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Sample records for ebna2 regulates stat3

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-derived EBNA2 regulates STAT3 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Togi, Sumihito; Kamitani, Shinya; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Harada, Shizuko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2009-01-16

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latency protein EBNA2 is a nuclear transcriptional activator that is essential for EBV-induced cellular transformation. Here, we show that EBNA2 interacts with STAT3, a signal transducer for an interleukin-6 family cytokine, and enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, EBNA2 cooperatively acts on STAT3 activation with LMP1. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3 (EBNA3) Proteins Regulate EBNA2 Binding to Distinct RBPJ Genomic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqi; Welch, Rene; Zhao, Bo; Ta, Tram; Keleş, Sündüz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent infection of B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro results in their immortalization into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs); this latency program is controlled by the EBNA2 viral transcriptional activator, which targets promoters via RBPJ, a DNA binding protein in the Notch signaling pathway. Three other EBNA3 proteins (EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C) interact with RBPJ to regulate cell gene expression. The mechanism by which EBNAs regulate different genes via RBPJ remains unclear. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of the EBNA3 proteins analyzed in concert with prior EBNA2 and RBPJ data demonstrated that EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C bind to distinct, partially overlapping genomic locations. Although RBPJ interaction is critical for EBNA3A and EBNA3C growth effects, only 30 to 40% of EBNA3-bound sites colocalize with RBPJ. Using LCLs conditional for EBNA3A or EBNA3C activity, we demonstrate that EBNA2 binding at sites near EBNA3A- or EBNA3C-regulated genes is specifically regulated by the respective EBNA3. To investigate EBNA3 binding specificity, we identified sequences and transcription factors enriched at EBNA3A-, EBNA3B-, and EBNA3C-bound sites. This confirmed the prior observation that IRF4 is enriched at EBNA3A- and EBNA3C-bound sites and revealed IRF4 enrichment at EBNA3B-bound sites. Using IRF4-negative BJAB cells, we demonstrate that IRF4 is essential for EBNA3C, but not EBNA3A or EBNA3B, binding to specific sites. These results support a model in which EBNA2 and EBNA3s compete for distinct subsets of RBPJ sites to regulate cell genes and where EBNA3 subset specificity is determined by interactions with other cell transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent gene products cause human cancers and transform B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines in vitro. EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and membrane proteins constitutively activate pathways important for

  3. Activation of epithelial STAT3 regulates intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Neufert, Clemens; Pickert, Geethanjali; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Nikolaev, Alexei; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2010-02-15

    The intestinal epithelium that lines the mucosal surface along the GI-tract is a key player for the intestinal homeostasis of the healthy individual. In case of a mucosal damage or a barrier defect as seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the balance is disturbed, and translocation of intestinal microbes to the submucosa is facilitated. We recently demonstrated a pivotal role of STAT3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) for the restoration of the balance at the mucosal surface of the gut in an experimental colitis model. STAT3 was rapidly induced in intestinal epithelial cells upon challenge of mice in both experimental colitis and intestinal wound healing models. STAT3 activation was found to be dispensable in the steady-state conditions but was important for efficient regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury. Here, we extend our previous findings by showing epithelial STAT3 activation in human patients suffering from IBD and provide additional insights how the activation of epithelial STAT3 by IL-22 regulates intestinal homeostasis and mucosal wound healing. We also demonstrate that antibody-mediated neutralization of IL-22 has little impact on the development of experimental colitis in mice, but significantly delays recovery from colitis. Thus, our data suggest that targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway in IEC is a promising therapeutic approach in situations when the intestinal homeostasis is disturbed, e.g., as seen in Crohn's disease or Ulcerative colitis.

  4. Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Function by STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Cacalano, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, key members of a distinct hematopoietic lineage, innate lymphoid cells, are not only critical effectors that mediate cytotoxicity toward tumor and virally infected cells but also regulate inflammation, antigen presentation, and the adaptive immune response. It has been shown that NK cells can regulate the development and activation of many other components of the immune response, such as dendritic cells, which in turn, modulate the function of NK cells in multiple synergistic feed back loops driven by cell–cell contact, and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines that control effector function and migration of cells to sites of immune activation. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is involved in driving almost all of the pathways that control NK cytolytic activity as well as the reciprocal regulatory interactions between NK cells and other components of the immune system. In the context of tumor immunology, NK cells are a first line of defense that eliminates pre-cancerous and transformed cells early in the process of carcinogenesis, through a mechanism of “immune surveillance.” Even after tumors become established, NK cells are critical components of anticancer immunity: dysfunctional NK cells are often found in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, and the lack of NK cells in the tumor microenvironment often correlates to poor prognosis. The pathways and soluble factors activated in tumor-associated NK cells, cancer cells, and regulatory myeloid cells, which determine the outcome of cancer immunity, are all critically regulated by STAT3. Using the tumor microenvironment as a paradigm, we present here an overview of the research that has revealed fundamental mechanisms through which STAT3 regulates all aspects of NK cell biology, including NK development, activation, target cell killing, and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27148255

  5. Interleukin-21 regulates expression of key Epstein-Barr virus oncoproteins, EBNA2 and LMP1, in infected human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konforte, Danijela Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J.

    2008-04-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for the life of the host by accessing the long-lived memory B cell pool. It has been proposed that EBV uses different combinations of viral proteins, known as latency types, to drive infected B cells to make the transition from resting B cells to memory cells. This process is normally antigen-driven. A major unresolved question is what factors coordinate expression of EBV latency proteins. We have recently described novel type III latency EBV{sup +} B cell lines (OCI-BCLs) that were induced to differentiate into late plasmablasts/early plasma cells in culture with interleukin-21 (IL-21), mimicking normal B cell development. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-21-mediated signals also regulate the expression of key EBV latent proteins during this window of development. Here we show that IL-21-reduced gene and protein expression of growth-transforming EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in OCI-BCLs. By contrast, the expression of CD40-like, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) strongly increased in these cells suggesting an EBNA2-independent mode of regulation. Same results were also observed in Burkitt's lymphoma line Jijoye and B95-8 transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The effect of IL-21 on EBNA2 and LMP1 expression was attenuated by a pharmacological JAK inhibitor indicating involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in this process. Our study also shows that IL-21 induced transcription of ebna1 from the viral Q promoter (Qp)

  6. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Zou, Yuhua; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2013-10-01

    Cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the regrowth of damaged axons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that KLF4 physically interacts with STAT3 upon cytokine-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) on STAT3. This interaction suppresses STAT3-dependent gene expression by blocking its DNA-binding activity. The deletion of KLF4 in vivo induces axon regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT3 signalling. This regeneration can be greatly enhanced by exogenous cytokine treatment, or removal of an endogenous JAK-STAT3 pathway inhibitor called suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS.

  7. Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through

  8. Necdin, a negative growth regulator, is a novel STAT3 target gene down-regulated in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Rachel; Eschrich, Steven; Bloom, Gregory; Ma, Yihong; Minton, Susan; Jove, Richard; Cress, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question. We predicted that this persistent STAT3 signaling affects a wide variety of cellular functions, many of which still remain to be characterized. We took a broad approach to identify novel STAT3 regulated genes by examining changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile by microarray, using cells expressing constitutively-activated STAT3. Using computational analysis, we were able to define the gene expression profiles of cells containing activated STAT3 and identify candidate target genes with a wide range of biological functions. Among these genes we identified Necdin, a negative growth regulator, as a novel STAT3 target gene, whose expression is down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels when STAT3 is constitutively active. This repression is STAT3 dependent, since inhibition of STAT3 using siRNA restores Necdin expression. A STAT3 DNA-binding site was identified in the Necdin promoter and both EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirm binding of STAT3 to this region. Necdin expression has previously been shown to be down-regulated in a melanoma and a drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Further analysis of Necdin expression demonstrated repression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human melanoma, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that STAT3 coordinates expression of genes involved in multiple metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, integrating signals that lead to global transcriptional changes and oncogenesis. STAT3 may exert its oncogenic effect by up-regulating transcription of genes involved in promoting growth and proliferation, but also by down-regulating expression

  9. TRIM8 regulates stemness in glioblastoma through PIAS3-STAT3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changming; Mukherjee, Subhas; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Ross, James L; Chau, Monica J; Kong, Jun; Brat, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor, and GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to the rapid growth, therapeutic resistance, and clinical recurrence of these fatal tumors. STAT3 signaling supports the maintenance and proliferation of GSCs, yet regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we report that tri-partite motif-containing protein 8 (TRIM8) activates STAT3 signaling to maintain stemness and self-renewing capabilities of GSCs. TRIM8 (also known as 'glioblastoma-expressed ring finger protein') is expressed equally in GBM and normal brain tissues, despite its hemizygous deletion in the large majority of GBMs, and its expression is highly correlated with stem cell markers. Experimental knockdown of TRIM8 reduced GSC self-renewal and expression of SOX2, NESTIN, and p-STAT3, and promoted glial differentiation. Overexpression of TRIM8 led to higher expression of p-STAT3, c-MYC, SOX2, NESTIN, and CD133, and enhanced GSC self-renewal. We found that TRIM8 activates STAT3 by suppressing the expression of PIAS3, an inhibitor of STAT3, most likely through E3-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, we also found that STAT3 activation upregulates TRIM8, providing a mechanism for normalized TRIM8 expression in the setting of hemizygous gene deletion. These data demonstrate that bidirectional TRIM8-STAT3 signaling regulates stemness in GSC.

  10. STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Nelson, Erik A.; Yeh, Jennifer E.; Pinello, Luca; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 has been shown to drive cancer pathogenesis through dysregulation of genes involved in cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Although STAT3 and STAT5 are structurally related, they can have opposite effects on key genes, including BCL6. BCL6, a transcriptional repressor, has been shown to be oncogenic in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. BCL6 also plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis, a disease in which STAT3 and STAT5 can be activated individually or concomitantly. To determine the mechanism by which these oncogenic transcription factors regulate BCL6 transcription, we analyzed their effects at the levels of chromatin and gene expression. We found that STAT3 increases expression of BCL6 and enhances recruitment of RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at a site associated with transcriptional initiation. STAT5, in contrast, represses BCL6 expression below basal levels and decreases the association of RNA polymerase II at the gene. Furthermore, the repression mediated by STAT5 is dominant over STAT3-mediated induction. STAT5 exerts this effect by displacing STAT3 from one of the two regulatory regions to which it binds. These findings may underlie the divergent biology of breast cancers containing activated STAT3 alone or in conjunction with activated STAT5. PMID:23716595

  11. STAT3 Undergoes Acetylation-dependent Mitochondrial Translocation to Regulate Pyruvate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan S.; Liang, Jinyuan J.; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Xiang-zhong J.; Xu, Li; Xu, Ye-yang; Zou, Quanli C.; Zhang, Junxun M.; Tu, Cheng-e; Cui, Yan-ge; Sun, Wei-hong; Huang, Chao; Yang, Jing-hua; Chin, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic STAT3, after activation by growth factors, translocates to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei and mitochondria, where it carries out different biological functions. However, the precise mechanism by which STAT3 undergoes mitochondrial translocation and subsequently regulates the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-electron transport chain (ETC) remains poorly understood. Here, we clarify this process by visualizing STAT3 acetylation in starved cells after serum reintroduction or insulin stimulation. CBP-acetylated STAT3 undergoes mitochondrial translocation in response to serum introduction or insulin stimulation. In mitochondria, STAT3 associates with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 (PDC-E1) and subsequently accelerates the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, elevates the mitochondrial membrane potential, and promotes ATP synthesis. SIRT5 deacetylates STAT3, thereby inhibiting its function in mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism. In the A549 lung cancer cell line, constitutively acetylated STAT3 localizes to mitochondria, where it maintains the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis in an active state. PMID:28004755

  12. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-12-03

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects.

  13. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects. PMID:26631279

  14. JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Arata; Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target

  15. Sodium orthovanadate suppresses palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fu, Hui; Chang, Fen; Wang, Jinlan; Zhang, Shangli; Caudle, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Deling

    2016-05-01

    Elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) especially saturated FFAs, such as palmitate (PA), are detrimental to the heart. However, mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, the role of JAK2/STAT3 in PA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate that PA suppressed the JAK2/STAT3 pathway by dephosphorylation of JAK2 (Y1007/1008) and STAT3 (Y705), and thus blocked the translocation of STAT3 into the nucleus. Conversely, phosphorylation of S727, another phosphorylated site of STAT3, was increased in response to PA treatment. Pretreatment of JNK inhibitor, but not p38 MAPK inhibitor, inhibited STAT3 (S727) activation induced by PA and rescued the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Y705). The data suggested that JNK may be another upstream factor regulating STAT3, and verified the important function of P-STAT3 (Y705) in PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Sodium orthovanadate (SOV), a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, obviously inhibited PA-induced apoptosis by restoring JAK2/STAT3 pathways. This effect was diminished by STAT3 inhibitor Stattic. Collectively, our data suggested a novel mechanism that the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation was responsible for palmitic lipotoxicity and SOV may act as a potential therapeutic agent by targeting JAK2/STAT3 in lipotoxic cardiomyopathy treatment.

  16. BCL3 exerts an oncogenic function by regulating STAT3 in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Wang, Wuliang; Zhao, Qinghe; Hu, Guiming; Deng, Kehong; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play a fundamental effect on the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of cervical cancer (CC). B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a critical oncogene, in CC cell line. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in CC remain largely unclear. The expressions of BCL3 and STAT3 in CC specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry. MTT, colony formation assays and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to test proliferation and cell cycle of CC cells. Here, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in CC compared to adjacent cervical tissues. Furthermore, high levels of BCL3 protein were confirmed by immunoblotting in CC cells as compared with normal cervical epithelial cells. The positive expression of BCL3 was correlated with adverse prognostic features and reduced survival rate. In addition, BCL3 regulated STAT3 abundance in CC cells. STAT3 was found to be upregulated and positively correlated with BCL3 expression in CC specimens. BCL3 overexpression resulted in prominent increased proliferation and cell cycle progression in Hela cells. By contrast, inhibition of BCL3 in CaSki cells remarkably suppressed proliferative ability and cell cycle progression. In vivo studies showed that knockdown of BCL3 inhibited tumor growth of CC in mice xenograft model. Notably, we confirmed that STAT3 mediated the oncogenic roles of BCL3 in CC. In conclusion, we suggest that BCL3 serves as an oncogene in CC by modulating proliferation and cell cycle progression, and its oncogenic effect is mediated by its downstream target gene, STAT3. PMID:27822067

  17. Genomic regulation of invasion by STAT3 in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Joy M; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Savic, Daniel S; Roberts, Brian S; Bailey, Sarah K; Shevde, Lalita A; Ramaker, Ryne C; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Kirby, Marie K; Newberry, Kimberly M; Partridge, E Christopher; Jones, Angela L; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn E; Oliver, Patsy G; Sexton, Katherine C; Grizzle, William E; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Cooper, Sara J; Myers, Richard M

    2017-01-31

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of four molecular subtypes defined by whether the tumor-originating cells are luminal or basal epithelial cells. Breast cancers arising from the luminal mammary duct often express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors expressing ER and/or PR are treated with anti-hormonal therapies, while tumors overexpressing HER2 are targeted with monoclonal antibodies. Immunohistochemical detection of ER, PR, and HER2 receptors/proteins is a critical step in breast cancer diagnosis and guided treatment. Breast tumors that do not express these proteins are known as "triple negative breast cancer" (TNBC) and are typically basal-like. TNBCs are the most aggressive subtype, with the highest mortality rates and no targeted therapy, so there is a pressing need to identify important TNBC tumor regulators. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor has been previously implicated as a constitutively active oncogene in TNBC. However, its direct regulatory gene targets and tumorigenic properties have not been well characterized. By integrating RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data from 2 TNBC tumors and 5 cell lines, we discovered novel gene signatures directly regulated by STAT3 that were enriched for processes involving inflammation, immunity, and invasion in TNBC. Functional analysis revealed that STAT3 has a key role regulating invasion and metastasis, a characteristic often associated with TNBC. Our findings suggest therapies targeting STAT3 may be important for preventing TNBC metastasis.

  18. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  19. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Sayama, Koji

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

  20. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  1. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC.

  2. 14-3-3ζ Interacts with Stat3 and Regulates Its Constitutive Activation in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3ζ, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3ζ interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3ζ interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3ζ interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3ζ/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3ζ protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3ζ is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3ζ binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3ζ serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  3. TRPM7 channels regulate glioma stem cell through STAT3 and Notch signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingli; Inoue, Koichi; Leng, Tiandong; Guo, Shanchun; Xiong, Zhi-gang

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with median survival time of 14.6 months. A small fraction of cancer stem cells (CSC) initiate and maintain tumors thus driving glioma tumorigenesis and being responsible for resistance to classical chemo- and radio-therapies. It is desirable to identify signaling pathways related to CSC to develop novel therapies to selectively target them. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7, also known as TRPM7 is a ubiquitous, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) permeable ion channels that are special in being both an ion channel and a serine/threonine kinase. In studies of glioma cells silenced for TRPM7, we demonstrated that Notch (Notch1, JAG1, Hey2, and Survivin) and STAT3 pathways are down regulated in glioma cells grown in monolayer. Furthermore, phospho-STAT3, Notch target genes and CSC markers (ALDH1 and CD133) were significantly higher in spheroid glioma CSCs when compared with monolayer cultures. The results further show that tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 binds and activates the ALDH1 promoters in glioma cells. We found that TRMP7-induced upregulation of ALDH1 expression is associated with increases in ALDH1 activity and is detectable in stem-like cells when expanded as spheroid CSCs. Finally, TRPM7 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These demonstrate that TRPM7 activates JAK2/STAT3 and/or Notch signaling pathways and leads to increased cell proliferation and migration. These findings for the first time demonstrates that TRPM7 (1) activates a previously unrecognized STAT3→ALDH1 pathway, and (2) promotes the induction of ALDH1 activity in glioma cells.

  4. EBNA2 and activated Notch induce expression of BATF.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Lisa M; Deppmann, Christopher D; Erickson, Kimberly D; Coffin, William F; Thornton, Tina M; Humphrey, Sean E; Martin, Jennifer M; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J

    2003-05-01

    The immortalization of human B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) requires the virus-encoded transactivator EBNA2 and the products of both viral and cellular genes which serve as EBNA2 targets. In this study, we identified BATF as a cellular gene that is up-regulated dramatically within 24 h following the infection of established and primary human B cells with EBV. The transactivation of BATF is mediated by EBNA2 in a B-cell-specific manner and is duplicated in non-EBV-infected B cells by the expression of mammalian Notch proteins. In contrast to other target genes activated by EBNA2, the BATF gene encodes a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors that functions as a negative regulator of AP-1 activity and as an antagonist of cell growth. A potential role for BATF in promoting EBV latency is supported by studies in which BATF was shown to negatively impact the expression of a BZLF1 reporter gene and to reduce the frequency of lytic replication in latently infected cells. The identification of BATF as a cellular target of EBV provides important new information on how programs of viral and cellular gene expression may be coordinated to promote viral latency and control lytic-cycle entry.

  5. STAT3 pathway regulates lung-derived brain metastasis initiating cell capacity through miR-21 activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohini; Garg, Neha; Venugopal, Chitra; Hallett, Robin; Tokar, Tomas; McFarlane, Nicole; Mahendram, Sujeivan; Bakhshinyan, David; Manoranjan, Branavan; Vora, Parvez; Qazi, Maleeha; Arpin, Carolynn C; Page, Brent; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Lai, Ping-Shan; Gómez-Biagi, Rodolfo F; Ali, Ahmed M; Lewis, Andrew; Geletu, Mulu; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Jurisica, Igor; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-09-29

    Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common tumor to affect the adult central nervous system. Despite the increasing incidence of BM, likely due to consistently improving treatment of primary cancers, BM remain severely understudied. In this study, we utilized patient-derived stem cell lines from lung-to-brain metastases to examine the regulatory role of STAT3 in brain metastasis initiating cells (BMICs). Annotation of our previously described BMIC regulatory genes with protein-protein interaction network mapping identified STAT3 as a novel protein interactor. STAT3 knockdown showed a reduction in BMIC self-renewal and migration, and decreased tumor size in vivo. Screening of BMIC lines with a library of STAT3 inhibitors identified one inhibitor to significantly reduce tumor formation. Meta-analysis identified the oncomir microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a target of STAT3 activity. Inhibition of miR-21 displayed similar reductions in BMIC self-renewal and migration as STAT3 knockdown. Knockdown of STAT3 also reduced expression of known downstream targets of miR-21. Our studies have thus identified STAT3 and miR-21 as cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived BM. Therefore, STAT3 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of lung-to-brain metastases.

  6. FoxO1 negatively regulates leptin-induced POMC transcription through its direct interaction with STAT3.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Fuentes, Gloria; Shi, Xiaohe; Verma, Chandra; Radda, George K; Han, Weiping

    2015-03-01

    FoxO1, which is up-regulated during early stages of diet-induced leptin resistance, directly interacts with STAT3 and prevents STAT3 from binding to specificity protein 1 (SP1)-pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter complex, and thereby inhibits STAT3-mediated regulation of POMC transcription. FoxO1 also binds directly to the POMC promoter and negatively regulates its transcription. The present study aims to understand the relative contribution of the two interactions in regulating POMC expression. We studied the structural requirement of FoxO1 for its interaction with STAT3 and POMC promoter, and tested the inhibitory action of FoxO1 mutants by using biochemical assays, molecular biology and computer modelling. FoxO1 mutant with deletion of residues Ala137-Leu160 failed to bind to STAT3 or inhibit STAT3-mediated POMC activation, although its binding to the POMC promoter was unaffected. Further analysis mapped Gly140-Leu160 to be critical for STAT3 binding. The identified region Gly140-Leu160 was conserved among mammalian FoxO1 proteins, and showed a high degree of sequence identity with FoxO3, but not FoxO4. Consistently, FoxO3 could interact with STAT3 and inhibit POMC promoter activity, whereas FoxO4 could not bind to STAT3 or affect POMC promoter activity. We further identified that five residues (Gln145, Arg147, Lys148, Arg153 and Arg154) in FoxO1 were necessary in FoxO1-STAT3 interaction, and mutation of these residues abolished its interaction with STAT3 and inhibition of POMC promoter activity. Finally, a FoxO1-STAT3 interaction interface model generated by computational docking simulations confirmed that the identified residues of FoxO1 were in close proximity to STAT3. These results show that FoxO1 inhibits STAT3-mediated leptin signalling through direct interaction with STAT3.

  7. STAT3 is a key transcriptional regulator of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Sarani; Fuchs, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133 was found to be upregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of CD133 regulation in the liver tumor microenvironment has remained elusive. In this study Won and colleagues report that interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) signaling and hypoxia enhance the expression of CD133 and promote the progression of HCC. PMID:27275460

  8. Avicin D: A Protein Reactive Plant Isoprenoid Dephosphorylates Stat 3 by Regulating Both Kinase and Phosphatase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Valsala; Nishimura, Goshi; Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Connolly, Fiona; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Zoltaszek, Robert; Gutterman, Jordan U.

    2009-01-01

    Avicins, a class of electrophilic triterpenoids with pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have been shown to induce redox-dependant post-translational modification of cysteine residues to regulate protein function. Based on (a) the cross-talk that occurs between redox and phosphorylation processes, and (b) the role of Stat3 in the process of apoptosis and carcinogenesis, we chose to study the effects of avicins on the processes of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in Stat3. Avicins dephosphorylate Stat3 in a variety of human tumor cell lines, leading to a decrease in the transcriptional activity of Stat3. The expression of Stat3-regulated proteins such as c-myc, cyclin D1, Bcl2, survivin and VEGF were reduced in response to avicin treatment. Underlying avicin-induced dephosphorylation of Stat3 was dephosphorylation of JAKs, as well as activation of protein phosphatase-1. Downregulation of both Stat3 activity and expression of Stat 3-controlled pro-survival proteins, contributes to the induction of apoptosis in avicin treated tumor cells. Based on the role of Stat3 in inflammation and wounding, and the in vivo inhibition of VEGF by avicins in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model, it is likely that avicin-induced inhibition of Stat3 activity results in the suppression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant stromal environment of tumors. Activation of PP-1, which also acts as a cellular economizer, combined with the redox regulation by avicins, can aid in redirecting metabolism from growth promoting anabolic to energy sparing pathways. PMID:19440292

  9. Erythropoietin regulates POMC expression via STAT3 and potentiates leptin response.

    PubMed

    Dey, Soumyadeep; Li, Xiaoxia; Teng, Ruifeng; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Chen, ZhiYong; Rogers, Heather; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2016-02-01

    The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is essential for metabolic homeostasis and responds to leptin by producing several neuropeptides including proopiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously reported that high-dose erythropoietin (Epo) treatment in mice while increasing hematocrit reduced body weight, fat mass, and food intake and increased energy expenditure. Moreover, we showed that mice with Epo receptor (EpoR) restricted to erythroid cells (ΔEpoRE) became obese and exhibited decreased energy expenditure. Epo/EpoR signaling was found to promote hypothalamus POMC expression independently from leptin. Herein we used WT and ΔEpoRE mice and hypothalamus-derived neural culture system to study the signaling pathways activated by Epo in POMC neurons. We show that Epo stimulation activated STAT3 signaling and upregulated POMC expression in WT neural cultures. ΔEpoRE mice hypothalamus showed reduced POMC levels and lower STAT3 phosphorylation, with and without leptin treatment, compared to in vivo and ex vivo WT controls. Collectively, these data show that Epo regulates hypothalamus POMC expression via STAT3 activation, and provide a previously unrecognized link between Epo and leptin response.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 induction attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation by negative regulation of Stat3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Xie, Sijing; Su, Zhonglan; Song, Shiyu; Xu, Hui; Chen, Gang; Cao, Wangsen; Yin, Shasha; Gao, Qian; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-02-19

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-inducible protein with a potential anti-inflammatory effect, plays an important role in skin injury and wound healing. However, the function of HO-1 in cutaneous inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, remains unknown. The abnormal activation of Stat3, a known transcription factor that induces inflammation and regulates cell differentiation, is directly involved in the pathogenesis and development of psoriasis. Hence, targeting Stat3 is potentially beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis. In this study, HO-1 activation significantly alleviated the disease-related pathogenesis abnormality. To determine the mechanism by which HO-1 exerts immune protection on Th17-related cytokines, IL6/IL22-induced Stat3 activation was significantly suppressed, accompanied by decreased cell proliferation and reversed abnormal cell proliferation. Importantly, HO-1-induced Stat3 suppression was mediated through the activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Overall, our study provides direct evidence indicating that HO-1 might be a useful therapeutic target for psoriasis. SHP-1-mediated suppression of Stat3 activation after HO-1 activation is a unique molecular mechanism for the regulation of Stat3 activation.

  11. PTEN ameliorates autoimmune arthritis through down-regulating STAT3 activation with reciprocal balance of Th17 and Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Jin-Sil; Byun, Jae-Kyung; Jhun, JooYeon; Jung, KyungAh; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Moon, Young-Mee; Kim, Ho-Youn; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    PTEN is a tyrosine phosphatase with significant function in inhibiting STAT3 activation. Recently, inactivation of STAT3 has been demonstrated as a therapeutic candidate for autoimmune arthritis. The expression of PTEN controlled by p53 regulates autoimmune arthritis through modulating the balance between Th17 and Treg. We hypothesized that PTEN regulated by p53 might reduce CIA severity and inflammatory response via inhibiting STAT3 activation. Our results revealed that PTEN could ameliorate experimental autoimmune arthritis by reducing STAT3 activity and Th17 differentiation. Systemic infusion of PTEN overexpression downregulated CIA severity. In addition, PTEN overexpression decreased the activation of T cells and modulated reciprocal differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells. We observed that PTEN expression downregulated by p53 deficiency induced the activation of STAT3. Loss of p53 exacerbated autoimmune arthritis and dysregulated the population of Th17 and Treg. These data suggest that induction of STAT3-modulatory activity of PTEN may be a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis therapy. PMID:27708408

  12. PTEN ameliorates autoimmune arthritis through down-regulating STAT3 activation with reciprocal balance of Th17 and Tregs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Jin-Sil; Byun, Jae-Kyung; Jhun, JooYeon; Jung, KyungAh; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Moon, Young-Mee; Kim, Ho-Youn; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-10-06

    PTEN is a tyrosine phosphatase with significant function in inhibiting STAT3 activation. Recently, inactivation of STAT3 has been demonstrated as a therapeutic candidate for autoimmune arthritis. The expression of PTEN controlled by p53 regulates autoimmune arthritis through modulating the balance between Th17 and Treg. We hypothesized that PTEN regulated by p53 might reduce CIA severity and inflammatory response via inhibiting STAT3 activation. Our results revealed that PTEN could ameliorate experimental autoimmune arthritis by reducing STAT3 activity and Th17 differentiation. Systemic infusion of PTEN overexpression downregulated CIA severity. In addition, PTEN overexpression decreased the activation of T cells and modulated reciprocal differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells. We observed that PTEN expression downregulated by p53 deficiency induced the activation of STAT3. Loss of p53 exacerbated autoimmune arthritis and dysregulated the population of Th17 and Treg. These data suggest that induction of STAT3-modulatory activity of PTEN may be a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  13. Regulation of TRPM7 Function by IL-6 through the JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yin; Luo, Zhenzhao; Gao, Yan; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have demonstrated that expression of the TRPM7 channel, which may induce delayed cell death by mediating calcium influx, is precisely regulated. However, functional regulation of TRPM7 channels by endogenous molecules has not been elucidated. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 contributes to regulation of Ca2+ influx in cerebral ischemia, but the role of IL-6 in regulating TRPM7 functioning is unknown. Thus, we here investigated the interaction between IL-6 and TRPM7 channels and the relevant mechanisms. Materials and Methods Using whole-cell patch-clamping, we first investigated the effect of IL-6 on TRPM7-like currents in primary cultured cortical neurons. Next, TRPM7-overexpressing HEK293 cells were used to confirm the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TRPM7. Finally, we used specific signaling pathway inhibitors to investigate the signaling pathways involved. Results IL-6 or IL-6/sIL-6R dose-dependently inhibited inward TRPM7 currents, in both primary cultured neurons and HEK293 cells overexpressing TRPM7. In intracellular Mg2+-free conditions, extracellular Ca2+ or the α-kinase domain of TRPM7 did not participate in this regulation. The inhibitory effect of IL-6 on TRPM7 could be blocked by specific inhibitors of the JAK2−STAT3 pathway, but not of the PI3K, ERK1/2, or PLC pathways. Conclusions IL-6 inhibits the inward TRPM7 current via the JAK2−STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27010689

  14. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 regulates microRNA gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Approximately 1,000 microRNAs (miRs) are present in the human genome; however, little is known about the regulation of miR transcription. Because miR levels are deregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL, we sought to determine whether STAT3 affects the transcription of miR genes in CLL cells. Methods We used publically available data from the ENCODE project to identify putative STAT3 binding sites in the promoters of miR genes. Then we transfected CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA or with an empty vector, and to determine which miRs are differentially expressed, we used a miR microarray approach followed by validation of the microarray results for 6 miRs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results We identified putative STAT3 binding sites in 160 promoter regions of 200 miRs, including miR-21, miR-29, and miR-155, whose levels have been reported to be upregulated in CLL. Levels of 72 miRs were downregulated (n = 63) or upregulated (n = 9). qRT-PCR confirmed the array data in 5 of 6 miRs. Conclusions The presence of activated STAT3 has a profound effect on miR expression in CLL cells. PMID:23725032

  15. STAT3 promotes CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation by regulating a critical gene in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Abhirami K; Liu, Jianyun; Gallo, Richard M; Kaplan, Mark H; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2015-11-01

    Cytokines that regulate the immune response signal through the Janus kinase / signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, but whether this pathway can regulate CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation to natural killer T (NKT) cells is unknown. Here, we found that STAT3 promotes antigen presentation by CD1d. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in which STAT3 expression was inhibited exhibited markedly reduced endogenous lipid antigen presentation to NKT cells without an impact on exogenous lipid antigen presentation by CD1d. Consistent with this observation, in APCs where STAT3 was knocked down, dramatically decreased levels of UDP glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG), an enzyme involved in the first step of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, were observed. Impaired lipid antigen presentation was reversed by ectopic expression of UGCG in STAT3-silenced CD1d(+) APCs. Hence, by controlling a fundamental step in CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation, STAT3 signalling promotes innate immune responses driven by CD1d.

  16. Different Associations of CD45 Isoforms with STAT3, PKC and ERK Regulate IL-6-Induced Proliferation in Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xu; Li, Allison S.; Zheng, Huanyu; Zhao, Dongmei; Guan, Dagang; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    In response to interleukin 6 (IL-6) stimulation, both CD45RO and CD45RB, but not CD45RA, translocate to lipid rafts. However, the significance of this distinct translocation and the downstream signals in CD45 isoforms-participated IL-6 signal are not well understood. Using sucrose fractionation, we found that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and STAT1 were mainly localized in lipid rafts in response to IL-6 stimulation, despite both STAT3 and STAT1 localizing in raft and non-raft fractions in the presence or absence of IL-6. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK were localized in non-raft fractions regardless of the existence of IL-6. The rafts inhibitor significantly impeded the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and nuclear translocation, but had little effect on (and only postponing) the phosphorylation of ERK. This data suggests that lipid raft-dependent STAT3 and STAT1 pathways are dominant pathways of IL-6 signal in myeloma cells. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 but not STAT1 in CD45+ cells was significantly higher compared to that of CD45- cells, while the phosphorylation level of ERK in CD45+ myeloma cells was relatively low. Furthermore, exogenously expressed CD45RO/RB significantly enhanced STAT3, protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream NF-κB activation; however, CD45RA/RB inhibited IL-6-induced ERK phosphorylation. CD45 also enhanced the nuclear localization of STAT3 but not that of STAT1. In response to IL-6 stimulation, CD45RO moved into raft compartments and formed a complex with STAT3 and PKC in raft fraction, while CD45RA remained outside of lipid rafts and formed a complex with ERK in non-raft fraction. This data suggests a different role of CD45 isoforms in IL-6-induced signaling, indicating that while CD45RA/RB seems inhibit the rafts-unrelated ERK pathway, CD45RO/RB may actually work to enhance the rafts-related STAT3 and PKC/NF-κB pathways

  17. Roles of STAT3 and ZEB1 proteins in E-cadherin down-regulation and human colorectal cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hua; Hong, Jie; Du, Wan; Lin, Yan-wei; Ren, Lin-lin; Wang, Ying-chao; Su, Wen-yu; Wang, Ji-lin; Cui, Yun; Wang, Zhen-hua; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2012-02-17

    The progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to invasive and metastatic disease may involve localized occurrences of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, mechanisms of the EMT process in CRC progression are not fully understood. We previously showed that knockdown of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) up-regulated E-cadherin (a key component in EMT progression) in CRC. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 in CRC EMT and ZEB1, an EMT inducer, in STAT3-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin and vimentin expressions in highly invasive LoVo CRC cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of STAT3 significantly reduced E-cadherin and enhanced N-cadherin and vimentin expressions in weakly invasive SW1116 CRC cells. Activation of STAT3 significantly increased CRC cell invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis. Knockdown of STAT3 dramatically enhanced chemosensitivity of CRC cells to fluorouracil. STAT3 regulated ZEB1 expression in CRC cells, and the STAT3-induced decrease in E-cadherin and cell invasion depended on activation of ZEB1 in CRC cells. Additionally, pSTAT3(Tyr-705) and ZEB1 expressions were significantly correlated with TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis stages) (p < 0.01). In conclusion, STAT3 may directly mediate EMT progression and regulate ZEB1 expression in CRC. ZEB1 may participate in STAT3-induced cell invasion and E-cadherin down-regulation in CRC cells. The expressions of pSTAT3(Tyr-705) and ZEB1 may be positively associated with CRC metastasis. Our data may provide potential targets to prevent and/or treat CRC invasion and metastasis.

  18. The Ubiquitin Ligase TRAF6 Negatively Regulates the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway by Binding to STAT3 and Mediating Its Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chaozhi; Chen, Hui; Leng, Ling; He, Fuchu; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    STAT3 is a key transcription factor that mediates various cellular and organismal processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis, immune response and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of STAT3 regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we identified TRAF6 as a new STAT3 interactor. TRAF6 augmented the ubiquitination of STAT3 and deactivated its transcriptional activity induced by IFNα stimulation or overexpressed with JAK2. Both the RING domain and the TRAF-type zinc finger domain of TRAF6 were indispensable for STAT3 deactivation. Accordingly, TRAF6 also down-regulated the expression of two known STAT3 target genes, CRP and ACT. Therefore, we showed that TRAF6 is a new regulator of JAK/STAT signaling and provide a new mechanistic explanation for the crosstalk between the NF-κB and the JAK-STAT pathways. PMID:23185365

  19. miR-125b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells through down-regulation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-hong; Li, Hui; Li, Jin-ping; Zhong, Hui; Zhang, Han-chon; Chen, Jia; Xiao, Tao

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic restoration of miR-125b suppresses cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 can bind to the promoter region of miR-125b and serves as a transactivator. -- Abstract: There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The ectopic restoration of miR-125b expression in human osteosarcoma cells suppresses proliferation and migration in vitro and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We further identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Interestingly, we discovered that the expression of miR-125b is regulated by STAT3 at the level of transcription. STAT3 binds to the promoter region of miR-125b in vitro and serves as a transactivator. Taken together, our findings point to an important role in the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma and suggest that miR-125b is a potential target in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  20. Nicotine protects against DSS colitis through regulating microRNA-124 and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wu, Tingyu; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Du, Peng; Su, Ding-Feng; Yang, Yili; Liu, Xia

    2017-02-01

    Although it is generally believed that nicotine accounts for the beneficial effect of smoking on ulcerative colitis, the underlying mechanisms remain not well understood. Our previous finding that nicotine inhibits inflammatory responses through inducing miR-124 prompted us to ask whether the miRNA is involved in the protective action of nicotine against UC. Our present study found that miR-124 expression is upregulated in colon tissues from UC patients and DSS colitis mice. Nicotine treatment further augmented miR-124 expression in lymphocytes isolated from human ulcerative colonic mucosa and ulcerative colon tissues from DSS mice, both in infiltrated lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Moreover, knockdown of miR-124 significantly diminished the beneficial effect of nicotine on murine colitis and IL-6-treated Caco-2 colon epithelial cells. Further analysis indicated that nicotine inhibited STAT3 activation in vivo and in IL-6 treated Caco-2 cells and Jurkat human T lymphocytes, in which miR-124 knockdown led to increased activation of STAT3. Blocking STAT3 activity alone is beneficial for DSS colitis and also abolished nicotine's protective effect in this model. These data indicate that nicotine exerts its protective action in UC through inducing miR-124 and inhibiting STAT3, and suggest that the miR-124/STAT3 system is a potential target for the therapeutic intervention of UC.

  1. Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

    2014-06-01

    Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma.

  2. Let-7a enhances the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cetuximab by regulating STAT3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. Methods The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor. Small interfering RNA to knockdown the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were employed. Protein and mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results It was found that let-7a enhances the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype (Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2) to cetuximab, but has no effect on cells with the mesenchymal phenotype (SNU449 and SNU387). It was determined that STAT3 was a target mRNA of let-7a using TargetScan. Expression of STAT3 and let-7a mRNA were negatively correlated in HCC cell lines. Moreover, let-7a altered the protein and mRNA expression of STAT3. Furthermore, STAT3 knockdown enhanced the function of cetuximab on HCC cell lines with epithelial phenotypes, but not on HCC cell lines with mesenchymal phenotypes. Finally, a rescue experiment confirmed that let-7a affected the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to cetuximab by interacting with STAT3. Conclusions There is a functional link between let-7a and STAT3 in enhancing the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype to cetuximab. Our results provide novel insight into new methodologies for combating HCC drug resistance. PMID:27932893

  3. T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Attenuates STAT3 and Insulin Signaling in the Liver to Regulate Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Loh, Kim; Galic, Sandra; Fam, Barbara; Shields, Ben; Wiede, Florian; Tremblay, Michel L.; Watt, Matthew J.; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Tiganis, Tony

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-instigated JAK/STAT3-signaling pathways in the liver inhibit the expression of gluconeogenic genes to decrease hepatic glucose output. The insulin receptor (IR) and JAK1 tyrosine kinases and STAT3 can serve as direct substrates for the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). Homozygous TCPTP-deficiency results in perinatal lethality prohibiting any informative assessment of TCPTP's role in glucose homeostasis. Here we have used Ptpn2+/− mice to investigate TCPTP's function in glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis in chow versus high-fat–fed (HFF) Ptpn2+/− and Ptpn2+/+ mice and insulin and IL-6 signaling and gluconeogenic gene expression in Ptpn2+/− and Ptpn2+/+ hepatocytes. RESULTS HFF Ptpn2+/− mice exhibited lower fasted blood glucose and decreased hepatic glucose output as determined in hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps and by the decreased blood glucose levels in pyruvate tolerance tests. The reduced hepatic glucose output coincided with decreased expression of the gluconeogenic genes G6pc and Pck1 and enhanced hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt signaling in the fasted state. Insulin-induced IR-β–subunit Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt signaling and IL-6–induced STAT3 phosphorylation were also enhanced in isolated Ptpn2+/− hepatocytes. The increased insulin and IL-6 signaling resulted in enhanced suppression of G6pc and Pck1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS Liver TCPTP antagonises both insulin and STAT3 signaling pathways to regulate gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output. PMID:20484139

  4. Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α Regulates a SOCS3-STAT3-Adiponectin Signal Transduction Pathway in Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changtao; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) regulates pathways in energy metabolism that become dysregulated in obesity. Earlier studies revealed that HIF1α in adipose tissue is markedly elevated in high-fat diet-fed mice that are obese and insulin-resistant. Genetic ablation of HIF1α in adipose tissue decreased insulin resistance and obesity, accompanied by increased serum adiponectin levels. However, the exact mechanism whereby HIF1α regulates adiponectin remains unclear. Here, acriflavine (ACF), an inhibitor of HIF1α, induced the expression of adiponectin and reduced the expression of SOCS3 in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that HIF1α suppressed the expression of adiponectin through a SOCS3-STAT3 pathway. Socs3 was identified as a novel HIF1α target gene based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays. STAT3 directly regulated adiponectin in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACF was found to prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In vivo, ACF also regulated the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway, and inhibition of HIF1α in adipose tissue was essential for ACF to improve the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway to counteract insulin resistance. This study provides evidence for a novel target gene and signal transduction pathway in adipocytes and indicates that inhibitors of HIF1α have potential utility for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23255598

  5. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) regulates host defense and protects mice against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Hung-Ching; Stopford, Charles M; Zhang, Zhigang; Damania, Blossom; Baldwin, Albert S

    2016-12-13

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates cellular responses to multiple cytokines, governs gene expression, and regulates the development and activation of immune cells. STAT3 also modulates reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) in ganglia. However, it is unclear how STAT3 regulates the innate immune response during the early phase of HSV-1 lytic infection. Many cell types critical for the innate immunity are derived from the myeloid lineage. Therefore, in this study, we used myeloid-specific Stat3 knockout mice to investigate the role of STAT3 in the innate immune response against HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that Stat3 knockout bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) expressed decreased levels of interferon-α (IFN-α) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) upon HSV-1 infection. In vivo, knockout mice were more susceptible to HSV-1, as marked by higher viral loads and more significant weight loss. Splenic expression of IFN-α and ISGs was reduced in the absence of STAT3, indicating that STAT3 is required for optimal type I interferon response to HSV-1. Expression of TNF-α and IL-12, cytokines that have been shown to limit HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis, was also significantly lower in knockout mice. Interestingly, Stat3 knockout mice failed to expand the CD8(+) conventional DC (cDC) population upon HSV-1 infection, and this was accompanied by impaired NK and CD8 T cell activation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that myeloid-specific Stat3 deletion causes defects in multiple aspects of the immune system and that STAT3 has a protective role at the early stage of systemic HSV-1 infection.

  6. HtrA2 suppresses autoimmune arthritis and regulates activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Moon, Young-Mee; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Kim, Se-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yi, Junyeong; Nam, Min-Kyung; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that is related to the induction of T helper (Th)17 cells, which secrete interleukin-17, and activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. The expression of high-temperature requirement protein A (HtrA) 2, a serine protease involved in apoptosis, was decreased in RA patients nonresponsive to drug treatment of RA. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of HtrA2 has a therapeutic effect on RA. Th17 differentiation, osteoclastogenesis, and lymphocyte activation are increased in motor neuron degeneration (mnd)2 mice, which lack HtrA2 activity because of a missense mutation (Ser276Cys) in the protease domain of HtrA2. The inhibitor of HtrA2 also increased Th17 differentiation. On the other hand, HtrA2 induced cleavage of STAT3 and overexpression of HtrA2 attenuated CIA in a mouse model. HtrA2 overexpression inhibited plaque development as well as the differentiation of Th17 in ApoE−/− mice after immunization with proteoglycans to induce a hyperlipidemia-based RA animal model. The therapeutic function of HtrA2 in inflammatory diseases is linked with Th17 development and the STAT3 pathway in splenocytes. These results suggest that HtrA2 participates in immunomodulatory activity where the upregulation of HtrA2 may shed light on therapeutic approaches to RA and hyperlipidemia. PMID:28008946

  7. The AIM2 inflammasome is a central regulator of intestinal homeostasis through the IL-18/IL-22/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ratsimandresy, Rojo A; Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammasomes are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, and dysbiosis contributes to the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and increases the risk for colorectal cancer. Inflammasome defects contribute to chronic intestinal inflammation and increase the susceptibility to colitis in mice. However, the inflammasome sensor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) protects against colorectal cancer in an inflammasome-independent manner through DNA-dependent protein kinase and Akt pathways. Yet, the roles of the AIM2 inflammasome in IBD and the early phases of colorectal cancer remain ill-defined. Here we show that the AIM2 inflammasome has a protective role in the intestine. During steady state, Aim2 deletion results in the loss of IL-18 secretion, suppression of the IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) in intestinal epithelial cells and consequent loss of the STAT3-dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3β and Reg3γ, which promotes dysbiosis-linked colitis. During dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, a dysfunctional IL-18/IL-22BP pathway in Aim2−/− mice promotes excessive IL-22 production and elevated STAT3 activation. Aim2−/− mice further exhibit sustained STAT3 and Akt activation during the resolution of colitis fueled by enhanced Reg3b and Reg3g expression. This self-perpetuating mechanism promotes proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and likely contributes to the recently described increase in susceptibility of Aim2−/− mice to colorectal cancer. Collectively, our results demonstrate a central role for the AIM2 inflammasome in preventing dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation through regulation of the IL-18/IL-22BP/IL-22 and STAT3 pathway and expression of select AMPs. PMID:27524110

  8. Elevated interleukin-27 levels in human neonatal macrophages regulate indoleamine dioxygenase in a STAT-1 and STAT-3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Yong; Gleave Parson, Madeline; Kraft, Jennifer D; Lyda, Logan; Kobe, Brianna; Davis, Celestia; Robinson, Jembber; Peña, Maria Marjorette O; Robinson, Cory M

    2016-09-01

    Microbial infections are a major cause of infant mortality as a result of limitations in immune defences. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a heterodimeric cytokine produced primarily by leucocytes and is immunosuppressive toward lymphocytes and leucocytes. Our laboratory demonstrated that human neonatal macrophages express IL-27 more abundantly than adult macrophages. Similarly in mice, IL-27 expression is elevated early in life and maintained through infancy. To determine IL-27-regulated mechanisms that may limit immunity, we evaluated the expression of a number of genes in response to this cytokine in primary human neonatal macrophages. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene expression was increased dose-responsively by IL-27. We have previously demonstrated inhibition of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production by neonatal macrophage-generated IL-27, and IDO is often implicated in this negative regulation. An increase in IDO protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy and was consistent with increased enzyme activity following treatment with IL-27. Inclusion of a soluble receptor to neutralize endogenous IL-27, decreased IDO expression and activity compared with untreated macrophages. In response to IL-27, neonatal macrophages phosphorylate signal transdcuer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) and STAT-3. Both transcription factors are recruited to the IDO regulatory region. STAT-3 dominates during steady-state regulation by lower levels of endogenous IL-27 production. A shift to enhanced STAT-1 recruitment occurs during increased levels of exogenously supplied IL-27. These data suggest an interesting interplay of STAT-1 and STAT-3 to regulate IDO activity and immunosuppression in response to different levels of IL-27 in the microenvironment of the immune response that may further our understanding of this interesting cytokine.

