed electron beam. The electron beam, together with injected water and ammonia, causes chemical reactions which convert the SOx and NOx into commercial grade agricultural fertilizer, a usable byproduct. The e-SCRUB facility is a test bed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of a repetitive, reliable pulsed electron beam generator operating at average power levels of up to 1 MW. This facility contains the electron beam generator and all the auxiliary and support systems required by the machine, including a computer driven central experiment control system, a 100,000 SCFM flowing dry nitrogen load which simulates the characteristics of a power plant flue, and a 2 MVA dedicated electrical service to power the machine. The e-SCRUB electron beam machine is designed to produce an 800 kV pulsed electron beam with a repetition rate of 667 pps. The energy per pulse deposited into the flue gas is approximately 750 J. The pulsed power system converts the utility power input to a 667 pps, 800 kV pulse train which powers the electron gun. The functional units of the pulsed power system will be discussed in the paper, along with some preliminary experimental results.

  17. Luminescence, absorption and morphology studies of laser-damage sites in silica glasses and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallais, Laurent; Capoulade, Jeremie; Wagner, Frank; Krol, Helene; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille; Kurbanov, Saidislam

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of modifications induced by laser damage in optical materials is important for understanding the damage process. In this work, we study the morphological and structural modifications induced by a nano-second pulsed laser (355 and 1064nm) on fused silica samples (Suprasil, Herasil) and silica thin films (deposited by IP, IAD, EBD, IAD). The morphological changes are analyzed using optical microscopy, optical 3D surface profiler. The absorption modifications are measured by photothermal microscopy with a micronic resolution. Luminescence (excited at 244nm) mappings are also performed on damage sites and the luminescence spectra analyzed. Based on these measurements, we study the different laser damage step that we have identified: initiation by absorbing nanoscale defects, heating of the defect and the surrounding matrix, modification of the surrounding material that becomes absorbing, and macroscopic damage at final. We identify and spatially resolve several kinds of defects induced by catastrophic breakdown and we also discuss the observed structural changes on damage sites, taking into account the physical processes involved.

  18. An integrative variant analysis pipeline for accurate genotype/haplotype inference in population NGS data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Lu, James; Yu, Jin; Gibbs, Richard A.; Yu, Fuli

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is a powerful approach for discovering genetic variation. Sensitive variant calling and haplotype inference from population sequencing data remain challenging. We describe methods for high-quality discovery, genotyping, and phasing of SNPs for low-coverage (approximately 5×) sequencing of populations, implemented in a pipeline called SNPTools. Our pipeline contains several innovations that specifically address challenges caused by low-coverage population sequencing: (1) effective base depth (EBD), a nonparametric statistic that enables more accurate statistical modeling of sequencing data; (2) variance ratio scoring, a variance-based statistic that discovers polymorphic loci with high sensitivity and specificity; and (3) BAM-specific binomial mixture modeling (BBMM), a clustering algorithm that generates robust genotype likelihoods from heterogeneous sequencing data. Last, we develop an imputation engine that refines raw genotype likelihoods to produce high-quality phased genotypes/haplotypes. Designed for large population studies, SNPTools' input/output (I/O) and storage aware design leads to improved computing performance on large sequencing data sets. We apply SNPTools to the International 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) Phase 1 low-coverage data set and obtain genotyping accuracy comparable to that of SNP microarray. PMID:23296920

  19. FACS technology used in a new rapid bacterial detection method.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Hourfar, M K; Nicol, S-B; Spengler, H-P; Montag, T; Seifried, Erhard