  9. STAT3/NF-κB-Regulated Lentiviral TK/GCV Suicide Gene Therapy for Cisplatin-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Wei-Ying; Hwu, Luen; Wu, Chun-Yi; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Chang, Chi-Wei; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 20% of all breast cancers and appears resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, demonstrating a particularly poor prognosis and a significantly worse clinical outcome than other types of cancer. Suicide gene therapy has been used for the in vivo treatment of various solid tumors in recent clinical trials. In tumor microenvironment, STAT3/NF-κB pathways are constitutively activated in stromal cells as well as in cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this study, we have cloned a novel STAT3/NF-κB-based reporter system to drive the expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) against breast cancer. Lentiviral vector expressing HSV-TK under the regulation of STAT3/NF-κB fused response element was developed. In this setting, we exploited the constitutive STAT3/NF-κB activation in tumors to achieve higher transgene expression than that driven by a constitutively active CMV promotor in vivo. An orthotropic MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer mouse model was used for evaluating the feasibility of STAT3-NF-κB-TK/GCV suicide gene therapy system. The basal promoter activity of Lenti-CMV-TK and Lenti-STAT3-NF-κB-TK in MDA-MB-231 cells was compared by 3H-FEAU uptake assay. The Lenti-CMV-TK showed ~5 fold higher 3H-FEAU uptake then Lenti -STAT3-NF-κB-TK. In clonogenic assay, cells expressing Lenti-CMV-TK were 2-fold more sensitive to GCV than Lenti-STAT3-NF-κB-TK transduced cells. In vitro effect of STAT3-NF-κB-induced transgene expression was determined by 10ng/mL TNF-α induction and confirmed by western blot analysis and DsRedm fluorescent microscopy. In vivo evaluation of therapeutic effect by bioluminescence and [18F]FHBG microPET imaging indicated that Lenti-STAT3-NF-κB-TK showed more tumor growth retardation than Lenti-CMV-TK when GCV (20 mg/kg) was administered. The invasiveness and expression of cancer stem cell markers were both decreased after STAT3/NF-κB-regulated HSV

  10. CCR7 regulates cell migration and invasion through JAK2/STAT3 in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fa-Yu; Safdar, Jawad; Li, Zhen-Ning; Fang, Qi-Gen; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently involves metastasis at diagnosis. Our previous research has demonstrated that CCR7 plays a key role in regulating SCCHN metastasis, and this process involves several molecules, such as PI3K/cdc42, pyk2, and Src. In this study, the goals are to identify whether JAK2/STAT3 also participates in CCR7's signal network, its relationship with other signal pathways, and its role in SCCHN cell invasion and migration. The results showed that stimulation of CCL19 could induce JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, which can be blocked by Src and pyk2 inhibitors. After activation, STAT3 was able to promote low expression of E-cadherin and had no effect on vimentin. This JAk2/STAT3 pathway not only mediated CCR7-induced cell migration but also mediated invasion speed. The immunohistochemistry results also showed that the phosphorylation of STAT3 was correlated with CCR7 expression in SCCHN, and CCR7 and STAT3 phosphorylation were all associated with lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, JAk2/STAT3 plays a key role in CCR7 regulating SCCHN metastasis.

  11. Bypassing STAT3-mediated inhibition of the transcriptional regulator ID2 improves the anti-tumor efficacy of dendritic cells*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan S.; Liu, Chengwen; Xiao, Yichuan; Chu, Fuliang; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Peng, Weiyi; Hu, Jianhua; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Sun, Shao-Cong; Hwu, Patrick; Watowich, Stephanie S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potent ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate lymphocyte responses and host immunity, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-derived DCs (GM-DCs) used as antitumor vaccines have demonstrated relatively modest success in cancer immunotherapy. We found that injecting GM-DCs into melanoma tumors in mice, or culturing GM-DCs with melanoma-secreted cytokines or melanoma-conditioned medium, rapidly suppressed DC-intrinsic expression of the gene encoding inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2), a transcriptional regulator. Melanoma-associated cytokines repressed Id2 transcription in murine DCs through the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Enforced expression of ID2 in GM-DCs (ID2-GM-DCs) suppressed their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Vaccination with ID2-GM-DCs slowed the progression of melanoma tumors and enhanced animal survival, which was associated with an increased abundance of tumor-infiltrating interferon-γ-positive CD4+ effector and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and a decreased number of tumor-infiltrating regulatory CD4+ T cells. The efficacy of the ID2-GM-DC vaccine was improved by combinatorial treatment with a blocking antibody to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a current immunotherapy that overcomes suppressive immune checkpoint signaling. Collectively, our data reveal a previously unrecognized STAT3-mediated immunosuppressive mechanism in DCs and indicate that DC-intrinsic ID2 promotes tumor immunity by modulating tumor-associated CD4+ T cell responses. Thus inhibiting STAT3 or overexpressing ID2 selectively in DCs may improve the efficiency of DC vaccines in cancer therapy. PMID:27678219

  12. The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

    2014-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

  13. An essential role for the Stat3 in regulating IgG immune complex-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing evidence suggests that transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 may play an important regulatory role during inflammation. However, the function of Stat3 in acute lung injury (ALI) is largely unknown. In the current study, by using an adenoviral vector e...

  14. Xiaoyaosan exerts anxiolytic-like effects by down-regulating the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Ma, Qing-Yu; Jiang, You-Ming; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Qun; Pan, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Yue-Yun; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2017-03-23

    Although the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan, a Chinese herbal formula, have been described in many previous studies, its underlying mechanism remains undefined. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its closely associated janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signalling pathway regulate the neuro-inflammatory response in the brain, thus participating in the development of anxiety. Our purpose was to investigate whether the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan are related to the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the hippocampus. We examined the effects of Xiaoyaosan on behaviours exhibited in the elevated plus maze test, open field test and novelty-suppressed feeding test as well as hippocampal neuron damage and changes in the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in a rat model of chronic immobilization stress (CIS)-induced anxiety. Xiaoyaosan exerts anxiolytic-like effects on CIS-induced anxiety, with a significant alleviation of anxiety-like behaviours, an attenuation of hippocampal neuron damage, and a reversal of the activation of the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the hippocampus that are similar to the effects of the JAK2 antagonist AG490. However, Xiaoyaosan and AG490 failed to effectively regulate apoptosis-related factors, including Bax and Caspase-3. These results suggest that Xiaoyaosan attenuates stress-induced anxiety behaviours by down-regulating the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the rat hippocampus.

  15. A NOVEL ROLE FOR HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDAC6) IN THE REGULATION OF THE TOLEROGENIC STAT3/IL-10 PATHWAY IN ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fengdong; Lienlaf, Maritza; Wang, Hong-Wei; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Lee, Calvin; Woan, Karrune; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sahakian, Eva; Woods, David; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Kalin, Jay; Tao, Jianguo; Hancock, Wayne; Kozikowski, Alan; Seto, Edward; Villagra, Alejandro; Sotomayor, Eduardo M.

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are critical in T-cell activation and in the induction of T-cell tolerance. Epigenetic modifications of specific genes in the APC play a key role in this process, and among them, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key participants. HDAC6, one of the members of this family of enzymes, has been shown to be involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Here we show for the first time, that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of HDAC6 in macrophages and dendritic cells resulted in diminished production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and induction of inflammatory APCs that effectively activate antigen-specific naïve T-cells and restore the responsiveness of anergic CD4+ T-cells. Mechanistically, we have found that HDAC6 forms a previously unknown molecular complex with STAT3, association that was detected in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the APC. By using HDAC6 recombinant mutants we identified the domain comprising aminoacids 503-840 as being required for HDAC6 interaction with STAT3. Furthermore, by re-chromatin immunoprecipitation we confirmed that HDAC6 and STAT3 are both recruited to the same DNA sequence within the Il10 gene promoter. Of note, disruption of this complex by knocking down HDAC6 resulted in decreased STAT3 phosphorylation -but no changes in STAT3 acetylation- as well as diminished recruitment of STAT3 to the Il10 gene promoter region. The additional demonstration that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor disrupts this STAT3/IL-10 tolerogenic axis points to HDAC6 as a novel molecular target in APCs to overcome immune tolerance and tips the balance towards T-cell immunity. PMID:25108026

  16. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-03-09

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  17. Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 Inhibitor, attenuated cardiac fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization via STAT3 signaling in infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2017-03-01

    During myocardial infarction, infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in cardiac remodeling and delayed M1 toward M2 macrophage phenotype transition is considered one of the major factors for adverse ventricular remodeling. We investigated whether dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, attenuates cardiac fibrosis via regulating macrophage phenotype by a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)/STAT3-dependent pathway in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline, dapagliflozin (a specific SGLT2 inhibitor), phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT1/2 inhibitor), dapagliflozin + S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor), or phlorizin + S3I-201 for 4 weeks. There were similar infarct sizes among the infarcted groups at the acute and chronic stages of infarction. At day 3 after infarction, post-infarction was associated with increased levels of superoxide and nitrotyrosine, which can be inhibited by administering either dapagliflozin or phlorizin. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly increased STAT3 activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, myocardial IL-10 levels and the percentage of M2 macrophage infiltration. At day 28 after infarction, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with attenuated myofibroblast infiltration and cardiac fibrosis. Although phlorizin decreased myofibroblast infiltration, the effect of dapagliflozin on attenuated myofibroblast infiltration was significantly higher than phlorizin. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac fibrosis were nullified by adding S3I-201. Furthermore, the effects of dapagliflozin on STAT3 activity and myocardial IL-10 levels can be reversed by 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a peroxynitrite generator. Taken together, these observations provide a novel mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitors-mediated M2 polarization through a RONS-dependent STAT3-mediated pathway and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are more effective in attenuating myofibroblast infiltration during

  18. ATF3 reduces migration capacity by regulation of matrix metalloproteinases via NFκB and STAT3 inhibition in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Guenzle, Jessica; Wolf, Louisa J; Garrelfs, Nicklas W C; Goeldner, Jonathan M; Osterberg, Nadja; Schindler, Cora R; Saavedra, Joseph E; Weyerbrock, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is associated with poor survival and a high recurrence rate in patients due to inevitable uncontrolled infiltrative tumor growth. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms may offer opportunities to prevent relapses. In this study we investigated the role of the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in migration of GBM cells in vitro. RNA microarray revealed that gene expression of ATF3 is induced by a variety of chemotherapeutics and experimental agents such as the nitric oxide donor JS-K (O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate). We found NFκB and STAT3 to be downstream targets inhibited by overexpression of ATF3. We demonstrate that ATF3 is directly involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase expression and activation. Overexpression of ATF3 therefore leads to a significantly reduced migration capacity and induction of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study for the first time identifies ATF3 as a potential novel therapeutic target in glioblastoma. PMID:28250971

  19. The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, regulates survivin expression via an EGFR/STAT3 pathway in UVB-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Langenbach, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported that cycloogenase (COX)-2-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had anti-apoptotic effects in UVB-exposed mouse skin that involved EP2-mediated signaling (Chun et al., Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 2015). Because survivin is a regulator of cell survival, the possible involvement of COX-2 and EP2 in survivin expression following UVB exposure of mouse skin was investigated. In wild type mice, UVB exposure time-dependently increased the levels of survivin and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), a transcription factor that regulates survivin expression; and COX-2- or EP2-deficiency significantly reduced their induction. Topical application of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, also reduced UVB-induced survivin levels. To further investigate the roles of PGE2 and EP2 in the regulation of survivin, indomethacin was used to inhibit UVB-induced endogenous PG production. UVB-induced survivin levels were reduced by indomethacin, and PGE2 and the EP2 agonist, butaprost, partially restored survivin levels. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a downstream effector of EP2 and EGFR inhibition (AG1478) significantly reduced UVB activation of STAT3 and survivin levels. UVB-induced epidermal apoptosis in COX-2-/- mice was reduced by butaprost and EGFR inhibition blocked butaprost’s protective effects. Furthermore, butaprost in the absence of UVB exposure time-dependently increased p-EGFR, p-STAT3, and survivin levels in naïve mouse skin, whereas the EP4 agonist, PGE1 alcohol, did not significantly increase p-STAT3 or survivin levels. These data suggest that COX-2-generated PGE2 regulates survivin expression in mouse skin, in part, via an EP2-mediated EGFR/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, targeting the EP2/survivin pathway may provide a strategy for the chemoprevention/chemotherapy of skin cancer.

  20. Regulation of STAT3 and NF-κB activations by S-nitrosylation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsu; Choi, Seungho; Saxena, Nishant; Singh, Avtar K; Singh, Inderjit; Won, Je-Seong

    2017-05-01

    Numerous reports suggest that aberrant activations of STAT3 and NF-κB promote survival and proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that a synthetic S-nitrosothiol compound, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), inhibits proliferation and survival of multiple MM cells via S-nitrosylation-dependent inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB. In human MM cells (e.g. U266, H929, and IM-9 cells), SNAC treatment increased S-nitrosylation of STAT3 and NF-κB and inhibited their activities. Consequently, SNAC treatment resulted in MM cell cycle arrest at G1/S check point and inhibited their proliferation. SNAC also decreased the expression of cell survival factors and increased the activities of caspases, thus increased sensitivity of MM cells to melphalan, a chemotherapeutic agent for MM. In U266 xenografted mice, SNAC treatment decreased the activity of STAT3 and reduced the growth of human CD138 positive cells (U266 cells) in the bone marrow and also reduced their production of human IgE into the serum. Taken together, these data document the S-nitrosylation mediated inhibition of MM cell proliferation and cell survival via inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB pathways and its efficacy in animal model of MM.

  1. Entinostat up-regulates the CAMP gene encoding LL-37 via activation of STAT3 and HIF-1α transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Erica; Nylén, Frank; Johansson, Katarina; Arnér, Elias; Cebula, Marcus; Farmand, Susan; Ottosson, Håkan; Strömberg, Roger; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta; Bergman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance against classical antibiotics is a growing problem and the development of new antibiotics is limited. Thus, novel alternatives to antibiotics are warranted. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of innate immunity that can be induced by several compounds, including vitamin D and phenyl-butyrate (PBA). Utilizing a luciferase based assay, we recently discovered that the histone deacetylase inhibitor Entinostat is a potent inducer of the CAMP gene encoding the human cathelicidin LL-37. Here we investigate a mechanism for the induction and also find that Entinostat up-regulates human β-defensin 1. Analysis of the CAMP promoter sequence revealed binding sites for the transcription factors STAT3 and HIF-1α. By using short hairpin RNA and selective inhibitors, we found that both transcription factors are involved in Entinostat-induced expression of LL-37. However, only HIF-1α was found to be recruited to the CAMP promoter, suggesting that Entinostat activates STAT3, which promotes transcription of CAMP by increasing the expression of HIF-1α. Finally, we provide in vivo relevance to our findings by showing that Entinostat-elicited LL-37 expression was impaired in macrophages from a patient with a STAT3-mutation. Combined, our findings support a role for STAT3 and HIF-1α in the regulation of LL-37 expression. PMID:27633343

  2. Curcumin ameliorates neuropathic pain by down-regulating spinal IL-1β via suppressing astroglial NALP1 inflammasome and JAK2-STAT3 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenbin; Li, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Hu, Lang-Yue; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Mi, Wen-Li; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory activity in many diseases. It has been demonstrated that the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cascade and the NAcht leucine-rich-repeat protein 1 (NALP1) inflammasome are important for the synthesis of Pro-Interleukin (IL)-1β and the processing of the inactive protein to its mature form, which plays an active role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The present study showed that repeated intraperitoneal injection of curcumin ameliorated SNI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the elevation of spinal mature IL-1β protein levels. Additionally, repeated curcumin treatment significantly inhibited the aggregation of the NALP1 inflammasome and the activation of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade in spinal astrocytes. Furthermore, the genetic down-regulation of NALP1 inflammasome activation by NALP1 siRNA and the pharmacological inhibition of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade by AG490 markedly inhibited IL-1β maturation and Pro-IL-1β synthesis, respectively, and reduced SNI-induced pain hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain and down-regulated the production of spinal mature IL-1β by inhibiting the aggregation of NALP1 inflammasome and the activation of the JAK2-STAT3 cascade in astrocytes. PMID:27381056

  3. Mouse skeletal muscle fiber-type specific macroautophagy and muscle wasting is regulated by a Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Eijiro; Bastie, Claire C.; Koga, Hiroshi; Wang, Yichen; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by aging (sarcopenia), inactivity and prolonged fasting states (starvation) is predominantly restricted to glycolytic type II muscle fibers and typical spares oxidative type I fibers. However, the mechanisms accounting for muscle fiber type specificity of atrophy have remained enigmatic. In the current study, we that although the Fyn tyrosine kinase activated the mTORC1 signaling complex, it also induced marked atrophy of glycolytic fibers with relatively less effect on oxidative muscle fibers. This was due to inhibition of macroautophagy via an mTORC1-independent but STAT3-dependent reduction in Vps34 protein levels and decreased Vps34/p150/Beclin1/Atg14 complexes. Physiologically, in the fed sate endogenous Fyn kinase activity was increased in glycolytic but not oxidative skeletal muscle. In parallel, Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation increased with decreased Vps34 protein levels. Moreover, fed/starved regulation of Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation and Vps34 protein levels was prevented in skeletal muscle of Fyn null mice. These data demonstrate a novel Fyn/STAT3/Vps34 pathway that is responsible for fiber type specific regulation of macroautophagy and skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:22745922

  4. Interleukin-10–mediated regenerative postnatal tissue repair is dependent on regulation of hyaluronan metabolism via fibroblast-specific STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Swathi; Wang, Xinyi; King, Alice; Le, Louis D.; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S.; Moles, Chad M.; Butte, Manish J.; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A.; Liechty, Kenneth W.; Wight, Thomas N.; Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Bollyky, Paul L.; Keswani, Sundeep G.

    2017-01-01

    The cytokine IL-10 has potent antifibrotic effects in models of adult fibrosis, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we report a novel finding that IL-10 triggers a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)–dependent signaling pathway that regulates hyaluronan (HA) metabolism and drives adult fibroblasts to synthesize an HA-rich pericellular matrix, which mimics the fetal regenerative wound healing phenotype with reduced fibrosis. By using cre-lox–mediated novel, inducible, fibroblast-, keratinocyte-, and wound-specific STAT3-knockdown postnatal mice—plus syngeneic fibroblast cell-transplant models—we demonstrate that the regenerative effects of IL-10 in postnatal wounds are dependent on HA synthesis and fibroblast-specific STAT3-dependent signaling. The importance of IL-10–induced HA synthesis for regenerative wound healing is demonstrated by inhibition of HA synthesis in a murine wound model by administering 4-methylumbelliferone. Although IL-10 and STAT3 signaling were intact, the antifibrotic repair phenotype that is induced by IL-10 overexpression was abrogated in this model. Our data show a novel role for IL-10 beyond its accepted immune-regulatory mechanism. The opportunity for IL-10 to regulate a fibroblast-specific formation of a regenerative, HA-rich wound extracellular matrix may lead to the development of innovative therapies to attenuate postnatal fibrosis in organ systems or diseases in which dysregulated inflammation and HA intersect.—Balaji, S., Wang, X., King, A., Le, L. D., Bhattacharya, S. S., Moles, C. M., Butte, M. J., de Jesus Perez, V. A., Liechty, K. W., Wight, T. N., Crombleholme, T. M., Bollyky, P. L., Keswani, S. G. Interleukin-10–mediated regenerative postnatal tissue repair is dependent on regulation of hyaluronan metabolism via fibroblast-specific STAT3 signaling. PMID:27903619

  5. Chrysin suppresses IL-6-induced angiogenesis via down-regulation of JAK1/STAT3 and VEGF: an in vitro and in ovo approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Mei; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Wang, Bao-Wei; Chang, Hang; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2010-06-09

    Chrysin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, possesses many biologic properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of chrysin on IL-6-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in ovo. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, an in ovo angiogenesis assay, showed chrysin significantly suppressed IL-6-induced neovascularization. Furthermore, chrysin significantly suppressed human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and tube formation. The signaling pathway involved in chrysin-related antiangiogenesis was also investigated. The data indicated that chrysin is able to down-regulate the expression of glycoprotein 130 (gp130), soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), phosphorylated JAK1 and STAT3, and VEGF in HUVECs. The IL-6-induced binding of STAT3 was significantly suppressed by chrysin. Moreover, chrysin did not further suppress VEGF expression with STAT3 knocked down. Taken together, the results show that chrysin suppresses IL-6-induced angiogenesis through modulation of the sIL-6R/gp130/JAK1/STAT3/VEGF signaling pathway. Chrysin may provide new therapeutic potential for IL-6-induced pathological angiogenesis.

  6. Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor κB signaling in glioblastoma cancer stem cells regulates the Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Garner, Jo Meagan; Fan, Meiyun; Yang, Chuan He; Du, Ziyun; Sims, Michelle; Davidoff, Andrew M; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2013-09-06

    Malignant gliomas are locally aggressive, highly vascular tumors that have a dismal prognosis, and present therapies provide little improvement in the disease course and outcome. Many types of malignancies, including glioblastoma, originate from a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are able to initiate and maintain tumors. Although CSCs only represent a small fraction of cells within a tumor, their high tumor-initiating capacity and therapeutic resistance drives tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is imperative to identify pathways associated with CSCs to devise strategies to selectively target them. In this study, we describe a novel relationship between glioblastoma CSCs and the Notch pathway, which involves the constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling. Glioma CSCs were isolated and maintained in vitro using an adherent culture system, and the biological properties were compared with the traditional cultures of CSCs grown as multicellular spheres under nonadherent culture conditions. Interestingly, both adherent and spheroid glioma CSCs show constitutive activation of the STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulation of STAT3- and NF-κB-dependent genes. Gene expression profiling also identified components of the Notch pathway as being deregulated in glioma CSCs, and the deregulated expression of these genes was sensitive to treatment with STAT3 and NF-κB inhibitors. This finding is particularly important because Notch signaling appears to play a key role in CSCs in a variety of cancers and controls cell fate determination, survival, proliferation, and the maintenance of stem cells. The constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways that leads to the regulation of Notch pathway genes in glioma CSCs identifies novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of glioma.

  7. Adipokine regulation of colon cancer: adiponectin attenuates interleukin-6-induced colon carcinoma cell proliferation via STAT-3.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Jenifer I; Birmingham, Janette M

    2010-07-01

    Obesity results in increased circulating levels of specific adipokines, which are associated with colon cancer risk. The disease state is associated with increased leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and IL-6. Conversely, adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Previously, we demonstrated adipokine-enhanced cell proliferation in preneoplastic, but not normal, colon epithelial cells, demonstrating a differential effect of adipokines on colon cancer progression in vitro. Using a model of late stage carcinoma cancer cell, namely murine MC-38 colon carcinoma cells, we compared the effect of obesity-associated adipokines (leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and IL-6) on MC-38 cell proliferation and determined whether adiponectin (full length or globular) could modulate adipokine-induced cell proliferation. We show that insulin and IL-6, but not leptin and IGF-1, induce proliferation in MC-38 cells. Adiponectin treatment of MC-38 cells did not inhibit insulin-induced cell proliferation but did inhibit IL-6-induced cell proliferation by decreasing STAT-3 phosphorylation and activation. Nitric oxide (NO) production was increased in MC-38 cells treated with IL-6; co-treatment with adiponectin blocked IL-6-induced iNOS and subsequent NO production. These data are compared to previously reported findings from our laboratory using the YAMC (model normal colon epithelial cells) and IMCE (model preneoplastic) cells. The cell lines are utilized to construct a model summarizing the hormonal consequences of obesity and the impact on the differential regulation of colon epithelial cells along the continuum to carcinoma. These data, taken together, highlight mechanisms involved in obesity-associated cancers and may lead to potential-targeted therapies.

  8. AKT-STAT3 Pathway as a Downstream Target of EGFR Signaling to Regulate PD-L1 Expression on NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamed, Sherif; Ogura, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Satoru; Saiki, Ikuo; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    While cancer development and progression can be controlled by cytotoxic T cells, it is also known that tumor-specific CD8(+)T cells become functionally impaired by acquiring a group of inhibitory receptors known as immune checkpoints. Amongst those, programmed death-1 (PD-1) is one of the most recognized negative regulators of T cell function. In non-small lung cancers (NSCLCs), the aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to induce PD-L1 expression and further the treatment with gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for EGFR, decrease the expression of PD-L1 on NSCLC. Given the acquired resistance to gefitinib treatment frequently observed by developing secondary-site mutations limiting its efficacy, it is important to understand the downstream mechanism of activated-EGFR signaling for regulating PD-L1 in NSCLC. In this study, we demonstrated that AKT-STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating the surface expression of PD-L1 on NSCLCs with aberrant EGFR activity and, further, the inhibition of AKT or STAT3 activity could down-regulate the expression of PD-L1 even in gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs. These results highlight an importance of AKT-STAT3 pathway as a promising target for potentiating anti-tumor immune responses by regulating PD-L1 expression on cancer cells with aberrant EGFR activity.

  9. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-12-16

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO.

  10. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO. PMID:27999284

  11. Icariin regulates systemic iron metabolism by increasing hepatic hepcidin expression through Stat3 and Smad1/5/8 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Jing; Guo, Wenli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Sijin; Yin, Huijun

    2016-05-01

    Systemic iron homeostasis is strictly controlled under normal conditions to ensure a balance between the absorption, utilization, storage and recycling of iron. The hepcidin-ferroportin (FPN) axis is of critical importance in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency gives rise to enhanced dietary iron absorption, as well as to increased iron release from macrophages, and this in turn results in iron accumulation in the plasma and organs, and is associated with a range of tissue pathologies. Low hepcidin levels have been demonstrated in most forms of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), as well as in β-thalassemia. Therapies that increase hepcidin concentrations may potentially play a role in the treatment of these iron overload-related diseases. To date, natural compounds have not been extensively investigated for this purpose, to the best of our knowledge. Thus, in the present study, we screened natural compounds that have the potential to regulate hepcidin expression. By performing hepcidin promoter-luciferase assay, RT-qPCR and animal experiments, we demonstrated that icariin and berberine were potent stimulators of hepcidin transcription. Mechanistic experiments indicated that icariin and berberine increased hepcidin expression by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Smad1/5/8 signaling pathways. The induction of hepcidin was confirmed in mice following icariin administration, coupled with associated changes in serum and tissue iron concentrations. In support of these findings, the icariin analogues, epimedin A, B and C, also increased hepatic hepcidin expression. However, these changes were not observed in hepcidin-deficient [Hamp1-/- or Hamp1‑knockout (KO)] mice following icariin administration, thereby verifying hepatic hepcidin as the target of icariin. Although berberine exhibited a robust capacity to promote hepcidin expression in vitro, it failed to alter hepcidin expression in mice. Taken together

  12. BIS targeting induces cellular senescence through the regulation of 14-3-3 zeta/STAT3/SKP2/p27 in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-J; Lee, J-S; Cui, M N; Yun, H H; Kim, H Y; Lee, S H; Lee, J-H

    2014-11-20

    Cellular senescence is an important mechanism for preventing tumor progression. The elevated expression of Bcl-2-interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an anti-apoptotic and anti-stress protein, often correlates with poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma; however, the role of BIS in the regulation of senescence has not been well defined. Here, we describe for the first time that the depletion of BIS induces G1 arrest and cellular senescence through the accumulation of p27 that is independent of p53, p21 or p16. The increase in p27 expression in BIS-depleted cells was attributable to an impairment of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, which was caused by a decrease in S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) at the transcriptional level. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that the loss of activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was specifically linked to the suppression of SKP2 expression. Despite a reduction in phospho-STAT3 levels, total STAT3 levels were unexpectedly increased by BIS depletion, specifically in the insoluble fraction. Our results show that 14-3-3ζ expression is decreased by BIS knockdown and that 14-3-3ζ depletion per se significantly induced senescence phenotypes. In addition, the ectopic expression of 14-3-3ζ blocked senescence caused by BIS depletion, which was paralleled with a decrease in insoluble STAT3 in A172 glioblastoma cells. These findings indicate that the impairment of the protein quality control conferred by BIS and/or 14-3-3ζ is critical for BIS depletion-induced senescence. Moreover, BIS knockdown also induced senescence along with an accumulation of total STAT3 and p27 in several different cell types as well as embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bis-knock out mice with/without variations in 14-3-3ζ levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that a downregulation of BIS expression could serve as a potential strategy for restricting tumor progression

  13. NANOG regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance through activation of the STAT3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suqing; Sun, Jing; Cai, Bin; Xi, Xiaowei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2016-07-01

    NANOG is a key transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an important role in various cancers. Its overexpression is associated with highly tumorigenic, drug-resistant, and poor prognosis. However, the underlying mechanism of action of NANOG in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical process in cancer invasion and metastasis, is also associated with drug resistance. We determined whether NANOG is associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (HEY and SKOV3) compared with normal epithelial ovarian cells (Moody). Low expression of NANOG increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expression of vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Furthermore, the cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. The multidrug resistance genes MDR-1 and GST-π were also downregulated when NANOG was lowly expressed. The cells that were transfected with the si-NANOG plasmid were more sensitive to cisplatin compared with the cells that were transfected with empty vector. The data demonstrated that Stat3 was correlated with NANOG-mediated EMT and drug resistance. The silencing of Stat3 expression abrogated NANOG-mediated EMT changes and increased the sensitivity of the cells to chemotherapy. These results suggest that NANOG mediates EMT and drug resistance through activation of the Stat3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Silencing of FGF-21 expression promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by regulation of the STAT3-SOCS3 signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Dai, Jihuan; Yang, Mengliu; Deng, Guangjiang; Xu, Shengnan; Jia, Yanjun; Boden, Guenther; Ma, Zhongmin A; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

    2014-05-01

    Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder associated with type 2 diabetes. Recent reports have shown that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) plays an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which changes in FGF-21 activation result in changes in the rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we developed adenovirus-mediated shRNA against FGF-21 to inhibit FGF-21 expression in ApoE knockout mice. Using this mouse model, we determined the effects of FGF-21 knockdown in vivo on hepatic glucose production, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and their relationship with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) signal pathways. We show that liver-specific knockdown of FGF-21 in high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice resulted in a 39% increase in glycogenolysis and a 75% increase in gluconeogenesis, accompanied by increased hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, FGF-21 knockdown decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and SOCS3 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice. Our data suggest that hepatic FGF-21 knockdown increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by activation of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase via the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway, ultimately leading to exacerbation of hepatic insulin resistance.

  15. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′-UTR of STAT3 regulates its expression and reduces risk of pancreatic cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jiao; Ke, Juntao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiaoyuan; Gong, Yajie; Yang, Yang; Tian, Jianbo; Peng, Xiating; Zou, Danyi; Zhong, Rong; Gong, Jing; Chang, Jiang; Li, Lu; Miao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest solid malignancies carrying a gloomy 5-year survival rate less than 5%. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a common transcriptional regulator, whose aberrant expression has been widely found in human cancers, including PC. Our current study aimed to illustrate the roles of common variants, in the three prime untranslated region (3′UTR) of STAT3, in modifying the risk of PC through two-stage case-control studies integrating biological experiments. We first explored the associations between two common variants (rs1053004 and rs1053005) and PC risk in 774 PC cases and 777 controls. Only rs1053004 T > C showed a significant association with a reduced risk of PC with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.85 (0.74–0.98). Then we attempted to validate the association in another 940 cases and 1398 controls, and the significant association persisted with OR (95%CI) of 0.86 (0.76–0.97). Dual luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that C allele conferred a higher expression of STAT3 in three PC cell lines including Panc-1 (P = 3.0 × 10−3), BxPC-3 (P = 6.7 × 10−5) and SW1990 (P = 4.0 × 10−3). In conclusion, the current study provided evidence that rs1053004 T > C in 3′UTR of STAT3 may decrease the risk of PC through up-regulating the gene expression. PMID:27577070

  16. Granulin, a novel STAT3-interacting protein, enhances STAT3 transcriptional function and correlates with poorer prognosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jennifer E.; Kreimer, Simion; Walker, Sarah R.; Emori, Megan M.; Krystal, Hannah; Richardson, Andrea; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Frank, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the neoplastic phenotype of a cell is largely driven by aberrant gene expression patterns, increasing attention has been focused on transcription factors that regulate critical mediators of tumorigenesis such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). As proteins that interact with STAT3 may be key in addressing how STAT3 contributes to cancer pathogenesis, we took a proteomics approach to identify novel STAT3-interacting proteins. We performed mass spectrometry-based profiling of STAT3-containing complexes from breast cancer cells that have constitutively active STAT3 and are dependent on STAT3 function for survival. We identified granulin (GRN) as a novel STAT3-interacting protein that was necessary for both constitutive and maximal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)induced STAT3 transcriptional activity. GRN enhanced STAT3 DNA binding and also increased the time-integrated amount of LIF-induced STAT3 activation in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, silencing GRN neutralized STAT3-mediated tumorigenic phenotypes including viability, clonogenesis, and migratory capacity. In primary breast cancer samples, GRN mRNA levels were positively correlated with STAT3 gene expression signatures and with reduced patient survival. These studies identify GRN as a functionally important STAT3-interacting protein that may serve as an important prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:26000098

  17. The role of STAT3 in autophagy.

    PubMed

    You, Liangkun; Wang, Zhanggui; Li, Hongsen; Shou, Jiawei; Jing, Zhao; Xie, Jiansheng; Sui, Xinbing; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotes that eliminates harmful components and maintains cellular homeostasis in response to a series of extracellular insults. However, these insults may trigger the downstream signaling of another prominent stress responsive pathway, the STAT3 signaling pathway, which has been implicated in multiple aspects of the autophagic process. Recent reports further indicate that different subcellular localization patterns of STAT3 affect autophagy in various ways. For example, nuclear STAT3 fine-tunes autophagy via the transcriptional regulation of several autophagy-related genes such as BCL2 family members, BECN1, PIK3C3, CTSB, CTSL, PIK3R1, HIF1A, BNIP3, and microRNAs with targets of autophagy modulators. Cytoplasmic STAT3 constitutively inhibits autophagy by sequestering EIF2AK2 as well as by interacting with other autophagy-related signaling molecules such as FOXO1 and FOXO3. Additionally, the mitochondrial translocation of STAT3 suppresses autophagy induced by oxidative stress and may effectively preserve mitochondria from being degraded by mitophagy. Understanding the role of STAT3 signaling in the regulation of autophagy may provide insight into the classic autophagy model and also into cancer therapy, especially for the emerging targeted therapy, because a series of targeted agents execute antitumor activities via blocking STAT3 signaling, which inevitably affects the autophagy pathway. Here, we review several of the representative studies and the current understanding in this particular field.

  18. Mitochondrial Stat3, the Need for Design Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Stat3 has been studied extensively as a transcription factor, however the finding that Stat3 also localizes to mitochondria has opened a new area to discover non-classical functions. Here we review the current knowledge of mitochondrial Stat3 as a regulator of the electron transport chain (ETC) and its impact on mitochondrial production of ATP and ROS. We also describe recent findings identifying Stat3 as a regulator of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis through its effect on the ETC. It is becoming evident that these non-classical functions of Stat3 can have a major impact on cancer progression, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mitochondrial Stat3 functions challenge the current design of therapies that solely target Stat3 as a transcription factor and suggest the need for “design thinking,” which leads to the development of novel strategies, to intervene the Stat3 pathway. PMID:27019635

  19. α-Solanine inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression by down-regulating the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhengde; Huang, Chaohao; Xu, Yaya; Xiao, Yuwu; Tang, Lili; Dai, Juji; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Bicheng; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-15

    In tumors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and tumorigenesis. In our previous study, we found that α-solanine, which is widespread in solanaceae, has a strong anti-cancer effect under normoxia. However, it is unknown whether α-solanine has a similar effect under hypoxia. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-1α, which is almost undetectable under normoxia, was significantly increased. Simultaneously, another regulator of VEGF, STAT3, was also significantly activated by CoCl2. We utilized α-solanine in co-culture with CoCl2. α-solanine decreased the expression of VEGF and loss of E-cadherin. α-solanine also suppressed the activation of phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), HIF-1α, and STAT3 signaling. The results provide new evidence that α-solanine has a strong anti-cancer effect via the ERK1/2-HIF-1α and STAT3 signaling pathways and suggest that it may be a potential new drug.

  20. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor/STAT3 signaling pathway regulates the phenotypic transition of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Feng; Fu, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Gao-Yue; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lv, Bo-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common clinical disease that is difficult to treat. We previously found that hypoxia modulates the phenotype of primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) in rats, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-related signaling pathways are correlated with cell phenotypic transition, but research has been focused more on vascular smooth muscle and tracheal smooth muscle and less on CCSMCs. Here, we investigated the role of PDGFR-related signaling pathways in penile CCSMCs, which were successfully isolated from rats and cultured in vitro. PDGF-BB at 5, 10, or 20 ng/ml altered CCSMC morphology from the original elongated, spindle shape to a broader shape and promoted the synthetic phenotype and expression of the related proteins vimentin and collagen-I, while inhibiting the contractile phenotype and expression of the related proteins smooth muscle (SM) α-actin (α-SMA) and desmin. Inhibition of PDGFR activity via siRNA or the PDGFR inhibitor crenolanib inhibited vimentin and collagen-I expression, increased α-SMA and desmin expression, and considerably inhibited serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. STAT3 knockdown promoted the contractile phenotype, inhibited vimentin and collagen-I expression, and increased α-SMA and desmin expression, whereas AKT knockdown did not affect phenotype-associated proteins. STAT3 overexpression in CCSMC cells weakened the suppressive effect of PDGFR inhibition on the morphology and phenotypic transformation induced by PDGF-BB. Through activation of the PDGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway, PDGF promoted the synthetic phenotype transition; thus, regulation of this pathway might contribute to ED therapy. PMID:28245285

  1. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease induces Egr-1-dependent up-regulation of TGF-β1 via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wein; Wang, Ching-Ying; Jou, Yu-Jen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-05-13

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) has been identified in TGF-β1 up-regulation in human promonocytes (Proteomics 2012, 12: 3193-205). This study investigates the mechanisms of SARS-CoV PLpro-induced TGF-β1 promoter activation in human lung epithelial cells and mouse models. SARS-CoV PLpro dose- and time-dependently up-regulates TGF-β1 and vimentin in A549 cells. Dual luciferase reporter assays with TGF-β1 promoter plasmids indicated that TGF-β1 promoter region between -175 to -60, the Egr-1 binding site, was responsible for TGF-β1 promoter activation induced by SARS-CoV PLpro. Subcellular localization analysis of transcription factors showed PLpro triggering nuclear translocation of Egr-1, but not NF-κB and Sp-1. Meanwhile, Egr-1 silencing by siRNA significantly reduced PLpro-induced up-regulation of TGF-β1, TSP-1 and pro-fibrotic genes. Furthermore, the inhibitors for ROS (YCG063), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and STAT3 (Stattic) revealed ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway involving in Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter induced by PLpro. In a mouse model with a direct pulmonary injection, PLpro stimulated macrophage infiltration into lung, up-regulating Egr-1, TSP-1, TGF-β1 and vimentin expression in lung tissues. The results revealed that SARS-CoV PLpro significantly triggered Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway, correlating with up-regulation of pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Hepatic acute phase proteins--regulation by IL-6- and IL-1-type cytokines involving STAT3 and its crosstalk with NF-κB-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Bode, Johannes G; Albrecht, Ute; Häussinger, Dieter; Heinrich, Peter C; Schaper, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The function of the liver as an important constituent of the immune system involved in innate as well as adaptive immunity is warranted by different highly specialized cell populations. As the major source of acute phase proteins, including secreted pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), short pentraxins, components of the complement system or regulators of iron metabolism, hepatocytes are essential constituents of innate immunity and largely contribute to the control of a systemic inflammatory response. The production of acute phase proteins in hepatocytes is controlled by a variety of different cytokines released during the inflammatory process with IL-1- and IL-6-type cytokines as the leading regulators operating both as a cascade and as a network having additive, inhibitory, or synergistic regulatory effects on acute phase protein expression. Hence, IL-1β substantially modifies IL-6-induced acute phase protein production as it almost completely abrogates production of acute phase proteins such as γ-fibrinogen, α(2)-macroglobulin or α(1)-antichymotrypsin, whereas production of for example hepcidin, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A is strongly up-regulated. This switch-like regulation of IL-6-induced acute phase protein production by IL-1β is due to a complex processing of the intracellular signaling events activated in response to IL-6 and/or IL-1β, with the crosstalk between STAT3- and NF-κB-mediated signal transduction being of particular importance. Recent data suggest that in this context complex formation between STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB might be of key importance. The present review summarizes the regulation of acute phase protein production focusing on the role of the crosstalk of STAT3- and NF-κB-driven pathways for transcriptional control of acute phase gene expression.

  3. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease induces Egr-1-dependent up-regulation of TGF-β1 via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shih-Wein; Wang, Ching-Ying; Jou, Yu-Jen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) has been identified in TGF-β1 up-regulation in human promonocytes (Proteomics 2012, 12: 3193-205). This study investigates the mechanisms of SARS-CoV PLpro-induced TGF-β1 promoter activation in human lung epithelial cells and mouse models. SARS-CoV PLpro dose- and time-dependently up-regulates TGF-β1 and vimentin in A549 cells. Dual luciferase reporter assays with TGF-β1 promoter plasmids indicated that TGF-β1 promoter region between −175 to −60, the Egr-1 binding site, was responsible for TGF-β1 promoter activation induced by SARS-CoV PLpro. Subcellular localization analysis of transcription factors showed PLpro triggering nuclear translocation of Egr-1, but not NF-κB and Sp-1. Meanwhile, Egr-1 silencing by siRNA significantly reduced PLpro-induced up-regulation of TGF-β1, TSP-1 and pro-fibrotic genes. Furthermore, the inhibitors for ROS (YCG063), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and STAT3 (Stattic) revealed ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway involving in Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter induced by PLpro. In a mouse model with a direct pulmonary injection, PLpro stimulated macrophage infiltration into lung, up-regulating Egr-1, TSP-1, TGF-β1 and vimentin expression in lung tissues. The results revealed that SARS-CoV PLpro significantly triggered Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway, correlating with up-regulation of pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27173006

  4. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  5. Zap70 functions to maintain stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells by negatively regulating Jak1/Stat3/c-Myc signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Ok; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Ah; Fornace, Albert J.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Zeta-chain associated protein kinase-70 (Zap70), a Syk family tyrosine kinase, has been reported to be present exclusively in normal T cells, Natural Killer (NK) cells, and B cells, serving as a pivotal regulator of antigen-mediated receptor signaling and development. In this study, we report that Zap70 is expressed in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and may critically regulate self-renewal and pluripotency in mESCs. We found that Zap70 knocked-down mESCs (Zap70KD) show sustained self-renewal and defective differentiation. In addition, we present evidence that the sustained self-renewal in Zap70KD is associated with enhanced Jak/Stat3 signaling and c-Myc induction. These altered signaling appears to result from up-regulated LIFR and down-regulated SHP-1 phosphatase activity. Based on these results, we propose that, in undifferentiated mESCs, Zap70 plays important roles in modulating the balance between self-renewal capacity and pluripotent differentiation ability as a key regulator of the Jak/Stat3/c-Myc signaling pathway. PMID:20641039

  6. C-terminal truncated hepatitis B virus X protein regulates tumorigenicity, self-renewal and drug resistance via STAT3/Nanog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ching, Rachel Hiu Ha; Sze, Karen Man Fong; Lau, Eunice Yuen Ting; Chiu, Yung-Tuen; Lee, Joyce Man Fong; Ng, Irene Oi Lin; Lee, Terence Kin Wah

    2017-02-08

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Random integration of HBV DNA into the host genome is frequent in HCC leading to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx). C-terminally truncated HBx (HBx-ΔC) has been implicated in playing a pro-oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby HBx-ΔC1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the functional role of HBx-ΔC1 in regulating liver cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Using Tet-on inducible system, we found that HBx-ΔC1 enhanced CSC properties including self-renewal, tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, migration and expression of liver CSC markers, when compared with the full-length HBx counterpart and vector control. Interestingly, HBx-ΔC1 conferred resistance in HCC cells towards sorafenib treatment through suppression of apoptotic cascade. In addition, HBx-ΔC1 upregulated a panel of stemness genes, in which Nanog was found to be among the most significant one in both trasnfected cell lines. Consistently, Nanog was upregulated in human HCC samples which had HBx-ΔC1 expression. Furthermore, the induction of CSC properties by HBx-ΔC1 was via the Stat3/Nanog pathway, as administration of Stat3 inhibitor abolished the HBx-ΔC1-induced self-renewing capacity. In conclusion, our data suggest that HBx-ΔC1 enhances liver CSCs properties through Stat3/Nanog cascade, and provide a new insight for the therapeutic intervention for HBV-related HCC.

  7. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates STAT3 activity and its expression dictates the responsiveness to SR141716 treatment in human glioma patients' cells

    PubMed Central

    Ciaglia, Elena; Torelli, Giovanni; Pisanti, Simona; Picardi, Paola; D'Alessandro, Alba; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Fiore, Donatella; Zottola, Antonio Christian Pagano; Proto, Maria Chiara; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herein we show that a majority of human brain tumor samples and cell lines over-expressed cannabinoid receptor CB1 as compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA), while uniformly expressed low levels of CB2. This finding prompted us to investigate the therapeutic exploitation of CB1 inactivation by SR141716 treatment, with regard to its direct and indirect cell-mediated effects against gliomas. Functional studies, using U251MG glioma cells and primary tumor cell lines derived from glioma patients expressing different levels of CB1, highlighted SR141716 efficacy in inducing apoptosis via G1 phase stasis and block of TGF-β1 secretion through a mechanism that involves STAT3 inhibition. According to the multivariate role of STAT3 in the immune escape too, interestingly SR141716 lead also to the functional and selective expression of MICA/B on the surface of responsive malignant glioma cells, but not on NHA. This makes SR141716 treated-glioma cells potent targets for allogeneic NK cell-mediated recognition through a NKG2D restricted mechanism, thus priming them for NK cell antitumor reactivity. These results indicate that CB1 and STAT3 participate in a new oncogenic network in the complex biology of glioma and their expression levels in patients dictate the efficacy of the CB1 antagonist SR141716 in multimodal glioma destruction. SIGNIFICANCE CB1 is implicated in the regulation of cellular processes linked to survival, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in several physio-pathological conditions. We shed light on previously unrecognized molecular mechanism of CB1-mediated modulation of human glioma progression and provide the first and original demonstration of CB1-STAT3 axis as a new target and predictor biomarkers of the benefit from specific therapies. Indeed CB1 antagonism capable of tumoral cell division' control while making the glioma immunovisible and engaging the immune system to fight it may represent a hopeful alternative to other established

  8. MicroRNA-544 down-regulates both Bcl6 and Stat3 to inhibit tumor growth of human triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengzhi; Wang, Shengying; Zhu, Jinhai; Yang, Qifeng; Dong, Huiming; Huang, Jiankang

    2016-10-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2 account for account for the majority of the breast cancer deaths, due to the lack of specific gene targeted therapy. Our current study aimed to investigate the role of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer. Endogenous levels of miR-544 were significantly lower in breast cancer cell lines than in human breast non-tumorigenic and mammary epithelial cell lines. We found that miR-544 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) on both Bcl6 and Stat3 mRNAs, and overexpression of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer cells significantly down-regulated expressions of Bcl6 and Stat3, which in turn severely inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Employing a mouse xenograft model to examine the in vivo function of miR-544, we found that expression of miR-544 significantly repressed the growth of xenograft tumors. Our current study reported miR-544 as a tumor-suppressor microRNA particularly in triple negative breast cancer. Our data supported the role of miR-544 as a potential biomarker in developing gene targeted therapies in the clinical treatment of triple negative breast cancer.

  9. Protein kinase CK2 regulates AKT, NF-κB and STAT3 activation, stem cell viability and proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Quotti Tubi, L; Canovas Nunes, S; Brancalion, A; Doriguzzi Breatta, E; Manni, S; Mandato, E; Zaffino, F; Macaccaro, P; Carrino, M; Gianesin, K; Trentin, L; Binotto, G; Zambello, R; Semenzato, G; Gurrieri, C; Piazza, F

    2017-02-01

    Protein kinase CK2 sustains acute myeloid leukemia cell growth, but its role in leukemia stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we discovered that the CK2 catalytic α and regulatory β subunits are consistently expressed in leukemia stem cells isolated from acute myeloid leukemia patients and cell lines. CK2 inactivation with the selective inhibitor CX-4945 or RNA interference induced an accumulation of leukemia stem cells in the late S-G2-M phases of the cell cycle and triggered late-onset apoptosis. As a result, leukemia stem cells displayed an increased sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. From a molecular standpoint, CK2 blockade was associated with a downmodulation of the stem cell-regulating protein BMI-1 and a marked impairment of AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, whereas FOXO3a nuclear activity was induced. Notably, combined CK2 and either NF-κB or STAT3 inhibition resulted in a superior cytotoxic effect on leukemia stem cells. This study suggests that CK2 blockade could be a rational approach to minimize the persistence of residual leukemia cells.