    2006-10-01

    Culture methods for bacterial detection (BacT/ALERT or Pall eBDS) are currently implemented in blood donor screening procedures in many countries. Experience in the first years after implementation of these detection assays showed that although the analytical sensitivity was extremely high (about 1 CFU mL(-1)), the majority of these platelets were still transfused before a positive screening result was attained. Rapid technologies were developed to more effectively prevent transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection. In this study, a new rapid bacterial detection method based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technology was developed. Bacteria were stained with thiazole orange dye for 5 min and measurement was taken immediately after staining. The entire process took only 30 min. Six transfusion-relevant bacteria strains were tested in a spiking study. Without pre-incubation in a special bacteria growth medium, analytical sensitivity ranged between 10(5) CFU mL(-1) (Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia marcesens) and 10(3) CFU mL(-1) (Escherichia coli). Sensitivity could be improved to 10(1) CFU mL(-1) for all tested bacteria by adding a pre-incubation step (6 h at 37 degrees C). Although preliminary in nature, results of our study suggest that bacterial detection by FACS technology in conjunction with a pre-incubation step offers a sensitive alternative technology to culture methods. Additionally, it provides the benefit of a rapid test time and the opportunity of preventing bacterial transmitted infections more effectively.

  20. “Evidence-Based Dentistry in Oral Surgery: Could We Do Better?”

    PubMed Central

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; Verlato, Giuseppe; Frustaci, Andrea; de Gemmis, Antonio; Rigoni, Giovanni; De Santis, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD), like Evidence-based Medicine (EBM), was born in order to seek the “best available research evidence” in the field of dentistry both in research and clinical routine. But evidence is not clearly measurable in all fields of healthcare: in particular, while drug effect is rather independent from clinician’s characteristics, the effectiveness of surgical procedures is strictly related to surgeon’s expertise, which is difficult to quantify. The research problems of dentistry have a lot in common with other surgical fields, where at the moment the best therapeutic recommendations and guidelines originates from an integration of evidence-based medicine and data from consensus conferences. To cope with these problems, new instruments have been developed, aimed at standardizing clinical procedures (CAD-CAM technology) and at integrating EBM achievements with the opinions of expert clinicians (GRADE System). One thing we have to remember however: it is necessary to use the instruments developed by evidence-based medicine but is impossible to produce sound knowledge without considering clinical expertise and quality of surgical procedures simultaneously. Only in this way we will obtain an evidence-based dentistry both in dental research and clinical practice, which is up to third millennium standards. PMID:20871758

  1. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies. PMID:27506143

  2. Controlled fabrication of advanced functional structures on the nanoscale by means of electron beam-induced processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian W.; Foucher, Johann; Penzkofer, Christian; Irmer, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The controlled deposition of materials by means of electron beam induced processing (EBIP) is a well-established patterning method, which allows for the fabrication of nanostructures with high spatial resolution in a highly precise and flexible manner. Applications range from the production of ultrathin coatings and nanoscaled conductivity probes to super sharp atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, to name but a few. The latter are typically deposited at the very end of silicon or silicon-nitride tips, which are fabricated with MEMS technologies. EBIP therefore provides the unique ability to converge MEMS to NEMS in a highly controllable way, and thus represents an encouraging opportunity to refine or even develop further MEMS-based features with advanced functionality and applicability. In this paper, we will present and discuss exemplary application solutions, where we successfully applied EBIP to overcome dimensional and/or functional limitations. We therefore show the fabrication stability and accuracy of "T-like-shaped" AFM tips made from high density, diamond-like carbon (HDC/DLC) for the investigation of undercut structures on the base of CDR30-EBD tips. Such aggressive CD-AFM tip dimensions are mandatory to fulfill ITRS requirements for the inspection of sub-28nm nodes, but are unattainable with state-of-art Si-based MEMS technologies today. In addition to that, we demonstrate the ability of EBIP to realize field enhancement in sensor applications and the fabrication of cold field emitters (CFE). For example: applying the EBIP approach allows for the production of CFEs, which are characterized by considerably enhanced imaging resolution compared to standard thermal field emitters and stable operation properties at room temperature without the need for periodic cathode flashing - unlike typical CFEs. Based on these examples, we outline the strong capabilities of the EBIP approach to further downscale functional structures in order to meet future demands in the

  3. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200 μl). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers.