  10. B7-H3 regulates migration and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Teng-Fei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Wu, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3), a newly identified member of the B7 family, is over-expressed in various human cancers and plays a vital role in tumor progression. To identify the expression pattern of B7-H3 in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and its underlying mechanisms, we characterized B7-H3 expression in AdCC tissue microarrays using immunohistochemical staining, and analyzed potentially associated molecules. The results showed that B7-H3 was highly expressed in salivary AdCC, compared with normal salivary glands. Statistical analyses of immunohistochemical staining showed that B7-H3 was closely correlated with Slug and p-STAT3. Functional studies showed that knockdown of B7-H3 in AdCC cell lines using RNA interference did not influence cell growth and apoptosis, but decreased migration and invasion in vitro. Further mechanism studies suggested that B7-H3 influenced the migration and invasion of AdCC cells by regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via JAK2/STAT3 pathway components. Collectively, these findings suggested that B7-H3 may be a potential therapeutic target for AdCC. PMID:28386362

  11. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  12. STAT1 and STAT3 in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Avalle, Lidia; Pensa, Sara; Regis, Gabriella; Novelli, Francesco; Poli, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 appear to play opposite roles in tumorigenesis. While STAT3 promotes cell survival/proliferation, motility and immune tolerance and is considered as an oncogene, STAT1 mostly triggers anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses while enhancing anti-tumor immunity. Despite being activated downstream of common cytokine and growth factor receptors, their activation is reciprocally regulated and perturbation in their balanced expression or phosphorylation levels may re-direct cytokine/growth factor signals from proliferative to apoptotic, or from inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. Here we review the functional canonical and non-canonical effects of STAT1 and STAT3 activation in tumorigenesis and their potential cross-regulation mechanisms. PMID:24058752

  13. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by KT-18618 via the disruption of the interaction between JAK3 and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae-Seop; Jung, Seung Nam; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Chang Woo; Han, Dong Cho; Kim, Bumtae; Min, Yong Ki; Kang, Nam Sook; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2014-05-01

    The constitutive activation of STAT3 in human cancers causes the abnormal proliferation and survival of cancer cells, and thus, STAT3 is a therapeutic target of antitumor drugs. We screened a small-molecule library of 8600 synthetic compounds from the "Korea Chemical Bank" to identify inhibit STAT3 activity using a cell-based luciferase assay system. KT-18618 ((Z)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-2-[1,3,3,3,-tetrafluoro-2-(thiophen-2-yl)prop-1-enyloxy]-acetamide) was selected as a novel inhibitor of the JAK/STAT3 pathway. KT-18618 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes. The inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation led to the apoptosis of MDA-MB-468 cells. We postulated that the inhibition of the JAK family of proteins or c-Src inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of these kinases was only mildly inhibited, but the phosphorylation of STAT3 was completely inhibited. This result implies that the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by KT-18618 is an independent event that occurs through the phosphorylation of upstream kinases. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that KT-18618 inhibited the JAK3-STAT3 interaction. Moreover, JAK3 molecules were captured by biotinylated KT-18618, implying that KT-18618 bound to JAK3 molecules. Additionally, 1μM KT-18618 inhibited JAK3 kinase activity by approximately 28% in an in vitro kinase assay. From these results, we suggest that KT-18618 binds to JAK3 molecules and disrupts the JAK3-STAT3 interaction, which leads to the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. KT-18618 is the first inhibitor of the JAK3-STAT3 interaction.

  14. Leptin promotes human endometriotic cell migration and invasion by up-regulating MMP-2 through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence that leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, the specific function of leptin in the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels of human endometriotic cells. We found that leptin stimulated the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells (11Z, 12Z and 22B) in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin receptor (ObR) siRNA significantly inhibited the migration and invasion induced by leptin in 11Z and 12Z cells. Leptin-induced migration and invasion were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SB-3CT, a specific gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) inhibitor. In addition, leptin-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 in 11Z and 12Z cells. Selectively inhibiting MMP-2 using siRNA and an inhibitor (GM6003), impaired the ability of leptin to stimulate the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells, suggesting that MMP-2 plays an essential role in leptin-induced migration and invasion. Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) inhibitor (AG490) significantly inhibited the migration, invasion and MMP-2 expression induced by leptin in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase inhibitor PD98059 neutralized the migration and invasion promoting effects of leptin. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin may contribute to the migration and invasion abilities of endometriotic cells via the up-regulation of MMP-2 through an ObR-dependent JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  15. mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Susann; Renaud, Stephen J.; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Graham, Charles H.; Markert, Udo R.

    2009-06-10

    The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

  16. Maternal gestational betaine supplementation-mediated suppression of hepatic cyclin D2 and presenilin1 gene in newborn piglets is associated with epigenetic regulation of the STAT3-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Demin; Yuan, Mengjie; Jia, Yimin; Liu, Haoyu; Hu, Yun; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-12-01

    Betaine, which donates methyl groups through methionine metabolism for DNA and protein methylation, is critical for epigenetic gene regulation, especially during fetal development. Here we fed gestational sows with control or betaine supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy to explore the effects of maternal betaine on hepatic cell proliferation in neonatal piglets. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows demonstrated a reduction of cell number and DNA content in the liver, which was associated with significantly down-regulated hepatic expression of cell cycle regulatory genes, cyclin D2 (CCND2) and presenilin1 (PSEN1). Moreover, STAT3 binding to the promoter of CCND2 and PSEN1 was also lower in betaine-exposed piglets, accompanied by strong reduction of STAT3 mRNA and protein expression, along with its phosphorylation at Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Also, prenatal betaine exposure significantly attenuated upstream kinases of STAT3 signaling pathway (phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-SRC and phospho-JAK2) in the livers of neonates. Furthermore, the repressed STAT3 expression in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3 on its promoter, together with significantly up-regulated expression of H3K27me3 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) proteins, as well as miR-124a, which targets STAT3. Taken together, our results suggest that maternal dietary betaine supplementation during gestation inhibits hepatic cell proliferation in neonatal piglets, at least partly, through epigenetic regulation of hepatic CCND2 and PSEN1 genes via a STAT3-dependent pathway. These neonatal changes in cell cycle and proliferation regulation may lead to lower liver weight and hepatic DNA content at weaning.

  17. Effects of IL-6 and AG490 on regulation of Stat3 signaling pathway and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a member of the Janus-activated kinase(Jak)/Stat signaling pathway. Abnormal activation of Stat3 plays a critical role in metastasis and invasion in varieties of human tumors including pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of activation and blocking of the Stat3 signaling pathway and its effects on invasion and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer cells. Methods The Jak inhibitor AG490 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were added to the culture media of human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990 and Capan-2, respectively. Cell growth was measured by MTT assays. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) protein, while VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were examined with fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The invasion ability of SW1990 and Capan-2 cells was determined by cell invasion assay. Results Stat3 was activated by IL-6 in Capan-2 cells; protein expression of p-Stat3 was increased significantly in Capan-2 cells. IL-6 remarkably promoted the growth of Capan-2 cells (P < 0.05), and VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were increased significantly. Also, IL-6 increased the invasion ability of Capan-2 cells. AG490 inhibited Stat3 activation in SW1990 cells. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry analysis showed that p-Stat3 protein expression was decreased significantly with AG490 treatment in SW1990 cells. AG490 remarkably inhibited the growth of Capan-2 cells (P < 0.05), and VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased significantly. And AG490 decreased the invasion ability of SW1990 cells. Conclusions Abnormal activation of Stat3 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Activation and blocking of the Stat3 signaling pathway can affect invasion ability and expression of the VEGF and MMP-2 genes in

  18. Suppression of the Growth and Invasion of Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas via Regulating STAT3 Signaling and the miR-21/β-catenin Axis with HJC0152.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Sinan; Wu, Yansheng; Ren, Yu; Li, Zhaoqing; Yao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chao; Ye, Na; Jing, Chao; Dong, Jiabin; Zhang, Kailiang; Sun, Shanshan; Zhao, Minghui; Guo, Wenyu; Qu, Xin; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Kong, Lingping; Jin, Rui; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the tumor growth and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is therefore a target with therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that HJC0152, a recently developed anticancer agent and a STAT3 signaling inhibitor, exhibits promising antitumor effects against HNSCC both in vitro and in vivo via inactivating STAT3 and downstream miR-21/β-catenin axis. HJC0152 treatment efficiently suppressed HNSCC cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the G0-G1 phase, induced apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion in both SCC25 and CAL27 cell lines. Moreover, HJC0152 inhibited nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 at Tyr705 and decreased VHL/β-catenin signaling activity via regulation of miR-21. Loss of function of VHL remarkably compromised the antitumor effect of HJC0152 in both cell lines. In our SCC25-derived orthotopic mouse models, HJC0152 treatment significantly abrogated STAT3/β-catenin expression in vivo, leading to a global decrease of tumor growth and invasion. With its favorable aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability, HJC0152 holds the potential to be translated into the clinic as a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with HNSCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(4); 578-90. ©2017 AACR.

  19. The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-2 gene in oral hairy leukoplakia: strain variation, genetic recombination, and transcriptional expression.

    PubMed Central

    Walling, D M; Perkins, A G; Webster-Cyriaque, J; Resnick, L; Raab-Traub, N

    1994-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (HLP) lesions frequently contain defective Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes with deletions in the EBNA-2 gene that abundantly replicate and persist within the lesion. To characterize these viral strains and recombinant variants, the EBNA-2 gene in EBV DNA from several different HLP biopsy specimens was analyzed. Amplification of EBNA-2 coding sequences by PCR demonstrated the presence in HLP of intact EBNA-2 genes as well as a variety of internally deleted variants of both EBNA-2A and EBNA-2B. Some of the deletion variants evolved within the HLP lesion from intact EBNA-2 genes, while other variants appeared to be transmissible strains that directly infected the lesion. Intrastrain recombination within the HLP lesion also generated variation within the EBNA-2 polyproline region. Cloning and sequencing of HLP cDNA demonstrated transcription from the internally deleted EBNA-2 open reading frame, indicating that these variant genes are expressed in HLP. Comparative analysis of the HLP EBNA-2 sequences confirmed previous findings of EBV coinfection with multiple types and strains. Sequence variation of these wild-type genes demonstrated that EBNA-2A sequences distinguish at least two separate strains and a variety of substrains of EBV type 1. Two of the HLP EBNA-2A sequences contained amino acid changes in a cytotoxic T-cell epitope within an otherwise highly conserved region of the gene. These data indicate that EBV coinfection, strain variation, and recombination within the EBNA-2 gene are common features of HLP and suggest that the expression of internally deleted EBNA-2 variants could contribute to EBV pathogenesis in permissive infection. Images PMID:7966582

  20. AAV8-Mediated Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Gene Delivery Prevents Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis by Regulating MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yiguo; Tao, Lifei; Zheng, Shijie; Lin, Ru; Fu, Xinyu; Chen, Zihe; Lei, Chunyan; Wang, Jiaming; Li, Hongwei; Li, Qiuhong; Lei, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a key hormonal system which regulates the cardiovascular function and is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. With the discovery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protective axis of RAS namely ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas that counteracts the deleterious ACE/AngII/AT1R axis has been established. This axis is emerging as a novel target to attenuate ocular inflammation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that enhancing the activity of the protective axis of RAS by subretinal delivery of an AAV8 (Y733F)-ACE2 vector would protect against the ocular inflammation in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) mice through regulating the local immune responses. Our studies demonstrated that increased ACE2 expression exerts protective effects on inflammation in EAU mouse by modulating ocular immune responses, including the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells and the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages; whereas the systemic immune responses appeared not affected. These effects were mediated by activating the Ang-(1–7)/Mas and inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways. This proof-of-concept study suggests that activation of ocular ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis with AAV gene transfer modulates local immune responses and may be a promising, long-lasting therapeutic strategy for refractory and recurrent uveitis, as well as other inflammatory eye diseases. PMID:27558087

  1. socs7, a target gene of microRNA-145, regulates interferon-β induction through STAT3 nuclear translocation in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, S; Yamada, N; Kumazaki, M; Yasui, Y; Iwasaki, J; Naito, S; Akao, Y

    2013-02-07

    We recently reported that microRNA (miR)-145 is downregulated and induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Also, it is suggested that the ectopic expression of miR-145 induces apoptosis with the induction of TRAIL expression in several cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism of apoptosis induction by miR-145 in bladder cancer cells. Exogenous miR-145 in T24 and NKB1 cells markedly increased the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-β, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, which lies upstream of 2'-5' oligoadenylates/RNase L system, and TRAIL, and induced apparent caspase-dependent apoptosis that was suppressed by cotreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor; moreover, these expression levels were reduced by cotreatment with an miR-145 inhibitor. The apoptosis did not depend on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, because TLR3-silencing failed to inhibit IFN-β induction by miR-145. Then, we focused on the suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (socs7), whose expression level was upregulated in bladder cancer cells compared with its level in normal human urothelial cells, as a putative target gene involved in IFN-β induction by miR-145. Expectedly, exogenous miR-145 decreased the expression level of SOCS7, and socs7-silencing enhanced IFN-β induction by transfection with a TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The results of a luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-145 targeted socs7. In addition, socs7-silencing significantly decreased the level of p-Akt and suppressed the growth of T24 cells. Furthermore, exogenous miR-145 or socs7-silencing promoted nuclear translocation of STAT3. In conclusion, the machinery of IFN-β induction through the regulation of SOCS7 by miR-145 was closely associated with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, exogenous miR-145 promoted IFN-β induction by targeting socs7, which resulted in the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Additionally, our data indicate that SOCS7 functioned as an oncogene

  2. Neem leaf glycoprotein regulates function of tumor associated M2 macrophages in hypoxic tumor core: Critical role of IL-10/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Kuntal Kanti; Sarkar, Madhurima; Ghosh, Sarbari; Saha, Akata; Ghosh, Tithi; Guha, Ipsita; Barik, Subhasis; Banerjee, Saptak; Roy, Soumyabrata; Bose, Anamika; Dasgupta, Parthasarathi; Baral, Rathindranath

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1. High IL-10:IL-12 ratio at tumor core was downregulated in NLGP treated melanoma bearing mice. Decrease in IL-10 by NLGP is again associated with the decrease in hypoxia, as indicated by prominent downregulation of HIF1α and VEGF, particularly at tumor core. Macrophages exposed to hypoxic tumor core lysates in vitro exhibited high IL-10, HIF1α and VEGF expression that was significantly downregulated by NLGP. Further evidences suggest M2TAM to M1 conversion by NLGP is associated with STAT3-regulated IL-10 dependent pathway without affecting the IL-4 dependent one. Such TAM modulatory functions of NLGP might help in the restriction of melanoma growth by increasing the proportion of M1 TAMs in tumor core that helps in prevention of tumor relapse and dissemination of the tumor mass.

  3. MicroRNA-148a suppresses proliferation and invasion potential of non-small cell lung carcinomas via regulation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    He, Mei; Xue, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality in the world, and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) account for 80% of cases of lung cancer. The mechanism of NSCLC is still largely unknown, and finding novel targets is of great importance for the treatment of NSCLC. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of miR-148a in NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion and to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that miR-148a expression was decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Upregulation of miR-148a significantly decreased A549 cell proliferation, and downregulation of miR-148a significantly increased A549 cell proliferation. Upregulation of miR-148a markedly increased apoptotic cell death and inhibited cell invasion potential. Upregulation of miR-148a significantly decreased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression and 3′-untranslated region luciferase activity. Downregulation of miR-148a significantly increased STAT3 expression. Overexpression of STAT3 significantly inhibited the effect of miR-148a on cell viability and invasion potential. In conclusion, we found that miR-148a inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion potential through the inhibition of STAT3. Our findings highlight miR-148a/STAT3 axis as a novel therapeutic target for the inhibition of NSCLC growth. PMID:28280370

  4. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  5. Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N. Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6

  6. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Ahlfors, Helena; Ruuska, Marja; Kieff, Elliott; Koskinen, Paeivi J. . E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

    2005-03-15

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

  7. The EGFR pathway is involved in the regulation of PD-L1 expression via the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zeng, Yuanyuan; Du, Wenwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Shen, Dan; Liu, Zeyi; Huang, Jian-An

    2016-10-01

    Negative regulation of the signal mediated by the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway can effectively inhibit the function of T and B cells, which play a key role in the regulation of immune response. Recently, emerging evidence has suggested that the expression of PD-L1 is related to the mutation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Moreover, the activation of the EGFR signaling pathway can induce expression of PD-L1. In the present study, we demonstrated that activated EGFR can upregulate the expression of PD-L1 through the interleukin 6/Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/JAK/STAT3) signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cells treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) can downregulate the activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway, which subsequently reduces the expression of PD-L1. Furthermore, silencing of PD-L1 expression in NSCLC cells correlated with inhibition of cell proliferation and enhanced tumor cell apoptosis. In summary, our research indicates that EGFR is involved in the regulation of PD-L1 expression and cell proliferation via the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in NSCLC. The present study suggests the potential of combined targeted therapy with immunotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  8. Idiopathic pancreatitis in a patient with a STAT3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Peppers, Brian; Frith, John; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Hostoffer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin infections with abscesses, recurrent pneumonias with pneumatoceles, and immunoglobulin E levels of >10 times the upper limit of normal. Case: The patient described herein had a classic case of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency associated with HIES diagnosed several years before this particular presentation. He demonstrated extraimmune manifestations of the disease as well, including characteristic facies and a history of skeletal fractures. In addition, the patient had several distinct episodes of idiopathic pancreatitis for which a full gastrointestinal workup had been performed. STAT3 mutation was confirmed by genotyping at the time of diagnosis of HIES. Conclusions: STAT3, a mammalian protein that regulates cell growth, survival, and differentiation, has been linked to human pancreatic carcinogenesis as well as the above-mentioned immune deficiency. Mouse studies demonstrated that genetic ablation of STAT3 exacerbates the course of acute pancreatitis, whereas normal pancreatic STAT3 seems to have a protective effect against necrotizing pancreatitis. An association between STAT3 mutations and pancreatitis has not yet been revealed in humans. Here we describe a case of acute pancreatitis that presented in a patient with STAT3 mutation. PMID:27103560

  9. Ovatodiolide of Anisomeles indica Exerts the Anticancer Potential on Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines through STAT3 and NF-κB Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Cheng, Tain-Lu; Chiang, Chiao-Yu; Tzeng, Yew-Min; Tsai, Wan-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients with pancreatic cancer are normally diagnosed at an advanced stage and present poor survival rate. Ovatodiolide (OV), a bioactive macrocyclic diterpenoid isolated from Anisomeles indica, showed cytotoxicity effects in pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, not only were cell adhesion and invasion markedly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner, but the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was also significantly decreased. Western blot analysis indicated that OV potently suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT-3 and its upstream kinase including ERK1/2, P38, and AKT Ser473. Meanwhile, OV inactivated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by inhibiting IκB kinase (IKK α/β) activation and the subsequent suppression of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) phosphorylation. These results demonstrated that OV could potentially inhibit Mia-PaCa2 cancer cells proliferation and induce apoptosis through modulation of NF-κB and STAT3 pathway. Moreover, OV suppressed cell invasiveness and interfered with cell-matrix adhesion in Mia-PaCa2 cancer cells by reducing MMP-9 and FAK transcription through suppressing NF-κB and STAT3 pathway. Taken together, our findings reveal a new therapeutic and antimetastatic potential of ovatodiolide for pancreatic cancer remedy. PMID:27242913

  10. PASD1 promotes STAT3 activity and tumor growth by inhibiting TC45-mediated dephosphorylation of STAT3 in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Long; Liu, Tian-Tian; Ran, Yong; Chen, Liu-Ting; Wang, Yan-Yi; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-06-01

    Activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is tightly regulated during various physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and aberrant STAT3 activation results in tumorigenesis. In this study, we identified the cancer/testis antigen PASD1 as a positive regulator of STAT3 activity. Overexpression of PASD1 activated STAT3 and potentiated IL-6-induced activation of STAT3, whereas knockdown of PASD1 had opposite effects. Endogenous coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that PASD1 interacted with STAT3 in the nucleus. Overexpression of PASD1 enhanced both basal and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation at Y705, whereas knockdown of PASD1 had opposite effects. Mechanistically, PASD1 competed with TC45, a nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase, to associate with STAT3, thus inhibited TC45-mediated dephosphorylation of STAT3. Consistently, knockdown of PASD1 inhibited expression of many pro-oncogenic genes, leading to suppression of cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and tumor growth in nude mice. Our findings demonstrate that PASD1 serves as a critical nuclear positive regulator of STAT3-mediated gene expression and tumorigenesis.

  11. The Mutant KRAS Gene Up-regulates BCL-XL Protein via STAT3 to Confer Apoptosis Resistance That Is Reversed by BIM Protein Induction and BCL-XL Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Zaanan, Aziz; Okamoto, Koichi; Kawakami, Hisato; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2015-09-25

    In colorectal cancers with oncogenic GTPase Kras (KRAS) mutations, inhibition of downstream MEK/ERK signaling has shown limited efficacy, in part because of failure to induce a robust apoptotic response. We studied the mechanism of apoptosis resistance in mutant KRAS cells and sought to enhance the efficacy of a KRAS-specific MEK/ERK inhibitor, GDC-0623. GDC-0623 was shown to potently up-regulate BIM expression to a greater extent versus other MEK inhibitors in isogenic KRAS HCT116 and mutant KRAS SW620 colon cancer cells. ERK silencing enhanced BIM up-regulation by GDC-0623 that was due to its loss of phosphorylation at Ser(69), confirmed by a BIM-EL phosphorylation-defective mutant (S69G) that increased protein stability and blocked BIM induction. Despite BIM and BIK induction, the isogenic KRAS mutant versus wild-type cells remained resistant to GDC-0623-induced apoptosis, in part because of up-regulation of BCL-XL. KRAS knockdown by a doxycycline-inducible shRNA attenuated BCL-XL expression. BCL-XL knockdown sensitized KRAS mutant cells to GDC-0623-mediated apoptosis, as did the BH3 mimetic ABT-263. GDC-0623 plus ABT-263 induced a synergistic apoptosis by a mechanism that includes release of BIM from its sequestration by BCL-XL. Furthermore, mutant KRAS activated p-STAT3 (Tyr(705)) in the absence of IL-6 secretion, and STAT3 knockdown reduced BCL-XL mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that BCL-XL up-regulation by STAT3 contributes to mutant KRAS-mediated apoptosis resistance. Such resistance can be overcome by potent BIM induction and concurrent BCL-XL antagonism to enable a synergistic apoptotic response.

  12. Resveratrol inhibits Src and Stat3 signaling and induces the apoptosis of malignant cells containing activated Stat3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Anupama; Sekharam, Madhavi; Cilenti, Lucia; Siddiquee, Khandaker; Khaled, Annette; Zervos, Antonis S; Carter, Bradford; Turkson, James; Jove, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recent studies suggest that resveratrol possesses anticancer effects, although its mechanism of action is not well understood. We now show that resveratrol inhibits Src tyrosine kinase activity and thereby blocks constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) protein activation in malignant cells. Analyses of resveratrol-treated malignant cells harboring constitutively-active Stat3 reveal irreversible cell cycle arrest of v-Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), human breast (MDA-MB-231), pancreatic (Panc-1), and prostate carcinoma (DU145) cell lines at the G0-G1 phase or at the S phase of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-468) and pancreatic cancer (Colo-357) cells, and loss of viability due to apoptosis. By contrast, cells treated with resveratrol, but lacking aberrant Stat3 activity, show reversible growth arrest and minimal loss of viability. Moreover, in malignant cells harboring constitutively-active Stat3, including human prostate cancer DU145 cells and v-Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), resveratrol treatment represses Stat3-regulated cyclin D1 as well as Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 genes, suggesting that the antitumor cell activity of resveratrol is in part due to the blockade of Stat3-mediated dysregulation of growth and survival pathways. Our study is among the first to identify Src-Stat3 signaling as a target of resveratrol, further defining the mechanism of antitumor cell activity of resveratrol and raising its potential application in tumors with an activated Stat3 profile.

  13. STAT3-dependent effects of IL-22 in human keratinocytes are counterregulated by sirtuin 1 through a direct inhibition of STAT3 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Sestito, Rosanna; Madonna, Stefania; Scarponi, Claudia; Cianfarani, Francesca; Failla, Cristina M; Cavani, Andrea; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Albanesi, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    IL-22 has a pathogenetic role in psoriasis, where it is responsible for the altered proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and induces inflammatory molecules. The IL-22-induced effects are mediated by STAT3, whose activity is proportional to acetylation in lysine (Lys)685 and phosphorylation in tyrosine (Tyr)705. Lys 685 acetylation of STAT3 is inhibited by sirtuin (SIRT)1, a class III deacetylase promoting keratinocyte differentiation. Due to the opposite effects of IL-22 and SIRT1, we investigated whether IL-22-induced effects in keratinocytes could be regulated by SIRT1 through control of STAT3. We found that SIRT1 opposes the IL-22-induced STAT3 activity by deacetylating STAT3 and reducing STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation. By controlling STAT3, SIRT1 also influences the IL-22-induced expression of molecules involved in proliferation and inflammation as well as proliferation and migration processes in cultured keratinocytes. Although SIRT1 levels were similar in keratinocytes of healthy individuals and patients with psoriasis, they were reduced in psoriatic skin lesions, with the lymphokine IFN-γ inhibiting SIRT1 expression. Concomitantly, IFN-γ enhanced basal acetylation of STAT3 and its phosphorylation induced by IL-22. In conclusion, STAT3-dependent IL-22 signaling and effects in keratinocytes are negatively regulated by SIRT1. In skin affected by psoriasis, SIRT1 is down-regulated by IFN-γ, which thus renders psoriatic keratinocytes more prone to respond to IL-22.

  14. Metformin Suppresses Systemic Autoimmunity in Roquinsan/san Mice through Inhibiting B Cell Differentiation into Plasma Cells via Regulation of AMPK/mTOR/STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Yeong; Moon, Su-Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Yang, Eun-Ji; Son, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies and immune complex deposition are pathological hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). B cell differentiation into plasma cells (PCs) and some T cell subsets that function as B cell helpers can be therapeutic targets of SLE. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is implicated in the formation of B cells and germinal centers (GCs). We assessed the effect of metformin, which inhibits mTOR, on the development of autoimmunity using Roquinsan/san mice. Oral administration of metformin inhibited the formation of splenic follicles and inflammation in kidney and liver tissues. It also decreased serum levels of anti-dsDNA Abs without affecting serum glucose levels. Moreover, metformin inhibited CD21highCD23low marginal zone B cells, B220+GL7+ GC B cells, B220−CD138+ PCs, and GC formation. A significant reduction in ICOS+ follicular helper T cells was found in the spleens of the metformin-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. In addition, metformin inhibited Th17 cells and induced regulatory T cells. These alterations in B and T cell subsets by metformin were associated with enhanced AMPK expression and inhibition of mTOR–STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, metformin induced p53 and NF erythroid-2–related factor-2 activity in splenic CD4+ T cells. Taken together, metformin-induced alterations in AMPK–mTOR–STAT3 signaling may have therapeutic value in SLE by inhibiting B cell differentiation into PCs and GCs. PMID:28242651

  15. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2009-07-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c(+) cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3(IEC-KO) mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22-dependent mucosal wound healing.

  16. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F.

    2009-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c+ cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3IEC-KO mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22–dependent mucosal wound healing. PMID:19564350

  17. Down-regulation of microRNA-9 leads to activation of IL-6/Jak/STAT3 pathway through directly targeting IL-6 in HeLa cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangbo; Jia, Junqiao; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Xiaojun; Xie, Qing; Chen, Xiangmei; Wang, Jianliu; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) presents to exert distinct and even opposite functions in different kinds of tumors through targeting different cellular genes. However, its role in cervical adenocarcinoma remains uncertain. Here, we report that miR-9 is down-regulated in cervical adenocarcinoma due to its frequent promoter-hypermethylation and exerts its tumor suppressor role through inhibiting several novel target genes, including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The promoters of miR-9 precursors (mir-9-1, -2, and -3) were hypermethylated in cervical adenocarcinoma tissues. Demethylation treatment of HeLa dramatically increased the expression of mature miR-9. Both in vitro and in vivo functional experiments confirmed that miR-9 can inhibit the proliferation, migration, and malignant transformation abilities of HeLa cells. Bioinformatics methods and array-based RNA expression profiles were used to screen the downstream target genes of miR-9. Dual-luciferase reporting assay, real-time qPCR, and ELISA or Western blot confirmed four genes (CKAP2, HSPC159, IL-6, and TC10) to be novel direct target genes of miR-9. Pathway annotation analysis of the differently expressed genes (DEGs) induced by ectopic miR-9 expression revealed the enrichment in Jak/STAT3 pathway, which is one of the downstream pathways of IL-6. Ectopic expression of miR-9 in HeLa inhibited Jak/STAT3 signaling activity. Moreover, such effect could be partially reversed by the addition of exogenous IL-6. In conclusion, our results here present a tumor suppressor potential of miR-9 in cervical adenocarcinoma for the first time and suggest that miR-9 could repress tumorigenesis through inhibiting the activity of IL-6/Jak/STAT3 pathway.

  18. STAT3 Inhibition by Microtubule-Targeted Drugs: Dual Molecular Effects of Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Chaudhury, Mousumi; Frank, David A.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies, it is necessary to identify molecular targets that are essential to a tumor cell but dispensable in a normal cell. Increasing evidence indicates that the transcription factor STAT3, which regulates the expression of genes controlling proliferation, survival, and self-renewal, constitutes such a target. Recently it has been found that STAT3 can associate with the cytoskeleton. Since many of the tumors in which STAT3 is activated, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are responsive to drugs that target microtubules, we examined the effect of these compounds on STAT3. We found that microtubule stabilizers, such as paclitaxel, or microtubule inhibitors, such as vinorelbine, decrease the activating tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in tumor cells and inhibit the expression of STAT3 target genes. Paclitaxel decreases the association between STAT3 and microtubules, and appears to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of a negative feedback regulator. The cytotoxic activity of paclitaxel in breast cancer cell lines correlates with its ability to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation. However, consistent with the necessity for expression of a negative regulator, treatment of resistant MDA-MB-231 cells with the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine restores the ability of paclitaxel to block STAT3-dependent gene expression. Finally, the combination of paclitaxel and agents that directly target STAT3 has beneficial effects in killing STAT3-dependent cell lines. Thus, microtubule-targeted agents may exert some of their effects by inhibiting STAT3, and understanding this interaction may be important for optimizing rational targeted cancer therapies. PMID:21949561

  19. Small-molecule inhibition of STAT3 in radioresistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Eckols, T. Kris; Xu, Xuejun; Kasembeli, Moses M.; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Song, Yongcheng; Mo, Qianxing; Lai, Stephen Y.; Tweardy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    While STAT3 has been validated as a target for treatment of many cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a STAT3 inhibitor is yet to enter the clinic. We used the scaffold of C188, a small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor previously identified by us, in a hit-to-lead program to identify C188-9. C188-9 binds to STAT3 with high affinity and represents a substantial improvement over C188 in its ability to inhibit STAT3 binding to its pY-peptide ligand, to inhibit cytokine-stimulated pSTAT3, to reduce constitutive pSTAT3 activity in multiple HNSCC cell lines, and to inhibit anchorage dependent and independent growth of these cells. In addition, treatment of nude mice bearing xenografts of UM-SCC-17B, a radioresistant HNSCC line, with C188-9, but not C188, prevented tumor xenograft growth. C188-9 treatment modulated many STAT3-regulated genes involved in oncogenesis and radioresistance, as well as radioresistance genes regulated by STAT1, due to its potent activity against STAT1, in addition to STAT3. C188-9 was well tolerated in mice, showed good oral bioavailability, and was concentrated in tumors. Thus, C188-9, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy, has potential for use in treating HNSCC tumors that demonstrate increased STAT3 and/or STAT1 activation. PMID:27027445

  20. Mechanisms of STAT3 activation in the liver of FXR knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guodong; Zhu, Yan; Tawfik, Ossama; Kong, Bo; Williams, Jessica A.; Zhan, Le; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is essential in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis, and FXR−/− mice develop cholestasis, inflammation, and spontaneous liver tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to regulate liver growth, and STAT3 is feedback inhibited by its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Strong activation of STAT3 was detected in FXR−/− mouse livers. However, the mechanism of STAT3 activation with FXR deficiency remains elusive. Wild-type (WT) and FXR−/− mice were used to detect STAT3 pathway activation in the liver. In vivo BA feeding or deprivation was used to determine the role of BAs in STAT3 activation, and in vitro molecular approaches were used to determine the direct transcriptional regulation of SOCS3 by FXR. STAT3 was activated in FXR−/− but not WT mice. BA feeding increased, but deprivation by cholestyramine reduced, serum inflammatory markers and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, the Socs3 gene was determined as a direct FXR target gene. The elevated BAs and inflammation, along with reduced SOCS3, collectively contribute to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway in the liver of FXR−/− mice. This study suggests that the constitutive activation of STAT3 may be a mechanism of liver carcinogenesis in FXR−/− mice. PMID:24091600

  1. The G Protein-Coupled Receptor RAI3 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Pancreatic Cancer Survival and Regulates Proliferation via STAT3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jahny, Elisabeth; Yang, Hai; Liu, Bin; Jahnke, Beatrix; Lademann, Franziska; Knösel, Thomas; Rümmele, Petra; Grützmann, Robert; Aust, Daniela E.; Denz, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest tumors worldwide. Understanding the function of gene expression alterations is a prerequisite for developing new strategies in diagnostic and therapy. GPRC5A (RAI3), coding for a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor is known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and might be an interesting candidate for therapeutic intervention. Expression levels of RAI3 were compared using a tissue microarray of 435 resected patients with pancreatic cancer as well as 209 samples from chronic pancreatitis (CP), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and normal pancreatic tissue. To elucidate the function of RAI3 overexpression, siRNA based knock-down was used and transfected cells were analyzed using proliferation and migration assays. Pancreatic cancer patients showed a statistically significant overexpression of RAI3 in comparison to normal and chronic pancreatitis tissue. Especially the loss of apical RAI3 expression represents an independent prognostic parameter for overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Suppression of GPRC5a results in decreased cell growth, proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell lines via a STAT3 modulated pathway, independent from ERK activation. PMID:28114355

  2. Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik A; Walker, Sarah R; Kepich, Alicia; Gashin, Laurie B; Hideshima, Teru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C; Frank, David A

    2008-12-15

    Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival.

  3. ERp57 modulates STAT3 activity in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells and serves as a prognostic marker for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Choe, Min Ho; Min, Joong Won; Jeon, Hong Bae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Oh, Jeong Su; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Hwang, Sang-Gu; An, Sungkwan; Han, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-02-20

    Although targeting radioresistant tumor cells is essential for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy, the signals activated in resistant tumors are still unclear. This study shows that ERp57 contributes to radioresistance of laryngeal cancer by activating STAT3. Increased ERp57 was associated with the radioresistant phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells. Interestingly, increased interaction between ERp57 and STAT3 was observed in radioresistant cells, compared to the control cells. This physical complex is required for the activation of STAT3 in the radioresistant cells. Among STAT3-regulatory genes, Mcl-1 was predominantly regulated by ERp57. Inhibition of STAT3 activity with a chemical inhibitor or siRNA-mediated depletion of Mcl-1 sensitized radioresistant cells to irradiation, suggesting that the ERp57-STAT3-Mcl-1 axis regulates radioresistance of laryngeal cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between ERp57 and phosphorylated STAT3 or Mcl-1 and in vivo interactions between ERp57 and STAT3 in human laryngeal cancer. Importantly, we also found that increased ERp57-STAT3 complex was associated with poor prognosis in human laryngeal cancer, indicating the prognostic role of ERp57-STAT3 regulation. Overall, our data suggest that ERp57-STAT3 regulation functions in radioresistance of laryngeal cancer, and targeting the ERp57-STAT3 pathway might be important for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy in human laryngeal cancer.

  4. Heme Mediated STAT3 Activation in Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingli; Amodu, Audu S.; Pitts, Sidney; Patrickson, John; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Battle, Monica; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mortality of severe malaria [cerebral malaria (CM), severe malaria anemia (SMA), acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)] remains high despite the availability associated with adequate treatments. Recent studies in our laboratory and others have revealed a hitherto unknown correlation between chemokine CXCL10/CXCR3, Heme/HO-1 and STAT3 and cerebral malaria severity and mortality. Although Heme/HO-1 and CXCL10/CXCR3 interactions are directly involved in the pathogenesis of CM and fatal disease, the mechanism dictating how Heme/HO-1 and CXCL10/CXCR3 are expressed and regulated under these conditions is still unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that these factors share common signaling pathways and may be mutually regulated. Methods We first clarified the roles of Heme/HO-1, CXCL10/CXCR3 and STAT3 in CM pathogenesis utilizing a well established experimental cerebral malaria mouse (ECM, P. berghei ANKA) model. Then, we further determined the mechanisms how STAT3 regulates HO-1 and CXCL10 as well as mutual regulation among them in CRL-2581, a murine endothelial cell line. Results The results demonstrate that (1) STAT3 is activated by P. berghei ANKA (PBA) infection in vivo and Heme in vitro. (2) Heme up-regulates HO-1 and CXCL10 production through STAT3 pathway, and regulates CXCL10 at the transcriptional level in vitro. (3) HO-1 transcription is positively regulated by CXCL10. (4) HO-1 regulates STAT3 signaling. Conclusion Our data indicate that Heme/HO-1, CXCL10/CXCR3 and STAT3 molecules as well as related signaling pathways play very important roles in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. We conclude that these factors are mutually regulated and provide new opportunities to develop potential novel therapeutic targets that could be used to supplement traditional prophylactics and treatments for malaria and improve clinical outcomes while reducing malaria mortality. Our ultimate goal is to develop novel therapies

  5. A novel platinum compound inhibits constitutive Stat3 signaling and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Mora, Linda B; Burns, Audrey; Sebti, Said; Jove, Richard

    2005-09-23

    Previous studies have established constitutive activation of Stat3 protein as one of the molecular changes required for tumorigenesis. To develop novel therapeutics for tumors harboring constitutively active Stat3, compounds from the NCI 2000 diversity set were evaluated for inhibition of Stat3 DNA-binding activity in vitro. Of these, a novel platinum (IV) compound, IS3 295, interacted with Stat3 and inhibited its binding to specific DNA-response elements. Further analysis suggested noncompetitive-type kinetics for the inhibition of Stat3 binding to DNA. In human and mouse tumor cell lines with constitutively active Stat3, IS3 295 selectively attenuated Stat3 signaling, thereby inducing cell growth arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Moreover, in transformed cells, IS3 295 repressed expression of cyclin D1 and bcl-xL, two of the known Stat3-regulated genes that are overexpressed in malignant cells, suggesting that IS3 295 mediates anti-tumor cell activity in part by blocking Stat3-mediated sub-version of cell growth and apoptotic signals. Together, our findings provide evidence for the inhibition of Stat3 activity and biological functions by IS3 295 through interaction with Stat3 protein. This study represents a significant advance in small molecule-based approaches to target Stat3 and suggests potential new applications for platinum (IV) complexes as modulators of the Stat3 pathway for cancer therapy.

  6. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 Expression Patterns in Medulloblastomas: Relevance to STAT3 Activation and Resveratrol-Suppressed STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Li-Jun; Huang, Tian-Miao; Song, Xue; Kong, Qing-You; Dong, Jian-Li; Li, Pei-Nan; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Activated STAT3 signaling is critical for human medulloblastoma cells. SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 are known as the negative regulators of STAT3 signaling, while their relevance to frequent STAT3 activation in medulloblastomas remains unknown. Methods: Tissue microarrays were constructed with 17 tumor-surrounding noncancerous brain tissues and 61 cases of the classic medulloblastomas, 44 the large-cell medulloblastomas, and 15 nodular medulloblastomas, which were used for immunohistochemical profiling of STAT3, SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression patterns and the frequencies of STAT3 nuclear translocation. Three human medulloblastoma cell lines (Daoy, UW228-2 and UW228-3) were cultured with and without 100 μM resveratrol supplementation. The influences of resveratrol in SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 expression and SOCS3 knockdown in STAT3 activation were analyzed using multiple experimental approaches. Results: SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 levels are reduced in medulloblastomas in vivo and in vitro, of which PIAS3 downregulation is more reversely correlated with STAT3 activation. In resveratrol-suppressed medulloblastoma cells with STAT3 downregulation and decreased incidence of STAT3 nuclear translocation, PIAS3 is upregulated, the SHP2 level remains unchanged and SOCS3 is downregulated. SOCS3 proteins are accumulated in the distal ends of axon-like processes of resveratrol-differentiated medulloblastoma cells. Knockdown of SOCS3 expression by siRNA neither influences cell proliferation nor STAT3 activation or resveratrol sensitivity but inhibits resveratrol-induced axon-like process formation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that (1) the overall reduction of SHP2, SOCS3 and PIAS3 in medulloblastoma tissues and cell lines; (2) the more inverse relevance of PIAS3 expression with STAT3 activation; (3) the favorable prognostic values of PIAS3 for medulloblastomas and (4) the involvement of SOCS3 in resveratrol-promoted axon regeneration of medulloblastoma cells. PMID:28035977

  7. Significance of Stat3 Signaling in Epithelial Cell Differentiation of Fetal Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Hiroki; Kudoh, Shinji; Hatakeyama, Jun; Matuo, Akira; Ito, Takaaki

    2017-01-01

    To study the significance of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 in lung epithelial development of fetal mice, we examined fetal mouse lungs, focusing on the expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), Forkhead box protein J1 (Foxj1), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), phosphorylated Stat3 (Tyr705), and hairy/enhancer of split (Hes) 1, and observed cultured fetal lungs upon treatment with IL-6, a Stat3 activator, or cucurbitacin I, a Stat3 inhibitor. Moreover, the interaction of Stat3 signaling and Hes1 was studied using Hes1 gene-deficient mice. Phosphorylated Stat3 was detected in fetal lungs and, immunohistochemically, phosphorylated Stat3 was found to be co-localized in developing Clara cells, but not in ciliated cells. In the organ culture studies, upon treatment with IL-6, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CCSP mRNA increased with increasing Stat3 phosphorylation, while cucurbitacin I decreased Hes1, CCSP, Foxj1 and CGRP mRNAs with decreasing Stat3 phosphorylation. In the lungs of Hes1 gene-deficient mice, Stat3 phosphorylation was not markedly different from wild-type mice, the expression of CCSP and CGRP was enhanced, and the treatment of IL-6 or cucurbitacin I induced similar effects on mouse lung epithelial differentiation regardless of Hes1 expression status. Stat3 signaling acts in fetal mouse lung development, and seems to regulate Clara cell differentiation positively. Hes1 could regulate Clara cell differentiation in a manner independent from Stat3 signaling. PMID:28386145

  8. Involvement of Stat3 in mouse brain development and sexual dimorphism: a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Casalena, Gabriella; Sultana, Rukhsana; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M; Perluigi, Marzia; Cini, Chiara; Baracca, Alessandra; Solaini, Giancarlo; Lenaz, Giorgio; Jia, Jia; Dziennis, Suzan; Murphy, Stephanie J; Alkayed, Nabil J; Butterfield, D Allan

    2010-11-29

    Although the role of STAT3 in cell physiology and tissue development has been largely investigated, its involvement in the development and maintenance of nervous tissue and in the mechanisms of neuroprotection is not yet known. The potentially wide range of STAT3 activities raises the question of tissue- and gender-specificity as putative mechanisms of regulation. To explore the function of STAT3 in the brain and the hypothesis of a gender-linked modulation of STAT3, we analyzed a neuron-specific STAT3 knockout mouse model investigating the influence of STAT3 activity in brain protein expression pattern in both males and females in the absence of neurological insult. We performed a proteomic study aimed to reveal the molecular pathways directly or indirectly controlled by STAT3 underscoring its role in brain development and maintenance. We identified several proteins, belonging to different neuronal pathways such as energy metabolism or synaptic transmission, controlled by STAT3 that confirm its crucial role in brain development and maintenance. Moreover, we investigated the different processes that could contribute to the sexual dimorphic behavior observed in the incidence of neurological and mental disease. Interestingly both STAT3 KO and gender factors influence the expression of several mitochondrial proteins conferring to mitochondrial activity high importance in the regulation of brain physiology and conceivable relevance as therapeutic target.

  9. Nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibits the activity of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Yang, Juntao; Wu, Guangzhou; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yanzhi; Jin, Chaozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoming; He, Fuchu

    2009-09-18

    STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a key transcription factor of the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of STAT3 is under tight regulation, and yet the different signaling pathways and the mechanisms that regulate its activity remain to be elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} that interacts in a novel way with STAT3. This physical interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction regions were mapped to the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 and the C-terminal of I{kappa}B-{zeta}. Overexpression of I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibited the transcriptional activity of STAT3. It also suppressed cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in SRC-simulated cells, which is partially mediated by down-regulation of expression of a known STAT3 target gene, MCL1. Our results suggest that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is a negative regulator of STAT3, and demonstrate a novel mechanism in which a component of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway inhibits the activation of STAT3.

  10. Activation of the Notch1/STAT3/Twist signaling axis promotes gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kai-Wen; Hsieh, Rong-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Fen-Yau Li, Anna; Chi, Chin-Wen; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Tseng, Min-Jen; Wu, Kou-Juey; Yeh, Tien-Shun

    2012-08-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies and a lethal cancer in the world. Notch signaling and transcription factors STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and Twist regulate tumor development and are critical regulators of gastric cancer progression. Herein, the relationship among Notch, STAT3 and Twist pathways in the control of gastric cancer progression was studied. We found that Twist and phosphorylated STAT3 levels were promoted by the activated Notch1 receptor in human stomach adenocarcinoma SC-M1, embryonic kidney HEK293 and erythroleukemia K562 cells. Notch1 signaling dramatically induced Twist promoter activity through a C promoter binding factor-1-independent manner and STAT3 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Notch1 receptor intracellular domain (N1IC) enhanced the interaction between nuclear STAT3 and Twist promoter in cells. Gastric cancer progression of SC-M1 cells was promoted by N1IC through STAT3 phosphorylation and Twist expression including colony formation, migration and invasion. STAT3 regulated gastric cancer progression of SC-M1 cells via Twist. N1IC also elevated the progression of other gastric cancer cells such as AGS and KATO III cells through STAT3 and Twist. The N1IC-promoted tumor growth and lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells in mice were suppressed by the STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124 and Twist knockdown. Furthermore, Notch1 and Notch ligand Jagged1 expressions were significantly associated with phosphorylated STAT3 and Twist levels in gastric cancer tissues of patients. Taken together, these results suggest that Notch1/STAT3/Twist signaling axis is involved in progression of human gastric cancer and modulation of this cascade has potential for the targeted combination therapy.

  11. Death-associated protein kinase controls STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakilam, Saritha; Gandesiri, Muktheshwar; Rau, Tilman T; Agaimy, Abbas; Vijayalakshmi, Mahadevan; Ivanovska, Jelena; Wirtz, Ralph M; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Benderska, Natalya; Wittkopf, Nadine; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Ruemmele, Petra; Vieth, Michael; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Christiansen, Hans; Hartmann, Arndt; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Raja; Becker, Christoph; Steinberg, Pablo; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2013-03-01

    The TNF-IL-6-STAT3 pathway plays a crucial role in promoting ulcerative colitis-associated carcinoma (UCC). To date, the negative regulation of STAT3 is poorly understood. Interestingly, intestinal epithelial cells of UCC in comparison to ulcerative colitis show high expression levels of anti-inflammatory death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and low levels of pSTAT3. Accordingly, epithelial DAPK expression was enhanced in STAT3(IEC-KO) mice. To unravel a possible regulatory mechanism, we used an in vitro TNF-treated intestinal epithelial cell model. We identified a new function of DAPK in suppressing TNF-induced STAT3 activation as DAPK siRNA knockdown and treatment with a DAPK inhibitor potentiated STAT3 activation, IL-6 mRNA expression, and secretion. DAPK attenuated STAT3 activity directly by physical interaction shown in three-dimensional structural modeling. This model suggests that DAPK-induced conformational changes in the STAT3 dimer masked its nuclear localization signal. Alternatively, pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 led to an increase in DAPK mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STAT3 restricted DAPK expression by promoter binding, thereby reinforcing its own activation by inducing IL-6. This novel negative regulation principle might balance TNF-induced inflammation and seems to play an important role in the inflammation-associated transformation process as confirmed in an AOM+DSS colon carcinogenesis mouse model. DAPK as a negative regulator of STAT3 emerges as therapeutic option in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and UCC.