  4. Comparative analyses of bioactive Mammea coumarins from seven parts of Mammea americana by HPLC-PDA with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Reynertson, Kurt A; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2006-06-14

    Mammea americana L. is tropical plant in the Clusiaceae family that bears edible fruit. Mammea coumarins are isoprenylated derivatives of the lactones of the 2-hydroxy-Z-cinnamic acids that are bioactive and have limited distribution in three Clusiaceae genera. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to determine the distribution of mammea coumarins in the seed nucleus, seed coat, fruit flesh, fruit skin, leaf, stem, and root of M. americana using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ten major mammea coumarins, mammea E/BD (1), mammea E/BC (2), mammea E/BA (3), mammea E/BB (4), mammea B/BA hydroxycyclo F (5), mammea B/BD (6), mammea B/BC (7), mammea B/BA (8), mammea B/BB (9), and mammea B/BA cyclo F (10), were isolated and identified from the seed nucleus of M. americana and employed as standards. The HPLC-PDA method was validated with respect to sensitivity, linearity, recovery, accuracy, and precision. The total content (w/w %) of the 10 major mammea coumarins in M. americana was determined to be highest in the root (0.75%), followed by the leaf (0.64%), seed nucleus (0.48%), fruit skin (0.11%), stem (0.08%), seed coat (0.02%), and fruit flesh (<0.01%). The leaf and seed nucleus are rich and sustainable natural sources of mammea coumarins. Additionally, the described HPLC-PDA and LC-MS methods are sensitive and accurate and can be applied to the analysis of mammea coumarins in other samples.

  5. Alleviation of kainic acid-induced brain barrier dysfunction by 4-o-methylhonokiol in in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Yi; Ahn, Sun-Young; Yoo, Jae Hyeon; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M.) officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) kainic acid- (KA-) induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD) via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10-30 mg/kg) time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan's blue dye (EBD) staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.). MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5) were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50, 52.4 mM) and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR) signal rate constant of 4×10(9) M(-1)·S(-1), which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  6. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-08-10

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies.

  7. Evaluation of radiation exposure dose at double-balloon endoscopy for the patients with small bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagura, Asuka; Nakamura, Masanao; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Miyahara, Ryoji; Kawashima, Hiroki; Koyama, Shuji; Hinami, Tomoki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel diseases. Although fluoroscopy is used to confirm the position of endoscope at DBE, the endoscopist does not have the knowledge with regard to the radiation exposure dose. In this study, we evaluated the absorbed dose during DBE in patients with suspected or established small bowel diseases. This was a retrospective study in which the estimated fluoroscopic radiation absorbed doses loaded on the small bowel and skin were determined according to the data of the referential X-ray experiment with a human body phantom. The subjects were 415 DBEs preformed in total. The mean small bowel absorbed doses on antegrade and retrograde DBEs were 42.2 and 53.8 mGy, respectively, showing that the organ dose applied in retrograde DBE was significantly higher (P<0.0001). The mean skin absorbed doses of them were 79.2 and 101.0 mGy, respectively, showing that the dose was also significantly higher on retrograde DBE (P<0.0001). Of 27 cases who were applied endoscopic balloon dilation, the mean fluoroscopy time was 16.0 minutes, and mean small bowel and skin absorbed doses were 121.9 and 228.9 mGy, respectively. In conclusion, endoscopist should be careful for reducing the organ exposure dose at DBE, particularly for the lower abdominal region. Abbreviations: Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), double-balloon endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (DBERCP), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) PMID:27578908

  8. Development and characterisation of a new line width reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Zhu, Fan; Heidelmann, Markus; Fritz, Georg; Bayer, Thomas; Kalt, Samuel; Fluegge, Jens

    2015-11-01

    A new critical dimension (CD, often synonymously used for line width) reference material with improved vertical parallel sidewalls (IVPSs) has been developed and characterised. The sample has a size of 6 mm  ×  6 mm, consisting of 4 groups of 5  ×  5 feature patterns. Each feature pattern has a group of five reference line features with a nominal CD of 50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm and 130 nm, respectively. Each feature pattern includes a pair of triangular alignment marks, applicable for precisely identifying the target measurement position, e.g. for comparison or calibration between different tools. The geometry of line features has been investigated thoroughly using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and a CD atomic force microscope (CD-AFM). Their results indicate the high quality of the line features: the top corner radius of  <7 nm, vertical sidewall (slope mostly within 90°  ±  0.5°) and very small line width variation (LWR down to 0.36 nm). The application of the developed sample for calibrating the scaling factor and effective tip geometry of the CD-AFM are demonstrated. The scaling factor of the CD-AFM is calibrated to be 0.9988, coinciding well with the theoretical value 1 as the tool was calibrated to a traceable metrological atomic force microscope. The effective width of a CDR120-EBD tip is calibrated as 128.32 nm. Finally, a strategy for the non-destructive calibration of the developed sample is introduced, which enables the application of the reference material in practice.