  12. Cell confluency-induced Stat3 activation regulates NHE3 expression by recruiting Sp1 and Sp3 to the proximal NHE3 promoter region during epithelial dome formation.

    PubMed

    Su, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Ghishan, Fayez K; Kiela, Pawel R; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2009-01-01

    Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) during cell confluency is related to its regulatory roles in cell growth arrest- or survival-related physiological or developmental processes. We previously demonstrated that this signaling event triggers epithelial dome formation by transcriptional augmentation of sodium hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3) expression. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remained unclear. By using serial deletions, site-directed mutagenesis, and EMSA analysis, we now demonstrate Stat3 binding to an atypical Stat3-response element in the rat proximal NHE3 promoter, located adjacent to a cluster of Sp cis-elements (SpA/B/C), within -77/-36 nt of the gene. SpB (-58/-55 nt) site was more effective than SpA (-72/-69 nt) site for cooperative binding of Sp1/Sp3. Increasing cell density had no effect on Sp1/Sp3 expression but resulted in their increased binding to the SpA/B/C probe along with Stat3 and concurrently with enhanced nuclear pTyr705-Stat3 level. Immunoprecipitation performed with the nuclear extracts demonstrated physical interaction of Stat3 and Sp1/Sp3 triggered by cell confluency. Stat3 inhibition by overexpression of dominant-negative Stat3-D mutant in MDCK cells or by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in Caco-2 cells resulted in inhibition of the cell density-induced NHE3 expression, Sp1/Sp3 binding, and NHE3 promoter activity and in decreased dome formation. Thus, during confluency, ligand-independent Stat3 activation leads to its interaction with Sp1/Sp3, their recruitment to the SpA/B/C cluster in a Stat3 DNA-binding domain-dependent fashion, increased transcription, and expression of NHE3, to coordinate cell density-mediated epithelial dome formation.

  13. Stat3/Cdc25a-dependent cell proliferation promotes embryonic axis extension during zebrafish gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Sepich, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors. Here, using zebrafish stat3 null mutants and pharmacological tools, we demonstrate that cell proliferation contributes to anteroposterior embryonic axis extension. Zebrafish embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Stat3 expression exhibit normal convergence movements and planar cell polarity signaling, but transient axis elongation defect due to insufficient number of cells resulting largely from reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of cell proliferation during gastrulation phenocopied axis elongation defects. Stat3 regulates cell proliferation and axis extension in part via upregulation of Cdc25a expression during oogenesis. Accordingly, restoring Cdc25a expression in stat3 mutants partially suppressed cell proliferation and gastrulation defects. During later development, stat3 mutant zebrafish exhibit stunted growth, scoliosis, excessive inflammation, and fail to thrive, affording a genetic tool to study Stat3 function in vertebrate development, regeneration, and disease. PMID:28222105

  14. Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNFα were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors. PMID:24806510

  15. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Inhibits Flt3L/GM-CSF-induced-bone Marrow-derived CD103+ Dendritic Cell Differentiation Regulating Phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ji; Jeong, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal immune system maintains oral tolerance to harmless antigens or nutrients. One mechanism of oral tolerance is mediated by regulatory T cell (Treg)s, of which differentiation is regulated by a subset of dendritic cell (DC)s, primarily CD103+ DCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating immunity. The intestines are exposed to various AhR ligands, including endogenous metabolites and phytochemicals. It was previously reported that AhR activation induced tolerogenic DCs in mice or in cultures of bone marrow-derived DCs. However, given the variety of tolerogenic DCs, which type of tolerogenic DCs is regulated by AhR remains unknown. In this study, we found that AhR ligand 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) inhibited the development of CD103+ DCs from mouse bone marrow cells stimulated with Flt3L and GM-CSF. DIM interfered with phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 inhibiting the expression of genes, including Id2, E2-2, IDO-1, and Aldh1a2, which are associated with DC differentiation and functions. Finally, DIM suppressed the ability of CD103+ DCs to induce Foxp3+ Tregs. PMID:26770182

  16. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) homologue in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Yang, Chang-Geng; Sun, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Xian-Li; Chen, Song-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acts as an important mediator in multiple biological processes induced by different cytokines. So far, little information is available in fish STAT3. In this study, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) STAT3 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. The turbot STAT3 full-length cDNA consists of 2355 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 784 amino acids with four conserved domains including STAT_int, STAT_alpha, STAT_bind and SH2 domain. The phylogenetic tree showed that turbot STAT3 shared the closest relationship with mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) STAT3. The autoactivation experiment in yeast proved that turbot STAT3 was a strong transcription factor. The quantitative RT-PCR experiment indicated that Stat3 mRNA was expressed in widespread tissues with the highest expression levels in the liver. And the further expression patterns analysis revealed that turbot Stat3 expression levels were increased in liver, spleen, kidney of fish infected with Vibrio anguillarum and liver of fish infected with LCDV. Meantime, hepcidin, one of STAT3 target gene, was also up-regulated in liver of fish infected with two pathogens. These results suggested that turbot Stat3 may involved in the immune defense process as a transcription factor.

  17. JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition blocks skeletal muscle wasting downstream of IL-6 and in experimental cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Bonetto, Andrea; Aydogdu, Tufan; Jin, Xiaoling; Zhang, Zongxiu; Zhan, Rui; Puzis, Leopold; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2012-08-01

    Cachexia, the metabolic dysregulation leading to sustained loss of muscle and adipose tissue, is a devastating complication of cancer and other chronic diseases. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines are associated with muscle wasting in clinical and experimental cachexia, although the mechanisms by which they might induce muscle wasting are unknown. One pathway activated strongly by IL-6 family ligands is the JAK/STAT3 pathway, the function of which has not been evaluated in regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Recently, we showed that skeletal muscle STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and target gene expression are activated in C26 cancer cachexia, a model with high IL-6 family ligands. Here, we report that STAT3 activation is a common feature of muscle wasting, activated in muscle by IL-6 in vivo and in vitro and by different types of cancer and sterile sepsis. Moreover, STAT3 activation proved both necessary and sufficient for muscle wasting. In C(2)C(12) myotubes and in mouse muscle, mutant constitutively activated STAT3-induced muscle fiber atrophy and exacerbated wasting in cachexia. Conversely, inhibiting STAT3 pharmacologically with JAK or STAT3 inhibitors or genetically with dominant negative STAT3 and short hairpin STAT3 reduced muscle atrophy downstream of IL-6 or cancer. These results indicate that STAT3 is a primary mediator of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia and other conditions of high IL-6 family signaling. Thus STAT3 could represent a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of skeletal muscle in cachexia.

  18. STAT3 integrates cytokine and neurotrophin signals to promote sympathetic axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Michael J.; Habecker, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT3 has been implicated in axon regeneration. Here we investigate a role for STAT3 in sympathetic nerve sprouting after myocardial infarction (MI) - a common injury in humans. We show that NGF stimulates serine phosphorylation (S727) of STAT3 in sympathetic neurons via ERK1/2, in contrast to cytokine phosphorylation of Y705. Maximal sympathetic axon regeneration in vitro requires phosphorylation of both S727 and Y705. Furthermore, cytokine signaling is necessary for NGF-induced sympathetic nerve sprouting in the heart after MI. Transfection studies in neurons lacking STAT3 suggest two independent pools of STAT3, phosphorylated on either S727 or Y705, that regulate sympathetic regeneration via both transcriptional and non-transcriptional means. Additional data identify STAT3-microtubule interactions that may complement the well-characterized role of STAT3 stimulating regeneration associated genes. These data show that STAT3 is critical for sympathetic axon regeneration in vitro and in vivo, and identify a novel non-transcriptional mode of action. PMID:23831387

  19. Stat3 promotes mitochondrial transcription and oxidative respiration during maintenance and induction of naive pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Elena; Betto, Riccardo M; Soriano, Maria E; Smith, Austin G; Martello, Graziano

    2016-03-15

    Transcription factor Stat3 directs self-renewal of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells downstream of the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Stat3 upregulates pivotal transcription factors in the ES cell gene regulatory network to sustain naïve identity. Stat3 also contributes to the rapid proliferation of ES cells. Here, we show that Stat3 increases the expression of mitochondrial-encoded transcripts and enhances oxidative metabolism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that Stat3 binds to the mitochondrial genome, consistent with direct transcriptional regulation. An engineered form of Stat3 that localizes predominantly to mitochondria is sufficient to support enhanced proliferation of ES cells, but not to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Furthermore, during reprogramming from primed to naïve states of pluripotency, Stat3 similarly upregulates mitochondrial transcripts and facilitates metabolic resetting. These findings suggest that the potent stimulation of naïve pluripotency by LIF/Stat3 is attributable to parallel and synergistic induction of both mitochondrial respiration and nuclear transcription factors.

  20. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Feracci, Helene; Raptis, Leda

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  1. Pivotal Importance of STAT3 in Protecting the Heart from Acute and Chronic Stress: New Advancement and Unresolved Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zouein, Fouad A.; Altara, Raffaele; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 is poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via non-canonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the non-canonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here, we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues. PMID:26664907

  2. Endothelial STAT3 Activation Increases Vascular Leakage Through Downregulating Tight Junction Proteins: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Bae, Jong-Sup; Lee, Eun Hui; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Seung U; Ye, Sangkyu; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    Vascular inflammation is characteristic feature of diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retina, a variety of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated and involved in endothelial dysfunction. STAT3 transcription factor has been implicated in mediating cytokine signaling during vascular inflammation. However, whether and how STAT3 is involved in the direct regulation of the endothelial permeability is currently undefined. Our studies revealed that IL-6-induced STAT3 activation increases retinal endothelial permeability and vascular leakage in retinas of mice through the reduced expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In a co-culture model with microglia and endothelial cells under a high glucose condition, the microglia-derived IL-6 induced STAT3 activation in the retinal endothelial cells, leading to increasing endothelial permeability. In addition, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation was independent of ROS generation in the retinal endothelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that STAT3 activation downregulates the ZO-1 and occludin levels and increases the endothelial permeability through the induction of VEGF production in retinal endothelial cells. These results suggest the potential importance of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in regulating endothelial permeability and provide a therapeutic target to prevent the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1123-1134, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Revisiting STAT3 signalling in cancer: new and unexpected biological functions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Lee, Heehyoung; Herrmann, Andreas; Buettner, Ralf; Jove, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, particularly STAT3, are among the most promising new targets for cancer therapy. In addition to interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its family members, multiple pathways, including G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and microRNAs were recently identified to regulate JAK-STAT signalling in cancer. Well known for its role in tumour cell proliferation, survival, invasion and immunosuppression, JAK-STAT3 signalling also promotes cancer through inflammation, obesity, stem cells and the pre-metastatic niche. In addition to its established role as a transcription factor in cancer, STAT3 regulates mitochondrion functions, as well as gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Newly identified regulators and functions of JAK-STAT3 in tumours are important targets for potential therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cancer.

  4. High-Content pSTAT3/1 Imaging Assays to Screen for Selective Inhibitors of STAT3 Pathway Activation in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Hua, Yun; Camarco, Daniel; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is hyperactivated in most cancers and represents a plausible therapeutic target. In the absence of STAT3-selective small-molecule inhibitors, we sought to develop pSTAT3/1 high-content imaging (HCS) assays to screen for selective inhibitors of STAT3 pathway activation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) tumor cell lines. Based on the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)Rα and gp130 subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex and STAT3, we selected the Cal33 HNSCC cell line as our model. After developing image acquisition and analysis procedures, we rigorously investigated the cytokine activation responses to optimize the dynamic ranges of both assays and demonstrated that the pan-Janus kinase inhibitor pyridone 6 nonselectively inhibited pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation with 50% inhibition concentrations of 7.19±4.08 and 16.38±8.45 nM, respectively. The optimized pSTAT3 HCS assay performed very well in a pilot screen of 1,726 compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and the National Institutes of Health clinical collection sets, and we identified 51 inhibitors of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation. However, only three of the primary HCS actives selectively inhibited STAT3 compared with STAT1. Our follow-up studies indicated that the nonselective inhibition of cytokine induced pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation by G-alpha stimulatory subunit-coupled G-protein-coupled receptor agonists, and forskolin was likely due to cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated up-regulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3. Azelastine, an H1 receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, and ocular conjunctivitis, was subsequently confirmed as a selective inhibitor of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation that also reduced the growth of HNSCC cell lines. These data illustrate the power of a chemical

  5. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yanxin; Yue, Xupeng; Cui, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jufeng; Wang, KeWei

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3′-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  6. Aberrant LPL Expression, Driven by STAT3, Mediates Free Fatty Acid Metabolism in CLL Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rozovski, Uri; Grgurevic, Srdana; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Jain, Preetesh; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O’Brien, Susan; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    While reviewing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bone marrow slides we identified cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in CLL cells but not in normal B cells. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes hydrolysis of triglycerides into free fatty acids (FFAs), is aberrantly expressed in CLL, we investigated whether LPL regulates the oxidative metabolic capacity of CLL cells. We found that unlike normal B cells, CLL cells metabolize FFAs. Because STAT3 is constitutively activated in CLL cells and because we identified putative STAT3 binding sites in the LPL promoter, we sought to determine whether STAT3 drives the aberrant expression of LPL. Transfection of luciferase reporter gene constructs driven by LPL promoter fragments into MM1 cells revealed that STAT3 activates the LPL promoter. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed that STAT3 binds to the LPL promoter. Furthermore, transfection of CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA downregulated LPL transcripts and protein levels, confirming that STAT3 activates the LPL gene. Finally, transfection of CLL cells with LPL-siRNAs decreased the capacity of CLL cells to oxidize FFAs and reduced cell viability. PMID:25733697

  7. Endogenous transmembrane protein UT2 inhibits pSTAT3 and suppresses hematological malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Kalaitzidis, Demetrios; Ramachandran, Janani; Sykes, David B.; Raje, Noopur; Scadden, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of STAT3 activation is critical for normal and malignant hematopoietic cell proliferation. Here, we have reported that the endogenous transmembrane protein upstream-of-mTORC2 (UT2) negatively regulates activation of STAT3. Specifically, we determined that UT2 interacts directly with GP130 and inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 on tyrosine 705 (STAT3Y705). This reduces cytokine signaling including IL6 that is implicated in multiple myeloma and other hematopoietic malignancies. Modulation of UT2 resulted in inverse effects on animal survival in myeloma models. Samples from multiple myeloma patients also revealed a decreased copy number of UT2 and decreased expression of UT2 in genomic and transcriptomic analyses, respectively. Together, these studies identify a transmembrane protein that functions to negatively regulate cytokine signaling through GP130 and pSTAT3Y705 and is molecularly and mechanistically distinct from the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of genes. Moreover, this work provides evidence that perturbations of this activation-dampening molecule participate in hematologic malignancies and may serve as a key determinant of multiple myeloma pathophysiology. UT2 is a negative regulator shared across STAT3 and mTORC2 signaling cascades, functioning as a tumor suppressor in hematologic malignancies driven by those pathways. PMID:26927669

  8. STATs in cancer inflammation and immunity: a leading role for STAT3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Pardoll, Drew; Jove, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Commensurate with their roles in regulating cytokine-dependent inflammation and immunity, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are central in determining whether immune responses in the tumour microenvironment promote or inhibit cancer. Persistently activated STAT3 and, to some extent, STAT5 increase tumour cell proliferation, survival and invasion while suppressing anti-tumour immunity. The persistent activation of STAT3 also mediates tumour-promoting inflammation. STAT3 has this dual role in tumour inflammation and immunity by promoting pro-oncogenic inflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-GP130-Janus kinase (JAK) pathways, and by opposing STAT1- and NF-kappaB-mediated T helper 1 anti-tumour immune responses. Consequently, STAT3 is a promising target to redirect inflammation for cancer therapy.

  9. STATs in cancer inflammation and immunity: a leading role for STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hua; Pardoll, Drew; Jove, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Commensurate with their roles in regulating cytokine-dependent inflammation and immunity, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are central in determining whether immune responses in the tumour microenvironment promote or inhibit cancer. Persistently activated STAT3 and, to some extent, STAT5 increase tumour cell proliferation, survival and invasion while suppressing anti-tumour immunity. The persistent activation of STAT3 also mediates tumour-promoting inflammation. STAT3 has this dual role in tumour inflammation and immunity by promoting pro-oncogenic inflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)–GP130–Janus kinase (JAK) pathways, and by opposing STAT1- and NF-κB-mediated T helper 1 anti-tumour immune responses. Consequently, STAT3 is a promising target to redirect inflammation for cancer therapy. PMID:19851315

  10. The EBNA-2 arginine-glycine domain is critical but not essential for B-lymphocyte growth transformation; the rest of region 3 lacks essential interactive domains.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, X; Yalamanchili, R; Harada, S; Kieff, E

    1994-01-01

    Since deletion of region 3 (amino acids [aa] 333 to 425) of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA-2) results in EBV recombinants which cannot transform primary B lymphocytes (J. I. Cohen, F. Wang, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 65:2545-2554, 1991), the role of domains of region 3 was investigated. Deletion of the Arg-Gly repeat domain, R-337GQSRGRGRGRGRGRGKG354, results in EBV recombinants that transform primary B lymphocytes with modestly decreased activity. The transformed cells grow slowly and are difficult to expand. EBNA-2 deleted for the Arg-Gly domain does not associate with the nuclear chromatin fraction. The Arg-Gly repeat has an intrinsic ability to bind to histone H1, to other proteins, including EBNA-1, and to nucleic acids, especially poly(G). Two independent deletions of each part of the rest of region 3 (aa 359 to 383 and 385 to 430) have little effect on transformation, while deletion of the rest of region 3 (aa 361 to 425) as a single segment substantially reduces transformation efficiency. EBNA-2 deleted for all of region 3 can still transactivate the LMP1 promoter in transient expression assays but is less active than EBNA-2 in transactivating the BamHI-C promoter. EBNA-2 deleted for the Arg-Gly domain is better than EBNA-2 at transactivating the LMP1 promoter and is as active as EBNA-2 in transactivating the BamHI-C promoter. These data are most compatible with a model in which the Arg-Gly domain of region 3 is a modulator of EBNA-2 interactions and activities, while the rest of region 3 is important in positioning the region 2 J kappa binding domain relative to the region 4 acidic transactivating domain. Despite the null phenotype of the region 3 deletion, region 3 is unlikely to mediate essential interactions with other proteins. Images PMID:8083959

  11. Enhanced Transcriptional Activity and Mitochondrial Localization of STAT3 Co-induce Axon Regrowth in the Adult Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xueting; Ribeiro, Marcio; Bray, Eric R; Lee, Do-Hun; Yungher, Benjamin J; Mehta, Saloni T; Thakor, Kinjal A; Diaz, Francisca; Lee, Jae K; Moraes, Carlos T; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P; Park, Kevin K

    2016-04-12

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor central to axon regrowth with an enigmatic ability to act in different subcellular regions independently of its transcriptional roles. However, its roles in mature CNS neurons remain unclear. Here, we show that along with nuclear translocation, STAT3 translocates to mitochondria in mature CNS neurons upon cytokine stimulation. Loss- and gain-of-function studies using knockout mice and viral expression of various STAT3 mutants demonstrate that STAT3's transcriptional function is indispensable for CNS axon regrowth, whereas mitochondrial STAT3 enhances bioenergetics and further potentiates regrowth. STAT3's localization, functions, and growth-promoting effects are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), an effect further enhanced by Pten deletion, leading to extensive axon regrowth in the mouse optic pathway and spinal cord. These results highlight CNS neuronal dependence on STAT3 transcriptional activity, with mitochondrial STAT3 providing ancillary roles, and illustrate a critical contribution for MEK in enhancing diverse STAT3 functions and axon regrowth.

  12. An inhibitor of cholesterol absorption displays anti-myeloma activity by targeting the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyu; Mao, Hongwu; Lin, Xu; Zhang, Zubin; Cao, Biyin; Zeng, Yuanying; Mao, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    The activated JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway is a high risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), a fatal malignancy of plasma cells. In the present study, SC09, a potential inhibitor of cholesterol absorption, was identified in a STAT3-targeted drug screen. SC09 suppressed the activation of STAT3 in a time-course and concentration-dependent manner but did not affect its family members STAT1 and STAT5. SC09 inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activity and downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated genes. Further studies showed that SC09 selectively inhibited JAK2 activation but not other kinases including c-Src, ERK, p38 and mTOR that are all associated with STAT3 activation. Moreover, SC09 obviously induced MM cell death in vitro and delayed MM tumor growth in vivo. SC09-induced MM cell death was dependent on the endogenous STAT3 status, and this effect could be attenuated by enforced expression of STAT3. All the results collectively indicated that SC09 blocks the JAK2-STAT3 signaling thus displaying anti-MM activity. Given its well tolerance and anti-MM potency, SC09 is credited for further investigation as a promising drug for MM treatment. PMID:27705908

  13. STAT3-Activated GM-CSFRα Translocates to the Nucleus and Protects CLL Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Rozovski, Uri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Yongtao; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Grgurevic, Srdana; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Here it was determined that Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cells express the α-subunit but not the β-subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR/CSF3R). GM-CSFRα was detected on the surface, in the cytosol, and the nucleus of CLL cells via confocal microscopy, cell fractionation, and GM-CSFRα antibody epitope mapping. Because STAT3 is frequently activated in CLL and the GM-CSFRα promoter harbors putative STAT3 consensus binding sites, MM1 cells were transfected with truncated forms of the GM-CSFRα promoter, then stimulated with IL-6 to activate STAT3 to identify STAT3 binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and an electoromobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed STAT3 occupancy to those promoter regions in both IL-6 stimulated MM1 and CLL cells. Transfection of MM1 cells with STAT3 siRNA or CLL cells with STAT3 shRNA significantly down-regulated GM-CSFRα mRNA and protein levels. RNA transcripts, involved in regulating cell-survival pathways, and the proteins KAP1 (TRIM28) and ISG15 co-immunoprecipitated with GM-CSFRα. GM-CSFRα-bound KAP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of STAT3, whereas ISG15 inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Nevertheless, overexpression of GM-CSFRα protected MM1 cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and GM-CSFRα knockdown induced apoptosis in CLL cells, suggesting that GM-CSFRα provides a ligand-independent survival advantage. PMID:24836891

  14. Involvement of fish signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in SGIV replication and virus induced paraptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Yang, Ying; Wei, Shina; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor which plays crucial roles in immune regulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, transformation, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, a novel STAT3 gene from orange spotted grouper (Ec-STAT3) was cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that full-length of Ec-STAT3 was 3105-bp long and contained a 280-bp 5'UTR, a 470-bp 3'UTR, and a 2355-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 784-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein of Ec-STAT3 showed 98% identity to that of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Amino acid alignment showed that Ec-STAT3 contained four conserved domains, including a protein interaction domain, a coiled coil domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the highest expression level was detected in the liver, followed by skin and spleen. After injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), the transcript of Ec-STAT3 in spleen was increased significantly. To further explore the function of Ec-STAT3, we investigated the roles of Ec-STAT3 in SGIV infection in vitro. Immune fluorescence analysis indicated that SGIV infection altered the distribution of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 in nucleus, and a small part of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 was associated with virus assembly sites, suggesting that Ec-STAT3 might be important for SGIV infection. Using STAT3 specific inhibitor, S3I-201, we found that inhibition of Ec-STAT3 activation decreased the SGIV replication significantly. Moreover, inhibition of Ec-STAT3 activation obviously altered SGIV infection induced cell cycle arrest and the expression of pro-survival genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax inhibitor. Together, our results firstly demonstrated the critical roles of fish STAT3 in DNA virus replication and virus induced paraptosis, but also provided new insights into the mechanism of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  15. STAT3 activation in response to IL-6 is prolonged by the binding of IL-6 receptor to EGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxin; van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette H. H.; Cheon, HyeonJoo; Yang, Jinbo; Stark, George R.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation, essential for normal development and for a normal inflammatory response to invading pathogens, is kept in check by negative regulators. Abnormal constitutive activation of STAT3, which contributes to the pathology of cancer and to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, occurs when negative regulation is not fully effective. SOCS3, the major negative regulator of STAT3, is induced by tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 and terminates STAT3 phosphorylation about 2 h after initial exposure of cells to members of the IL-6 family of cytokines by binding cooperatively to the common receptor subunit gp130 and JAKs 1 and 2. We show here that when the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present and active, STAT3 is rephosphorylated about 4 h after exposure of cells to IL-6 or oncostatin M and remains active for many hours. Newly synthesized IL-6 drives association of the IL-6 receptor and gp130 with EGFR, leading to EGFR-dependent rephosphorylation of STAT3, which is not inhibited by the continued presence of SOCS3. This second wave of STAT3 activation supports sustained expression of a subset of IL-6-induced proteins, several of which play important roles in inflammation and cancer, in which both IL-6 secretion and EGFR levels are often elevated. PMID:24082147

  16. Viability and stress protection of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells involves overactivation of mitochondrial phosphoSTAT3Ser727

    PubMed Central

    Capron, C; Jondeau, K; Casetti, L; Jalbert, V; Costa, C; Verhoyen, E; Massé, J M; Coppo, P; Béné, M C; Bourdoncle, P; Cramer-Bordé, E; Dusanter-Fourt, I

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of functionally defective CD5-positive B lymphocytes. The clinical course of CLL is highly variable, ranging from a long-lasting indolent disease to an unpredictable and rapidly progressing leukemia requiring treatment. It is thus important to identify novel factors that reflect disease progression or contribute to its assessment. Here, we report on a novel STAT3-mediated pathway that characterizes CLL B cells-extended viability and oxidative stress control. We observed that leukemic but not normal B cells from CLL patients exhibit constitutive activation of an atypical form of the STAT3 signaling factor, phosphorylated on serine 727 (Ser727) in the absence of detectable canonical tyrosine 705 (Tyr705)-dependent activation in vivo. The Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 molecule (pSTAT3Ser727) is localized to the mitochondria and associates with complex I of the respiratory chain. This pSer727 modification is further controlled by glutathione-dependent antioxidant pathway(s) that mediate stromal protection of the leukemic B cells and regulate their viability. Importantly, pSTAT3Ser727, but neither Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 nor total STAT3, levels correlate with prolonged in vivo CLL B cells survival. Furthermore, STAT3 activity contributes to the resistance to apoptosis of CLL, but not normal B cells, in vitro. These data reveal that mitochondrial (Mt) pSTAT3Ser727 overactivity is part of the antioxidant defense pathway of CLL B cells that regulates their viability. Mt pSTAT3Ser727 appears to be a newly identified cell-protective signal involved in CLL cells survival. Targeting pSTAT3Ser727 could be a promising new therapeutic approach. PMID:25299776

  17. 4-Methoxydalbergione suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo xenograft model through down-regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Tran-Hong; Oh, Hyuncheol; Lee, Dong-Sung; Auh, Q-Schick; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Although the heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen (Leguminosae) is an important source of traditional Korean and Chinese medicines, the effects of novel compound methoxydalbergione (4-MD) isolated from Dalbergia odorifera was not reported. Herein, we investigated the effects of the 4-MD in vitro and in vivo against osteosarcoma cells and its molecular mechanisms. 4-MD inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and induced apoptosis as evidenced by Annexin V + and TUNEL + cells. This apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of apoptotic proteins (procaspase-3 and PARP), but downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin). 4-MD inhibited phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 with the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and CREB, and the upregulation of PTEN in osteosarcoma cells. Importantly, 4-MD reduced colony formation in soft agar and inhibited tumor growth in mice xenograft model in association with the reduced expression of PCNA, Ki67, p-STAT3, and Survivin. Taken together, the present study for the first time demonstrates that 4-MD exerts in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cells through the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, and suggest the potential for therapeutic application of 4-MD in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:26755649

  18. Decreased STAT3 Phosphorylation Mediates Cell Swelling in Ammonia-Treated Astrocyte Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Curtis, Kevin M.; Panickar, Kiran S.; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Norenberg, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Since these signaling events are known to be regulated by the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), we examined the state of STAT3 activation in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and determined whether altered STAT3 activation and/or protein expression contribute to the ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. STAT3 was found to be dephosphorylated (inactivated) at Tyrosine705 in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes. Total STAT3 protein level was also reduced in ammonia-treated astrocytes. We also found a significant increase in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type-1 (PTPRT-1) protein expression in ammonia-treated cultured astrocytes, and that inhibition of PTPRT-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT3 after ammonia treatment. Additionally, exposure of cultured astrocytes to inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases diminished the ammonia-induced cell swelling, while cultured astrocytes over-expressing STAT3 showed a reduction in the astrocyte swelling induced by ammonia. Collectively, these studies strongly suggest that inactivation of STAT3 represents a critical event in the mechanism of the astrocyte swelling associated with acute liver failure. PMID:27918421

  19. Sustained IL-6/STAT-3 Signaling in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells due to SOCS-3 Epigenetic Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Isomoto, Hajime; Mott, Justin L.; Kobayashi, Shogo; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Bronk, Steve F.; Haan, Serge; Gores, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims IL-6 mediated STAT-3 phosphorylation (activation) is aberrantly sustained in cholangiocarcinoma cells resulting in enhanced Mcl-1 expression and resistance to apoptosis. Because SOCS-3 controls the IL-6/STAT-3 signaling pathway by a classic feedback loop, the aims of this study were to examine SOCS-3 regulation in human cholangiocarcinoma. Methods SOCS-3 expression was assessed in human cholangiocarcinoma tissue and the Mz-ChA-1 and CCLP1 human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Results An inverse correlation was observed between phospho-STAT-3 and SOCS-3 protein expression in cholangiocarcinoma. In those cancers failing to express SOCS-3, extensive methylation of the SOCS-3 promoter was demonstrated in tumor but not in paired non-tumor tissue. Likewise, methylation of the socs-3 promoter was also identified in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC), restored IL-6 induction of SOCS-3, terminated the phospho-STAT-3 response, and reduced cellular levels of Mcl-1. Enforced expression of SOCS-3 also reduced IL-6 induction of phospho-STAT-3 and Mcl-1. Either DAC treatment or enforced SOCS-3 expression sensitized the cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Conclusion SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing is responsible for sustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling and enhanced Mcl-1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:17241887

  20. Indirubin derivatives inhibit Stat3 signaling and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Buettner, Ralf; Turkson, James; Kim, Donghwa; Cheng, Jin Q; Muehlbeyer, Stephan; Hippe, Frankie; Vatter, Sandra; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Jove, Richard

    2005-04-26

    Stat3 protein has an important role in oncogenesis and is a promising anticancer target. Indirubin, the active component of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown previously to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Here, we show that the indirubin derivatives E564, E728, and E804 potently block constitutive Stat3 signaling in human breast and prostate cancer cells. In addition, E804 directly inhibits Src kinase activity (IC(50) = 0.43 microM) in an in vitro kinase assay. Levels of tyrosyl phosphorylation of c-Src are also reduced in cultured cells 30 min after E804 treatment. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of Stat3, which is known to be phosphorylated by c-Src, was decreased, and constitutive Stat3 DNA binding-activity was suppressed in cells 30 min after E804 treatment. The antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Survivin, which are encoded in target genes of Stat3, were down-regulated by indirubin derivatives, followed by induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that E804 directly blocks the Src-Stat3 signaling pathway, suggesting that the antitumor activity of indirubin compounds is at least partially due to inhibition of this pathway.

  1. Inhibition of Stat3 activation in the endometrium prevents implantation: a nonsteroidal approach to contraception.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Rob D; Johnson, Martin H; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Stephen K; Sharkey, Andrew M

    2005-06-14

    Activation of the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and IL-11 is essential for embryo attachment and decidualization in mice. Both receptors induce activation of the Stat family of signal transducers via the Jak/Stat pathway. Here, we aimed to establish whether activation of Stat3 in maternal endometrium is essential for successful implantation. Functional blockade of Stat3 before implantation, by injection into the uterine lumen of a cell-permeable Stat3 peptide inhibitor, reduced embryo implantation specifically by 70% (P < 0.001). Stat3 is phosphorylated in the luminal epithelium (LE) in response to LIF, and this phosphorylation was significantly reduced both in vitro and in vivo by the Stat3 inhibitor. The inhibitor also blocked induction by LIF of several LIF-regulated genes in the LE including Irg1, which has been shown previously to be essential for implantation. Successful implantation is therefore dependent on phosphorylation and activation of Stat3 in the endometrium before implantation. This finding provides a target for contraceptive development, based on selective blockade of signal transduction pathways essential for implantation. This study demonstrates that cell-permeable peptide inhibitors can be used effectively to target intracellular signaling pathways in the uterine LE.

  2. Stat3 expression and its correlation with proliferation and apoptosis/autophagy in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Valente, Guido; Tessitore, Luciana; Schiffer, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) was studied along with several steps of the PI3/Akt pathway in a series of 64 gliomas that included both malignant and low-grade tumors, using quantitative immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and molecular biology techniques. The goal of the study was to investigate whether activated Stat3 (phospho-Stat3) levels correlated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Stat3 and activated Akt (phospho-Akt) expression increased with malignancy grade, but did not correlate with proliferation and survival within the category of glioblastomas. A correlation of Stat3 with Akt was found, indicating a regulation of the former by the PI3/Akt pathway, which, in turn, was in relation with EGFR amplification. Stat3 and Akt did not show any correlation with apoptosis, whereas they showed an inverse correlation with Beclin 1, a stimulator of autophagy, which was rarely positive in glioblastomas. Autophagy seems then to be inactivated in malignant gliomas.

  3. Distinct roles of STAT3 and STAT5 in the pathogenesis and targeted therapy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Xiang, Michael; Frank, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 play important roles in the regulation of mammary gland function during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Given that STAT3 and STAT5 regulate genes involved in proliferation and survival, it is not surprising that inappropriate activation of STAT3 and STAT5 occurs commonly in breast cancer. Although these proteins are structurally similar, they have divergent and opposing effects on gene expression and cellular phenotype. Notably, when STAT5 and STAT3 are activated simultaneously, STAT5 has a dominant effect, and leads to decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to cell death. Similarly, in breast cancer, activation of both STAT5 and STAT3 is associated with longer patient survival than activation of STAT3 alone. Pharmacological inhibitors of STAT3 and STAT5 are being developed for cancer therapy, though understanding the activation state and functional interaction of STAT3 and STAT5 in a patient's tumor may be critical for the optimal use of this strategy. PMID:23531638

  4. miR520c blocks EMT progression of human breast cancer cells by repressing STAT3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Wei, Lan; Huang, Yunxiu; Wu, Yang; Su, Min; Pang, Xueli; Wang, Nian; Ji, Feihu; Zhong, Changli; Chen, Tingmei; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most malignant diseases world-wide and it ranks the first among female cancers. Masses of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially the inflammatory factors can lead to breast cancer. Aberrant activation and accumulation of key molecules can lead to inflammation associated carcinogenesis. The signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of them. Therefore, to evaluate the novel molecular mechanisms, STAT3 has become our focus for breast cancer targeted therapy. At present, many tumor suppressing microRNAs have been validated, and are the highlights in research on microRNAs. Thus, we predicted microRNAs which could putatively regulate STAT3 through databases and selected six to screen with Dual-luciferase assay. The result hinted that miR520c could bind with STAT3 3'UTR. We mutated the seed sequence of miR520c on STAT3 3'UTR, which illustrated a reverse effect compared with wild-type of STAT3 3'UTR. Subsequently, STAT3, p-STAT3 and miR520c were assessed in three different grades of breast cancer cells, with the degree of malignancy, we found an escalating trend of STAT3 and p-STAT3, on the contrary, a downward trend of miR520c. We observed STAT3 was deactivated by miR520c. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fatal transfer of cancer progression. To find out whether the downregulation of STAT3 can repress breast cancer motility and invasion ability, we detected EMT markers. The result implied a suppression effect on EMT. We overexpressed STAT3 to conduct rescue experiments, the result showed a recovery of STAT3 and EMT characteristics. Cell motility and invasion property were regained as well. In the study, we elucidated miR520c could inhibit breast cancer EMT by targeting STAT3. It can enrich the mechanism of breast cancer and may lay the foundation for breast cancer targeted treatment.

  5. A novel obatoclax derivative, SC-2001, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Feng; Su, Jung-Chen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Huang, Jui-Wen; Chen, Kuei-Chiu; Chen, Wei-Lin; Tai, Wei-Tien; Shiau, Chung-Wai

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel compound, SC-2001, on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SC-2001, which is structurally related to the Mcl-1 inhibitor obatoclax, showed better antitumor effects than obatoclax in HCC cell lines, including HepG2, PLC5 and Huh-7. Like obatoclax, SC-2001 inhibited the protein-protein interactions between Mcl-1 and Bak. However, SC-2001 downregulated the protein levels of Mcl-1 by reducing its transcription whereas obatoclax had no significant effect on Mcl-1 expression. As Mcl-1 is regulated by signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), we found that SC-2001 downregulated the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr 705) and subsequently inhibited transcriptional activities of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition to Mcl-1, STAT3-regulated proteins, including survivin and cyclin D1, were also repressed by SC-2001. Notably, SC-2001 reduced IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in HepG2 and PLC5 cells. Ectopic expression of STAT3 abolished the prominent apoptotic death in SC-2001-treated PLC5 cells, indicating that STAT3 is indispensable in mediating the effects of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of SHP1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Inhibition of SHP-1 by either specific inhibitor or small interference RNA reduced the apoptotic effects of SC-2001, indicating that SHP-1 plays a key role in mediating SC2001-induced cell death. SC-2001 enhanced the activity of SHP-1 in all tested HCC cells including HepG2, PLC5 and Huh-7. Finally, SC-2001 reduced PLC5 tumor growth, downregulated p-STAT3 and upregulated SHP-1 expression and activity in vivo. In conclusion, our results suggest that SC-2001 induces apoptosis in HCC, and that this effect is mediated through SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation.

  6. The Stat3/GR interaction code: predictive value of direct/indirect DNA recruitment for transcription outcome.

    PubMed

    Langlais, David; Couture, Catherine; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-07-13

    Transcription factor recruitment to genomic sites of action is primarily due to direct protein:DNA interactions. The subsequent recruitment of coregulatory complexes leads to either transcriptional activation or repression. In contrast to this canonical scheme, some transcription factors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), behave as transcriptional repressors when recruited to target genes through protein tethering. We have investigated the genome-wide prevalence of tethering between GR and Stat3 and found nonreciprocal interactions, namely that GR tethering to DNA-bound Stat3 results in transcriptional repression, whereas Stat3 tethering to GR results in synergism. Further, other schemes of GR and Stat3 corecruitment to regulatory modules result in transcriptional synergism, including neighboring and composite binding sites. The results indicate extensive transcriptional interactions between Stat3 and GR; further, they provide a genome-wide assessment of transcriptional regulation by tethering and a molecular basis for integration of signals mediated by GR and Stats in health and disease.

  7. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) expression and activation in rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chun-Bo; Diao, Hong-Lu; Ma, Hong; Cong, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2004-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a member of the Stat family, is specifically activated during mouse embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression, activation and regulation of Stat3 in rat uterus during early pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation and artificial decidualization. Stat3 mRNA was highly expressed in the luminal epithelium on day 5 and in the luminal epithelium and underlying stromal cells at implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy. There was a strong level of Stat3 protein expression and phosphorylation in the stromal cells near the lumen and in the luminal epithelium on day 5 of pregnancy, which was similar to day 5 of pseudopregnancy. In the afternoon of day 6, the strong level of Stat3 phosphorylation was detected only in the luminal epithelium. Stat3 was highly expressed and activated in the decidual cells from days 7 to 9 of pregnancy and under artificial decidualization in the present study. Our results suggest that the strong level of Stat3 activation in the luminal epithelium and underlying stromal cells during the pre-implantation period may be important for establishing uterine receptivity as in mice, and the high level of Stat3 expression and activation in decidual cells may play a role during decidualization.

  8. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

  9. Ablation of Stat3 by siRNA alters gene expression profiles in JEG-3 cells: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Krous, L C; Knowlton, N; Chen, Y; Frank, M B; Cadwell, C; Centola, M; Jarvis, J N

    2009-09-01

    Control of inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface is a critical element in mammalian pregnancy. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that Stat3 may be a placental mediator involved in maintaining immunologic homeostasis at the maternal-fetal interface. The aim of the current study is to further elucidate the role of Stat3 in response to inflammation. As ablation of Stat3 in mice results in embryonic lethality, we evaluated the role of Stat3 in vitro using an siRNA approach. Trophoblast-like JEG-3 cells were transfected with an siRNA construct specific to Stat3. Experimental and control cells were exposed to conditioned medium from PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and incubated for 45 min. Cells were then collected and RNA isolated for transcriptional profiling using human Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChips. Differences in gene expression between control and Stat3-ablated cells were evaluated using conventional statistical methods. Fifty-two genes were detected as up-regulated in conditioned medium in both mock transfected and in Stat3 siRNA transfected JEG-3 cells. Two genes (EPAS1 and RASGEF1B) were up-regulated only in cells transfected with negative control siRNA, while 36 genes were up-regulated only in cells transfected with Stat3 siRNA. Sixty genes were differentially expressed between Stat3 siRNA transfected cells relative to mock transfected cells both in basal and conditioned medium. These included 31 genes up-regulated with Stat3 siRNA transfected cells and 29 genes down-regulated with Stat3 siRNA. Eleven genes were differentially expressed only in basal medium. Seven of these were up-regulated in the presence of Stat3 siRNA and four were down-regulated. Nine genes were differentially expressed only in conditioned medium. Six of these were up-regulated and three down-regulated in the presence of Stat3 siRNA. Off-target effects were excluded in a second set of experiments in which Stat3 mRNA was targeted at a different site and

  10. STAT3 in Cancer—Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the “evil” features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3β, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

  11. STAT3-Mediated Metabolic Reprograming in Cellular Transformation and Implications for Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Valeria; Camporeale, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 mediates the signaling downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors, regulating the expression of target genes. It is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y-P) in many tumors, where its transcriptional activity can induce a metabolic switch toward aerobic glycolysis and down-regulate mitochondrial activity, a prominent metabolic feature of most cancer cells, correlating with reduced production of ROS, delayed senescence, and protection from apoptosis. STAT3 can, however, also localize to mitochondria, where its serine-phosphorylated (S-P) form preserves mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and controls the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, also promoting survival and resistance to apoptosis in response to specific signals/oncogenes such as RAS. Thus, downstream of different signals, both nuclear, Y-P STAT3, and mitochondrial, S-P STAT3, can act by promoting cell survival and reducing ROS production. Here, we discuss these properties in the light of potential connections between STAT3-driven alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and the development of drug resistance in cancer patients. PMID:26106584

  12. Peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 form a redox relay for H2O2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Mirko C; Liou, Willy; Stöcker, Sarah; Talwar, Deepti; Oehler, Michael; Ruppert, Thomas; Scharf, Annette N D; Dick, Tobias P

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) acts as a signaling messenger by oxidatively modifying distinct cysteinyl thiols in distinct target proteins. However, it remains unclear how redox-regulated proteins, which often have low intrinsic reactivity towards H(2)O(2) (k(app) ∼1-10 M(-1) s(-1)), can be specifically and efficiently oxidized by H(2)O(2). Moreover, cellular thiol peroxidases, which are highly abundant and efficient H(2)O(2) scavengers, should effectively eliminate virtually all of the H(2)O(2) produced in the cell. Here, we show that the thiol peroxidase peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), one of the most H(2)O(2)-reactive proteins in the cell (k(app) ∼10(7)-10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), acts as a H(2)O(2) signal receptor and transmitter in transcription factor redox regulation. Prx2 forms a redox relay with the transcription factor STAT3 in which oxidative equivalents flow from Prx2 to STAT3. The redox relay generates disulfide-linked STAT3 oligomers with attenuated transcriptional activity. Cytokine-induced STAT3 signaling is accompanied by Prx2 and STAT3 oxidation and is modulated by Prx2 expression levels.

  13. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael D.; Murray, Caroline A.; Perantoni, Alan O.

    2017-01-01

    To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes. Stat3 expression is predominant in tissues of mesodermal origin, and its conditional ablation using mesoderm-specific TCre, in vivo, causes dwarfism and skeletal defects characteristic of CD. Specifically, Stat3 loss results in the expansion of growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes and deregulation of normal endochondral ossification in all bones examined. Conditional deletion of Stat3 with a Sox9Cre driver produces palate and tracheal irregularities similar to those described in Sox9+/- mice. Furthermore, mesodermal deletion of Stat3 causes global embryonic down regulation of Sox9 expression and function in vivo. Mechanistic experiments ex vivo suggest Stat3 can directly activate the expression of Sox9 by binding to its proximal promoter following activation. These findings illuminate a novel role for Stat3 in chondrocytes during skeletal development through modulation of a critical factor, Sox9. Importantly, they further provide the first evidence for the modulation of a gene product other than Sox9 itself which is capable of modeling pathological aspects of CD and underscore a potentially valuable therapeutic target for patients with the disorder. PMID:28166224

  14. STAT1 and STAT3 in tumorigenesis: A matter of balance.

    PubMed

    Avalle, Lidia; Pensa, Sara; Regis, Gabriella; Novelli, Francesco; Poli, Valeria

    2012-04-01

    The transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 appear to play opposite roles in tumorigenesis. While STAT3 promotes cell survival/proliferation, motility and immune tolerance and is considered as an oncogene, STAT1 mostly triggers anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic responses while enhancing anti-tumor immunity. Despite being activated downstream of common cytokine and growth factor receptors, their activation is reciprocally regulated and perturbation in their balanced expression or phosphorylation levels may re-direct cytokine/growth factor signals from proliferative to apoptotic, or from inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. Here we review the functional canonical and non-canonical effects of STAT1 and STAT3 activation in tumorigenesis and their potential cross-regulation mechanisms.

  15. Inhibition of STAT3 by Anticancer Drug Bendamustine

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Kazunori; Uehara, Yutaka; Inoue, Yukie; Taguchi, Kyoko; Muraoka, Daisuke; Ogo, Naohisa; Matsuno, Kenji; Asai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Bendamustine (BENDA), which bears the bis(2-chloroethyl)amino moiety, is an alkylating agent that stops the growth of cancer cells by binding to DNA and interfering with its replication. However, the mechanism of action underlying its excellent clinical efficacy remains unclear. In this work, we report that BENDA inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In an AlphaScreen-based biochemical assay using recombinant human STAT3, binding of STAT3–Src homology 2 (SH2) to the phosphotyrosine (pTyr, pY) peptide was inhibited by BENDA but not by the inactive metabolite dihydroxy bendamustine (HP2). When a single point mutation of C550A or C712A was introduced into recombinant human STAT3, its sensitivity to BENDA was substantially reduced, suggesting that these cysteine residues are important for BENDA to inhibit STAT3. Furthermore, BENDA suppressed the function of cellular STAT3 as a transcriptional activator in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, with constitutively activated STAT3. A competitive pull-down assay using biotinylated BENDA (Bio-BENDA) revealed that BENDA bound tightly to cellular STAT3, presumably through covalent bonds. Therefore, our results suggest that the anticancer effects of BENDA may be associated, at least in part, with its inhibitory effect on the SH2 domain of STAT3. PMID:28125678

  16. Targeting STAT3 in cancer: how successful are we?

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Peibin; Turkson, James

    2008-01-01

    Background Aberrant activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 occurs in many human tumors. Moreover, studies utilizing genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate constitutive STAT3 activity have provided compelling evidence for the critical role of aberrant STAT3 activity in malignant transformation and tumor progression, and thereby validated STAT3 as a novel cancer drug target. Objective This review is intended to be a full coverage of the efforts to develop direct STAT3 inhibitors and will provide a discussion on the inhibitory modalities developed to date. Methods Review of the literature focused on the modalities and mechanisms that directly target and inhibit the STAT protein or its functions. Results/conclusion While a variety of STAT3 inhibitors have been identified that induce antitumor cell effects in vitro and in vivo, the landscape remains murky. With a few exceptions, most of the STAT3 inhibitors reported to date have not undergone an in vivo efficacy, pharmacology or toxicity testing. Also, there is no evidence, per the published literature of an impending clinical development for the few agents that were reported to exhibit in vivo efficacy. Overall, there is the need for a reassessment of the ongoing strategies to target STAT3 intended not only for refinement, but also for incorporating some new technologies to strengthen our efforts and ensure the success – sooner, rather than later – of identifying suitable anti-STAT3 agents for development into clinically useful anticancer therapeutics. PMID:19053881

  17. Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNFα- and NK cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Dorota W.; Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem; Kaminska, Bozena

    2013-02-15

    Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNFα and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNFα and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NFκB activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNFα, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ► STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ► STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ► STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ► Increased pro-survival NFκB activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

  18. Activation of Hepatic STAT3 Maintains Pulmonary Defense during Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Kristie L.; Allen, Eri; Traber, Katrina E.; Kim, Yuri; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Jones, Matthew R.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia and infection-induced sepsis are worldwide public health concerns. Both pathologies elicit systemic inflammation and induce a robust acute-phase response (APR). Although APR activation is well regarded as a hallmark of infection, the direct contributions of liver activation to pulmonary defense during sepsis remain unclear. By targeting STAT3-dependent acute-phase changes in the liver, we evaluated the role of liver STAT3 activity in promoting host defense in the context of sepsis and pneumonia. We employed a two-hit endotoxemia/pneumonia model, whereby administration of 18 h of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg of body weight) was followed by intratracheal Escherichia coli (106 CFU) in wild-type mice or those lacking hepatocyte STAT3 (hepSTAT3−/−). Pneumonia alone (without endotoxemia) was effectively controlled in the absence of liver STAT3. Following endotoxemia and pneumonia, however, hepSTAT3−/− mice, with significantly reduced levels of circulating and airspace acute-phase proteins, exhibited significantly elevated lung and blood bacterial burdens and mortality. These data suggested that STAT3-dependent liver responses are necessary to promote host defense. While neither recruited airspace neutrophils nor lung injury was altered in endotoxemic hepSTAT3−/− mice, alveolar macrophage reactive oxygen species generation was significantly decreased. Additionally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from this group of hepSTAT3−/− mice allowed greater bacterial growth ex vivo. These results suggest that hepatic STAT3 activation promotes both cellular and humoral lung defenses. Taken together, induction of liver STAT3-dependent gene expression programs is essential to countering the deleterious consequences of sepsis on pneumonia susceptibility. PMID:26216424

  19. Autophagy Promotes the Repair of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Cells via Enhanced STAT3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Li, Xin; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Fang, Yixuan; Cao, Yan; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Lan; Ge, Chaorong; An, Ni; Jiang, Gaoyue; Xie, Jialing; Zhang, Han; Jiang, Jiayi; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Lei; Zhang, Suping; Zhou, Daohong; Wang, Jianrong

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy protects hematopoietic cells from radiation damage in part by promoting DNA damage repair. However, the molecular mechanisms by which autophagy regulates DNA damage repair remain largely elusive. Here, we report that this radioprotective effect of autophagy depends on STAT3 signaling in murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). Specifically, we found that STAT3 activation and nuclear translocation in BM-MNCs were increased by activation of autophagy with an mTOR inhibitor and decreased by knockout of the autophagy gene Atg7. The autophagic regulation of STAT3 activation is likely mediated by induction of KAP1 degradation, because we showed that KAP1 directly interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and knockdown of KAP1 increased the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3. Subsequently, activated STAT3 transcriptionally upregulated the expression of BRCA1, which increased the ability of BM-MNCs to repair radiation-induced DNA damage. This novel finding that activation of autophagy can promote DNA damage repair in BM-MNCs via the ATG-KAP1-STAT3-BRCA1 pathway suggests that autophagy plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity of BM-MNCs and its activation may confer protection of BM-MNCs against radiation-induced genotoxic stress.

  20. Sinomenine inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell invasion by mediating the STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shulong; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Liu, Rui; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xia; Li, Jie; Bao, Yanju; Zheng, Honggang; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the failure of lung cancer treatment may occur as a result of tumor invasion and metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor, is a key signaling molecule involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound with an antineoplastic potential against a variety of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor mechanisms of sinomenine in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that sinomenine manifested dose-dependent cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The protein expression of Janus kinase 2, STAT3, phosphorylated-STAT3, Snail, N-cadherin and vimentin decreased in sinomenine-treated cells, while E-cadherin protein expression increased. The regulation of STAT3, N-cadherin and E-cadherin by sinomenine was further confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that sinomenine exerts inhibitory effects on A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, possibly through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These results provide a novel insight into the role of sinomenine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27446441

  1. Blockade of STAT3 in T Cells Inhibits Germinal Center Reactions against Intranasal Allergens.

    PubMed

    Choi, Garam; Chung, Yeonseok

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the developmental mechanisms of humoral immunity against intranasal antigens is essential for the development of therapeutic approaches against air-borne pathogens as well as allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells expressing CXCR5 are required for humoral immunity by providing IL-21 and ICOS costimulation to activated B cells. However, the regulation of Tfh cell responses against intranasal antigens remains unclear. Here, we found that the generation of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells in the bronchial lymph node against intranasal proteinase antigens was independent of TGF-β. In contrast, administration of STAT3 inhibitor STA-21 suppressed the generation of Tfh cells and germinal center B cells. Compared with wild-type OT-II T cells, STAT3-deficient OT-II T cells transferred into recipients lacking T cells not only showed significantly reduced frequency Tfh cells, but also induced diminished IgG as well as IgE specific for the intranasal antigens. Cotransfer study of wild-type OT-II and STAT3-deficient OT-II T cells revealed that the latter failed to differentiate into Tfh cells. These findings demonstrate that T cell-intrinsic STAT3 is required for the generation of Tfh cells to intranasal antigens and that targeting STAT3 might be an effective approach to ameliorate antibody-mediated pathology in the lung.

  2. Adenosine augments IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling in M2c macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koscsó, Balázs; Csóka, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Németh, Zoltán H; Pacher, Pál; Virág, László; Leibovich, S Joseph; Haskó, György

    2013-12-01

    The alternatively activated macrophage phenotype induced by IL-10 is called M2c. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that accumulates in the extracellular space in response to metabolic disturbances, hypoxia, inflammation, physical damage, or apoptosis. As adenosine is known to regulate classically activated M1 and IL4- and IL-13-activated M2a macrophages, the goal of the present study was to explore its effects on M2c macrophages. We found that adenosine augmented the IL-10-induced expression of TIMP-1 and arginase-1 by the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and by mouse BMDMs. The effects of AR stimulation on IL-10-induced TIMP-1 or arginase-1 expression were lacking in A2BAR KO macrophages. The role of A2BAR on TIMP-1 production of RAW 264.7 cells was confirmed with specific agonist BAY606583 and antagonist PSB0788. AR stimulation augmented IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in macrophages, and pharmacological inhibition or silencing of STAT3 using siRNA reduced the stimulatory effect of AR stimulation on TIMP-1 production. In contrast to its stimulatory effect on IL-10-induced STAT3 activation, adenosine inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SAA3 expression. In conclusion, adenosine enhances IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling and M2c macrophage activation.

  3. Role of STAT3 pathway in genitourinary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Piva, Francesco; Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Burattini, Luciano; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Santini, Daniele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The STAT3 is often dysregulated in genitourinary tumors. In prostate cancer, STAT3 activation correlates with Gleason score and pathological stage and modulates cancer stem cells and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In addition, STAT3 promotes the progression from carcinoma in situ to invasive bladder cancer and modulates renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis by increasing the expression of HIF1α and VEGF. STAT3 is also involved in the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and axitinib, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and to second-generation androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in patients with advanced prostate cancer. In this review, we describe the role of STAT3 in genitourinary tumors, thus describing its potential for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:28031890

  4. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui; Huang, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  5. Inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway contributes to apigenin-mediated anti-metastatic effect in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui-Hui; Chu, Jian-Hong; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Su, Tao; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Chi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Guo, Hui; Li, Ting; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Chou, Gui-Xin; Mo, Huan-Biao; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-02-25

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constantly activated in human melanoma, and promotes melanoma metastasis. The dietary flavonoid apigenin is a bioactive compound that possesses low toxicity and exerts anti-metastatic activity in melanoma. However, the anti-metastasis mechanism of apigenin has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we showed that apigenin suppressed murine melanoma B16F10 cell lung metastasis in mice, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in human and murine melanoma cells. Further study indicated that apigenin effectively suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation, decreased STAT3 nuclear localization and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activity. Apigenin also down-regulated STAT3 target genes MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and Twist1, which are involved in cell migration and invasion. More importantly, overexpression of STAT3 or Twist1 partially reversed apigenin-impaired cell migration and invasion. Our data not only reveal a novel anti-metastasis mechanism of apigenin but also support the notion that STAT3 is an attractive and promising target for melanoma treatment.

  6. Inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway contributes to apigenin-mediated anti-metastatic effect in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui-Hui; Chu, Jian-Hong; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Su, Tao; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Chi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Guo, Hui; Li, Ting; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Chou, Gui-Xin; Mo, Huan-Biao; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constantly activated in human melanoma, and promotes melanoma metastasis. The dietary flavonoid apigenin is a bioactive compound that possesses low toxicity and exerts anti-metastatic activity in melanoma. However, the anti-metastasis mechanism of apigenin has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we showed that apigenin suppressed murine melanoma B16F10 cell lung metastasis in mice, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in human and murine melanoma cells. Further study indicated that apigenin effectively suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation, decreased STAT3 nuclear localization and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activity. Apigenin also down-regulated STAT3 target genes MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and Twist1, which are involved in cell migration and invasion. More importantly, overexpression of STAT3 or Twist1 partially reversed apigenin-impaired cell migration and invasion. Our data not only reveal a novel anti-metastasis mechanism of apigenin but also support the notion that STAT3 is an attractive and promising target for melanoma treatment. PMID:26911838

  7. Suppression of epithelial apoptosis and delayed mammary gland involution in mice with a conditional knockout of Stat3

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Rachel S.; Lourenco, Paula C.; Tonner, Elizabeth; Flint, David J.; Selbert, Stefan; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Clarke, Alan R.; Watson, Christine J.

    1999-01-01

    Mammary gland involution is characterized by extensive apoptosis of the epithelial cells. At the onset of involution, Stat3 is specifically activated. To address the function of this signaling molecule in mammary epithelial apoptosis, we have generated a conditional knockout of Stat3 using the Cre-lox recombination system. Following weaning, a decrease in apoptosis and a dramatic delay of involution occurred in Stat3 null mammary tissue. Involution is normally associated with a significant increase in IGFBP-5 levels. This was observed in control glands, but not in the absence of Stat3. IGFBP-5 has been suggested to induce apoptosis by sequestering IGF-1 to casein micelles, thereby inhibiting its survival function. Our findings suggest that IGFBP-5 is a direct or indirect target for Stat3 and its upregulation is essential to normal involution. No marked differences were seen in the regulation of Stat5, Bcl-xL, or Bax in the absence of Stat3. Precocious activation of Stat1 and increases in levels of p53 and p21 occurred and may act as compensatory mechanisms for the eventual initiation of involution observed in Stat3 null mammary glands. This is the first demonstration of the importance of a Stat factor in signaling the initiation of physiological apoptosis in vivo. PMID:10521404

  8. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid inhibits NKG2D expression in natural killer cells through suppression of STAT3 and HDAC3

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lulu; Wang, Lixin; Yao, Chao; Ni, Zhongya; Liu, Fei; Gong, Chenyuan; Zhu, Xiaowen; Yan, Xuewei; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Lee, Dean A.; Zhu, Shiguo

    2017-01-01

    NKG2D is a major activating receptor of NK cells and plays a critical role in tumor immunosurveillance. NKG2D expression in NK cells is inhibited by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and enhanced by the narrow-spectrum HDAC inhibitor entinostat. We previously demonstrated that entinostat enhanced NKG2D transcription by increasing acetylation of Histones H3 and H4. However, the mechanism by which VPA reduces NKG2D expression in NK cells is not known. We have also shown that NKG2D transcription is regulated by STAT3 phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated regulation of NKG2D expression in NK cells by VPA and entinostat by assessing protein expression, phosphorylation, and interaction of HDACs and STAT3. We find that VPA selectively inhibits STAT3 tyrosine705 phosphorylation, but entinostat does not. STAT3 complexes with HDAC3, and HDAC3 inhibition represses STAT3 phosphorylation and therefore NKG2D expression. NK cells from STAT3 wild-type mice downregulate NKG2D in response to VPA, but not NK cells from STAT3 knockout mice. These results show that VPA is a potent inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation and demonstrate that histone acetylation and STAT3 tyrosine705 phosphorylation cooperate in regulating NKG2D expression in NK cells. PMID:28338101

  9. Role of STAT3 Phosphorylation in Ethanol-Mediated Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Poornima devi; Nandabalan, Sangeetha Kadapakkam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in ethanol (EtOH)-mediated proliferation of breast cancer cells. Methods EtOH concentration was optimized by studying its effect on cell proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells. We used flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis to evaluate the increased proliferation caused by the optimized concentrations of EtOH. The mechanism of EtOH-mediated proliferation was determined using reactive oxygen species (ROS) release assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot studies. Gene silencing followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies and inhibitor studies indicated the involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in EtOH-mediated breast cancer proliferation. Results Exposure to EtOH caused an increase in cell proliferation and an accumulation of cells in S-phase in MCF-7 (347 µM EtOH) and MDA MB-231 (173 µM EtOH) cells. Additionally, increased release of ROS and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α, confirmed that the proliferation was induced by the ROS-linked inflammatory response in breast cancer. The proinflammatory response was followed by phosphorylation of STAT3. The importance of STAT3 activation in EtOH-mediated proliferation was confirmed through the silencing of STAT3, followed by an investigation on the expression of cyclins and matrix metalloproteinases. Finally, studies using specific inhibitors indicated that the EtOH-mediated effect on STAT3 activation could be regulated by phosphoinositide-3-kinase and Janus kinase 2. Conclusion The study demonstrates the involvement of STAT3 signaling in EtOH-mediated breast cancer proliferation. PMID:27382387

  10. Hippocalcin Is Required for Astrocytic Differentiation through Activation of Stat3 in Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Jeong; Park, Shin-Young; Han, Joong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Hippocalcin (Hpca) is a neuronal calcium sensor protein expressed in the mammalian brain. However, its function in neural stem/precursor cells has not yet been studied. Here, we clarify the function of Hpca in astrocytic differentiation in hippocampal neural precursor cells (HNPCs). When we overexpressed Hpca in HNPCs in the presence or absence of bFGF, expression levels of nerve-growth factors such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), together with the proneural basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factors NeuroD and neurogenin 1 (Ngn1), increased significantly. In addition, there was an increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocyte marker, and in branch outgrowth, indicating astrocytic differentiation of the HNPCs. Downregulation of Hpca by transfection with Hpca siRNA reduced expression of NT-3, NT-4/5, BDNF, NeuroD, and Ngn1 as well as levels of GFAP protein. Furthermore, overexpression of Hpca increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Ser727), and this effect was abolished by treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor (S3I-201), suggesting that STAT3 (Ser727) activation is involved in Hpca-mediated astrocytic differentiation. As expected, treatment with Stat3 siRNA or STAT3 inhibitor caused a complete inhibition of astrogliogenesis induced by Hpca overexpression. Taken together, this is the first report to show that Hpca, acting through Stat3, has an important role in the expression of neurotrophins and proneural bHLH transcription factors, and that it is an essential regulator of astrocytic differentiation and branch outgrowth in HNPCs. PMID:27840601

  11. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  12. Human Trefoil Factor 3 induces the transcription of its own promoter through STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong; Wang, Liangxi; Zhou, Yifang; Mao, Xuefei; Deng, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Human trefoil factor 3 (hTFF3) is a small peptide of potential therapeutic value. The mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of hTFF3 remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the core functional elements for the self-induction action of hTFF3 and transcription factors. First, truncated promoters were constructed to identify the functional regions of the hTFF3 promoter. Next, point mutation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and gene overexpression experiments were performed to analyze the transcriptional binding sites responsible for the self-induced transcription of hTFF3. Our results revealed the −1450 bp to −1400 bp fragment of the hTFF3 promoter was the functional region for the self-induction action of hTFF3. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that a STAT3 binding site is present in the −1417 bp to −1409 bp region. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenesis analysis determined that this STAT3 binding site was critical for the self-induction effect of hTFF3. ChIP experiments confirmed that STAT3 binds to the hTFF3 promoter. STAT3 overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that STAT3 enhanced the self-induction effect and the expression of hTFF3. This study confirmed that hTFF3 exhibits self-induction action, and that STAT3 is the key transcription factor to maintain the function of self-induction. PMID:27453253

  13. Thymoquinone inhibits proliferation in gastric cancer via the STAT3 pathway in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Qian; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xu-Feng; Liu, Zhou; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of thymoquinone (TQ)-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: HGC27, BGC823, and SGC7901 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with TQ (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 μmol/L) for 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h, and then the proliferation inhibitory rates were detected by methylthiazole tetrazolium assay. Apoptosis was observed after Hoechst staining. The protein expressions of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, p-STAT3, STAT5, p-STAT5, phospho-janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2, p-Src, Src, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lamin-A, survivin, Cyclin D, Bcl-2, Bax, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, and caspase-3,7,9 were detected by western blot. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined with flow cytometry. TQ induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in HGC27 cells was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and Hoechst 33258. RESULTS: TQ inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 but not STAT5. TQ-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation was associated with a reduction in JAK2 and c-Src activity. TQ also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated genes, such as Bcl-2, cyclin D, survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and activated caspase-3,7,9. Consistent with the in vitro results, TQ was significantly effective as an antitumor agent in a xenograft tumor mouse model. CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence that downregulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway mediates TQ-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer. PMID:27122665

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary central nervous system lymphomas in immunocompetent elderly patients: analysis for latent membrane protein-1 oncogene deletion and EBNA-2 strain typing.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Niino, Daisuke; Ohshima, Koichi; Fumiko, Arakawa; Shigemori, Minoru; Sato, Yasuharu; Asano, Naoko

    2010-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNLs) in immunocompetent hosts. To investigate the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of PCNLs in immunocompetent hosts, this study assessed six PCNL cases (elderly male immunocompetent patients; age ≥60 years) histologically and immunohistochemically, and an EBV genetic study was performed. Histologically, all cases were diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with extensive necrosis. In all six cases, PCNL cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and Epstein-Barr nuclear 2 (EBNA2). Lymphoma cells also showed positive signals for EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) on in-situ hybridization. EBV subtyping-PCR analysis demonstrated that one case was EBNA 2B type and the other five cases were EBNA 2A type, and two cases were EBV wild-type and four cases showed 30-bp LMP-1 deletion by PCR analysis. It is therefore possible that LMP gene deletion or EBNA-2 strain type are important in the tumorigenesis of EBV-positive PCNLs. In addition, EBV-positive PCNLs in immunocompetent hosts may be related to immunological deterioration derived from the aging process.

  15. STAT3 Potentiates SIAH-1 Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of β-Catenin in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minkyung; Yi, Eun Hee; Kim, Byung-Hak; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Park, Jung Youl; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wan; Choi, Kang-Yell; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The β-catenin functions as an adhesion molecule and a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of the Wnt ligand, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated, which designates it for degradation by the APC complex. This process is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of β-catenin. The level of β-catenin is also controlled by the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase SIAH-1 via a phosphorylation-independent degradation pathway. Similar to β-catenin, STAT3 is responsible for various cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation. However, little is known about how these molecules work together to regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the regulatory relationship between STAT3 and β-catenin in HEK293T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that β-catenin-TCF-4 transcriptional activity was suppressed by phosphorylated STAT3; furthermore, STAT3 inactivation abolished this effect and elevated activated β-catenin levels. STAT3 also showed a strong interaction with SIAH-1, a regulator of active β-catenin via degradation, which stabilized SIAH-1 and increased its interaction with β-catenin. These results suggest that activated STAT3 regulates active β-catenin protein levels via stabilization of SIAH-1 and the subsequent ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in HEK293T cells. PMID:27871173

  16. Insulin enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 signaling by inducing GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Mina; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, centrally regulates energy homeostasis. Overlaps in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis have been reported between leptin and insulin. However, the effects of insulin on leptin’s actions in the central nervous system (CNS) have not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we found that insulin potentiated leptin’s actions through GRP78 in the neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y-ObRb. Since insulin induces GRP78, we speculated that it may also enhance leptin’s actions through this induction. We found that insulin enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and this effect was ameliorated by the knockdown of GRP78. The role of GRP78 in leptin’s actions was also confirmed by impairments in leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in HEK293-ObRb cells in which GRP78 was knocked down. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of GRP78 enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that GRP78 plays an important role in leptin’s actions. Furthermore, insulin may enhance the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 by inducing GRP78, which may provide an important connection between insulin and leptin in the CNS. PMID:27677243

  17. Human metapneumovirus inhibits the IL-6-induced JAK/STAT3 signalling cascade in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mitzel, Dana N; Jaramillo, Richard J; Stout-Delgado, Heather; Senft, Albert P; Harrod, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    The host cytokine IL-6 plays an important role in host defence and prevention of lung injury from various pathogens, making IL-6 an important mediator in the host's susceptibility to respiratory infections. The cellular response to IL-6 is mediated through a Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) signal transduction pathway. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important causative agent of viral respiratory infections known to inhibit the IFN-mediated activation of STAT1. However, little is known about the interactions between this virus and other STAT signalling cascades. Herein, we showed that hMPV can attenuate the IL-6-mediated JAK/STAT3 signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. HMPV inhibited a key event in this pathway by impeding the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in A549 cells and in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Further studies established that hMPV interrupted the IL-6-induced JAK/STAT pathway early in the signal transduction pathway by blocking the phosphorylation of JAK2. By antagonizing the IL-6-mediated JAK/STAT3 pathway, hMPV perturbed the expression of IL-6-inducible genes important for apoptosis, cell differentiation and growth. Infection with hMPV also differentially regulated the effects of IL-6 on apoptosis. Thus, hMPV regulation of these genes could usurp the protective roles of IL-6, and these data provide insight into an important element of viral pathogenesis.

  18. CD45 Phosphatase Inhibits STAT3 Transcription Factor Activity in Myeloid Cells and Promotes Tumor-Associated Macrophage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinit; Cheng, Pingyan; Condamine, Thomas; Mony, Sridevi; Languino, Lucia R; McCaffrey, Judith C; Hockstein, Neil; Guarino, Michael; Masters, Gregory; Penman, Emily; Denstman, Fred; Xu, Xiaowei; Altieri, Dario C; Du, Hong; Yan, Cong; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2016-02-16

    Recruitment of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and differentiation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major factors contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. We demonstrated that differentiation of TAMs in tumor site from monocytic precursors was controlled by downregulation of the activity of the transcription factor STAT3. Decreased STAT3 activity was caused by hypoxia and affected all myeloid cells but was not observed in tumor cells. Upregulation of CD45 tyrosine phosphatase activity in MDSCs exposed to hypoxia in tumor site was responsible for downregulation of STAT3. This effect was mediated by the disruption of CD45 protein dimerization regulated by sialic acid. Thus, STAT3 has a unique function in the tumor environment in controlling the differentiation of MDSC into TAM, and its regulatory pathway could be a potential target for therapy.

  19. Mutations in the linker domain affect phospho-STAT3 function and suggest targets for interrupting STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Claudia; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Klinge, Sebastian; Darnell, James E

    2015-12-01

    Crystallography of the cores of phosphotyrosine-activated dimers of STAT1 (132-713) and STAT3 (127-722) bound to a similar double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide established the domain structure of the STATs and the structural basis for activation through tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization. We reported earlier that mutants in the linker domain of STAT1 that connect the DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain can prevent transcriptional activation. Because of the pervasive importance of persistently activated STAT3 in many human cancers and the difficulty of finding useful drug candidates aimed at disrupting the pY interchange in active STAT3 dimers, we have examined effects of an array of mutants in the STAT3 linker domain. We have found several STAT3 linker domain mutants to have profound effects of inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activation. From these results, we propose (i) there is definite functional interaction of the linker both with the DNA binding domain and with the SH2 domain, and (ii) these putative contacts provide potential new targets for small molecule-induced pSTAT3 inhibition.

  20. Mutations in the linker domain affect phospho-STAT3 function and suggest targets for interrupting STAT3 activity

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Claudia; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Klinge, Sebastian; Darnell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallography of the cores of phosphotyrosine-activated dimers of STAT1 (132–713) and STAT3 (127–722) bound to a similar double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide established the domain structure of the STATs and the structural basis for activation through tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization. We reported earlier that mutants in the linker domain of STAT1 that connect the DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain can prevent transcriptional activation. Because of the pervasive importance of persistently activated STAT3 in many human cancers and the difficulty of finding useful drug candidates aimed at disrupting the pY interchange in active STAT3 dimers, we have examined effects of an array of mutants in the STAT3 linker domain. We have found several STAT3 linker domain mutants to have profound effects of inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activation. From these results, we propose (i) there is definite functional interaction of the linker both with the DNA binding domain and with the SH2 domain, and (ii) these putative contacts provide potential new targets for small molecule-induced pSTAT3 inhibition. PMID:26553978

  1. Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Nishimura, Kohji; Uda, Atsushi; Mukai, Akira; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kume, Manabu; Makimoto, Hiroo; Bito, Toshinori; Nishigori, Chikako; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

    2014-01-01

    Hand–foot skin reaction is a most common multi-kinase inhibitor-related adverse event. This study aimed to examine whether the toxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib for human keratinocytes was associated with inhibiting signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We studied whether STAT3 activity affects sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition in HaCaT cells by WST-8 assay. Stattic enhanced the cell-growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of sorafenib and sunitinib. HaCaT cells transfected with constitutively-active STAT3 (STAT3C) were resistant to the sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. STAT3 activity decreased after short-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib in a dose-dependent manner and recovered after long-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib at low doses. Moreover, the expression of survivin and bcl-2 decreased after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib was concomitant with variations in STAT3 activity. Sorafenib-induced STAT3 inhibition was mediated by regulation via MAPK pathways in HaCaT cells, while sunitinib-induced STAT3 inhibition was not. Thus, STAT3 activation mediating apoptosis suppressors may be a key factor in sorafenib and sunitinib-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity. PMID:25013907

  2. Benzoxathiol derivative BOT-4-one suppresses L540 lymphoma cell survival and proliferation via inhibition of JAK3/STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Hak; Min, Yun Sook; Choi, Jung Sook; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun; Kim, Youngsoo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Persistently activated JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in various human cancers including major carcinomas and hematologic tumors, and is implicated in cancer cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling may be a clinical application in cancer therapy. Here, we report that 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo [1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one), a small molecule inhibitor of JAK/STAT3 signaling, induces apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 activation. BOT-4-one suppressed cytokine (upd)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT92E, the sole Drosophila STAT homolog. Consequently, BOT-4-one significantly inhibited STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of STAT3 downstream target gene SOCS3 in various human cancer cell lines, and its effect was more potent in JAK3-activated Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line than in JAK2-activated breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. In addition, BOT-4-one-treated Hodgkin's lymphoma cells showed decreased cell survival and proliferation by inducing apoptosis through down-regulation of STAT3 downstream target anti-apoptotic gene expression. These results suggest that BOT-4-one is a novel small molecule inhibitor of JAK3/STAT3 signaling and may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of human cancers harboring aberrant JAK3/STAT3 signaling, specifically Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:21499010

  3. Benzoxathiol derivative BOT-4-one suppresses L540 lymphoma cell survival and proliferation via inhibition of JAK3/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Min, Yun Sook; Choi, Jung Sook; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Kim, Young Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Tae Yoon; Ye, Sang Kyu

    2011-05-31

    Persistently activated JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in various human cancers including major carcinomas and hematologic tumors, and is implicated in cancer cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling may be a clinical application in cancer therapy. Here, we report that 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo [1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one), a small molecule inhibitor of JAK/STAT3 signaling, induces apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 activation. BOT-4-one suppressed cytokine (upd)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT92E, the sole Drosophila STAT homolog. Consequently, BOT-4-one significantly inhibited STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of STAT3 downstream target gene SOCS3 in various human cancer cell lines, and its effect was more potent in JAK3-activated Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line than in JAK2-activated breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. In addition, BOT-4-one-treated Hodgkin's lymphoma cells showed decreased cell survival and proliferation by inducing apoptosis through down-regulation of STAT3 downstream target anti-apoptotic gene expression. These results suggest that BOT-4-one is a novel small molecule inhibitor of JAK3/STAT3 signaling and may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of human cancers harboring aberrant JAK3/STAT3 signaling, specifically Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. Phosphorylation status determines the opposing functions of Smad2/Smad3 as STAT3 cofactors in TH17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Sudo, Katsuko; Kuroda, Masahiko; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Lee, In-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo; Nakae, Susumu; Imamura, Takeshi; Kim, Juryun; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Dae-Kee; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Weinstein, Michael; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki; Mamura, Mizuko

    2015-07-21

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the pivotal cytokines to induce IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper cells (TH17); yet their signalling network remains largely unknown. Here we show that the highly homologous TGF-β receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads): Smad2 and Smad3 oppositely modify STAT3-induced transcription of IL-17A and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor, RORγt encoded by Rorc, by acting as a co-activator and co-repressor of STAT3, respectively. Smad2 linker phosphorylated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) at the serine 255 residue interacts with STAT3 and p300 to transactivate, whereas carboxy-terminal unphosphorylated Smad3 interacts with STAT3 and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) to repress the Rorc and Il17a genes. Our work uncovers carboxy-terminal phosphorylation-independent noncanonical R-Smad-STAT3 signalling network in TH17 differentiation.

  5. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 Activates Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms. A broad array of mostly extracellular stimuli has been reported to activate NF-κB, to various degrees, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Because CLL cells harbor high levels of unphosphorylated (U) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 protein and U-STAT3 was reported to activate NF-κB, we sought to determine whether U-STAT3 activates NF-κB in CLL. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) we studied peripheral blood low-density cells from 15 patients with CLL and found that CLL cell nuclear extracts from all the samples bound to an NF-κB DNA probe, suggesting that NF-κB is constitutively activated in CLL. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that STAT3 bound NF-κB p65, and confocal microscopy studies detected U-STAT3/NF-κB complexes in the nuclei of CLL cells, thereby confirming these findings. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with retroviral STAT3-shRNA attenuated the binding of NF-κB to DNA, as assessed by EMSA, and downregulated mRNA levels of NF-κB-regulated genes, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, our data suggest that U-STAT3 binds to the NF-κB p50/p65 dimers and that the U-STAT3/NF-κB complexes bind to DNA and activate NF-κB-regulated genes in CLL cells. PMID:21364020

  6. Modulation of Stat3 Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an...Stat3 Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer Dr. Luca Cartegni Sloan-Kettering Institute New York, NY 10021 Stat3 is a transcription factor...constitutively active in a large number of breast cancers and other tumors, where it works as a central player in the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways

  7. IL-17 promotes tumor angiogenesis through Stat3 pathway mediated upregulation of VEGF in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Yang, Tao; Liu, Xiang; Guo, Jia Nian; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Yuanwei; Lin, Manpeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the world's second most common malignancy and is a major threat to global health. IL-17, a CD4 T cell-derived mediator of angiogenesis, plays a major role in stimulating angiogenesis by regulating the production of a variety of proangiogenic factors, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The level of VEGF expression correlates with tumor progression and metastasis in gastric cancer tissues. Abnormal activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) rendered the tumor cells highly angiogenic, which is manifested by an increased microvascular density (MVD) and considered it as a potential molecular marker for poor prognosis in gastric cancer angiogenesis. We determined that IL-17A-induced VEGF upregulation and neovascularization through a Stat3-mediated signaling pathway and hypothesized that blocking the Stat3 activation by using JSI-124, an inhibitor of phosphorylated Stat3, could significantly reduce the VEGF expression and can thus prevent angiogenesis. We showed an inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor progression when JSI-124 was treated with IL-17A in the cells and xenografts in an animal model and suggested that targeting the Stat pathway with JSI-124 could derive an effective therapeutic target for gastric cancers and could be a promising drug in gastric cancer treatment.

  8. Lipopolysaccharides upregulate hepcidin in neuron via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Liang, Tuo; Wu, Ka-Chun; Yan, Yik-Chun; Lu, Li-Na; Yang, Guang; Luo, Qian Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2014-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is closely related to brain iron homeostasis. Our previous study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can regulate expression of iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin; however, the mechanism is undefined. Here, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of LPS in rat brain upregulated hepcidin and downregulated ferroportin 1 in the cortex and substantia nigra. LPS increased hepcidin expression in neurons only when they were co-cultured with BV-2 microglia, and the upregulation was suppressed by IL-6 neutralizing antibody in vitro. In addition, IL-6 but not IL-1α, IL-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased hepcidin expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in cortical neurons and MES23.5 dopaminergic neurons. These effects were blocked by the STAT3 inhibitor, stattic. Our results show that neurons are the major source of increased hepcidin expression in response to LPS challenge but microglia play a key mediator role by releasing IL-6 and recruiting the STAT3 pathway. We conclude that LPS upregulates hepcidin expression in neurons via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  9. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J.; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell

  10. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell

  11. Pien Tze Huang suppresses IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in human colon carcinoma cells through induction of SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Hong, Fei; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2012-12-01

    IL-6/STAT3 is one of the most critical cellular signal transduction pathways known to malfunction in colorectal cancer (CRC). As a target gene of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) can be quickly induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulation but it then strongly inhibits IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation, functioning as a negative feedback regulator of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Aberrant activation of STAT3 and/or reduced expression of SOCS are strongly correlated with carcinogenesis, which therefore becomes a promising target for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapies. Pien Tze Huang (PZH) is a well-known traditional Chinese formula that was first prescribed by a royal physician 450 years ago in the Ming Dynasty. It has been used in China and Southeast Asia for centuries as a folk remedy for various types of cancer including CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its antitumor activity remains largely unclear. In the present study, we found that PZH could significantly and dose-dependently inhibit IL-6-mediated increase of STAT3 phosphorylation levels and transcriptional activity in the human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, PZH treatment profoundly inhibited IL-6-induced upregulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2, two key target genes of the STAT3 pathway. Moreover, PZH treatment increased the expression of SOCS3. These results suggest that PZH could effectively inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of human colon carcinoma cells via modulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and its target genes.

  12. LYR71, a derivative of trimeric resveratrol, inhibits tumorigenesis by blocking STAT3-mediated matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja Eun; Kim, Hong Sook; Shin, Yong-Jae; Lee, Chang Seok; Won, Cheolhee; Lee, Sin-Ae; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Youngsoo; Kang, Jae-Seung; Chung, Myung-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Tumor migration/invasion is the main cause of tumor progression and STAT3 is needed to enhance tumor migration/invasion by up-regulating MMP-9. Thus, agents that inhibit STAT3 activation may be used as an anticancer drug. We present herein that 6-methyl-2-propylimino-6, 7-dihydro-5H-benzo [1, 3]-oxathiol-4-one (LYR71) , a derivative of trimeric resveratrol, has an anticancer activity through inhibition of STAT3 activation. We found that LYR71 suppressed STAT3 activation and inhibited the expression and activity of MMP-9 in RANTES-stimulated breast cancer cells. In addition, LYR71 reduced RANTES-induced MMP-9 transcripts by blocking STAT3 recruitment, dissociating p300 and deacetylating histone H3 and H4 on the MMP-9 promoter. Furthermore, LYR71 inhibited tumor migration/invasion in RANTES-treated breast cancer cells and consequently blocked tumor progression in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that LYR71 can be therapeutically useful due to the inhibition effect of STAT3-mediated MMP-9 expression in breast cancer cells. PMID:18985009

  13. Icaritin, a novel FASN inhibitor, exerts anti-melanoma activities through IGF-1R/STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinfeng; Du, Juan; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Cao, Huihui; Li, Ting; Su, Tao; Xu, Jinhua; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Icaritin (IT) is a flavonoid isolated from Herba Epimedii. In this study, we evaluated the anti-melanoma activities of IT, and determined its cytotoxic mechanism. We found that IT exerted cytotoxicity to melanoma cells. Furthermore, IT induced melanoma cell apoptosis, which was accompanied with PARP cleavage. Mechanistically, IT suppressed p-STAT3 (tyr705) level in parallel with increases of p-STAT3 (ser727), p-ERK and p-AKT. IT significantly inhibited STAT3 nuclear translocation and reduced the levels of STAT3 -targeted genes. IT also inhibited IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation through down-regulation of total IGF-1R level. No dramatic changes in IGF-1R mRNA levels were observed in IT-treated cells, suggesting that IT acted primarily at a post-transcriptional level. Using molecular docking analysis, IT was identified as a novel fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor. We found that IT reduced the level of total IGF-1R via FASN inhibition. In summary, we reported that IT exerted anti-melanoma activities, and these effects were partially due to inhibition of FASN/IGF-1R/STAT3 signaling. PMID:27323414

  14. Stat3-dependent acute Rantes production in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates inflammation following arterial injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Jason C.; Gupta, Rohit; Lee, Angela C.; Ma, Mingchao; Fang, Fang; Tolbert, Claire N.; Walts, Avram D.; Beltran, Leilani E.; San, Hong; Chen, Guibin; St. Hilaire, Cynthia; Boehm, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is a key component of arterial injury, with VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation serving as the final outcomes of this process. However, the acute events transpiring immediately after arterial injury that establish the blueprint for this inflammatory program are largely unknown. We therefore studied these events in mice and found that immediately following arterial injury, medial VSMCs upregulated Rantes in an acute manner dependent on Stat3 and NF-κB (p65 subunit). This led to early T cell and macrophage recruitment, processes also under the regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. Unique to VSMCs, Rantes production was initiated by Tnf-α, but not by Il-6/gp130. This Rantes production was dependent on the binding of a p65/Stat3 complex to NF-κB–binding sites within the Rantes promoter, with shRNA knockdown of either Stat3 or p65 markedly attenuating Rantes production. In vivo, acute NF-κB and Stat3 activation in medial VSMCs was identified, with acute Rantes production after injury substantially reduced in Tnfa–/– mice compared with controls. Finally, we generated mice with SMC-specific conditional Stat3 deficiency and confirmed the Stat3 dependence of acute Rantes production by VSMCs. Together, these observations unify inflammatory events after vascular injury, demonstrating that VSMCs orchestrate the arterial inflammatory response program via acute Rantes production and subsequent inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:20038813

  15. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murano, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  16. Dimethylfumarate suppresses adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through inhibition of STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Go, Younghoon; Oh, Chang Joo; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBPβ, PPARγ, C/EBPα, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator of Nrf2. This study examined whether DMF inhibits adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by inhibiting STAT3 or activating Nrf2. DMF suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic genes, including C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, PPARγ, SREBP-1c, FAS, and aP2, were significantly lower in DMF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Suppression of adipogenic differentiation by DMF treatment resulted primarily from inhibition of the early stages of differentiation. DMF inhibits clonal expansion during adipogenic differentiation through induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DMF regulates cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21, pRb, and cyclin D. DMF treatment markedly inhibited differentiation medium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activation of a reporter construct composed of four synthetic STAT3-response elements. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 activity using a dominant negative Nrf2 did not abolish the DMF-induced inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In summary, DMF is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation based on its regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. This negative regulation by DMF is mediated by STAT3 inhibition, but is unlikely to involve Nrf2 activation.

  17. A genetic and developmental pathway from STAT3 to the OCT4–NANOG circuit is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Do, Dang Vinh; Ueda, Jun; Messerschmidt, Daniel M.; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Bo; Guo, Guoji; Lin, Peiyu J.; Hossain, Md Zakir; Zhang, Wenjun; Moh, Akira; Wu, Qiang; Robson, Paul; Ng, Huck Hui; Poellinger, Lorenz; Knowles, Barbara B.; Solter, Davor; Fu, Xin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Although it is known that OCT4–NANOG are required for maintenance of pluripotent cells in vitro, the upstream signals that regulate this circuit during early development in vivo have not been identified. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent regulation of the OCT4–NANOG circuitry necessary to maintain the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the source of in vitro-derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We show that STAT3 is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and becomes phosphorylated and translocates to the nucleus in the four-cell and later stage embryos. Using leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif)-null embryos, we found that STAT3 phosphorylation is dependent on LIF in four-cell stage embryos. In blastocysts, interleukin 6 (IL-6) acts in an autocrine fashion to ensure STAT3 phosphorylation, mediated by janus kinase 1 (JAK1), a LIF- and IL-6-dependent kinase. Using genetically engineered mouse strains to eliminate Stat3 in oocytes and embryos, we firmly establish that STAT3 is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages but not for ICM and trophectoderm formation. Indeed, STAT3 directly binds to the Oct4 and Nanog distal enhancers, modulating their expression to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. These results provide a novel genetic model of cell fate determination operating through STAT3 in the preimplantation embryo and pluripotent stem cells in vivo. PMID:23788624

  18. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S.

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the

  19. Folic acid mediates activation of the pro-oncogene STAT3 via the Folate Receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mariann F; Greibe, Eva; Skovbjerg, Signe; Rohde, Sarah; Kristensen, Anders C M; Jensen, Trine R; Stentoft, Charlotte; Kjær, Karina H; Kronborg, Camilla S; Martensen, Pia M

    2015-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-described pro-oncogene found constitutively activated in several cancer types. Folates are B vitamins that, when taken up by cells through the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC), are essential for normal cell growth and replication. Many cancer cells overexpress a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Folate Receptor α (FRα). The function of FRα in cancer cells is still poorly described, and it has been suggested that transport of folate is not its primary function in these cells. We show here that folic acid and folinic acid can activate STAT3 through FRα in a Janus Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner, and we demonstrate that gp130 functions as a transducing receptor for this signalling. Moreover, folic acid can promote dose dependent cell proliferation in FRα-positive HeLa cells, but not in FRα-negative HEK293 cells. After folic acid treatment of HeLa cells, up-regulation of the STAT3 responsive genes Cyclin A2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were verified by qRT-PCR. The identification of this FRα-STAT3 signal transduction pathway activated by folic and folinic acid contributes to the understanding of the involvement of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects as well as in tumour growth. Previously, the role of folates in these diseases has been attributed to their roles as one-carbon unit donors following endocytosis into the cell. Our finding that folic acid can activate STAT3 via FRα adds complexity to the established roles of B9 vitamins in cancer and neural tube defects.

  20. Obox4-silencing-activated STAT3 and MPF/MAPK signaling accelerate nuclear membrane breakdown in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Su-Yeon; Ko, Jung-Jae; Lee, Kyung-Ah

    2016-04-01

    Mouse oocytes begin to mature in vitro once liberated from ovarian follicles. Previously, we showed that oocyte-specific homeobox 4 (Obox4) is critical for maintaining the intact nuclear membrane of the germinal vesicle (GV) in oocytes and for completing meiosis at the metaphase I-II (MI-MII) transition. This study further examines the molecular mechanisms of OBOX4 in regulating GV nuclear membrane breakdown. Maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and MAPK are normally inactive in GV stage oocytes but were activated prematurely in arrested GV stage oocytes by 3-isobutyl-1-metyl-xanthine (IBMX) in vitro after Obox4 RNA interference (RNAi). Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was significantly activated by Obox4 RNAi. We confirmed that this Obox4 RNAi-induced premature STAT3 and MPF/MAPK activation at the GV stage provoked subsequent GV breakdown (GVBD) despite the opposing force of high cAMP in the IBMX-supplemented medium to maintain intact GV. When cumulus-oocyte complexes were exposed to interferon α (IFNA), a STAT3 activator, oocytes matured and cumulus cells expanded to resume nuclear maturation in IBMX-supplemented medium, suggesting that STAT3 activation is sufficient for stimulating the continuation of meiosis. Using Stattic, a specific STAT3 inhibitor, we confirmed that GVBD involves STAT3 activation in Obox4-silenced oocytes. Based on these findings, we concluded that i) Obox4 is an important upstream regulator of MPF/MAPK and STAT3 signaling, and ii) Obox4 is a key regulator of the GV arrest mechanism in oocytes.

  1. Icariside II overcomes TRAIL resistance of melanoma cells through ROS-mediated downregulation of STAT3/cFLIP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiuqiong; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Li, Ting; Su, Tao; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising antitumor agent. However, many melanoma cells show weak responses to TRAIL. Here, we investigated whether Icariside II (IS), an active component of Herba Epimedii, could potentiate antitumor effects of TRAIL in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were treated with IS and/or TRAIL and cell death, apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. We showed that IS promoted TRAIL-induced cell death and apoptosis in A375 melanoma cells. Mechanistically, IS reduced the expression levels of cFLIP in a phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3)-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of STAT3 abolished IS-induced cFLIP down-regulation and the associated potentiation of TRAIL-mediated cell death. Moreover, IS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production preceded down-regulation of pSTAT3/cFLIP via activating AKT, and the consequent sensitization of cells to TRAIL. We also found that IS treatment down-regulated cFLIP via ROS-mediated NF-κB pathway. In addition, IS converted TRAIL-resistant melanoma MeWo and SK-MEL-28 cells into TRAIL-sensitive cells. Taken together, our results indicated that IS potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated down-regulation of STAT3/cFLIP signaling. PMID:27418138

  2. STAT3 governs hyporesponsiveness and granzyme B-dependent suppressive capacity in human CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Klaus G.; Neunkirchner, Alina; Wojta-Stremayr, Daniela; Leitner, Judith; Steinberger, Peter; Pickl, Winfried F.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) integrates key signals of cell surface immune receptors, yet its precise role in cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells is not well-established. Current research has indicated T-helper cell 17–inducing roles but also tolerogenic roles. To address this issue, human T cells were transduced with the constitutively active STAT3 mutant STAT3C. Following stimulation, STAT3C+ T cells up-regulated IL-10 (4.1 ± 0.5-fold; P < 0.001) and granzyme B (2.5 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) secretion, combined with significantly reduced IFN-γ (35 ± 5%), IL-2 (57 ± 4%), TNF-α (64 ± 8%), and IL-13 (89 ± 3%) secretion (P < 0.001). CD3/CD2- or CD3/CD28-activated STAT3C+ T cells revealed reduced proliferation (53.4 ± 23.5% and 70.5 ± 10.4%, respectively), which was independent of IL-10 production and significantly suppressed effector T cell proliferation by 68.7 ± 10.6% and 65.9 ± 2.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Phenotypically, STAT3C-transgenic CD4+ T cells resembled effector T cells regarding expression of T regulatory cell markers, but up-regulated granzyme B expression levels by 2.4-fold (P < 0.05). Suppression was cell contact dependent and mediated by granzyme B-induced cell death, but was independent of IL-10 and TGF-β. Notably, peripheral blood CD4+CD45RA−lymphocyte activation gene-3+CD49+ type 1 regulatory T cells revealed activation-induced hyperphosphorylation of STAT3. In agreement, pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activation partially reverted hyporesponsiveness of peripheral type 1 regulatory T cells (increasing their division index from 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.89 ± 0.04; P < 0.01). These observations indicate a clear-cut relation between activation of STAT3 and the acquisition of a tolerogenic program, which is also used by peripheral blood type 1 regulatory T cells.—Schmetterer, K. G., Neunkirchner, A., Wojta-Stremayr, D., Leitner, J., Steinberger, P., Pickl, W. F. STAT3 governs hyporesponsiveness and

  3. Upregulation of MEK5 by Stat3 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Hao; Song, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen extracellular-signal-regulated kinase kinase 5 (MEK5) plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The aberrant expression of MEK5 has been reported in various malignant diseases including cancers of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal and brain. However, the function and regulation of MEK5 signaling pathway are ambiguous and remain elusive with respect to its oncogenic roles in various cancers, especially in the regulation of the initiation and progression of cancer invasion and metastasis. Ectopic expression of MEK5 or knockdown of MEK5 by shRNA with in vitro cell based models demonstrated the role of MEK5 in regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Here, we show that MEK5 upregulated by Stat3 promotes breast cancer cell invasion through EMT. Further study demonstrated that Stat3 could bind to promoter region of MEK5 and enhanced MEK5 transcription and expression. In addition, the phosphorylation of MEK5 significantly increased in breast cancer cells corresponding to metastatic capability of breast cancer cells. The depletion of MEK5 by shRNA significantly decreased breast cancer invasion. Ectopic expression of MEK5 could confer non-invasive breast cancer cells to become invasion capable cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Erk5, a MEK5-regulated downstream kinase, was also upregulated consistent with the increased level of active MEK5. Our studies provide insights into a molecular mechanism by which MEK5 transcriptionally upregulated by Stat3 augments breast cancer cell EMT, which subsequently enhances cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This finding may suggest that Stat3 and MEK5/Erk5 pathways could be an effective therapeutic target for inhibition of breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

  4. Role of Stat3 and ErbB2 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    possibility that the cell density-mediated, Stat3 activation might occur through secretion of soluble factors, a quantitative RT-PCR array for mRNA...September, 2012) and will now be expanded to a larger array that will include Rac, cadherin-11, cav1 and survivin. 10 Key Research...would be spared. . 14 Table I qRT-PCR array for cytokines secreted by densely-growing cells Gene Name Gene Symbol Fold Up- or Down- Regulation

  5. Piperlongumine Blocks JAK2-STAT3 to Inhibit Collagen-Induced Platelet Reactivity Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species†

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hengjie; Houck, Katie L.; Tian, Ye; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Hull, Ken; Zhou, Zhou; Zhou, Mingzhao; Wu, Xiaoping; Tweardy, David J.; Romo, Daniel; Fu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jianning; Dong, Jing-fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Piperlongumine (PL) is a compound isolated from the piper longum plant. It possesses anti-cancer activities through blocking the transcription factor STAT3 and by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer, but not normal cells. It also inhibits platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Objective We conducted in vitro experiments to test the hypothesis that PL regulates a non-transcriptional activity of STAT3 to specifically reduce the reactivity of human platelets to collagen. Results PL dose-dependently blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation, calcium influx, CD62p expression and thrombus formation on collagen with a maximal inhibition at 100 μM. It reduced platelet microvesiculation induced by collagen. PL blocked the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 in collagen-stimulated platelets. This inhibitory effect was significantly reduced in platelets pretreated with a STAT3 inhibitor. Although PL induced ROS production in platelets; quenching ROS using excessive reducing agents: 20 μM GSH and 0.5 mM L-Cysteine, did not block the inhibitory effects. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor Apocynin also had no effect. Conclusions PL inhibited collagen-induced platelet reactivity by targeting the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. We also provide experimental evidence that PL and collagen induce different oxidants that have differential effects on platelets. Studying these differential effects may uncover new mechanisms of regulating platelet functions by oxidants in redox signals. PMID:26645674

  6. IL-15 Activates the Jak3/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to Mediate Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Krolopp, James E; Thornton, Shantaé M; Abbott, Marcia J

    2016-01-01

    Myokines are specialized cytokines that are secreted from skeletal muscle (SKM) in response to metabolic stimuli, such as exercise. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine with potential to reduce obesity and increase lean mass through induction of metabolic processes. It has been previously shown that IL-15 acts to increase glucose uptake in SKM cells. However, the downstream signals orchestrating the link between IL-15 signaling and glucose uptake have not been fully explored. Here we employed the mouse SKM C2C12 cell line to examine potential downstream targets of IL-15-induced alterations in glucose uptake. Following differentiation, C2C12 cells were treated overnight with 100 ng/ml of IL-15. Activation of factors associated with glucose metabolism (Akt and AMPK) and known downstream targets of IL-15 (Jak1, Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5) were assessed with IL-15 stimulation. IL-15 stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. IL-15 treatment had no effect on phospho-Akt, phospho-Akt substrates, phospho-AMPK, phospho-Jak1, or phospho-STAT5. However, with IL-15, phospho-Jak3 and phospho-STAT3 levels were increased along with increased interaction of Jak3 and STAT3. Additionally, IL-15 induced a translocation of phospho-STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. We have evidence that a mediator of glucose uptake, HIF1α, expression was dependent on IL-15 induced STAT3 activation. Finally, upon inhibition of STAT3 the positive effects of IL-15 on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abolished. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel signaling pathway for IL-15 acting through Jak3/STAT3 to regulate glucose metabolism.