  9. Alleviation of Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Barrier Dysfunction by 4-O-Methylhonokiol in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Yi; Ahn, Sun-Young; Yoo, Jae Hyeon; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M.) officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) kainic acid- (KA-) induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD) via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10–30 mg/kg) time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan's blue dye (EBD) staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.). MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5) were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50, 52.4 mM) and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR) signal rate constant of 4 × 109 M−1 · S−1, which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier. PMID:25688368

  10. Verbal episodic memory along the course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Czepielewski, Letícia S; Massuda, Raffael; Goi, Pedro; Sulzbach-Vianna, Miréia; Reckziegel, Ramiro; Costanzi, Monise; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Gama, Clarissa S

    2015-02-01

    Impairment on episodic memory (EM) has been strongly correlated with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Morevover, the effects of course and progression of the illness on cognitive functioning have not been well established. The aim of the present study is to assess performance of episodic memory in BD and SZ according to their clinical stages. Subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (n=43) and schizophrenia (31), on euthymia or clinical remission, were recruited from the outpatients facilities at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Brazil). They were classified into two clinical stages (early or late for BD, and recent onset or chronic for SZ) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Episodic memory performance was assessed by means the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) that measures verbal learning and episodic memory in both disorders. Our results showed that patients in early stage of BD (EBD) performed better performance on the total immediate free recall (p<0.0001, F=12.060) as well as in delayed free recall (p<0.0001, F=13.914) compared to late stage (LBD) and SZ groups. In the ability to retain words learned, LBD and chronic (CSZ) were more impaired than other groups. Furthermore, the variation of learning (i.e, learning effects) along the 3 trials of immediate free recall was similar between groups. In conclusion, we found a cognitive decline alongside with the progression of BD whereas such impairment was evident in the early of SZ. Despite this, both groups (BD and SZ) seem to maintain the ability to learn. It emphasizes the relevance of studying new therapeutic strategies, in particular, cognitive rehabilitation/remediation techniques as promissory treatment for psychiatric patients, even in those with moderate disabilities.

  11. Expression and protective role of two novel NACHT-containing proteins in pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi Wei; Yu, Zhang Long; Xue, Na Na; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian

    2014-10-01

    Lower vertebrates have been found to possess over 200 NACHT-domain encoding genes; but, to date, very little is known about their functional activity. This article describes the sequences and expression analysis of two zebrafish NACHT-containing proteins, namely NALPL1 and NALPL2. In addition, the functions of zebrafish NALPL1 and NALPL2, which are absent for both amino-terminal effector-binding domain (EBD) and carboxy-terminal ligand-recognition domain (LRD), were investigated for the first time in fish species. The predicted NALPL1 and NALPL2 proteins consist of 651 and 847 amino acids (aa), respectively, with both molecules only containing NACHT domain, which were different from other NACHT-family members. Phylogenetic analysis showed that zebrafish NALPL1 and NALPL2 have a closer relationship with mammalian NALP subfamily than NOD subfamily. The differential expression patterns of NALPL1 and NALPL2 in development stages and organs were observed, suggesting the difference of action phase and effector organ of NALPL1 and NALPL2. When the modulation of NALPL1 and NALPL2 in pathogen infection was analyzed, it was found that the two molecules were upregulated by both bacterial and viral infection. Overexpression of NALPL1 and NALPL2 resulted in significant inhibition for intracellular Edwardsiella tarda growth. Further studies demonstrated that NALPL1 and NALPL2 also contributed to protection against viral infection. These results demonstrate that both NALPL1 and NALPL2 are important intracellular proteins in host surveillance against both bacterial and viral infection. Interestingly, the expression of downstream signaling genes was not affected by the overexpression of NALPL1 or NALPL2, but NOD1 and MDA5 were upregulated by NALPL1 or NALPL2 overexpression, suggesting that they likely act in pathogen infection through the interaction with other PRRs. PMID:24858030