  7. TLR9-Targeted STAT3 Silencing Abrogates Immunosuppressive Activity of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Dewan M. S.; Pal, Sumanta K.; Moreira, Dayson; Duttagupta, Priyanka; Zhang, Qifang; Won, Haejung; Jones, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Forman, Stephen; Kortylewski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in immunotherapy of advanced human cancers underscored the need to address and eliminate tumor immune evasion. The myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are important inhibitors of T cell responses in solid tumors, such as prostate cancers. However, targeting MDSCs proved challenging due to their phenotypic heterogeneity. Experimental Design Myeloid cell populations were evaluated using flow cytometry on blood samples, functional assays and immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent stainings on tumor/tumor-draining lymph node specimens from healthy subjects, localized and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Results Here, we identify a population of Lin−CD15HICD33LO granulocytic MDSCs that accumulate in patients’ circulation during prostate cancer progression from localized to metastatic disease. The prostate cancer-associated MDSCs potently inhibit autologous CD8+ T cells proliferation and production of IFNγ and Granzyme-B. The circulating MDSCs have high levels of activated STAT3, which is a central immune checkpoint regulator. The granulocytic pSTAT3+ cells are also detectable in patients’ prostate tissues. We previously generated an original strategy to silence genes specifically in Toll-like Receptor-9 (TLR9) positive myeloid cells using CpG-siRNA conjugates. We demonstrate that human granulocytic MDSCs express TLR9 and rapidly internalize naked CpG-STAT3siRNA thereby silencing STAT3 expression. STAT3 blocking abrogates immunosuppressive effects of patients-derived MDSCs on effector CD8+ T cells. These effects depended on reduced expression and enzymatic activity of Arginase-1, a downstream STAT3 target gene and a potent T cell inhibitor. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate the accumulation of granulocytic MDSCs with prostate cancer progression and the feasibility of using TLR9-targeted STAT3siRNA delivery strategy to alleviate MDSC-mediated immunosuppression. PMID:25967142

  8. IL-15 Activates the Jak3/STAT3 Signaling Pathway to Mediate Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krolopp, James E.; Thornton, Shantaé M.; Abbott, Marcia J.

    2016-01-01

    Myokines are specialized cytokines that are secreted from skeletal muscle (SKM) in response to metabolic stimuli, such as exercise. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine with potential to reduce obesity and increase lean mass through induction of metabolic processes. It has been previously shown that IL-15 acts to increase glucose uptake in SKM cells. However, the downstream signals orchestrating the link between IL-15 signaling and glucose uptake have not been fully explored. Here we employed the mouse SKM C2C12 cell line to examine potential downstream targets of IL-15-induced alterations in glucose uptake. Following differentiation, C2C12 cells were treated overnight with 100 ng/ml of IL-15. Activation of factors associated with glucose metabolism (Akt and AMPK) and known downstream targets of IL-15 (Jak1, Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5) were assessed with IL-15 stimulation. IL-15 stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. IL-15 treatment had no effect on phospho-Akt, phospho-Akt substrates, phospho-AMPK, phospho-Jak1, or phospho-STAT5. However, with IL-15, phospho-Jak3 and phospho-STAT3 levels were increased along with increased interaction of Jak3 and STAT3. Additionally, IL-15 induced a translocation of phospho-STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. We have evidence that a mediator of glucose uptake, HIF1α, expression was dependent on IL-15 induced STAT3 activation. Finally, upon inhibition of STAT3 the positive effects of IL-15 on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were abolished. Taken together, we provide evidence for a novel signaling pathway for IL-15 acting through Jak3/STAT3 to regulate glucose metabolism. PMID:28066259

  9. Stat3 is involved in control of MASP2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberger, Claudia; Hanson, Steven; Klingenhoff, Andreas; Oesterle, Daniela; Frankenberger, Marion; Endo, Yuichi; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Stover, Cordula

    2007-12-28

    Little is known about determinants regulating expression of Mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the effector component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the MASP2 promoter regions in human, mouse, and rat, revealed conservation of two putative Stat binding sites, termed StatA and StatB. Site directed mutagenesis specific for these sites was performed. Transcription activity was decreased 5-fold when StatB site was mutated in the wildtype reporter gene construct. Gel retardation and competition assays demonstrated that proteins contained in the nuclear extract prepared from HepG2 specifically bound double-stranded StatB oligonucleotides. Supershift analysis revealed Stat3 to be the major specific binding protein. We conclude that Stat3 binding is important for MASP2 promoter activity.

  10. FOXM1 and STAT3 interaction confers radioresistance in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maachani, Uday B.; Shankavaram, Uma; Kramp, Tamalee; Tofilon, Philip J.; Camphausen, Kevin; Tandle, Anita T.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we observed high expression of Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) in irradiated GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo. Recent evidence of FOXM1 as a master regulator of metastasis and its important role in maintaining neural, progenitor, and GBM stem cells, intrigued us to validate it as a radiosensitizing target. Here we show that FOXM1 inhibition radiosensitizes GBM cells by abrogating genes associated with cell cycle progression and DNA repair, suggesting its role in cellular response to radiation. Further, we demonstrate that radiation induced stimulation of FOXM1 expression is dependent on STAT3 activation. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays revealed physical interaction of FOXM1 with phosphorylated STAT3 under radiation treatment. In conclusion, we hypothesize that FOXM1 regulates radioresistance via STAT3 in GBM cells. We also, show GBM patients with high FOXM1 expression have poor prognosis. Collectively our observations might open novel opportunities for targeting FOXM1 for effective GBM therapy. PMID:27764801

  11. Dual inhibition of Janus and Src family kinases by novel indirubin derivative blocks constitutively-activated Stat3 signaling associated with apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Wen, Wei; Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Xinlai; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Li, Hongzhi; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Jove, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Constitutively-activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 signaling plays a crucial role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Activated JAK/Stat3 or Src/Stat3 has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapy. However, prolonged inhibition of Src family kinases (SFKs) leads to reactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcript 3 (Stat3) and tumor cell survival through altered JAK/Stat3 interaction. This compensatory feedback suggests that dual inhibition of Janus kinases (JAKs) and SFKs might be a promising strategy for targeting downstream Stat3 signaling in the clinic. In this study, we identify that the natural product derivative E738 is a novel dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs. The IC(50) values of E738 against recombinant JAKs and SFKs in vitro are in the ranges of 0.7-74.1 nM and 10.7-263.9 nM, respectively. We observed that phosphorylation of both Jak2 and Src was substantially inhibited in the submicromolar range by E738 in cultured human pancreatic tumor cells, followed by blockade of downstream Stat3 activation. E738 down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and survivin, associated with induction of apoptosis. Computational models and molecular dynamics simulations of E738/Tyk2 or E738/Src in silico suggest that E738 inhibits both tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) and Src as an ATP-competitive ligand. Moreover, the planar E738 molecule demonstrates a strong binding affinity in the compact ATP-binding site of Tyk2. In sum, E738 is the first dual inhibitor of JAKs and SFKs, followed by inhibition of Stat3 signaling. Thus, according to in vitro experiments, E738 is a promising new therapeutic agent for human pancreatic cancer treatment by blocking both oncogenic pathways simultaneously.

  12. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling blocks obesity-induced mammary hyperplasia in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2017-01-01

    Compelling epidemiologic evidence indicates that obesity is a risk factor for human cancers, including breast. However, molecular mechanisms by which obesity could contribute to the development of breast cancer remain unclear. To understand the impact of obesity on breast cancer development, we used a mutant mouse that expresses a mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted as PV) with haplodeficiency of the Pten gene (ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice). We previously showed that adult nulliparous female ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice developed extensive mammary hyperplasia and breast tumors. In this study, we induced obesity in ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice by feeding them a high fat diet (HFD). We found HFD exacerbated the extent of mammary hyperplasia in ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice. HFD elevated serum leptin levels but had no effect on the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and estrogens. Molecular analysis showed that the obesity-induced hyperplasia was mediated by the leptin/leptin receptor-JAK1-STAT3 pathway to increase key cell cycle regulators to stimulate mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Activated STAT3 signaling led to altered expression in the key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) to augment invasiveness and migration of mammary proliferating epithelial cells. Moreover, treatment of HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice with a STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, markedly reversed the obesity-induced mammary hyperplasia and reduced EMT signals to lessen cell invasiveness and migration. Our studies not only elucidated how obesity could contribute to mammary hyperplasia at the molecular level, but also, importantly, demonstrated that inhibition of the STAT3 activity could be a novel treatment strategy for obesity-induced breast cancer progression.

  13. 2-Guanidinoquinazolines as new inhibitors of the STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    LaPorte, Matthew G.; da Paz Lima, Dimas José; Zhang, Feng; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Camarco, Daniel; Hua, Yun; Johnston, Paul A.; Lazo, John S.; Resnick, Lynn O.; Wipf, Peter; Huryn, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and SAR investigation of 2-guanidinoquinazolines, initially identified in a high content screen for selective STAT3 pathway inhibitors, led to a more potent analog (11c) that demonstrated improved anti-proliferative activity against a panel of HNSCC cell lines. PMID:25288188

  14. Constitutive Phosphorylation of STAT3 by the CK2-BLNK-CD5 Complex.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Jain, Preetesh; Veletic, Ivo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Bose, Prithviraj; Thompson, Philip; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2017-01-27

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727 and plays a role in the pathobiology of CLL. However, what induces constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 is currently unknown. Mass spectrometry was used to identify casein kinase 2 (CK2), a serine/threonine kinase that co-immunoprecipitated with serine phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3). Furthermore, activated CK2 incubated with recombinant STAT3 induced phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine 727. Although STAT3 and CK2 are present in normal B- and T-cells, STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated in these cells. Further study found that CD5 and BLNK co-expressed in CLL, but not in normal B- or T-cells, are required for STAT3 phosphorylation. To elucidate the relationship of CD5 and BLNK to CK2 and STAT3, STAT3 was immunoprecipitated from CLL cells and CK2, CD5, and BLNK were detected in the immunoprecipitate. Conversely, STAT3, CD5, and BLNK were in the immunoprecipitate of CLL cells immunoprecipitated with CK2 antibodies. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of CD5 or BLNK, or treatment with CD5-neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the levels of serine pSTAT3 in CLL cells. Finally, confocal microscopy determined that CD5 is cell membrane bound and fractionation studies revealed that the CK2/CD5/BLNK/STAT3 complex remains in the cytoplasm, whereas serine pSTAT3 is shuttled to the nucleus.

  15. Targeting oxidative stress in the hypothalamus: the effect of transcription factor STAT3 knockdown on endogenous antioxidants-mediated appetite control.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dong-Yih; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that the redox sensing system in the hypothalamus participates in fuel metabolism and that endogenous antioxidants contribute to the regulation of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an anorectic drug-induced appetite suppression. We explored whether the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is involved in PPA's action. Rats were given PPA once a day for 4 days. Changes in endogenous antioxidants, Janus kinase-2 (JAK2), STAT3, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), levels during PPA treatment were assessed and compared. Feeding, body weight, and NPY decreased with the biggest reduction on Day 2 during PPA treatment. Antioxidants, JAK2, pSTAT3, POMC expression, and STAT3/DNA-binding activity increased and were expressed in a pattern opposite to NPY expression. Moreover, cerebral STAT3 knockdown modified PPA-induced anorexia and antioxidants, POMC, and NPY expression. superoxide dismutase immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increased and the inhibition of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production reversed antioxidants, STAT3, POMC, and NPY expression. It is suggested that hypothalamic JAK2-STAT3 participates in regulating antioxidants-mediated appetite control. This result may further the understanding of ROS-involved appetite control.

  16. MIR506 induces autophagy-related cell death in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting the STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longhao; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David; Lu, Li; Gao, Chao; Tian, Weijun; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kang, Ya'an; Fleming, Jason B; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-03

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most aggressive and lethal cancer. The role of autophagy in the pathobiology of PDAC is intricate, with opposing functions manifested in different cellular contexts. MIR506 functions as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types through the regulation of multiple pathways. In this study, we hypothesized that MIR506 exerted a tumor suppression function in PDAC by inducing autophagy-related cell death. Our results provided evidence that downregulation of MIR506 expression was associated with disease progression in human PDAC. MIR506 triggered autophagic flux in PDAC cells, which led to autophagy-related cell death through direct targeting of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)-BCL2-BECN1 axis. Silencing and inhibiting STAT3 recapitulated the effects of MIR506, whereas forced expression of STAT3 abrogated the effects of MIR506. We propose that the apoptosis-inhibitory protein BCL2, which also inhibits induction of autophagy by blocking BECN1, was inhibited by MIR506 through targeting STAT3, thus augmenting BECN1 and promoting autophagy-related cell death. Silencing BECN1 and overexpression of BCL2 abrogated the effects of MIR506. These findings expand the known mechanisms of MIR506-mediated tumor suppression to activation of autophagy-related cell death and suggest a strategy for using MIR506 as an anti-STAT3 approach to PDAC treatment.

  17. STAT3 signal that mediates the neural plasticity is involved in willed-movement training in focal ischemic rats*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing-ping; Shen, Qin; Wu, Li-xiang; Feng, Xiang-ling; Liu, Hui; Wu, Bei; Huang, Xiao-song; Wang, Gai-qing; Li, Zhong-hao; Liu, Zun-jing

    2016-01-01

    Willed-movement training has been demonstrated to be a promising approach to increase motor performance and neural plasticity in ischemic rats. However, little is known regarding the molecular signals that are involved in neural plasticity following willed-movement training. To investigate the potential signals related to neural plasticity following willed-movement training, littermate rats were randomly assigned into three groups: middle cerebral artery occlusion, environmental modification, and willed-movement training. The infarct volume was measured 18 d after occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the changes in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA and protein, respectively. A chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to investigate whether STAT3 bound to plasticity-related genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1). In this study, we demonstrated that STAT3 mRNA and protein were markedly increased following 15-d willed-movement training in the ischemic hemispheres of the treated rats. STAT3 bound to BDNF, PICK1, and synaptophysin promoters in the neocortical cells of rats. These data suggest that the increased STAT3 levels after willed-movement training might play critical roles in the neural plasticity by directly regulating plasticity-related genes. PMID:27381726

  18. Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

  19. STAT-3 inhibitors: state of the art and new horizons for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, A; Di Giovanni, C; Novellino, E

    2011-01-01

    The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) include a class of cytoplasmic signaling proteins whose role in the regulation of cell growth and survival is mediated by phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue within the STAT protein. This occurs in response to cytokines and growth factors modulating the expression of specific target genes. In particular, phosphorylation induces STAT:STAT dimer formation between two monomers, via reciprocal phosphoTyr (pTyr)-SH2 domain interactions. To date, seven members of the STAT family, all with different roles, have been identified in mammals. After dimerization, phosphorylated STATs enter the nucleus and, working co-ordinately with other transcriptional co-activators and transcription factors, induce increased transcriptional initiation. In healthy human and animal cells, ligand-dependent activation of STATs is a transient process, lasting for several minutes to several hours. In contrast, in many cancerous cell lines and tumors, where growth factor dysregulation is frequently at the heart of cellular transformation, the STAT proteins (in particular STAT1, 3 and 5) are persistently tyrosine-phosphorylated or activated; abnormal levels of STAT3 activation have been observed in breast, ovarian, prostate, hematological and head and neck cancer cell lines. Thus, in this review, we examine the most important classes of agents designed to disrupt STAT3 signaling, with particular regard to STAT3 dimerization inhibitors, which could play a significant role in the future of cancer and adjuvant cancer therapies.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells promote osteosarcoma cell survival and drug resistance through activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shen; Wang, Lei; Fan, Qiming; Hao, Yongqiang; Fan, Cunyi; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the development of drug resistant tumor cells. In this study, we tried to determine whether the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the tumor microenvironment contribute to the increased chemoresistance of osteosarcoma. We found that exposure of Saos-2 and U2-OS cells to MSCs conditioned medium (CM) increased the viable cells in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of doxorubicin or cisplatin. Meanwhile, the MSC CM-associated pro-proliferative effects were accompanied by reduced caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin V binding. We confirmed that STAT3 activation by IL-6 regulates MSCs-induced chemoresistance. Blockade of this signal re-sensitized drug-resistant Saos-2 cells to drug treatment. Using a osteosarcoma mouse model with co-injection of MSCs with Saos-2cells, we found that inhibition of STAT3 prolonged the survival time of tumor bearing mice by suppressing tumor growth and increasing the sensitivity of tumor cells to doxorubicin. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of p-STAT3, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) was associated with high chemotherapy resistance in clinical osteosarcoma samples. Collectively, our findings suggest that MSCs within the tumor microenvironment may represent a new target to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27340780

  1. Nutritional control of IL-23/Th17-mediated autoimmune disease through HO-1/STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Jürgen; Holstein, Julia; Glocova, Ivana; Seidel, Ursula; Geisel, Julia; Kanno, Toshio; Kumagai, Jin; Mato, Naoko; Sudowe, Stephan; Widmaier, Katja; Sinnberg, Tobias; Yazdi, Amir S.; Eberle, Franziska C.; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori; Röcken, Martin; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional curcumin (CUR) is beneficial in cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying this food-mediated silencing of inflammatory immune responses are poorly understood. By investigating antigen-specific immune responses we found that dietary CUR impairs the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells in vivo during encephalomyelitis and instead promoted Th2 cells. In contrast, feeding CUR had no inhibitory effect on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Mechanistically, we found that CUR induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in dendritic cells (DC) with enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation and suppressed expression of Il12b and Il23a. On the molecular level CUR readily induced NRF2-sensitive heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA and protein in LPS-activated DC. HO-1 enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, which enriched to Il12b and Il23a loci and negatively regulated their transcription. These findings demonstrate the underlying mechanism through which a nutritional can interfere with the immune response. CUR silences IL-23/Th17-mediated pathology by enhancing HO-1/STAT3 interaction in DC. PMID:28290522

  2. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fei; Xu, Min; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Yu, Jiang; Xu, Weiguo; Moussalli, Micheline J.; Elias, Elias; Li, Haiyan S.; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Shureiqi, Imad

    2015-01-01

    The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate–induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.—Mao, F., Xu, M., Zuo, X., Yu, J., Xu, W., Moussalli, M. J., Elias, E., Li, H. S., Watowich, S. S., Shureiqi, I. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:25713055

  3. Induction of gp130-related cytokines and activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of neurodegeneration: key signaling pathway for astrogliosis in vivo?

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Benkovic, Stanley A; Hebert, Meleik A; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2004-05-07

    Reactive gliosis is a hallmark of disease-, trauma-, and chemical-induced damage to the central nervous system. The signaling pathways associated with this response to neural injury remain to be elucidated, but recent evidence implicates the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Here, we used the known dopaminergic neurotoxicant, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), to selectively damage striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals and elicit a glial response. We then analyzed changes in gene expression and protein phosphorylation, in vivo, to identify ligands and mediators of the JAK-STAT pathway that accompany glial activation. Administration of MPTP caused rapid tyrosine (Tyr-705) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in striatal astrocytes, prior to the induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA and protein. Pharmacological protection of dopaminergic nerve terminals with nomifensine abolished MPTP-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT3 and prevented induction of astrogliosis. Among the Janus kinase family of tyrosine kinases, only JAK2 was associated with the phosphorylation of STAT3 after MPTP and, inhibition of JAK2 by AG490, in vivo, attenuated both the phosphorylation of STAT3 and induction of GFAP. The p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; ERK1/2) also was activated by MPTP, but was not associated with activation of STAT3, because serine (Ser-727) was not phosphorylated. The mRNA for ligands of the gp130-JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway, interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M were elevated prior to activation of STAT3 and induction of astrogliosis; neuroprotection with nomifensine blocked these effects of MPTP. Taken together, our results suggest that the gp130-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway may play a key role in the induction of astrogliosis.

  4. Obatoclax analog SC-2001 inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through enhancing SHP-1 expression and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Su, Jung-Chen; Ni, Mei-Huei; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Duen-Shian; Tai, Wei-Tien; Kao, Yuan-Ping; Hung, Man-Hsin; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2014-07-01

    Interfering oncogenic STAT3 signaling is a promising anti-cancer strategy. We examined the efficacy and drug mechanism of an obatoclax analog SC-2001, a novel STAT3 inhibitor, in human breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Apoptosis was examined by both flow cytometry and western blot. Signaling pathways were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of SC-2001 was tested in xenograft nude mice. SC-2001 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in breast cancer cells. STAT3-regulated proteins, including Mcl-1, survivin, and cyclin D1, were repressed by SC-2001. Over-expression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected cells from SC-2001-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Furthermore, the enhanced SHP-1 expression, in conjunction with increased SHP-1 phosphatase activity, was mediated by upregulated transcription by RFX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SC-2001 increased the binding capacity of RFX-1 to the SHP-1 promoter. Knockdown of either RFX-1 or SHP-1 reduced SC-2001-induced apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of RFX-1 increased SHP-1 expression and enhanced the apoptotic effect of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 suppressed tumor growth in association with enhanced RFX-1 and SHP-1 expression and p-STAT3 downregulation in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. SC-2001 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, an effect that was mediated by RFX-1 upregulated SHP-1 expression and SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation. Our study indicates targeting STAT3 signaling pathway may be a useful approach for the development of targeted agents for anti-breast cancer.

  5. SC-2001 Overcomes STAT3-mediated Sorafenib Resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jung-Chen; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Tai, Wei-Tien; Li, Yong-Shi; Chen, I-Ting; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Shiau, Chung-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy. PMID:25047655

  6. A novel synthetic Asiatic acid derivative induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and mobility of gastric cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Jing, Yue; Cao, Lingsen; Gong, Changchang; Gong, Zhunan; Cao, Xiangrong

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the transcription factor, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), has been linked to the proliferation and migration of a variety of human cancer cells. These actions occur via the upregulation or downregulation of cell survival and tumor suppressor genes, respectively. Importantly, agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have the potential for use in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. In this study, an Asiatic acid (AA) derivative, N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), is reported to dose dependently suppress constitutive STAT3 activation in gastric cancer cells. This inhibition was mediated by blockade of Janus-activated kinase 2. Additionally, AA-PMe regulated the expression of STAT3-modulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Myc, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Finally, transfection with both a STAT3 mimic and an inhibitor reversed the AA-PMe-driven modulation of STAT3 downstream gene products. Overall, these results suggest that AA-PMe is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and has the potential for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:28053540

  7. STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spitzner, Melanie; Ebner, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Wienands, Jürgen; Grade, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology. PMID:25268165

  8. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  9. IL-17 induces EMT via Stat3 in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Han, Jieli; Fan, Jinshuo; Duan, Limin; Guo, Mengfei; Lv, Zhilei; Hu, Guorong; Chen, Lian; Wu, Feng; Tao, Xiaonan; Xu, Juanjuan; Jin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a vital role in lung inflammatory diseases, including lung cancer. However, the role and mechanism of action of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 in EMT in lung adenocarcinoma remain unresolved. In our study, we discovered that the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 was positively correlated with IL-17 expression, while E-cadherin expression was negatively correlated with IL-17 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that IL-17 promoted EMT in A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in vitro by upregulating N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 expression and downregulating E-cadherin expression. Stat3 was activated in IL-17-treated A549 and LLC cells, and Stat3 inhibition or siRNA knockdown notably reduced IL-17-induced EMT in A549 and LLC cells. Thus, IL-17 promotes EMT in lung adenocarcinoma via Stat3 signaling; these observations suggest that targeting IL-17 and EMT are potential novel therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:27186414

  10. STAT3 phosphorylation in injured axons before sensory and motor neuron nuclei: potential role for STAT3 as a retrograde signaling transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy; Neitzel, Karen L; Devlin, Brenda K; MacLennan, A John

    2004-07-05

    STAT3 is a latent transcription factor that is activated by plasma membrane growth factor receptor complexes. Conditional gene disruption data indicate that it contributes to the survival of cranial motor neurons after peripheral nerve lesion. In agreement, levels of activated STAT3 (Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3) have been shown to increase in the nuclei of adult cranial motor neurons during their regeneration after the same injury. The data presented here demonstrate that STAT3 is similarly but not identically affected in sciatic motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. In addition, we find that sensory neuron nuclei also display an analogous increase in activated STAT3, thereby supporting a role for STAT3 in the survival and regeneration of these cells. Most interesting, the present data indicate that peripheral nerve lesion leads to a very rapid activation of STAT3 in axons at the lesion site. This response increases during the first 24 hours after injury and extends back to the motor and sensory neurons such that phospho-STAT3-immunoreactive axons are first detected in the dorsal root ganglia and ventral spinal cord at the same postlesion time intervals at which the activated STAT3 is first detected in the neuronal nuclei. Together these data raise the possibility that axonal STAT3, activated at the injury site, acts as a retrograde signaling transcription factor, which promotes the survival and regeneration of both sensory and motor neurons.

  11. Irisin reverses platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype modulation through STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Haibo; Xu, Jia; Lv, Nan; Zhang, Yuzhu; Wu, Fei; Li, Huanjie; Shao, Lei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Fang; Tang, Dongqi; Fang, Xu

    2016-10-14

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotype modulation toward a synthetic phenotype is the main cause of cardiovascular disease. As a newly discovered myokine, Irisin is thought to be a promising candidate for the treatment of metabolic disturbances, as well as cardiovascular disease. However, no evidence has been shown for the direct effect of Irisin on VSMCs phenotype modulation and its underling mechanisms. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Irisin on VSMCs phenotype modulation and the mechanisms involved. In the present study, it was found that Irisin restored the PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs phenotype modulation which exhibited down-regulation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) expression and up-regulation of matrix synthesis related marker expression, as well as proliferative phenotype. Moreover, our research demonstrated that Irisin further activated STAT3 signaling pathways. Finally, by applying an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, we revealed the roles of STAT3 in the PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs phenotype modulation when they were treated with Irisin. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Irisin may play a crucial role in regulating VSMCs phenotype modulation via the STAT3 signaling pathway.

  12. Targeted disruption of TC-PTP in the proliferative compartment augments STAT3 and AKT signaling and skin tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunseung; Kim, Mihwa; Baek, Minwoo; Morales, Liza D.; Jang, Ik-Soon; Slaga, Thomas J.; DiGiovanni, John; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is a vital mechanism that contributes to skin carcinogenesis. It is regulated by the counter-activities of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here, we report the critical role of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP), encoded by Ptpn2, in chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis via the negative regulation of STAT3 and AKT signaling. Using epidermal specific TC-PTP knockout (K14Cre.Ptpn2fl/fl) mice, we demonstrate loss of TC-PTP led to a desensitization to tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced apoptosis both in vivo epidermis and in vitro keratinocytes. TC-PTP deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in epidermal thickness and hyperproliferation following exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Western blot analysis showed that both phosphorylated STAT3 and phosphorylated AKT expressions were significantly increased in epidermis of TC-PTP-deficient mice compared to control mice following TPA treatment. Inhibition of STAT3 or AKT reversed the effects of TC-PTP deficiency on apoptosis and proliferation. Finally, TC-PTP knockout mice showed a shortened latency of tumorigenesis and significantly increased numbers of tumors during two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Our findings reveal that TC-PTP has potential as a novel target for the prevention of skin cancer through its role in the regulation of STAT3 and AKT signaling. PMID:28322331

  13. Design, Synthesis and in vitro Characterization of Novel Hybrid Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of STAT3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Vijay M.; Yue, Peibin; Fletcher, Steven; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Luu, Diana P.; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Turkson, James; Gunning, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein signaling pathways has been extensively implicated in human cancers. Given STAT3’s prominent dysregulatory role in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis, there has been a significant effort to discover STAT3-specific inhibitors as chemical probes for defining the aberrant STAT3-mediated molecular events that support the malignant phenotype. To identify novel, STAT3-selective inhibitors suitable for interrogating STAT3 signaling in tumor cells, we explored the design of hybrid molecules by conjugating a known STAT3 inhibitory peptidomimetic, ISS610 to the high-affinity STAT3-binding peptide motif derived from the ILR/gp-130. Several hybrid molecules were examined in in vitro biophysical and biochemical studies for inhibitory potency against STAT3. Lead inhibitor 14aa was shown to strongly bind to STAT3 (KD = 900 nM), disrupt STAT3:phosphopeptide complexes (Ki = 5 μM) and suppress STAT3 activity in in vitro DNA-binding activity/ electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Moreover, lead STAT3 inhibitor 14aa induced a time-dependent inhibition of constitutive STAT3 activation in v-Src transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), with 80 % suppression of constitutively-active STAT3 at six hours following treatment of NIH3T3/v-Src. However, STAT3 activity recovered at 24 hours after treatment of cells, suggesting potential degradation of the compound. Results further showed a suppression of aberrant STAT3 activity in NIH3T3/v-Src by the treatment with compound 14aa-OH, which is the non-pTyr version of compound 14aa. The effect of compounds 14aa and 14aa-OH are accompanied by a moderate loss of cell viability. PMID:21216604

  14. CNTF protects neurons from hypoxic injury through the activation of STAT3pTyr705.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying Li; Gao, Guan Qun; Ma, Ning; Ye, Lin Lin; Zhang, Li Wei; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Zhuo Bo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays its neuroprotective role following hypoxic injury through the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Firstly, to determine whether CNTF exerts its effects via STAT3 following hypoxic injury, cultured neurons from the cerebral cortex of mice were prepared and a neuronal model of hypoxia was then established. The neurons exposed to hypoxia were then pre-treated with CNTF and transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting STAT3 (STAT3 siRNA) using polybrene, or with STAT3Tyr705 mutant or STAT3Ser727 mutant using an electroporation system. The survival, proliferation and neurite outgrowth of the neurons subjected to different treatments were also determined. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were employed to examine the expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3Tyr705 and p-STAT3Ser727 following treatment with CNTF and other treatments. Our results revealed that treatment with CNTF: i) protected neurons from hypoxic injury by promoting survival and neurite growth; ii) induced a significant increase in the levels of STAT3, STAT3pTyr705 and the STAT3pTyr705/STAT3 ratio; it did not however, significantly affect the levels of STAT3pSer727 in the hypoxic cerebral cortex neurons. Transfection of the hypoxic neurons pre-treated with CNTF with STAT3 siRNA or STAT3Tyr705 neutralized the protective effects exerted by CNTF. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that CNTF protects neurons from hypoxic injury through the activation of STAT3pTyr705.

  15. STAT3 upregulation in pituitary somatotroph adenomas induces growth hormone hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Jiao, Yonghui; Wang, Renzhi; Ren, Song-Guang; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2015-04-01

    Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas.

  16. Sorafenib inhibits endogenous and IL-6/S1P induced JAK2-STAT3 signaling in human neuroblastoma, associated with growth suppression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jove, Veronica; Buettner, Ralf; Xin, Hong; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Nam, Sangkil; Xu, Yibing; Ara, Tasnim; DeClerck, Yves A; Seeger, Robert; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in the pediatric population. Sorafenib (Nexavar), a multikinase inhibitor, blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in certain types of cancers. Here, we tested antitumor effects of sorafenib (≤ 10 µM) on four human neuroblastoma cell lines, CHLA255, CHLA171, CHLA90 and SK-N-AS. Sorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. Sorafenib inhibited phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) proteins at Tyr705 in these cells, associated with inhibition of phosphorylated JAK2, an upstream kinase that mediates STAT3 phosphorylation. Expression of a constitutively-activated STAT3 mutant (pSTAT3-C) partially blocked the antitumor effects of sorafenib on neuroblastoma cells. Sorafenib also inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 induced by IL-6 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a recently identified regulator for STAT3, in these tumor cells. Moreover, sorafenib downregulated phosphorylation of MAPK (p44/42) in neuroblastoma cells, consistent with inhibition of their upstream regulators MEK1/2. Sorafenib inhibited expression of cyclin E, cyclin D1/D2/D3, key regulators for cell cycle, and the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and survivin. Finally, sorafenib suppressed the growth of human neuroblastoma cells in a mouse xenograft model. Taken together, these findings suggest the potential use of sorafenib for the treatment of pediatric neuroblastomas.

  17. New insights into the Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome-related haematological disorder: hyper-activation of mTOR and STAT3 in leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bezzerri, Valentino; Vella, Antonio; Calcaterra, Elisa; Finotti, Alessia; Gasparello, Jessica; Gambari, Roberto; Assael, Baroukh Maurice; Cipolli, Marco; Sorio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited disease caused by mutations of a gene encoding for SBDS protein. So far little is known about SBDS exact function. SDS patients present several hematological disorders, including neutropenia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with increased risk of leukemic evolution. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie neutropenia, MDS and AML in SDS patients have been poorly investigated. STAT3 is a key regulator of several cellular processes including survival, differentiation and malignant transformation. Moreover, STAT3 has been reported to regulate neutrophil granulogenesis and to induce several kinds of leukemia and lymphoma. STAT3 activation is known to be regulated by mTOR, which in turn plays an important role in cellular growth and tumorigenesis. Here we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that both EBV-immortalized B cells and primary leukocytes obtained from SDS patients present a constitutive hyper-activation of mTOR and STAT3 pathways. Interestingly, loss of SBDS expression is associated with this process. Importantly, rapamycin, a well-known mTOR inhibitor, is able to reduce STAT3 phosphorylation to basal levels in our experimental model. A novel therapeutic hypothesis targeting mTOR/STAT3 should represent a significant step forward into the SDS clinical practice. PMID:27658964

  18. Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3A and EBNA3C proteins both repress RBP-J kappa-EBNA2-activated transcription by inhibiting the binding of RBP-J kappa to DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Waltzer, L; Perricaudet, M; Sergeant, A; Manet, E

    1996-01-01

    Following infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the production of viral nuclear proteins EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, and EBNA3C and the viral membrane protein LMP1 is essential for the permanent proliferation of primary B lymphocytes to occur. Among these, the transcription factor EBNA2 is central to the immortalizing process, since it activates not only the transcription of all the EBNA proteins and LMP1, TP1, and TP2 but also certain cellular genes. EBNA2 is targeted to its DNA-responsive elements through direct interaction with the DNA-binding cellular repressor RBP-J kappa. In a transient-expression assay, the EBNA2-activated transcription was found to be downregulated by EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C. However, since it has been reported that EBNA3C, but not EBNA3A, directly contacts RBP-J kappa in vitro, these proteins appear to repress through different mechanisms. Here, we report for the first time that EBNA3A and EBNA3C both stably interact with RBP-J kappa and most probably repress EBNA2-activated transcription by destabilizing the binding of RBP-J kappa to DNA. PMID:8709211

  19. Stat3 orchestrates interaction between endothelial and tumor cells and inhibition of Stat3 suppresses brain metastasis of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsueh-Te; Xue, Jianfei; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Zhou, Aidong; Yang, Phillip; Conrad, Charles A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Priebe, Waldemar; Patterson, Cam; Sawaya, Raymond; Xie, Keping; Huang, Suyun

    2015-04-30

    Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. Our previous studies indicated that Stat3 plays an important role in brain metastasis. Here, we present evidence that Stat3 functions at the level of the microenvironment of brain metastases. Stat3 controlled constitutive and inducible VEGFR2 expression in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Stat3 by WP1066 decreased the incidence of brain metastases and increased survival in a preclinical model of breast cancer brain metastasis. WP1066 inhibited Stat3 activation in tumor-associated endothelial cells, reducing their infiltration and angiogenesis. WP1066 also inhibited breast cancer cell invasion. Our results indicate that WP1066 can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and brain metastasis mediated by Stat3 in endothelial and tumor cells.

  20. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  1. Repression of Smad3 by Stat3 and c-Ski/SnoN induces gefitinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yojiro; Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Bae, Eunjin; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Miyazawa, Keiji; Ohira, Tatsuo; Ikeda, Norihiko; Kuroda, Masahiko; Mamura, Mizuko

    2017-03-04

    Cancer-associated inflammation develops resistance to the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring oncogenic EGFR mutations. Stat3-mediated interleukin (IL)-6 signaling and Smad-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways play crucial regulatory roles in cancer-associated inflammation. However, mechanisms how these pathways regulate sensitivity and resistance to EGFR-TKI in NSCLCs remain largely undetermined. Here we show that signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 represses Smad3 in synergy with the potent negative regulators of TGF-β signaling, c-Ski and SnoN, whereby renders gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells resistant. We found that IL-6 signaling via phosphorylated Stat3 induced gefitinib resistance as repressing transcription of Smad3, whereas TGF-β enhanced gefitinib sensitivity as activating transcription of Smad3 in HCC827 cells with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation. Promoter analyses showed that Stat3 synergized with c-Ski/SnoN to repress Smad2/3/4-induced transcription of the Smad3 gene. Smad3 was found to be an apoptosis inducer, which upregulated pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3 and downregulated anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2. Our results suggest that derepression of Smad3 can be a therapeutic strategy to prevent gefitinib-resistance in NSCLCs with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation.

  2. Interleukin-6-Specific Activation of the C/EBPδ Gene in Hepatocytes Is Mediated by Stat3 and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Carrie A.; Sterneck, Esta; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ) has been implicated as a regulator of acute-phase response (APR) genes in hepatocytes. Its expression increases dramatically in liver during the APR and can be induced in hepatic cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6), an acute-phase mediator that activates transcription of many APR genes. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which C/EBPδ expression is regulated by IL-6 in hepatoma cells. C/EBPδ promoter sequences to −125 bp are sufficient for IL-6 inducibility of a reporter gene and include an APR element (APRE) that is essential for IL-6 responsiveness. DNA binding experiments and transactivation assays demonstrate that Stat3, but not Stat1, interacts with this APRE. Two Sp1 sites, one of which is adjacent to the APRE, are required for IL-6 induction and transactivation by Stat3. Thus, Stat3 and Sp1 function cooperatively to activate the C/EBPδ promoter. Replacement of the APRE with Stat binding elements (SBEs) from the ICAM-1 or C/EBPβ promoter, both of which recognize both Stat1 and Stat3, confers responsiveness to gamma interferon, a cytokine that selectively activates Stat1. Sequence comparisons suggest that the distinct Stat binding specificities of the C/EBPδ and C/EBPβ SBEs are determined primarily by a single base pair difference. Our findings indicate that the cytokine specificity of C/EBPδ gene expression is governed by the APRE sequence. PMID:9528783

  3. Pancreatic STAT3 protects mice against caerulein-induced pancreatitis via PAP1 induction.

    PubMed

    Shigekawa, Minoru; Hikita, Hayato; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Li, Wei; Uemura, Akio; Miyagi, Takuya; Hosui, Atsushi; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2012-12-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that controls expressions of several genes involved in cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, and tissue inflammation. However, the significance of pancreatic STAT3 in acute pancreatitis remains unclear. We generated conditional STAT3 knockout (stat3(Δ/Δ)) mice by crossing stat3(flox/flox) mice with Pdx1-promoter Cre transgenic mice. Caerulein administration activated pancreatic STAT3 and induced acute pancreatitis as early as 3 hours in wild-type mice, and full recovery from the induced pancreatic injury was observed within 7 days. The levels of serum amylase and lipase and histologic scores of pancreatic necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly higher at 3 hours in stat3(Δ/Δ) mice than in stat3(flox/flox) mice. Pancreatic recovery after pancreatitis was significantly delayed in stat3(Δ/Δ) mice compared with stat3(flox/flox) mice. Although stat3(flox/flox) mice had marked production in the pancreas of pancreatitis-associated protein 1 (PAP1), a serum acute phase protein, this induction was completely abrogated in stat3(Δ/Δ) mice. Enforced production of PAP1 by a hydrodynamic procedure in the liver significantly suppressed pancreatic necrosis and inflammation and also promoted pancreatic regeneration and recovery in stat3(Δ/Δ) mice to levels similar to those observed in stat3(flox/flox) mice. In conclusion, pancreatic STAT3 is indispensable for PAP1 production, and this STAT3/PAP1 pathway plays a protective role in caerulein-induced pancreatitis.

  4. Differences in antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition in HCC cells with versus without HBV expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yun; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-06-05

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inactivation could inhibit the tumor growth of HCC. In this study, differential antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inhibition was observed with HBV-related HCC cells being more resistant than non-HBV-related HCC cells. Resistance of HBV-related HCC cells to STAT3 inhibition was positively correlated to the expression of HBV. Enhanced ERK activation after STAT3 blockade was detected in HBV-related HCC cells but not in non-HBV-related HCC cells. Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy between the two types of HCC cells. Moderate reduced HBV expression was found after STAT3 inhibition. These findings disclose a discrepancy in cellular response to STAT3 inhibition between non-HBV-related and HBV-related HCC cells and underscore the complexity of antiproliferative effect of STAT3 inactivation in HBV-related HCC cells. - Highlights: • HBV endows HCC cells with resistance to STAT3 inactivation on proliferation. • Abnormal ERK activation after STAT3 inhibition in HBV-related HCC cells. • Combined ERK and STAT3 inhibition eliminates the discrepancy. • STAT3 inhibition moderately reduces HBV expression.

  5. miR-1181 inhibits invasion and proliferation via STAT3 in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Xing-Jun; Ding, You-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine the role of microRNA 1181 (miR-1181) in invasion and proliferation in pancreatic cancer. METHODS We analyzed the expression of miR-1181 in several pancreatic cancer cell lines and generated stable MIA-PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell lines with up-regulated miR-1181 expression using an adenovirus delivery system. We then investigated miR-1181's effect on invasion and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells by transwell assay, wound healing assay, cell counting kit-8 assay and colony-forming assay, and explored any underlying mechanisms by western bolt. Beyond that, we observed the change of the PANC-1 cell's cytoskeleton by immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Our data showed that miR-1181 was relatively down-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. And miR-1181 inhibited the migration, invasion and proliferation activities of MIA-PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Notably, after over-expressing of miR-1181 in PANC-1 cells, F-actin depolymerized. Immunofluorescence staining shows decreased F-actin and β-tubulin expression in PANC-1 cells over-expressing miR-1181 compared with the control cells. Furthermore, we found that over-expressing miR-1181 inhibited the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) while knocking-down miR-1181 up-regulated the expression of STAT3. Knocking-down miR-1181 promoted the invasion and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. And inhibition of STAT3 blocked the promotion effects of knocking-down miR-1181 on proliferation and invasion in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION Together our findings suggest that miR-1181 may be involved in pancreatic cancer cell invasion and proliferation by targeting STAT3 and indicate that miR-1181 may be a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. PMID:28321160

  6. The Shc1 adaptor simultaneously balances Stat1 and Stat3 activity to promote breast cancer immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ryuhjin; Sabourin, Valérie; Bolt, Alicia M.; Hébert, Steven; Totten, Stephanie; De Jay, Nicolas; Festa, Maria Carolina; Young, Yoon Kow; Im, Young Kyuen; Pawson, Tony; Koromilas, Antonis E.; Muller, William J.; Mann, Koren K.; Kleinman, Claudia L.; Ursini-Siegel, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase signalling within cancer cells is central to the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors act, in part, to augment adaptive immunity, the increased heterogeneity and functional redundancy of the tyrosine kinome is a hurdle to achieving durable responses to immunotherapies. We previously identified the Shc1 (ShcA) scaffold, a central regulator of tyrosine kinase signalling, as essential for promoting breast cancer immune suppression. Herein we show that the ShcA pathway simultaneously activates STAT3 immunosuppressive signals and impairs STAT1-driven immune surveillance in breast cancer cells. Impaired Y239/Y240-ShcA phosphorylation selectively reduces STAT3 activation in breast tumours, profoundly sensitizing them to immune checkpoint inhibitors and tumour vaccines. Finally, the ability of diminished tyrosine kinase signalling to initiate STAT1-driven immune surveillance can be overcome by compensatory STAT3 hyperactivation in breast tumours. Our data indicate that inhibition of pY239/240-ShcA-dependent STAT3 signalling may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to sensitize breast tumours to multiple immunotherapies. PMID:28276425

  7. The Shc1 adaptor simultaneously balances Stat1 and Stat3 activity to promote breast cancer immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ryuhjin; Sabourin, Valérie; Bolt, Alicia M; Hébert, Steven; Totten, Stephanie; De Jay, Nicolas; Festa, Maria Carolina; Young, Yoon Kow; Im, Young Kyuen; Pawson, Tony; Koromilas, Antonis E; Muller, William J; Mann, Koren K; Kleinman, Claudia L; Ursini-Siegel, Josie

    2017-03-09

    Tyrosine kinase signalling within cancer cells is central to the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors act, in part, to augment adaptive immunity, the increased heterogeneity and functional redundancy of the tyrosine kinome is a hurdle to achieving durable responses to immunotherapies. We previously identified the Shc1 (ShcA) scaffold, a central regulator of tyrosine kinase signalling, as essential for promoting breast cancer immune suppression. Herein we show that the ShcA pathway simultaneously activates STAT3 immunosuppressive signals and impairs STAT1-driven immune surveillance in breast cancer cells. Impaired Y239/Y240-ShcA phosphorylation selectively reduces STAT3 activation in breast tumours, profoundly sensitizing them to immune checkpoint inhibitors and tumour vaccines. Finally, the ability of diminished tyrosine kinase signalling to initiate STAT1-driven immune surveillance can be overcome by compensatory STAT3 hyperactivation in breast tumours. Our data indicate that inhibition of pY239/240-ShcA-dependent STAT3 signalling may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to sensitize breast tumours to multiple immunotherapies.

  8. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Extracts and Geranyl Dihydrochalcone Inhibit STAT3 Activity in Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Jung; Jung, Seung-Nam; Chang, Hyeyoun; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Joonku; Choi, Sangho; Nash, Oyekanmi; Han, Dong Cho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2015-05-01

    Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg has traditionally been used in Indonesia for the treatment of liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. In many other countries, it is used for the treatment of malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever. It has been reported that A. altilis extracts have antiatherosclerotic and cytoprotective effects, but its molecular targets in tumor cells are not yet fully understood. The A. altilis extracts and the partially purified fraction have been shown to inhibit STAT3 activity and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the active components, a bioassay-guided isolation of the partially purified fraction resulted in the identification of a geranyl dihydrochalcone, CG901. Its chemical structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The partially purified fraction and the isolated a geranyl dihydrochalcone, CG901, down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes, induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells via caspase-3 and PARP degradation, and inhibited tumor growth in human prostate tumor (DU145) xenograft initiation model. These results suggest that A. altilis could be a good natural source and that the isolated compound will be a potential lead molecule for developing novel therapeutics against STAT3-related diseases, including cancer and inflammation.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus delays apoptotic responses via activation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kenrie P Y; Li, Hung Sing; Cheung, Man Chun; Chan, Renee W Y; Yuen, Kit M; Mok, Chris K P; Nicholls, John M; Peiris, J S Malik; Chan, Michael C W

    2016-06-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to pose pandemic threat, but there is a lack of understanding of its pathogenesis. We compared the apoptotic responses triggered by HPAI H5N1 and low pathogenic H1N1 viruses using physiologically relevant respiratory epithelial cells. We demonstrated that H5N1 viruses delayed apoptosis in primary human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) compared to H1N1 virus. Both caspase-8 and -9 were activated by H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in AECs, while H5N1 differentially up-regulated TRAIL. H5N1-induced apoptosis was reduced by TRAIL receptor silencing. More importantly, STAT3 knock-down increased apoptosis by H5N1 infection suggesting that H5N1 virus delays apoptosis through activation of STAT3. Taken together, we demonstrate that STAT3 is involved in H5N1-delayed apoptosis compared to H1N1. Since delay in apoptosis prolongs the duration of virus replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TRAIL from H5N1-infected cells, which contribute to orchestrate cytokine storm and tissue damage, our results suggest that STAT3 may play a previously unsuspected role in H5N1 pathogenesis.

  10. Inhibition of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis: nicotiflorin and JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang-qiang; Du, Xi; Li, Yong-jie; Gao, Xiao-qing; Chen, Bi-qiong; Yu, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Nicotiflorin is a flavonoid extracted from Carthamus tinctorius. Previous studies have shown its cerebral protective effect, but the mechanism is undefined. In this study, we aimed to determine whether nicotiflorin protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. The cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion. Nicotiflorin (10 mg/kg) was administered by tail vein injection. Cell apoptosis in the ischemic cerebral cortex was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Bcl-2 and Bax expression levels in ischemic cerebral cortex were examined by immunohistochemial staining. Additionally, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 levels in ischemic cerebral cortex were examined by western blot assay. Nicotiflorin altered the shape and structure of injured neurons, decreased the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulates expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, caspase-3, and Bax, decreased Bax immunoredactivity, and increased Bcl-2 protein expression and immunoreactivity. These results suggest that nicotiflorin protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. PMID:28250754

  11. Cryptotanshinone suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuqing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Rubin

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging disease worldwide. Cryptotanshinone (CPT) is one of the active constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and exhibits significant antitumor activities in several human cancer cells. However, the efficacy and molecular mechanism of CPT in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of CPT on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of human pancreatic cancer cell BxPC‑3 cells was evaluated. The results demonstrated that CPT inhibited proliferation of the BxPC‑3 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner, and significantly induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The protein levels of cleaved caspase‑3, caspase‑9 and poly ADP ribose polymerase were upregulated, while the levels of c‑myc, survivin and cyclin D1 were downregulated following treatment with CPT. In addition, CPT decreased the activities of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and several upstream regulatory signaling pathways after 24 h. However, CPT only inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705 within 30 min, without marked effects on the phosphorylation of the other proteins. These results suggested that the inhibition of STAT3 activity by CPT was directly and independent of the upstream regulators in human pancreatic cancer. The present study demonstrated that CPT exerts anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway in human BxPC-3 cells.

  12. MiR-23a sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma to irradiation by targeting IL-8/Stat3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jia-Quan, Qu; Hong-Mei, Yi; Xu, Ye; Li-Na, Li; Jin-Feng, Zhu; Ta, Xiao; Li, Yuan; Jiao-Yang, Li; Yuan-Yuan, Wang; Juan, Feng; Qiu-Yan, He; Shan-Shan, Lu; Hong, Yi; Zhi-Qiang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Radioresistance poses a major challenge in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, but little is known about how miRNA regulates this phenomenon. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of miR-23a in NPC radioresistance, one of downregulated miRNAs in the radioresistant NPC cells identified by our previous microarray analysis. We observed that miR-23a was frequently downregulated in the radioresistant NPC tissues, and its decrement correlated with NPC radioresistance and poor patient survival, and was an independent predictor for reduced patient survival. In vitro radioresponse assays showed that restoration of miR-23a expression markedly increased NPC cell radiosensitivity. In a mouse model, therapeutic administration of miR-23a agomir dramatically sensitized NPC xenografts to irradiation. Mechanistically, we found that reduced miR-23a promoted NPC cell radioresistance by activating IL-8/Stat3 signaling. Moreover, the levels of IL-8 and phospho-Stat3 were increased in the radioresistance NPC tissues, and negatively associated with miR-23a level. Our data demonstrate that miR-23a is a critical determinant of NPC radioresponse and prognostic predictor for NPC patients, and its decrement enhances NPC radioresistance through activating IL-8/Stat3 signaling, highlighting the therapeutic potential of miR-23a/IL-8/Stat3 signaling axis in NPC radiosensitization. PMID:26314966

  13. STAT3 as a target for inducing apoptosis in solid and hematological tumors

    PubMed Central

    Siddiquee, Khandaker Al Zaid; Turkson, James

    2008-01-01

    Studies in the past few years have provided compelling evidence for the critical role of aberrant Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Thus, it is now generally accepted that STAT3 is one of the critical players in human cancer formation and represents a valid target for novel anticancer drug design. This review focuses on aberrant STAT3 and its role in promoting tumor cell survival and supporting the malignant phenotype. A brief evaluation of the current strategies targeting STAT3 for the development of novel anticancer agents against human tumors harboring constitutively active STAT3 will also be presented. PMID:18227858

  14. Tumor-mediated inhibition of human dendritic cell differentiation and function is consistently counteracted by combined p38 MAPK and STAT3 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhoff, Dinja; Lougheed, Sinéad; van de Ven, Rieneke; Lindenberg, Jelle; van Cruijsen, Hester; Hiddingh, Lotte; Kroon, Jan; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J.M.; Hangalapura, Basav; Scheper, Rik J.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting dendritic cells (DC) through the release of suppressive factors is an effective means for tumors to escape immune control. We assessed the involvement of downstream signaling through the JAK2/STAT3 and p38 MAPK pathways in tumor-induced suppression of human DC development. Whereas the JAK2/STAT3 pathway has been pinpointed in mouse studies as a key regulator of myeloid suppression, in human DC this is less well established. We studied the effects of STAT3 inhibition on the suppression of monocyte-derived DC differentiation mediated by a short-list of four predominant suppressive factors and found that pharmacological STAT3 inhibition could only counteract the effects of IL-6. Accordingly, in testing a panel of supernatants derived from 11 cell lines representing various types of solid tumors, STAT3 inhibition only modestly affected the suppressive effects of a minority of supernatants. Importantly, combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 pathways completely prevented inhibition of DC differentiation by all tested supernatants and effected superior DC function, evidenced by increased allogeneic T cell reactivity with elevated IL-12p70/IL-10 ratios and Th1 skewing. Combined STAT3 and p38 inhibition also afforded superior protection against the suppressive effects of primary glioma and melanoma supernatants and induced a shift from CD14+ cells to CD1a+ cells in metastatic melanoma single-cell suspensions, indicating a potential for improved DC differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. We conclude that combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is a promising approach to overcome tumor-induced inhibitory signaling in DC precursors and will likely support clinical immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:22934257

  15. Gp130-mediated STAT3 activation by S-propargyl-cysteine, an endogenous hydrogen sulfide initiator, prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Guo, W; Lin, S-Z; Wang, Z-J; Kan, J-T; Chen, S-Y; Zhu, Y-Z

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) could trigger a large amount of apoptotic cells in the myocardium, which leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a producing agent of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), possesses cardioprotective efficacy. However, the specific effect and mechanism of SPRC in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity remain elusive. Given gp130 with its main downstream signaling molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is involved in cardiac myocyte survival and growth; the present study was performed to elucidate whether SPRC counteracts Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, and if so, whether the gp130/STAT3 pathway is involved in this cardioprotective activity. SPRC stimulated the activation of STAT3 via gp130-mediated transduction tunnel in vitro and in vivo. In Dox-stimulated cardiotoxicity, SPRC enhanced cell viability, restored expression of gp130/STAT3-regulated downstream genes, inhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress, and antagonized mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular Ca2+ overload. Intriguingly, blockade of gp130/STAT3 signaling abrogated all these beneficial capacities of SPRC. Our findings present the first piece of evidence for the therapeutic properties of SPRC in alleviating Dox cardiotoxicity, which could be attributed to the activation of gp130-mediated STAT3 signaling. This will offer a novel molecular basis and therapeutic strategy of H2S donor for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:27537522

  16. Bioinformatic analysis reveals a pattern of STAT3-associated gene expression specific to basal-like breast cancers in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Tell, Robert W; Horvath, Curt M

    2014-09-02

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a latent transcription factor associated with inflammatory signaling and innate and adaptive immune responses, is known to be aberrantly activated in a wide variety of cancers. In vitro analysis of STAT3 in human cancer cell lines has elucidated a number of specific targets associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, to date, no comparison of cancer subtype and gene expression associated with STAT3 signaling in human patients has been reported. In silico analysis of human breast cancer microarray and reverse-phase protein array data was performed to identify expression patterns associated with STAT3 in basal-like and luminal breast cancers. Results indicate clearly identifiable STAT3-regulated signatures common to basal-like breast cancers but not to luminal A or luminal B cancers. Furthermore, these differentially expressed genes are associated with immune signaling and inflammation, a known phenotype of basal-like cancers. These findings demonstrate a distinct role for STAT3 signaling in basal breast cancers, and underscore the importance of considering subtype-specific molecular pathways that contribute to tissue-specific cancers.

  17. Salinomycin induces cell death via inactivation of Stat3 and downregulation of Skp2.

    PubMed

    Koo, K H; Kim, H; Bae, Y-K; Kim, K; Park, B-K; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-N

    2013-06-27

    Salinomycin has been shown to control breast cancer stem cells, although the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects are not clear. Deregulation of cell cycle regulators play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and they have been considered as anticancer targets. In this study, we investigated salinomycin effect on cell cycle progression using OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cell lines that are derived from OVCAR-8. Parental OVCAR-8 cells are sensitive to several anticancer drugs, but NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells are resistant to several anticancer drugs. However, salinomycin caused cell growth inhibition and apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at G1 in all three cell lines. Salinomycin inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity and thus decreased expression of Stat3-target genes, including cyclin D1, Skp2, and survivin. Salinomycin induced degradation of Skp2 and thus accumulated p27Kip1. Knockdown of Skp2 further increased salinomycin-induced G1 arrest, but knockdown of p27Kip1 attenuated salinomycin effect on G1 arrest. Cdh1, an E3 ligase for Skp2, was shifted to nuclear fractions upon salinomycin treatment. Cdh1 knockdown by siRNA reversed salinomycin-induced Skp2 downregulation and p27Kip1 upregulation, indicating that salinomycin activates the APC(Cdh1)-Skp2-p27Kip1 pathway. Concomitantly, si-Cdh1 inhibited salinomycin-induced G1 arrest. Taken together, our data indicate that salinomycin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via downregulation or inactivation of cell cycle-associated oncogenes, such as Stat3, cyclin D1, and Skp2, regardless of multidrug resistance.

  18. STAT3 inhibitor, cucurbitacin I, is a novel therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Oi, Toru; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Matsubara, Takao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Iino, Takahiro; Asanuma, Yumiko; Goto, Mikinobu; Okuno, Kazuma; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The development of clinical agents remains a costly and time-consuming process. Although identification of new uses of existing drugs has been recognized as a more efficient approach for drug discovery than development of novel drugs, little screening of drugs that might be used for a rare malignant tumor such as osteosarcoma (OS) has been performed. In this study, we attempted to identify new molecular targeted agents for OS by employing Screening Committee of Anticancer Drugs (SCADS) kits. To screen compounds for OS treatment, their effect on cell viability of the OS cell lines 143B, MG63, HOS, SAOS-2, and HUO9 were evaluated. Candidate drugs were narrowed down based on a global anti-proliferative effect against these five OS cell lines. After excluding cytotoxic compounds and compounds unsuitable for in vivo administration, cucurbitacin I was extracted. Cucurbitacin I has been found to have cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties against several tumors through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. Cucurbitacin I dose- and time-dependently inhibited the proliferation of all five OS cell lines. Following cucurbitacin I treatment, STAT3 was inactivated and analysis of Mcl-1, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 indicated apoptosis induction. Expression of cell cycle regulator proteins, such as phospho-cyclin D1, c-Myc and survivin, were suppressed. Finally, cucurbitacin I potently inhibited the tumor growth of human OS 143B cells in nude mice. Our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that STAT3 inhibition by cucurbitacin I will be an effective and new approach for the treatment of OS. PMID:27840900

  19. Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression is repressed in astrocytes by neuronal contact in the CNS and is rapidly induced by injury. Here, we defined an inhibitory integrin signaling pathway. Results The integrin substrates laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin, but not collagen, thrombospondin or fibrinogen, reduced CNTF expression in C6 astroglioma cells. Antibodies against αv and β5, but not α6 or β1, integrin induced CNTF. Together, the ligand and antibody specificity suggests that CNTF is repressed by αvβ5 integrin. Antibodies against Thy1, an abundant neuronal surface protein whose function is unclear, induced CNTF in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures indicating that it is a neuroglial CNTF repressor. Inhibition of the integrin signaling molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) or the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 MAPK, greatly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression within 4 hours. This selective inhibitory pathway phosphorylated STAT3 on its inhibitory ser-727 residue interfering with activity of the pro-transcription Tyr-705 residue. STAT3 can activate CNTF transcription because it bound to its promoter and FAK antagonist-induced CNTF was reduced by blocking STAT3. Microinjection of FAK inhibitor directly into the brain or spinal cord in adult mice rapidly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, systemic treatment with FAK inhibitors over 3 days induced CNTF in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis. Conclusions Neuron-astroglia contact mediated by integrins serves as a sensor to enable rapid neurotrophic responses and provides a new pharmacological avenue to exploit the neuroprotective properties of endogenous CNTF. PMID:23693126

  20. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  1. IL-6 and STAT3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Terzic, Janos; Mucida, Daniel; Yu, Guann-Yi; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Cheroutre, Hilde; Eckmann, Lars; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Colitis associated cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were suggested to regulate pre-neoplastic growth during CAC tumorigenesis. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional NF-κB–regulated cytokine which acts on epithelial and immune cells. Using genetic tools we now demonstrate that IL-6 is a critical tumor promoter during early CAC tumorigenesis. In addition to enhancing proliferation of tumor initiating cells, IL-6 produced by lamina propria myeloid cells protects normal and pre-malignant intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from apoptosis. The proliferative and survival effects of IL-6 are largely mediated by transcription factor STAT3, whose IEC-specific ablation has profound impact on CAC tumorigenesis. Thus, the NF-κB-IL-6-STAT3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor initiating IEC. PMID:19185845

  2. Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-15

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. - Highlights: • Inactivation of STAT3 signaling radiosensitizes malignant glioma cells. • STAT3 inhibition triggers a significant increase of autophagy flux induced by ionizing radiation in glioma cells. • Suppression of autophagy further strengthens the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition in glioma cells. • Dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 induce massive apoptotic cells upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Src/STAT3-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction mediates chemoresistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by promoting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qixing; Wang, Hongli; Hu, Yongliang; Hu, Meiru; Li, Xiaoguang; Aodengqimuge; Ma, Yuanfang; Wei, Changyuan; Song, Lun

    2015-08-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance in breast cancer, whether acquired or intrinsic, remains a major clinical obstacle. Thus, increasing tumor cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents will be helpful in improving the clinical management of breast cancer. In the present study, we found an induction of HO-1 expression in doxorubicin (DOX)-treated MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, which showed insensitivity to DOX treatment. Knockdown HO-1 expression dramatically upregulated the incidence of MDA-MB-231 cell death under DOX treatment, indicating that HO-1 functions as a critical contributor to drug resistance in MDA-MB-231 cells. We further observed that DOX exposure induced a cytoprotective autophagic flux in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on HO-1 induction. Moreover, upregulation of HO-1 expression required the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and its upstream regulator, protein kinase Src. Abrogating Src/STAT3 pathway activation attenuated HO-1 and autophagy induction, thus increasing the chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, we conclude that Src/STAT3-dependent HO-1 induction protects MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from DOX-induced death through promoting autophagy. In the following study, we further demonstrated the contribution of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy pathway activation to DOX resistance in another breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, which bears a similar phenotype to MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, activation of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy signaling pathway might play a general role in protecting certain subtypes of breast cancer cells from DOX-induced cytotoxicity. Targeting this signaling event may provide a potential approach for overcoming DOX resistance in breast cancer therapeutics.

  4. Role of STAT3 and vitamin D receptor in EZH2-mediated invasion of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Wei; Ren, Lin-Lin; Xiong, Hua; Du, Wan; Yu, Ya-Nan; Sun, Tian-Tian; Weng, Yu-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ji-Lin; Wang, Ying-Chao; Cui, Yun; Sun, Dan-Feng; Han, Ze-Guang; Shen, Nan; Zou, Weiping; Xu, Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Cao, Weibiao; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-07-01

    The polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), which has histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity, is overexpressed in malignant tumours. However, the role of EZH2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion is little known. Here we investigated the clinical significance, biological effects, and mechanisms of EZH2 signalling. Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced cell invasion and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9) in in vitro studies. Knockdown of EZH2 dramatically increased overall survival and decreased metastasis of lung in in vivo studies. Conversely, overexpression of EZH2 significantly increased lung metastasis and shortened overall survival when compared with control tumours. EZH2-induced CRC cell invasion may depend on down-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is considered to be a marker of CRC invasion. EZH2 regulates the histone trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the VDR promoter. Moreover, we found that STAT3 directly binds to the EZH2 promoter and regulates VDR down-regulation in CRC cells. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the expression of EZH2 and pSTAT3 and that of VDR in CRC tissues compared with normal tissue in patients. We show the role of EZH2 in CRC metastasis and identify VDR as a target gene of EZH2. EZH2 expression may be directly regulated by STAT3, and STAT3 may play an important role in EZH2-mediated VDR down-regulation in CRC. This pathway may provide potential targets in aggressive CRC.

  5. Myeloid STAT3 promotes formation of colitis-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pathria, Paulina; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Putz, Eva-Maria; Holcmann, Martin; Schlederer, Michaela; Grabner, Beatrice; Crncec, Ilija; Svinka, Jasmin; Musteanu, Monica; Hoffmann, Thomas; Filipits, Martin; Berger, Walter; Poli, Valeria; Kenner, Lukas; Bilban, Martin; Casanova, Emilio; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Bayer, Editha; Mohr, Thomas; Sexl, Veronika; Eferl, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells lacking STAT3 promote antitumor responses of NK and T cells but it is unknown if this crosstalk affects development of autochthonous tumors. We deleted STAT3 in murine myeloid cells (STAT3Δm) and examined the effect on the development of autochthonous colorectal cancers (CRCs). Formation of Azoxymethane/Dextransulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced CRCs was strongly suppressed in STAT3Δm mice. Gene expression profiling showed strong activation of T cells in the stroma of STAT3Δm CRCs. Moreover, STAT3Δm host mice were better able to control the growth of transplanted MC38 colorectal tumor cells which are known to be killed in a T cell-dependent manner. These data suggest that myeloid cells lacking STAT3 control formation of CRCs mainly via cross activation of T cells. Interestingly, the few CRCs that formed in STAT3Δm mice displayed enhanced stromalization but appeared normal in size indicating that they have acquired ways to escape enhanced tumor surveillance. We found that CRCs in STAT3Δm mice consistently activate STAT3 signaling which is implicated in immune evasion and might be a target to prevent tumor relapse. PMID:26137415

  6. Novel Lys63-linked ubiquitination of IKKβ induces STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Leandro H; Meyer, April N; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Nelson, Katelyn N; Haas, Martin; Donoghue, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    NFκB signaling plays a significant role in human disease, including breast and ovarian carcinoma, insulin resistance, embryonic lethality and liver degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, aging and Multiple Myeloma (MM). Inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) regulates canonical Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB) signaling in response to inflammation and cellular stresses. NFκB activation requires Lys63-linked (K63-linked) ubiquitination of upstream proteins such as NEMO or TAK1, forming molecular complexes with membrane-bound receptors. We demonstrate that IKKβ itself undergoes K63-linked ubiquitination. Mutations in IKKβ at Lys171, identified in Multiple Myeloma and other cancers, lead to a dramatic increase in kinase activation and K63-linked ubiquitination. These mutations also result in persistent activation of STAT3 signaling. Liquid chromatography (LC)-high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified Lys147, Lys418, Lys555 and Lys703 as predominant ubiquitination sites in IKKβ. Specific inhibition of the UBC13-UEV1A complex responsible for K63-linked ubiquitination establishes Lys147 as the predominant site of K63-ubiquitin conjugation and responsible for STAT3 activation. Thus, IKKβ activation leads to ubiquitination within the kinase domain and assemblage of a K63-ubiquitin conjugated signaling platform. These results are discussed with respect to the importance of upregulated NFκB signaling known to occur frequently in MM and other cancers. PMID:25486864

  7. d,l-Sulforaphane Induces ROS-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Gliomablastoma Cells by Inactivating STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ziwei; Yu, Fei; Ren, Yahao; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    d,l-Sulforaphane (SFN), a synthetic analogue of broccoli-derived isomer l-SFN, exerts cytotoxic effects on multiple tumor cell types through different mechanisms and is more potent than the l-isomer at inhibiting cancer growth. However, the means by which SFN impairs glioblastoma (GBM) cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of SFN in GBM cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell viability assays, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot results revealed that SFN could induced apoptosis of GBM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, via up-regulation of caspase-3 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Mechanistically, SFN treatment led to increase the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in GBM cells. Meanwhile, SFN also suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, and the activation of upstream JAK2 and Src tyrosine kinases, dose- and time-dependently. Moreover, blockage of ROS production by using the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine totally reversed SFN-mediated down-regulation of JAK2/Src-STAT3 signaling activation and the subsequent effects on apoptosis by blocking the induction of apoptosis-related genes in GBM cells. Taken together, our data suggests that SFN induces apoptosis in GBM cells via ROS-dependent inactivation of STAT3 phosphorylation. These findings motivate further evaluation of SFN as a cancer chemopreventive agent in GBM treatment. PMID:28054986

  8. TMED3 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression via IL-11/STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Yang, Yuan; Han, Jun; Jiang, Wei-hua; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Meng-chao; Gao, Rong; Li, Shuai; Tian, Tao; Wang, Jian; Ma, Li-jun; Ren, Hao; Zhou, Wei-ping

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane p24 trafficking protein 3(TMED3) is a metastatic suppressor in colon cancer, but its function in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. Here, we report that TMED3 was up-regulated in HCC and portal vein tumor thrombus. TMED3 up-regulation in HCC was significantly correlated with aggressive characteristics and predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. TMED3 overexpression in HCC cell lines promoted cell migration and invasion. In contrast, TMED3 knockdown suppressed HCC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Gene microarray analysis revealed decreased IL-11 expression in TMED3-knockdown cells. We propose that TMED3 promotes HCC metastasis through IL-11/STAT3 signaling. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TMED3 promotes HCC metastasis and is a potential prognostic biomarker in HCC. PMID:27901021

  9. Early methyl donor deficiency may induce persistent brain defects by reducing Stat3 signaling targeted by miR-124

    PubMed Central

    Kerek, R; Geoffroy, A; Bison, A; Martin, N; Akchiche, N; Pourié, G; Helle, D; Guéant, J-L; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C; Daval, J-L

    2013-01-01

    The methyl donors folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 are centrepieces of the one-carbon metabolism that has a key role in transmethylation reactions, and thus in epigenetic and epigenomic regulations. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent, especially in pregnant women and in the elderly, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for various diseases, including neurological and developmental disorders. In this respect, both vitamins are essential for normal brain development, and have a role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. The consequences of a methyl donor deficiency (MDD) were studied both in vivo in rats exposed in utero, and in vitro in hippocampal progenitors (H19-7 cell line). Deficiency was associated with growth retardation at embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatally with long-term brain defects in selective areas. mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor Stat3 were found to be decreased in the brains of deprived fetuses and in differentiating progenitors (62 and 48% for total Stat3 protein, respectively), along with a strong reduction in its phosphorylation at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Vitamin shortage also affected upstream kinases of Stat3 signaling pathway (phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Src, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38) as well as downstream target gene products (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), thus promoting apoptosis. Conversely, the expression of the Stat3 regulator miR-124 was upregulated in deficiency conditions (≥65%), and its silencing by using siRNA partly restored Stat3 signaling in hippocampal neurons by increasing specifically the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Src kinases. Furthermore, miR-124 siRNA improved the phenotype of deprived cells, with enhanced neurite outgrowth. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of Stat3 signaling by miR-124 would be a key factor in the deleterious effects of MDD on brain development. PMID:23928694

  10. STAT3-dependent TXNDC17 expression mediates Taxol resistance through inducing autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongde; Wang, Aihua; Li, Hui; Zhi, Hui; Lu, Feng

    2016-06-10

    Taxol (paclitaxel) is one of the taxane class of anticancer drugs as a first-line chemotherapeutic agent against many cancers including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer and so on. It is verified to induce cytotoxicity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Numerous novel formulations of Taxol have been remanufactured for better therapeutic effect. Though Taxol works as a common anticancer drug for a long time in clinical practice, drug resistance is a major limitation of its long-term administration. In-depth research on drug resistance is still in progress and researchers have made some achievements, however, the mechanism or key molecule related to Taxol resistance in colorectal cancer still remains to be explored. In the present study, we observed that the high expression of TXNDC17 (thioredoxin domain containing 17) was associated with Taxol resistance in colorectal cancer cells. And TXNDC17 mediated Taxol resistance was related with increased basal autophagy level. Taxol exposure induced high levels of phospho-STAT3 (Tyr 705) and TXNDC17; and increase of basal autophagy in colorectal cancer cells. TXNDC17 overexpression cells obtained Taxol resistance and a high level of autophagy, and it is not surprising that stable downregulation of TXNDC17 accordingly reversed these phenomena. Interestingly, STAT3 could similarly work as TXNDC17 in spite of slighter effect compared to TXNDC17. And it has been proved that phospho-STAT3 (Tyr 705) possesses transcriptional regulation activity through forming dimmers. Many research revealed that transcription factor STAT3 affected more than 1000 gene products, and TXNDC17 is predicted to be a target gene of STAT3 at UCSC database. For the first time, we found STAT3 could bind promoter region of TXNDC17 (-623 bp to -58 bp relative to the transcription start site (TSS)) for regulating its expression. These results suggest the possibility that TXNDC17 could play an important role

  11. LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily, activates Stat3 mediated by NIK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Chun, Jae Yeon; Hu, Yan; Dutt, Smitha; Lin, Xin; Gao, Allen C. . E-mail: allen.gao@roswellpark.org

    2007-07-27

    Stat3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, is a key signal transduction protein activated by numerous cytokines, growth factors, and oncoproteins that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, development, survival, and inflammation. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors and induces cellular transformation and tumor formation. In this study, we demonstrated that LIGHT, a member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily, activates Stat3 in cancer cells. LIGHT induces dose-dependent activation of Stat3 by phosphorylation at both the tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. The activation of Stat3 by LIGHT appears to be mediated by NIK phosphorylation. Expression of a kinase-inactive NIK mutant abolished LIGHT induced Stat3 activation. Overexpression of an active NIK induces Stat3 activation by phosphorylation at the both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Activation of Stat3 by NIK requires NIK kinase activity as showed by kinase assays. In addition, LIGHT increases the expression of Stat3 target genes including cyclin D1, survivin, and Bcl-xL, and stimulates human LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth in vitro which can be blocked by expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to activating NF-{kappa}B/p52, LIGHT also activates Stat3. Activation of Stat3 together with activating non-canonical NF-{kappa}B/p52 signaling by LIGHT may maximize its effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and inflammation.

  12. Association of STAT3 with Cx26 and Cx43 in human uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SULKOWSKA, URSZULA; FEBP, ANDRZEJ WINCEWICZ; SULKOWSKI, STANISLAW

    2016-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) drives endometrial carcinogenesis, while signaling via gap junctions gets weakened during cancer progression. Connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43 and STAT3 were immunohistochemically evaluated in 78 endometrioid adenocarcinomas: Nuclear expression of STAT3 positively correlated with cytoplasmic immunoreactivity to Cx43 (P=0.004, r=0.318) and Cx26 (P=0.006, r=0.309). STAT3 correlated with Cx43 (P=0.022, r=0.411) and Cx26 (P=0.008 r=0.466) in G1 tumors. A statistically significant linkage remained in G2 cancers between STAT3 and Cx43 (P=0.061, r=0.262) and Cx26 (P=0.016, r=0.331); however, no correlations were observed in G3 tumors. STAT3 was significantly associated with Cx 43 (p=0.003, r=0.684) and Cx26 (p=0.049, r=0.500) in estrogen receptor (ER) negative adenocarcinomas. STAT3 did not correlate with Cx43 in ER positive adenocarcinomas; however, STAT3 expression remained correlated with Cx26 expression (P=0.035, r=0.268). In progesterone receptor negative tumors STAT3 was significantly associated with Cx43 (P=0.035, r=0.451) and Cx26 (P<0.0001, r=0.707). However, in PgR positive adenocarcinomas STAT3 correlated with Cx43 (P=0.03, r=0.290) but not with Cx26. Thus, it appears that hormone dependent acceleration of cancer growth breaks the association between STAT3 and Cx expression. These associations become weaker as the tumors dedifferentiate from G1 to G3 endometrioid adenocarcinomas. The present study provides evidence that the loss of correlation between STAT3 and selected Cx proteins occurs in tumors with more aggressive behavior. PMID:27313754

  13. Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via suppressing the STAT3 pathway in a colorectal cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qunchuan; Hong, Fei; Shen, Aling; Zheng, Liangpu; Zeng, Jianwei; Lin, Wei; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in cell survival and proliferation. Constitutive activation of STAT3 is strongly correlated with pathogenesis of various types of malignant tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore is a major focus in the development of anti-cancer agents. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula prescribed already in the Ming Dynasty, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in the treatment of CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-cancer activity remains largely unknown. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of PZH against tumor growth in vivo in the CRC mouse xenograft model, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that administration of PZH reduced tumor volume and tumor weight but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that PZH can inhibit colon cancer growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. We also observed that PZH treatment inhibited the phosphorylation level of STAT3 in tumor tissues. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on STAT3 activation resulted in the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, leading to the induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation. These results suggest that promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation via suppression of STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which PZH treats colorectal cancer.

  14. High expression of Mcl-1L via the MEK-ERK-phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) pathway protects melanocytes and melanoma from UVB-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Okada, Taro; Hashimoto, Takanori; Moon, Youbin; Sakaguchi, Masanobu; Fukami, Yasuo; Nishigori, Chikako; Oka, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B is a major factor in melanomagenesis. This fact is linked to the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis. In this study, we characterized the involvement of Mcl-1L in the regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis in melanocytes and in melanoma cells. In melanocytes, apoptosis was not evident at 24 h after UVB irradiation. The Mcl-1L expression increased after UVB irradiation, and the high Mcl-1L expression continued for at least 24 h. This UVB-dependent increase in Mcl-1L was mediated by the MEK-ERK-pS-STAT3 (STAT3 phosphorylated at Ser727) pathway. The Ser727 phosphorylation facilitated nuclear localization of STAT3. In melanoma cells, the expression levels of Mcl-1L varied depending on the cell line. WM39 melanoma cells expressed high levels of Mcl-1L via the MEK-ERK-pS-STAT3 pathway and were resistant to UVB-induced apoptosis without up-regulation of Mcl-1L. In melanocytes and in WM39 cells, transfection with Mcl-1 siRNA promoted UVB-induced apoptosis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that melanoma cells in in situ lesions expressed high amounts of Mcl-1L. These results indicate that the high expression of Mcl-1L mediated by the MEK-ERK-pS-STAT3 pathway protects melanocytes and melanoma cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.

  15. Loss of function mutations in PTPN6 promote STAT3 deregulation via JAK3 kinase in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Demosthenous, Christos; Han, Jing Jing; Hu, Guangzhen; Stenson, Mary; Gupta, Mamta

    2015-12-29

    PTPN6 (SHP1) is a tyrosine phosphatase that negatively controls the activity of multiple signaling pathways including STAT signaling, however role of mutated PTPN6 is not much known. Here we investigated whether PTPN6 might also be a potential target for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and performed Sanger sequencing of the PTPN6 gene. We have identified missense mutations within PTPN6 (N225K and A550V) in 5% (2/38) of DLBCL tumors. Site directed mutagenesis was performed to mutate wild type (WT) PTPN6 and stable cell lines were generated by lentiviral transduction of PTPN6(WT), PTPN6(N225K) and PTPN6(A550V) constructs, and effects of WT or mutated PTPN6 on STAT3 signaling were analyzed. WT PTPN6 dephosphorylated STAT3, but had no effect on STAT1, STAT5 or STAT6 phosphorylation. Both PTPN6 mutants were unable to inhibit constitutive, as well as cytokines induced STAT3 activation. Both PTPN6 mutants also demonstrated reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity and exhibited enhanced STAT3 transactivation activity. Intriguingly, a lack of direct binding between STAT3 and WT or mutated PTPN6 was observed. However, compared to WT PTPN6, cells expressing PTPN6 mutants exhibited increased binding between JAK3 and PTPN6 suggesting a more dynamic interaction of PTPN6 with upstream regulators of STAT3. Consistent with this notion, both the mutants demonstrated increased resistance to JAK3 inhibitor, WHIP-154 relative to WT PTPN6. Overall, this is the first study, which demonstrates that N225K and A550V PTPN6 mutations cause loss-of-function leading to JAK3 mediated deregulation of STAT3 pathway and uncovers a mechanism that tumor cells can use to control PTPN6 substrate specificity.

  16. STAT3 Expression, Molecular Features, Inflammation Patterns and Prognosis in a Database of 724 Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Teppei; Baba, Yoshifumi; Yamauchi, Mai; Kuchiba, Aya; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Shima, Kaori; Tanaka, Noriko; Huttenhower, Curtis; Frank, David A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    Purpose STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a transcription factor that is constitutively activated in some cancers. STAT3 appears to play crucial roles in cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, tumor-promoting inflammation and suppression of anti-tumor host immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Although the STAT3 signaling pathway is a potential drug target, clinical, pathologic, molecular or prognostic features of STAT3-activated colorectal cancer remain uncertain. Experimental Design Utilizing a database of 724 colon and rectal cancer cases, we evaluated phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute mortality hazard ratio (HR), adjusting for clinical, pathologic and molecular features, including microsatellite instability (MSI), the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, 18q loss of heterozygosity, TP53 (p53), CTNNB1 (β-catenin), JC virus T-antigen, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results Among the 724 tumors, 131 (18%) showed high-level p-STAT3 expression (p-STAT3-high), 244 (34%) showed low-level expression (p-STAT3-low), and the remaining 349 (48%) were negative for p-STAT3. p-STAT3 overexpression was associated with significantly higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality [log-rank p=0.0020; univariate HR (p-STAT3-high vs. p-STAT3-negative) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–2.63, Ptrend =0.0005; multivariate HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.11–2.34, Ptrend =0.015). p-STAT3 expression was positively associated with peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (multivariate odds ratio 3.23; 95% CI, 1.89–5.53; p<0.0001). p-STAT3 expression was not associated with MSI, CIMP, or LINE-1 hypomethylation. Conclusions STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer is associated with adverse clinical outcome, supporting its potential roles as a prognostic biomarker and a chemoprevention and/or therapeutic target. PMID:21310826

  17. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M.; Moll, Herwig P.; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Győrffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M.; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased KrasG12D-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-κB within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3–NF-κB–IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  18. STAT3 overexpression promotes metastasis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and correlates negatively with surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Li, Liang; Hou, Guo-Jun; Yan, Xin-Zhou; Xu, Qin-Guo; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Hua; Shen, Feng

    2017-01-31

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes tumor progression in many types of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic value of this marker in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Using real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays, we found that STAT3 is overexpressed in ICC patients. STAT3 expression correlated with several clinicopathological features, including tumor size, pathological satellite, vascular invasion, undifferentiated-type histology, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in two independent cohorts of ICC patients. Patients with high STAT3 levels had a poor prognosis in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariate survival analysis indicated that STAT3 is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS. Furthermore, we observed that STAT3 overexpression promotes the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of ICC cells in vitro and in vivo, and also promotes STAT3 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that STAT3 expression correlated negatively with surgical outcome and inhibition of STAT3 expression may constitute a novel target for the treatment of ICC patients.

  19. High glucose enhances progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells via STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Saengboonmee, Charupong; Seubwai, Wunchana; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-01-08

    Epidemiological studies have indicated diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), however, the effects and mechanisms of high glucose on progression of CCA remain unclear. This study reports for the first time of the enhancing effects of high glucose on aggressive phenotypes of CCA cells via STAT3 activation. CCA cells cultured in high glucose media exerted significantly higher rates of cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion than those cultured in normal glucose. The phosphokinase array revealed STAT3 as the dominant signal activated in response to high glucose. Increased nuclear STAT3, p-STAT3 and its downstream target proteins, cyclin D1, vimentin and MMP2, were shown to be underling mechanisms of high glucose stimulation. The link of high glucose and STAT3 activation was confirmed in tumor tissues from CCA patients with DM that exhibited higher STAT3 activation than those without DM. Moreover, the levels of STAT3 activation were correlated with the levels of blood glucose. Finally, decreasing the level of glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor could reduce the effects of high glucose. These findings suggest that controlling blood glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor as an alternative approach may improve the therapeutic outcome of CCA patients with DM.

  20. Paeoniflorin inhibits human glioma cells via STAT3 degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao-hu; Ou-yang, Jia; Xing, Ying; Li, Dan-yan; Dong, Xing-yu; Liu, Ru-en; Xu, Ru-xiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the underlying mechanism for the potent proapoptotic effect of paeoniflorin (PF) on human glioma cells in vitro, focusing on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Significant time- and dose-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation were observed in PF-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. Expression of STAT3, its active form phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and several downstream molecules, including HIAP, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and Survivin, were significantly downregulated upon PF treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 induced resistance to PF, suggesting that STAT3 was a critical target of PF. Interestingly, rapid downregulation of STAT3 was consistent with its accelerated degradation, but not with its dephosphorylation or transcriptional modulation. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the prodegradation effect of PF on STAT3 was mainly through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway rather than via lysosomal degradation. These findings indicated that PF-induced growth suppression and apoptosis in human glioma cells through the proteasome-dependent degradation of STAT3. PMID:26508835

  1. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hanhui; Zhao, Wenrong; Yang, Dan

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  2. Genomic and Transcriptomic Alterations Associated with STAT3 Activation in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peyser, Noah D.; Pendleton, Kelsey; Gooding, William E.; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperactivation of STAT3 via constitutive phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) is common in most human cancers, including head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC). STAT3 is rarely mutated in cancer and the (epi)genetic alterations that lead to STAT3 activation are incompletely understood. Here we used an unbiased approach to identify genomic and epigenomic changes associated with pSTAT3(Y705) expression using data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods and Findings Mutation, mRNA expression, promoter methylation, and copy number alteration data were extracted from TCGA and examined in the context of pSTAT3(Y705) protein expression. mRNA expression levels of 1279 genes were found to be associated with pSTAT3(705) expression. Association of pSTAT3(Y705) expression with caspase-8 mRNA expression was validated by immunoblot analysis in HNSCC cells. Mutation, promoter hypermethylation, and copy number alteration of any gene were not significantly associated with increased pSTAT3(Y705) protein expression. Conclusions These cumulative results suggest that unbiased approaches may be useful in identifying the molecular underpinnings of oncogenic signaling, including STAT3 activation, in HNSCC. Larger datasets will likely be necessary to elucidate signaling consequences of infrequent alterations. PMID:27855189

  3. Essential role of Notch4/STAT3 signaling in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bui, Quyen Thu; Im, Ji Hye; Jeong, Sung Baek; Kim, Young-Mi; Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Bumseok; Kang, Keon Wook

    2017-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant human breast cancer (TAMR-MCF-7) cells showed increased expression of mesenchymal marker proteins compared to the parent MCF-7 cells. Notch is functionally important in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during both development and tumor progression. Notch1 and Notch4 have been reported as prognostic markers in human breast cancer. Here, we indicated that Notch4, but not Notch1, plays a critical role in the regulation of EMT signaling in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Notch4 suppression by either Notch inhibitors or Notch4 siRNA attenuated EMT signaling. Tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 protein is known as a crucial signaling molecule in the regulation of tumorigenesis and metastasis. We found that TAMR-MCF-7 cells exhibited constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation, and Notch inhibition reduced the level of activated STAT3 in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. An intrasplenic injection model of liver metastases was performed using TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Mice injected with N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, 10 mg/kg) formed smaller splenic tumors and showed a reduced micrometastatic tumor burden in their livers compared with the control group treated with vehicle. To conclude, Notch4 could be a potential target to prevent metastasis in TAM-resistant breast cancer.

  4. Thunbergia alata inhibits inflammatory responses through the inactivation of ERK and STAT3 in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Kim, Ye Rang; Kim, Ba Reum; Bach, Tran The; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-11-01

    Thunbergia alata (Acanthaceae) has been used traditionally to treat various inflammatory diseases such as fever, cough and diarrhea in East African countries including Uganda and Kenya. However, systemic studies elucidating the anti-inflammatory effects and precise mechanisms of action of T. alata have not been conducted, to the best of our knowledge. To address these concerns, we explored the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract of T. alata (MTA) in macrophages. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of MTA (≤300 µg/ml) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by transcriptional regulation of inducible NO synthase in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was unchanged by MTA at the mRNA and protein levels. MTA treatment inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 production and decreased the mRNA expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-1β. Tumor necrosis factor-α production and mRNA expression were not regulated by MTA treatment. The decreased production of inflammatory mediators by MTA was followed by the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). MTA treatment had no effect on activity of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). These results indicate that MTA selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activity of ERK and STAT3, suggesting that MTA plays an important inhibitory role in the modulation of severe inflammation.

  5. The autophagy molecule Beclin 1 maintains persistent activity of NF-κB and Stat3 in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-10-02

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces persistent activation of IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, an essential step for initiating HTLV-1 oncogenesis. The regulation of the IKK/NF-κB signaling in HTLV-1-transformed T cells remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we showed that the autophagy molecule Beclin1 not only executed a cytoprotective function through induction of autophagy but also played a pivotal role in maintaining Tax-induced activation of two key survival factors, NF-κB and Stat3. Silencing Beclin1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells resulted in diminished activities of NF-κB and Stat3 as well as impaired growth. In Beclin1-depleted cells, Tax failed to activate NF-κB and Stat3 at its full capacity. In addition, we showed that Beclin1 interacted with the catalytic subunits of IKK. Further, we observed that selective inhibition of IKK repressed the activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the context of HTLV-1-transformation of T cells. Our data, therefore, unveiled a key role of Beclin1 in maintaining persistent activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis.

  6. The Autophagy Molecule Beclin 1 Maintains Persistent Activity of NF-κB and Stat3 in HTLV-1-transformed T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces persistent activation of IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB signaling, an essential step for initiating HTLV-1 oncogenesis. The regulation of the IKK/NF-κB signaling in HTLV-1-transformed T cells remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we showed that the autophagy molecule Beclin1 not only executed a cytoprotective function through induction of autophagy but also played a pivotal role in maintaining Tax-induced activation of two key survival factors, NF-κB and Stat3. Silencing Beclin1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells resulted in diminished activities of NF-κB and Stat3 as well as impaired growth. In Beclin1-depleted cells, Tax failed to activate NF-κB and Stat3 at its full capacity. In addition, we showed that Beclin1 interacted with the catalytic subunits of IKK. Further, we observed that selective inhibition of IKK repressed the activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the context of HTLV-1-transformation of T cells. Our data, therefore, unveiled a key role of Beclin1 in maintaining persistent activities of both NF-κB and Stat3 in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26319552

  7. Functional graphene oxide as a plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA carrier inhibits mouse malignant melanoma growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Di; Li, Yang; Lin, Hang; Guo, Baofeng; Du, Yanwei; Li, Xin; Jia, Huijie; Zhao, Xuejian; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Ling

    2013-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intensive interest in the biomedical field in recent years. We investigate whether the use of functional graphene oxide as an efficient delivery system for delivering specific molecular antitumor therapeutics in vivo could achieve a more excellent antitumor effect. Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) promotes survival in a wide spectrum of human cancers. In this paper, we study the in vivo behavior of graphene oxide chemically functionalized with polyethylenimine and polyethylene glycol (GO-PEI-PEG) as a plasmid-based Stat3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier in mouse malignant melanoma. The in vivo results indicate significant regression in tumor growth and tumor weight after plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA delivered by GO-PEI-PEG treatment. Moreover, there was no significant side effect from GO-PEI-PEG treatment according to histological examination and blood chemistry analysis in mice. Thus, our work is the first success of using GO-PEI-PEG as a promising carrier for plasmid Stat3 siRNA delivery and down-regulation of Stat3 by a polymer-mediated vehicle and suggests the great promise of graphene in biomedical applications such as cancer treatment.

  8. The Novel miR-9600 Suppresses Tumor Progression and Promotes Paclitaxel Sensitivity in Non–small-cell Lung Cancer Through Altering STAT3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cheng-Cao; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Ya-Dong; Zuo, Zhen-Yu; Xi, Yong-Yong; Wang, Liang; Li, De-Jia

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been identified to be involved in center stage of cancer biology. They accommodate cell proliferation and migration by negatively regulate gene expression either by hampering the translation of targeted mRNAs or by promoting their degradation. We characterized and identified the novel miR-9600 and its target in human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our results demonstrated that the miR-9600 were downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells. It is confirmed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a putative target gene, is directly inhibited by miR-9600. The miR-9600 markedly suppressed the protein expression of STAT3, but with no significant influence in corresponding mRNA levels, and the direct combination of miR-9600 and STAT3 was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. miR-9600 inhibited cell growth, hampered expression of cell cycle-related proteins and inhibited cell migration and invasion in human NSCLC cell lines. Further, miR-9600 significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Similarly, miR-9600 impeded tumorigenesis and metastasis through directly targeting STAT3. Furthermore, we identified that miR-9600 augmented paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by downregulating STAT3 and promoting chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data demonstrate that miR-9600 might be a useful and novel therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:27845771

  9. Cardioprotection from emulsified isoflurane postconditioning is lost in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes due to the impairment of Brg1/Nrf2/STAT3 signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Haobo; Huang, Huansen; Liu, Shiming; Mao, Xiaowen; Wang, Sheng; Wong, Stanley Sau-Ching; Xia, Zhengyuan; Irwin, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Isoflurane postconditioning (IsoPostC) attenuates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is critical in ischaemic postconditioning cardioprotection, which can be regulated by the Brahma-related gene (Brg1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), although they are both reduced in diabetic hearts. We hypothesized that reduced Brg1/Nrf2 and STAT3 activation may jeopardize IsoPostC-mediated cardioprotection in diabetic hearts. In the present study, Langendorff-perfused, non-diabetic (control) and 8-week-old streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischaemia and 120 min of reperfusion without or with IsoPostC, which was achieved by administering emulsified isoflurane (2.0%, v/v) in Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution immediately at the onset of reperfusion for 10 min and switching to KH solution perfusion alone thereafter. Cultured H9C2 cells were exposed to normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 30 mM) and subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) in the presence or absence of IsoPostC. Diabetic rats displayed larger post-ischaemic myocardial infarction and more severe haemodynamic dysfunction, associated with increased myocardial oxidative stress and reduced cardiac Brg1, Nrf2 and STAT3 phosphorylation/activation (p-STAT3), compared with controls. These changes were reversed/prevented by IsoPostC in control but not in diabetic rats. In H9C2 cells exposed to NG but not HG, IsoPostC significantly attenuated HR-induced cellular injury and superoxide anion production with increased Brg1, Nrf2 and p-STAT3. These beneficial effects of IsoPostC were abolished by Brg1, Nrf2 or STAT3 gene knockdown. Brg1 or Nrf2 gene knockdown abolished IsoPostC-induced STAT3 activation. N-acetylcysteine restored Brg1, Nrf2 and p-STAT3, and IsoPostC-induced protection in H9C2 cells exposed to HG and HR. In conclusion, IsoPostC confers cardioprotection through

  10. Chikusetsusaponin IVa Butyl Ester (CS-IVa-Be), a Novel IL6R Antagonist, Inhibits IL6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway and Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Qian, Shihui; Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Hu, Chunping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Qiang; Gao, S Paul; Cao, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The activation of IL6/STAT3 signaling is associated with the pathogenesis of many cancers. Agents that suppress IL6/STAT3 signaling have cancer-therapeutic potential. In this study, we found that chikusetsusaponin IVa butyl ester (CS-IVa-Be), a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Acanthopanas gracilistylus W.W.Smith, induced cancer cell apoptosis. CS-IVa-Be inhibited constitutive and IL6-induced STAT3 activation, repressed STAT3 DNA-binding activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, IL6-induced STAT3 luciferase reporter activity, IL6-induced STAT3-regulated antiapoptosis gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, and IL6-induced TF-1 cell proliferation. Surprisingly, CS-IVa-Be inhibited IL6 family cytokines rather than other cytokines induced STAT3 activation. Further studies indicated that CS-IVa-Be is an antagonist of IL6 receptor via directly binding to the IL6Rα with a Kd of 663 ± 74 nmol/L and the GP130 (IL6Rβ) with a Kd of 1,660 ± 243 nmol/L, interfering with the binding of IL6 to IL6R (IL6Rα and GP130) in vitro and in cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of CS-IVa-Be on the IL6-IL6Rα-GP130 interaction was relatively specific as CS-IVa-Be showed higher affinity to IL6Rα than to LIFR (Kd: 4,910 ± 1,240 nmol/L) and LeptinR (Kd: 4,990 ± 915 nmol/L). We next demonstrated that CS-IVa-Be not only directly induced cancer cell apoptosis but also sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via upregulating DR5. Our findings suggest that CS-IVa-Be as a novel IL6R antagonist inhibits IL6/STAT3 signaling pathway and sensitizes the MDA-MB-231 cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1190-200. ©2016 AACR.