  12. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200 μl). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers. PMID:25727266

  13. Protective effect of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone agonist in bacterial toxin-induced pulmonary barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Istvan; Sridhar, Supriya; Gorshkov, Boris; Alieva, Irina B.; Kasa, Anita; Gonzales, Joyce; Potapenko, Olena; Umapathy, Nagavedi S.; Pillich, Helena; Rick, Ferenc G.; Block, Norman L.; Verin, Alexander D.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Matthay, Michael A.; Schally, Andrew V.; Lucas, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Antibiotic treatment of patients infected with G− or G+ bacteria promotes release of the toxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pneumolysin (PLY) in their lungs. Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 protects human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC), expressing splice variant 1 (SV-1) of the receptor, from PLY-induced barrier dysfunction. We investigated whether JI-34 also blunts LPS-induced hyperpermeability. Since GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) signaling can potentially stimulate both cAMP-dependent barrier-protective pathways as well as barrier-disruptive protein kinase C pathways, we studied their interaction in GHRH agonist-treated HL-MVEC, in the presence of PLY, by means of siRNA-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) depletion. Methods: Barrier function measurements were done in HL-MVEC monolayers using Electrical Cell substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) and VE-cadherin expression by Western blotting. Capillary leak was assessed by Evans Blue dye (EBD) incorporation. Cytokine generation in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by multiplex analysis. PKA and PKC-α activity were assessed by Western blotting. Results: GHRH agonist JI-34 significantly blunts LPS-induced barrier dysfunction, at least in part by preserving VE-cadherin expression, while not affecting inflammation. In addition to activating PKA, GHRH agonist also increases PKC-α activity in PLY-treated HL-MVEC. Treatment with PLY significantly decreases resistance in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but does so even more in PKA-depleted monolayers. Pretreatment with GHRH agonist blunts PLY-induced permeability in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but fails to improve barrier function in PKA-depleted PLY-treated monolayers. Conclusions: GHRH signaling in HL-MVEC protects from both LPS and PLY-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction and concurrently induces a barrier-protective PKA-mediated and a barrier-disruptive PKC-α-induced pathway in the presence of PLY, the

  14. Processing-property relationships in epoxy resin/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; More, Karren Leslie

    2010-01-01

    obtained from conventional, ex situ synthesis that requires high shear mixing of the organic and inorganic phases. Using the ex situ technique, we synthesized TiO{sub 2} particles (also {le}5nm in diameter) in a polyethylene glycol solution - see Figure 1(c) - and subsequently mixed them with the resin. The mixing process, even at low concentrations (1% by weight), resulted in the formation of aggregates of several hundred nanometers in size. We performed optical, thermomechanical, and electrical measurements of systems with similar weight fractions of TiO{sub 2} to evaluate the impact of particle size and dispersion on the macroscopic properties of the nanocomposite. In agreement with the TEM images, UV-visible transmittance spectra show the same optical properties for the unfilled resin and in situ nanocomposite owing to the small particle-cluster size. Because of the formation of clusters of comparable size to the wavelength of light in the visible range, the ex situ specimen showed decreased transmittance, producing an opaque composite. Moreover, we found that creating large and weak interfaces between the phases degrades the macroscopic thermomechanical and electrical properties of the specimen. The in situ nanocomposite exhibited superior mechanical performance compared to both the unfilled resin and ex situ nanocomposite over the entire temperature range. Notably, at the lowest measured temperature (-145 C), the increase in the storage modulus (G') relative to that of the unfilled resin is approximately 30%. Furthermore, the in situ technique did not degrade the thermodynamic properties of the polymer network. The glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) remains unchanged. In contrast, the ex situ nanocomposite displayed a 55% relative decrease in Tg because of the formation of weak and large interfaces. This morphology is also associated with significant degradation of dielectric properties under high electric fields. The dielectric-breakdown strength (EBD) of the

  15. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that