  11. Lumbar puncture-administered resveratrol inhibits STAT3 activation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in orthotopic rat glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Song; Xiao-Hong, Shu; Lin, Sha; Jie, Bian; Li-Li, Wang; Jia-Yao, Gu; Shun, Shi; Pei-Nan, Li; Mo-Li, Wu; Qian, Wang; Xiao-Yan, Chen; Qing-You, Kong; Peng, Zhang; Hong, Li; Jia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol suppresses glioblastoma growth in vitro, but its effects on intracranial glioblastomas remain untested. Resveratrol crosses the blood–brain barrier, and lumbar puncture (LP) greatly increases its bioavailability in rat brains; therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of LP-administered resveratrol on orthotopic rat glioblastomas. Twenty-four tumor-bearing rats were separated into two groups: Group 1 receiving 100 μl saline containing 0.3% DMSO and Group 2 receiving 100 μl resveratrol (300 μM). Treatments started 3 days after transplantation in 2-day intervals until death. Intracranial drug availabilities, tumor sizes, average life spans and the impacts on STAT3 signaling, apoptosis and autophagy rates were evaluated. MRI imaging revealed that average tumor size in the LP group (495.8 ± 22.3 mm2) was smaller than the control groups (810.3 ± 56.4 mm2; P<0.05). The mean survival time in the LP group (22.2 ± 2.1 d) was longer than control animals (16.0 ± 1.8 d; P<0.05). LP resveratrol-treated glioblastomas showed less Cyclin D1 staining, enhanced autophagy with up-regulated LC3 and Beclin1 expression, and widely distributed apoptotic foci around tumor capillaries with suppressed STAT3 expression and nuclear translocation. In conclusion, LP-delivered resveratrol efficiently inhibited orthotopic rat glioblastoma growth by inactivating STAT3 signaling and enhancing autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:27716625

  12. Oncostatin M Promotes Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through JAK3-STAT3 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kakutani, Yoshinori; Shioi, Atsushi; Shoji, Tetsuo; Okazaki, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Vascular calcification is a clinically significant component of atherosclerosis and arises from chronic vascular inflammation. Oncostatin M (OSM) derived from plaque macrophages may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic calcification. Here, we investigated the stimulatory effects of OSM on osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) derived from various arteries including umbilical artery, aorta, and coronary artery and its signaling pathway. Osteoblastic differentiation was induced by exposure of HVSMC to osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM) (10% fetal bovine serum, 0.1 μM dexamethasone, 10 mM β-glycerophosphate and 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid 2-phosphate in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]). OSM significantly increased alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization in HVSMC from all sources. Osteoblast marker genes such as ALP and Runx2 were also up-regulated by OSM in these cells. OSM treatment induced activation of STAT3 in HVSMC from umbilical artery as evidenced by immunoblot. Moreover, not only a JAK3 inhibitor, WHI-P154, but also knockdown of JAK3 by siRNA prevented the OSM-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization in umbilical artery HVSMC. On the other hand, silencing of STAT3 almost completely suppressed OSM-induced ALP expression and matrix mineralization in HVSMC from all sources. These data suggest that OSM promotes osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through JAK3/STAT3 pathway and may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic calcification.

  13. Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NFκB and STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiming; Tanaka, Naoki; Sun, Lu; Guo, Bin; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Jiang, Changtao; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause acute liver injury that is sometimes fatal, requiring efficient pharmacological intervention. The traditional Chinese herb Bupleurum falcatum has been widely used for the treatment of several liver diseases in eastern Asian countries, and saikosaponin d (SSd) is one of its major pharmacologically-active components. However, the efficacy of Bupleurum falcatum or SSd on APAP toxicity remains unclear. C57BL/6 mice were administered SSd intraperitoneally once daily for five days, followed by APAP challenge. Biochemical and pathological analysis revealed that mice treated with SSd were protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. SSd markedly suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and reversed the APAP-induced increases in the target genes of NF-kB, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine Il6 and Ccl2, and those of STAT3, such as Socs3, Fga, Fgb and Fgg. SSd also enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 mRNA. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SSd protects mice from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mainly through down-regulating NF-kB- and STAT3-mediated inflammatory signaling. This study unveils one of the possible mechanisms of hepatoprotection caused by Bupleurum falcatum and/or SSd. PMID:25265579

  14. Theaflavins suppress tumor growth and metastasis via the blockage of the STAT3 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jianping; Meng, Qingyan; Li, Yongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Theaflavins, the major black tea polyphenols, have been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activities in several human cancers. However, the role of theaflavins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. In this study, we found that theaflavins could significantly inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis in HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, we found that theaflavins inhibited the growth and metastasis of HCC in an orthotopic model and a lung metastasis model. Immunohistochemical analyses and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assays showed that theaflavins could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in vivo. Theaflavins also suppressed constitutive and inducible signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. The downstream proteins regulated by STAT3, including the antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Survivin) and the invasion-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9), were also downregulated after theaflavins treatment. Theaflavins induced apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Together, our results suggest that theaflavins suppress the growth and metastasis of human HCC through the blockage of the STAT3 pathway, and thus may act as potential therapeutic agents for HCC. PMID:27478384

  15. Combination of a STAT3 Inhibitor and an mTOR Inhibitor Against a Temozolomide-resistant Glioblastoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA*, HARUO; ASHIZAWA*, TADASHI; IIZUKA, AKIRA; KONDOU, RYOTA; NONOMURA, CHIZU; SUGINO, TAKASHI; URAKAMI, KENICHI; ASAI, AKIRA; HAYASHI, NAKAMASA; MITSUYA, KOICHI; NAKASU, YOKO; YAMAGUCHI, KEN; AKIYAMA, YASUTO

    2016-01-01

    Background: Temozolomide-resistant (TMZ-R) glioblastoma is very difficult to treat, and a novel approach to overcome resistance is needed. Materials and Methods: The efficacy of a combination treatment of STAT3 inhibitor, STX-0119, with rapamycin was investigated against our established TMZ-resistant U87 cell line. Results: The growth-inhibitory effect of the combination treatment was significant against the TMZ-R U87 cell line (IC50: 78 μM for STX-0119, 30.5 μM for rapamycin and 11.3 μM for combination of the two). Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of STX-0119 on S6 and 4E-BP1 activation through regulation of YKL-40 expression occurred in addition to the inhibitory effect of rapamycin against the mTOR pathway. Conclusion: These results suggest that the STAT3 pathway is associated with the mTOR downstream pathway mediated by YKL-40 protein, and the combination therapy of the STAT3 inhibitor and rapamycin could be worth developing as a novel therapeutic approach against TMZ-resistant relapsed gliomas. Abbreviations: GB: Glioblastoma, TMZ: temozolomide, MGMT: O6-methylguanine-O6-methylguanine-DNAmethyltransferase, STAT: signal transducer and activator of transcription, mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin, shRNA: small hairpin RNA. PMID:28031240

  16. Myocyte-Derived Hsp90 Modulates Collagen Upregulation via Biphasic Activation of STAT-3 in Fibroblasts during Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Rana, Santanu; Datta, Kaberi; Datta Chaudhuri, Ratul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2017-03-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3)-mediated signaling in relation to upregulated collagen expression in fibroblasts during cardiac hypertrophy is well defined. Our recent findings have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to be a critical modulator of fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts in this disease milieu. The present study was therefore intended to analyze the role of Hsp90 in the STAT-3-mediated collagen upregulation process. Our data revealed a significant difference between in vivo and in vitro results, pointing to a possible involvement of myocyte-fibroblast cross talk in this process. Cardiomyocyte-targeted knockdown of Hsp90 in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which the renal artery was ligated showed downregulated collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the results obtained with cardiac fibroblasts conditioned with Hsp90-inhibited hypertrophied myocyte supernatant pointed toward cardiomyocytes' role in the regulation of collagen expression in fibroblasts during hypertrophy. Our study also revealed a novel signaling mechanism where myocyte-derived Hsp90 orchestrates not only p65-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis but also its release in exosomal vesicles. Such myocyte-derived exosomes and myocyte-secreted IL-6 are responsible in unison for the biphasic activation of STAT-3 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts that culminates in excess collagen synthesis, leading to severely compromised cardiac function during cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. CD5 Binds to Interleukin-6 and Induces a Feed-Forward Loop with the Transcription Factor STAT3 in B Cells to Promote Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Xin, Hong; Zhang, Wang; Yazaki, Paul J; Zhang, Zhifang; Le, Keith; Li, Wenzhao; Lee, Heehyoung; Kwak, Larry; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2016-04-19

    The participation of a specific subset of B cells and how they are regulated in cancer is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the proportion of CD5(+) relative to interleukin-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα)-expressing B cells was greatly increased in tumors. CD5(+) B cells responded to IL-6 in the absence of IL-6Rα. IL-6 directly bound to CD5, leading to activation of the transcription factor STAT3 via gp130 and its downstream kinase JAK2. STAT3 upregulated CD5 expression, thereby forming a feed-forward loop in the B cells. In mouse tumor models, CD5(+) but not CD5(-) B cells promoted tumor growth. CD5(+) B cells also showed activation of STAT3 in multiple types of human tumor tissues. Thus, our findings demonstrate a critical role of CD5(+) B cells in promoting cancer.

  18. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation on CD27(+) B-cells from common variable immunodeficiency disease patients.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Antonio; Pons, Jaume; Lanio, Nallibe; Cunill, Vanesa; Frontera, Guillem; Crespí, Catalina; Matamoros, Núria; Ferrer, Joana M

    2015-12-01

    Maturation and differentiation of B-cells are driven by T-cells' help through IL-21/STAT3 axis in GC centers or through extrafollicular pathways, in a T-independent manner. B-cell differentiation is defective in common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patients. We investigated if IL-21/STAT3 axis alterations could influence B-cell fate. We activated purified CVID B-cells with surrogate T-dependent (anti-CD40), T-independent (TLR-9 ligand) stimuli or through B-cell receptor engagement (anti-IgM) with or without IL-21. IL-21 mediated STAT3 activation was greater on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells depending on the stimulus. IL-21 alone induced STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3) only on CD27(-) B-cells and IL-21 induced higher pSTAT3 levels on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells after anti-IgM or anti-CD40 activation. CVID CD27(+) B-cells showed selective STAT3 hyperphosphorylation after activation with anti-IgM or anti-CD40 alone and anti-IgM, anti-CD40 or ODN combined with IL-21. Increased STAT3 activation during immune responses could result in B-cell differentiation defects in CVID.

  19. At High Levels, Constitutively Activated STAT3 Induces Apoptosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Grgurevic, Srdana; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Martinez, Matthew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the increment in PBLs is slower than the expected increment calculated from the cells' proliferation rate, suggesting that cellular proliferation and apoptosis are concurrent. Exploring this phenomenon, we found overexpression of caspase-3, higher cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels (p < 0.007), and a higher apoptosis rate in cells from patients with high counts compared with cells from patients with low counts. Although we previously found that STAT3 protects CLL cells from apoptosis, STAT3 levels were significantly higher in cells from patients with high counts than in cells from patients with low counts. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 did not protect the cells. Rather, it upregulated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Remarkably, putative STAT3 binding sites were identified in the caspase-3 promoter, and a luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an EMSA revealed that STAT3 activated caspase-3 However, caspase-3 levels increased only when STAT3 levels were sufficiently high. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA, we found that STAT3 binds with low affinity to the caspase-3 promoter, suggesting that at high levels, STAT3 activates proapoptotic mechanisms and induces apoptosis in CLL cells.

  20. Differential roles of STAT3 in the initiation and growth of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Qu, Z; Yan, S; Sun, F; Whitsett, J A; Shapiro, S D; Xiao, G

    2015-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is linked to multiple cancers, including pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, the role of STAT3 in lung cancer pathogenesis has not been determined. Using lung epithelial-specific inducible knockout strategies, we demonstrate that STAT3 has contrasting roles in the initiation and growth of both chemically and genetically induced lung cancers. Selective deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 in mice before cancer induction by the smoke carcinogen, urethane, resulted in increased lung tissue damage and inflammation, K-Ras oncogenic mutations and tumorigenesis. Deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 after establishment of lung cancer inhibited cancer cell proliferation. Simultaneous deletion of STAT3 and expression of oncogenic K-Ras in mouse lung elevated pulmonary injury, inflammation and tumorigenesis, but reduced tumor growth. These studies indicate that STAT3 prevents lung cancer initiation by maintaining pulmonary homeostasis under oncogenic stress, whereas it facilitates lung cancer progression by promoting cancer cell growth. These studies also provide a mechanistic basis for targeting STAT3 to lung cancer therapy.

  1. Activation of Antitumorigenic Stat3beta in Breast Cancer by Splicing Redirection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2: 740-749. 3. Levy DE, Lee CK (2002) What does Stat3 do? J Clin Invest 109: 1143-1148. 4. Akira S ( 2000 ) Roles of STAT3 defined...breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 57: 978-987. 17. Inghirami G, Chiarle R, Simmons WJ, Piva R, Schlessinger K, et al. (2005) New and old functions of

  2. Stat3 links activated keratinocytes and immunocytes required for development of psoriasis in a novel transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sano, Shigetoshi; Chan, Keith Syson; Carbajal, Steve; Clifford, John; Peavey, Mary; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Itami, Satoshi; Nickoloff, Brian J; DiGiovanni, John

    2005-01-01

    Here we report that epidermal keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions are characterized by activated Stat3. Transgenic mice with keratinocytes expressing a constitutively active Stat3 (K5.Stat3C mice) develop a skin phenotype either spontaneously, or in response to wounding, that closely resembles psoriasis. Keratinocytes from K5.Stat3C mice show upregulation of several molecules linked to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In addition, the development of psoriatic lesions in K5.Stat3C mice requires cooperation between Stat3 activation in keratinocytes and activated T cells. Finally, abrogation of Stat3 function by a decoy oligonucleotide inhibits the onset and reverses established psoriatic lesions in K5.Stat3C mice. Thus, targeting Stat3 may be potentially therapeutic in the treatment of psoriasis.

  3. Hyperactivation of STAT3 is involved in abnormal differentiation of dendritic cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nefedova, Yulia; Huang, Mei; Kusmartsev, Sergei; Bhattacharya, Raka; Cheng, Pingyan; Salup, Raoul; Jove, Richard; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    Abnormal differentiation of myeloid cells is one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of this process remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of tumor-derived factors on Janus kinase (Jak)/STAT signaling in myeloid cells during their differentiation into dendritic cells. Tumor cell conditioned medium induced activation of Jak2 and STAT3, which was associated with an accumulation of immature myeloid cells. Jak2/STAT3 activity was localized primarily in these myeloid cells, which prevented the differentiation of immature myeloid cells into mature dendritic cells. This differentiation was restored after removal of tumor-derived factors. Inhibition of STAT3 abrogated the negative effects of these factors on myeloid cell differentiation, and overexpression of STAT3 reproduced the effects of tumor-derived factors. Thus, this is a first demonstration that tumor-derived factors may affect myeloid cell differentiation in cancer via constitutive activation of Jak2/STAT3.

  4. Stat3 Activation in Murine Colitis Induced by Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Elizabeth C.; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Albesiano, Emilia; Wu, XinQun; Wu, Shaoguang; Chan, June; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Ortega, Guillermo; Huso, David L.; Pardoll, Drew; Housseau, Franck; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), a molecular subclass of the common human commensal, B. fragilis, has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. ETBF colitis is characterized by the activation of Stat3 and a Th17 immune response in the colonic mucosa. This study was designed to investigate the time course and cellular distribution of Stat3 activation in ETBF-colonized mice. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type, C57BL/6Stat3ΔIEC, or Rag-1 mice were inoculated with saline, nontoxigenic B. fragilis or ETBF. Histologic diagnosis and mucosal Stat activation (immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and/or electrophorectic mobility shift assay) were evaluated over time (6–24 h, 1–7 d, and 1–18 mo after inoculation). Mucosal permeability was evaluated at 16 hours, 1 day, and 3 days. Mucosal immune responses were evaluated at 1 week, and 12 and 18 months. Results ETBF induced rapid-onset colitis that persisted for up to 1 year. Stat3 activation (pStat3) was noted in the mucosal immune cells within 16 hours, with colonic epithelial cell activation evident at 24 hours after inoculation. ETBF-induced increased mucosal permeability was first observed at 24 hours after inoculation, after which the initial immune cell pStat3 activation was noted. Immune cell pStat3 was present in the absence of epithelial pStat3 (C57BL/ 6Stat3ΔIEC). Epithelial pStat3 was present in the absence of T and B cells (Rag-1 mice). pStat3 persisted in the epithelial and immune cells for 1 year, characterized by isolated pStat3-positive cell clusters, with varying intensity distributed through the proximal and distal colon. Similarly, mucosal Th17 immune responses persisted for up to 1 year. Loss of fecal ETBF colonization was associated with the loss of mucosal pStat3 and Th17 immune responses. Conclusions ETBF rapidly induces immune cell pStat3, which is independent of epithelial pStat3. This occurs before ETBF-induced mucosal permeability, suggesting that ETBF, likely through B

  5. Qing Hua Chang Yin inhibits the LPS-induced activation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiao; Hu, Guanghong; Fang, Wenyi; Chen, Jintuan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Chunbo; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is highly regulated by the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and its negative feedback regulator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Therefore, modulating the signaling feedback loop of IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 may prove to be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in clinic for the treatment of UC. We have previously reported that QHCY ameliorates acute intestinal inflammation in vivo and in vitro through the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In the present study, in order to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of QHCY, we stimulated human intestinal Caco-2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create an in vitro model of an inflamed human intestinal epithelium, and evaluated the effects of QHCY on the IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling network in inflamed Caco-2 cells. The levels of IL-6 were measured by ELISA and the levels of STAT3 and SOCS3 were measured by western blot analysis. We found that QHCY significantly inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QHCY profoundly suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK2 and STAT3. Furthermore, treatment with QHCY markedly augmented the expression of SOCS3. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that the modulation of the IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling network may be one of the mechanisms through which QHCY exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. A Resveratrol Analogue Promotes ERKMAPK–Dependent Stat3 Serine and Tyrosine Phosphorylation Alterations and Antitumor Effects In Vitro against Human Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chelsky, Zachary L.; Yue, Peibin; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Paladino, David; Pezzuto, John M.; Cushman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    (E)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl)phenyl acetate (Cmpd1) is a resveratrol analog that preferentially inhibits glioma, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell growth, with IC50 values of 6–19 μM. Notably, the human U251MG glioblastoma tumor line is the most sensitive, with an IC50 of 6.7 μM, compared with normal fibroblasts, which have an IC50 > 20 μM. Treatment of U251MG cells that harbor aberrantly active signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 with Cmpd1 suppresses Stat3 tyrosine705 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with the induction of pserine727 Stat3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (pErk1/2MAPK). Inhibition of pErk1/2MAPK induction by the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 [2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] blocked both the pserine727 Stat3 induction and ptyrosine705 Stat3 suppression by Cmpd1, indicating dependency on the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase–Erk1/2MAPK pathway for Cmpd1-induced modulation of Stat3 signaling. Cmpd1 also blocked epidermal growth factor–stimulated pStat1 induction, whereas upregulating pSrc, pAkt, p-p38, pHeat shock protein 27, and pmammalian target of rapamycin levels. However, pJanus kinase 2 and pEpidermal growth factor receptor levels were not significantly altered. Treatment of U251MG cells with Cmpd1 reduced in vitro colony formation, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cleavage of caspases 3, 8, and 9 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, and suppressed survivin, myeloid cell leukemia 1, Bcl-xL, cyclin D1, and cyclin B1 expression. Taken together, these data identify a novel mechanism for the inhibition of Stat3 signaling by a resveratrol analog and suggest that the preferential growth inhibitory effects of Cmp1 occur in part by Erk1/2MAPK-dependent modulation of constitutively active Stat3. PMID:26138072

  7. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses collagen production and proliferation in keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the STAT3-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyuman; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai-Hee; Kim, Bona; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Hyunggee; Song, Hea Joon; Noh, Joo Young; Oh, Chilhwan; You, Seungkwon

    2008-10-01

    Keloids are benign skin tumors characterized by collagen accumulation and hyperproliferation of fibroblasts. To find an effective therapy for keloids, we explored the pharmacological potential of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a widely investigated tumor-preventive agent. When applied to normal and keloid fibroblasts (KFs) in vitro, proliferation and migration of KFs were more strongly suppressed by EGCG than normal fibroblast proliferation and migration (IC(50): 54.4 microM (keloid fibroblast (KF)) versus 63.0 microM (NF)). The level of Smad2/3, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and p38 phosphorylation is more enhanced in KFs, and EGCG inhibited phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and STAT3 (Tyr705 and Ser727). To evaluate the contribution of these pathways to keloid pathology, we treated KFs with specific inhibitors for PI3K, ERK1/2, or STAT3. Although a PI3K inhibitor significantly suppressed proliferation, PI3K and MEK/ERK inhibitors had a minor effect on migration and collagen production. However, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor and a STAT3 siRNA strongly suppressed proliferation, migration, and collagen production by KFs. We also found that treatment with EGCG suppressed growth and collagen production in the in vivo keloid model. This study demonstrates that EGCG suppresses the pathological characteristics of keloids through inhibition of the STAT3-signaling pathway. We propose that EGCG has potential in the treatment and prevention of keloids.

  8. A novel 7-bromoindirubin with potent anticancer activity suppresses survival of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Kritsanida, Marina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jun; Buettner, Ralf; Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2012-11-01

    STAT3 and Akt signaling have been validated as potential molecular targets for treatment of cancers including melanoma. These small molecule inhibitors of STAT3 or Akt signaling are promising for developing anti-melanoma therapeutic agents. MLS-2438, a novel 7-bromoindirubin, a derivative of the natural product indirubin, was synthesized with a bromo-group at the 7-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. We tested the anticancer activity of MLS-2438 and investigated its mechanism of action in human melanoma cell lines. Here, we show that MLS-2438 inhibits viability and induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling. Several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are involved in the MLS-2438 mediated apoptosis. MLS-2438 inhibits Src kinase activity in vitro and phosphorylation of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt in cultured cancer cells. In contrast to the decreased phosphorylation levels of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt, phosphorylation levels of the MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling protein were not reduced in cells treated with MLS-2438. These results demonstrate that MLS-2438, a novel natural product derivative, is a Src inhibitor and potentially regulates kinase activity of JAK2 and Akt in cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2438 suppressed tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Our findings support further development of MLS-2438 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets both STAT3 and Akt signaling in human melanoma cells.

  9. Novel small molecular inhibitors disrupt the JAK/STAT3 and FAK signaling pathways and exhibit a potent antitumor activity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Swiatek-Machado, Karolina; Mieczkowski, Jakub; Ellert-Miklaszewska, Aleksandra; Swierk, Piotr; Fokt, Izabela; Szymanski, Slawomir; Skora, Stanislaw; Szeja, Wiesław; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Lesyng, Bogdan; Priebe, Waldemar; Kaminska, Bozena

    2012-06-01

    JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling is involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of STATs, in particular STAT3, is observed in a large number of human tumors, including gliomas and may contribute to oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and preventing apoptosis, thus it emerges as a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. To investigate the therapeutic potential of blocking STAT3 in glioma cells a set of small synthetic molecules - caffeic acid derivatives, structurally related to AG490 was screened for its ability to inhibit STAT3. Inhibitor 2 (E)-2-cyano-N-[(S)-1-phenylethyl]-3-(pyridin-2-yl)acrylamide was the most effective in inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling and at doses ≥ 25 μM significantly reduced the level of phosphorylated JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3 (at Tyr705) and downregulated the expression of known STAT3 targets. In treated cells we observed rapid detachment and rounding of cells associated with reduction of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and activity, followed by upregulation of phosphorylated p38, JNK and ERK1/2 levels. Accumulation of cells with fragmented DNA, increases of the cleaved caspase 3 and fragmented PARP levels were detected 24 h after the treatment suggesting ongoing apoptotic cell death. Three human malignant glioblastoma cell lines defective in tumor suppressors TP53 and/or PTEN were susceptible to inhibitor 2 that induced the programmed cell death. Global gene expression profiling revealed modulation of numerous genes in cells treated with inhibitor 2 revealing novel, potential JAK/STAT targets. Our study demonstrates that suitably modified caffeic acid molecules exhibit significant cytotoxic potential toward glioma cells.

  10. Aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 was identified as a biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning through integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Wenlin; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. The new biomarker and action mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning are still required to be explored. Aberrant DNA methylation, which may lead to genomic instability and the altered gene expression, is frequently observed in hematological cancers. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, DNA methylation profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four chronic benzene poisoning patients and four health controls that matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. By integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, we identified 3 hypermethylated genes showing concurrent down-regulation (PRKG1, PARD3, EPHA8) and 2 hypomethylated genes showing increased expression (STAT3, IFNGR1). Signal net analysis of differential methylation genes associated with chronic benzene poisoning showed that two key hypomethylated STAT3 and hypermethylated GNAI1 were identified. Further GO analysis and pathway analysis indicated that hypomethylated STAT3 played central roles through regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, JAK-STAT cascade and adipocytokine signaling pathway, Acute myeloid leukemia, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, the aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

  11. CD44 and CD24 coordinate the reprogramming of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells towards a cancer stem cell phenotype through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao-An; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Hwang, John Jeng-Jong; Chi, Wei-Hsin; Shu, Chih-Hung; Ho, Ching-Yin; Li, Wing-Yin; Chen, Yann-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface proteins such as CD44 and CD24 are used to distinguish cancer stem cells (CSCs) from the bulk-tumor population. However, the molecular functionalities of CD24 and CD44, and how these two molecules coordinate in CSCs remain poorly understood. We found that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells with high expression of CD44 and CD24 proteins presented with pronounced CSC properties. Accordingly, a subpopulation of NPC cells with co-expression of CD44 and CD24 were specially enriched in high-stage clinical samples. Furthermore, ectopically expressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator Twist was able to upregulate the stemness factors, and vice versa. This indicates a reciprocal regulation of stemness and EMT. Intriguingly, we found that this reciprocal regulation was differentially orchestrated by CD44 and CD24, and only simultaneous silencing the expression of CD44 and CD24 led to a broad-spectrum suppression of CSC properties. Oppositely, overexpression of CD44 and CD24 induced the reprogramming of parental NPC cells into CSCs through STAT3 activation, which could be blunted by STAT3 inhibition, indicating that CD44 and CD24 collaboratively drive the reprogramming of NPC cells through STAT3-mediated stemness and EMT activation. Consequently, targeting of the CD44/CD24/STAT3 axis may provide a potential therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of NPC through repressing CSC activities. PMID:27521216

  12. Roles of STAT3 in Protein Secretion Pathways during the Acute-Phase Response

    PubMed Central

    Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N.; Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A.; Mella, Juan R.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    The acute-phase response is characteristic of perhaps all infections, including bacterial pneumonia. In conjunction with the acute-phase response, additional biological pathways are induced in the liver and are dependent on the transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB, but these responses are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that pneumococcal pneumonia and other severe infections increase expression of multiple components of the cellular secretory machinery in the mouse liver, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon complex, which mediates protein translation into the ER, and the coat protein complexes (COPI and COPII), which mediate vesicular transport of proteins to and from the ER. Hepatocyte-specific mutation of STAT3 prevented the induction of these secretory pathways during pneumonia, with similar results observed following pharmacological activation of ER stress by using tunicamycin. These findings implicate STAT3 in the unfolded protein response and suggest that STAT3-dependent optimization of secretion may apply broadly. Pneumonia also stimulated the binding of phosphorylated STAT3 to promoter regions of secretion-related genes in the liver, supporting a direct role for STAT3 in their transcription. Altogether, these results identify a novel function of STAT3 during the acute-phase response, namely, the induction of secretory machinery in hepatocytes. This may facilitate the processing and delivery of newly synthesized loads of acute-phase proteins, enhancing innate immunity and preventing liver injury during infection. PMID:23460517

  13. STAT3 modulates β-cell cycling in injured mouse pancreas and protects against DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, S; Renmans, D; Cai, Y; Leuckx, G; Roels, S; Staels, W; Gradwohl, G; Baeyens, L; Heremans, Y; Martens, G A; De Leu, N; Sojoodi, M; Van de Casteele, M; Heimberg, H

    2016-01-01

    Partial pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) of mouse pancreas induces a doubling of the β-cell mass mainly through proliferation of pre-existing and newly formed β-cells. The molecular mechanism governing this process is still largely unknown. Given the inflammatory nature of PDL and inflammation-induced signaling via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the activation and the role of STAT3 in PDL-induced β-cell proliferation were investigated. Duct ligation stimulates the expression of several cytokines that can act as ligands inducing STAT3 signaling and phosphorylation in β-cells. β-Cell cycling increased by conditional β-cell-specific Stat3 knockout and decreased by STAT3 activation through administration of interleukin-6. In addition, the level of DNA damage in β-cells of PDL pancreas increased after deletion of Stat3. These data indicate a role for STAT3 in maintaining a steady state in the β-cell, by modulating its cell cycle and protection from DNA damage. PMID:27336716

  14. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations.

    PubMed

    Milner, Joshua D; Vogel, Tiphanie P; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E; Lyons, Jonathan J; Engelhardt, Karin R; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D O; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L; Karam, Lina B; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M; Sorte, Hanne S; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V Koneti; O'Connell, Michael P; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Ciaccio, Christina E; Saunders, Carol J; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F; White, Andrew J; Cant, Andrew J; Hambleton, Sophie; Cooper, Megan A

    2015-01-22

    Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350.

  15. How should we define STAT3 as an oncogene and as a potential target for therapy?

    PubMed

    Sellier, Hélène; Rébillard, Amélie; Guette, Catherine; Barré, Benjamin; Coqueret, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    Aberrant activation of the STAT3 transcription factor has been reported in a large group of tumors and a strong biological basis now defines this protein as an oncogenic driver. Consequently, STAT3 is considered to be a promising target in the field of cancer therapy. For its inhibition to result in a successful therapeutic approach, the definition of a target tumor population identified by specific and detectable alterations is critical. The canonical activation model of STAT3 relies on a constitutive phosphorylation on its 705 tyrosine site, resulting in its dimerization, nuclear translocation, and the consequent activation of cancer genes. Therefore, it is expected that tumors expressing this phosphorylated form are addicted to STAT3 and will be sensitive to existing drugs which are targeting this dimeric form. However, recent results have shown that STAT3 can function as an oncogene in the absence of this tyrosine phosphorylation. This indicates that different forms of the transcription factor also play an important role in tumor growth and chemotherapy resistance. This complicates the definition of STAT3 as an oncogene and as a potential prognosis and predictive biomarker. The obligation to target a defined tumor type implies that future clinical trials should use a precise definition of STAT3 activation. This will allow tumors addicted to this oncogene to be identified correctly, leading to a strong rationale for patient stratification.

  16. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangyang; Zhu, Fenfen; Zhao, Zhihui; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-10-01

    Arctigenin is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Bardanae fructus, Arctium lappa L, Saussureamedusa, Torreya nucifera, and Ipomea cairica. It has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is mainly mediated through its inhibitory effect on nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB). But the role of arctigenin in JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways is still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effect of arctigenin on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluated whether suppression of STAT3 activity by arctigenin could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our results show that arctigenin significantly suppressed both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be achieved through suppression of Src, JAK1, and JAK2, while suppression of STAT3 serine phosphorylation was mediated by inhibition of ERK activation. Pervanadate reversed the arctigenin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, arctigenin can obviously induce the expression of the PTP SHP-2. Furthermore, the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Arctigenin dramatically promoted cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that arctigenin enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations suggest a novel anticancer function of arctigenin and a potential therapeutic strategy of using arctigenin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

  17. Role of STAT3 in Transformation and Drug Resistance in CML

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajesh R.; Tolentino, Joel H.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is initially driven by the bcr–abl fusion oncoprotein. The identification of bcr–abl led to the discovery and rapid translation into the clinic of bcr–abl kinase inhibitors. Although, bcr–abl inhibitors are efficacious, experimental evidence indicates that targeting bcr–abl is not sufficient for elimination of minimal residual disease found within the bone marrow (BM). Experimental evidence indicates that the failure to eliminate the leukemic stem cell contributes to persistent minimal residual disease. Thus curative strategies will likely need to focus on strategies where bcr–abl inhibitors are given in combination with agents that specifically target the leukemic stem cell or the leukemic stem cell niche. One potential target to be exploited is the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Recently using STAT3 conditional knock-out mice it was shown that STAT3 is critical for initiating the disease. Interestingly, in the absence of treatment, STAT3 was not shown to be required for maintenance of the disease, suggesting that STAT3 is required only in the tumor initiating stem cell population (Hoelbl et al., 2010). In the context of the BM microenvironment, STAT3 is activated in a bcr–abl independent manner by the cytokine milieu. Activation of JAK/STAT3 was shown to contribute to cell survival even in the event of complete inhibition of bcr–abl activity within the BM compartment. Taken together, these studies suggest that JAK/STAT3 is an attractive therapeutic target for developing strategies for targeting the JAK–STAT3 pathway in combination with bcr–abl kinase inhibitors and may represent a viable strategy for eliminating or reducing minimal residual disease located in the BM in CML. PMID:22649784

  18. Up, Down, and All Around: Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel STAT3 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Weinreich, Michael Alexander; Vogel, Tiphanie P.; Rao, V. Koneti; Milner, Joshua D.

    2017-01-01

    The number of identified monogenic causes of childhood-onset autoimmunity due to nodal and extranodal lymphoproliferation has increased. These pathogenic genetic variants provide the potential for pathway-specific treatment. Novel variants also require pathway-specific verification. In this report, we describe a 14-year-old patient with a novel variant in STAT3. We report clinical and laboratory findings that support STAT3 p.G419R as a novel pathogenic STAT3 gain-of-function variant. PMID:28349047

  19. Methanethiosulfonate derivatives as ligands of the STAT3-SH2 domain.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Elena; Ricci, Chiara; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Ferri, Nicola; Asai, Akira; Sparatore, Anna

    2017-12-01

    With the aim to discover new STAT3 direct inhibitors, potentially useful as anticancer agents, a set of methanethiosulfonate drug hybrids were synthesized. The in vitro tests showed that all the thiosulfonic compounds were able to strongly and selectively bind STAT3-SH2 domain, whereas the parent drugs were completely devoid of this ability. In addition, some of them showed a moderate antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cancer cell line. These results suggest that methanethiosulfonate moiety can be considered a useful scaffold in the preparation of new direct STAT3 inhibitors. Interestingly, an unusual kind of organo-sulfur derivative, endowed with valuable antiproliferative activity, was occasionally isolated. [Formula: see text].

  20. γ-Tocotrienol but not γ-tocopherol blocks STAT3 cell signaling pathway through induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-10-22

    Although γ-tocotrienol (T3), a vitamin E isolated primarily from palm and rice bran oil, has been linked with anticancer activities, the mechanism of this action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether γ-T3 can modulate the STAT3 cell signaling pathway, closely linked to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We found that γ-T3 but not γ-tocopherol, the most common saturated form of vitamin E, inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this inhibition was not cell type-specific. γ-T3 also inhibited STAT3 DNA binding. This correlated with inhibition of Src kinase and JAK1 and JAK2 kinases. Pervanadate reversed the γ-T3-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. When examined further, we found that γ-T3 induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of γ-T3 to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a vital role for SHP-1 in the action of γ-T3. Also γ-T3 down-modulated activation of STAT3 and induced SHP-1 in vivo. Eventually, γ-T3 down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) gene products; and this correlated with suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cells in sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis. This vitamin also sensitized the tumor cells to the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib. Overall, our results suggest that γ-T3 is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway both in vitro and in vivo and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of cancers.

  1. PDGF-driven proliferation, migration, and IL8 chemokine secretion in human corneal fibroblasts involve JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay; Thakkar, Mahesh; Sinha, Sunilima; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is associated with corneal fibroblast migration and proliferation and plays an important role in corneal wound healing. However, the intracellular mechanisms of PDGF-mediated functions in corneal fibroblasts are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that PDGF functional activities in the cornea involve the Janus kinase-2/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (JAK2-STAT3) signaling pathway and whether PDGF induces the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), belonging to the novel family of feedback regulators of cytokine and growth factor activities. Methods Human corneal fibroblast (HSF) cultures were used as an in vitro model for functional analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to quantify gene expression. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques were used to measure protein expression. Cell growth, migration, and ELISA assays were used for functional validation. Results Low endogenous levels of STAT3 and SOCS3 mRNA and protein expression were noted in HSFs. PDGF treatment of HSF significantly induced SOCS3 mRNA (3.0–4.5 fold) and protein (1.5–2.5 fold) expression in a time-dependent manner. Similarly, PDGF treatment of HSF significantly increased STAT3 protein expression at two tested time points (2.5–2.96 fold). Cultures exposed to vehicle (control) did not show any change in SOCS3 and STAT3 mRNA or protein expression. An addition of AG-490, a selective inhibitor of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, significantly inhibited PDGF-mediated STAT3 induction and cell growth and migration in HSF. We also observed that PDGF induced interleukin-8 (IL8) chemokine secretion (2 fold) and AG-490 inhibited IL8 secretion. Conclusions Our data showed that PDGF induced STAT3, SOCS3, and IL8 chemokine secretion in human corneal fibroblasts. Further, PDGF-induced cell growth, migration, and IL8 secretion in corneal fibroblast involve the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway

  2. TNF-α-inducing protein of Helicobacter pylori induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells through activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guodong; Tang, Na; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Linqiao; Yu, Minjun; Zhao, Lanhua; Cai, Hengling; Han, Liang; Xie, Chengyuan; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-04

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-inducing protein (Tipα) is a newly identified carcinogenic factor secreted by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Although it has been proved that Tipα is a strong inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial process of migration, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Current evidence indicates that the oncogenic transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is inappropriately activated in multiple malignancies, including gastric cancer. In this study, we showed that Tipα significantly down-regulated the expression of EMT-related markers E-cadherin as well as up-regulated N-cadherin and vimentin in SGC7901 cells, with typical morphological changes of EMT. Tipα also promoted proliferation and migration of SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, Tipα activated interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling pathway in SGC7901 cells. The effects of Tipα treatment observed was abolished when we block IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Altogether, our data demonstrated that Tipα may accelerate tumor aggressiveness in gastric cancer by promoting EMT through activation of IL-6/STAT3 pathway.

  3. Emerging translational approaches to target STAT3 signalling and its impact on vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutzmann, Jochen; Daniel, Jan-Marcus; Bauersachs, Johann; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Sedding, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammation responses characterize the vascular remodelling processes in atherosclerosis, restenosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and angiogenesis. The functional and phenotypic changes in diverse vascular cell types are mediated by complex signalling cascades that initiate and control genetic reprogramming. The signalling molecule's signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in the initiation and continuation of these pathophysiological changes. This review highlights the pivotal involvement of STAT3 in pathological vascular remodelling processes and discusses potential translational therapies, which target STAT3 signalling, to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, current clinical trials using highly effective and selective inhibitors of STAT3 signalling for distinct diseases, such as myelofibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis, are discussed with regard to their vascular (side-) effects and their potential to pave the way for a direct use of these molecules for the prevention or treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:25784694

  4. Interplay of hepatic and myeloid STAT3 in facilitating liver regeneration via tempering innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Park, Ogyi; Lafdil, Fouad; Shen, Kezhen; Horiguchi, Norio; Yin, Shi; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kunos, George; Gao, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration triggered by 2/3 partial hepatectomy is accompanied by elevated hepatic levels of endotoxin, which contributes to the regenerative process, but liver inflammation and apoptosis remain paradoxically limited. Here we show that STAT3, an important anti-inflammatory signal, is activated in myeloid cells after partial hepatectomy and its conditional deletion results in an enhanced inflammatory response. Surprisingly, this is accompanied by an improved rather than impaired regenerative response with increased hepatic STAT3 activation, which may contribute to the enhanced liver regeneration. Indeed, conditional deletion of STAT3 in both hepatocytes and myeloid cells results in elevated activation of STAT1 and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and a dramatic reduction in survival after partial hepatectomy, whereas additional global deletion of STAT1 protects against these effects. Conclusions: An interplay of myeloid and hepatic STAT3 signaling is essential to prevent liver failure during liver regeneration through tempering a strong innate inflammatory response mediated by STAT1 signaling. PMID:20041412

  5. Mitochondrial STAT3 and reactive oxygen species: A fulcrum of adipogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Adam H; Kadye, Rose; Houseman, Pascalene S; Prinsloo, Earl

    2015-01-01

    The balance between cellular lineages can be controlled by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular differentiation into adipocytes is highly dependent on the production of ROS to initiate the process through activation of multiple interlinked factors that stimulate mitotic clonal expansion and cellular maturation. The signal transducer and activator of transcription family of signaling proteins have accepted roles in adipogenesis and associated lipogenesis. Non-canonical mitochondrial localization of STAT3 and other members of the STAT family however opens up new avenues for investigation of its role in the aforementioned processes. Following recent observations of differences in mitochondrially localized serine 727 phosphorylated STAT3 (mtSTAT3-pS727) in preadipocytes and adipocytes, here, we hypothesize and speculate further on the role of mitochondrial STAT3 in adipogenesis. PMID:27127727

  6. Arctigenin inhibits STAT3 and exhibits anticancer potential in human triple-negative breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tingting; Cao, Wei; Shen, Wanxiang; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Xinsheng; Guo, Yang; Tsai, Hsiang-I; Liu, Xuewen; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Li, Shan; Wu, Fuyun; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-03

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are the most aggressive and hard-to-treat breast tumors with poor prognosis, and exploration for novel therapeutic drugs is impending. Arctigenin (Atn), a bioactive lignan isolated from seeds of Arctium lappa L, has been reported to inhibit many cancer types; however, the effect of Atn on TNBC remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Atn decreased proliferation, and induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism of Atn inhibition on TNBC cells. Computational docking and affinity assay showed that Atn bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. Atn inhibited STAT3 binding to genomic DNA by disrupting hydrogen bond linking between DNA and STAT3. In addition, Atn augmented Taxotere®-induced TNBC cell cytotoxicity. TNBC xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effect of Atn in vivo. These characteristics render Atn as a promising candidate drug for further development and for designing new effective STAT3 inhibitors.

  7. Gemcitabine enhances cell invasion via activating HAb18G/CD147-EGFR-pSTAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Bo; Xu, Liang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Li, Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal cancers, has very poor 5-year survival partly due to gemcitabine resistance. Recently, it was reported that chemotherapeutic agents may act as stressors to induce adaptive responses and to promote chemoresistance in cancer cells. During long-term drug treatment, the minority of cancer cells survive and acquire an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype with increased chemo-resistance and metastasis. However, the short-term response of most cancer cells remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the short-term response of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine stress and to explore the corresponding mechanism. Our results showed that gemcitabine treatment for 24 hours enhanced pancreatic cancer cell invasion. In gemcitabine-treated cells, HAb18G/CD147 was up-regulated; and HAb18G/CD147 down-regulation or inhibition attenuated gemcitabine-enhanced invasion. Mechanistically, HAb18G/CD147 promoted gemcitabine-enhanced invasion by activating the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling pathway. Inhibition of EGFR-STAT3 signaling counteracted gemcitabine-enhanced invasion, and which relied on HAb18G/CD147 levels. In pancreatic cancer tissues, EGFR was highly expressed and positively correlated with HAb18G/CD147. These data indicate that pancreatic cancer cells enhance cell invasion via activating HAb18G/CD147-EGFR-pSTAT3 signaling. Our findings suggest that inhibiting HAb18G/CD147 is a potential strategy for overcoming drug stress-associated resistance in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27556697

  8. Ablation of STAT3 in the B Cell Compartment Restricts Gammaherpesvirus Latency In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sandeep Steven; Foreman, Hui-Chen Chang; Sioux, Thubten Ozula; Park, Gee Ho; Poli, Valeria; Reich, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A challenging property of gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish lifelong persistence. The establishment of latency in B cells is thought to involve active virus engagement of host signaling pathways. Pathogenic effects of these viruses during latency or following reactivation can be devastating to the host. Many cancers, including those associated with members of the gammaherpesvirus family, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus, express elevated levels of active host signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to many cytokines and can orchestrate effector responses that include proliferation, inflammation, metastasis, and developmental programming. However, the contribution of STAT3 to gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis remains to be completely understood. This is the first study to have identified STAT3 as a critical host determinant of the ability of gammaherpesvirus to establish long-term latency in an animal model of disease. Following an acute infection, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) established latency in resident B cells, but establishment of latency was dramatically reduced in animals with a B cell-specific STAT3 deletion. The lack of STAT3 in B cells did not impair germinal center responses for immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching in the spleen and did not reduce either total or virus-specific IgG titers. Although ablation of STAT3 in B cells did not have a global effect on these assays of B cell function, it had long-term consequences for the viral load of the host, since virus latency was reduced at 6 to 8 weeks postinfection. Our findings establish host STAT3 as a mediator of gammaherpesvirus persistence. PMID:27486189

  9. CpG-STAT3siRNA for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    host, likely through activation of host innate immunity. We also verified CpG-STAT3 siRNA efficacy in Ras/Myc oncogene-driven and STAT3-dependent...Kawai T, Akira S (2010) The role of pattern- recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol 11:373–384 10...Cancer Immunotherapeutics & Tumor Immunology , Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA 2Bioinformatics Core Facility, Beckman

  10. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Naruto, M., and Kishimoto, T. Molecular cloning of APRF, a novel IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 p91- related transcrip- tion factor involved in the gp130...independent tumor cells. The molecular mechanism characterizing prostate cancer progression from androgen-dependence to androgenindependence is incompletely...consequence of Stat3 activation in prostate cancer cell growth and to determine the molecular basis of Stat3 interactions with androgen receptor signaling

  11. STAT3 activation in circulating monocytes contributes to neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Lechner, Judith; Zhao, Jiawu; Toth, Levente; Hogg, Ruth; Silvestri, Giuliana; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Chakravarthy, Usha; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating macrophages are critically involved in pathogenic angiogenesis such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Macrophages originate from circulating monocytes and three subtypes of monocyte exist in humans: classical (CD14+CD16-), non-classical (CD14-CD16+) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of circulating monocyte in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the intermediate monocytes from nAMD patients expressed higher levels of CX3CR1 and HLA-DR compared to those from controls. Monocytes from nAMD patients expressed higher levels of phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (pSTAT3), and produced higher amount of VEGF. In the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), pSTAT3 expression was increased in the retina and RPE/choroid, and 49.24% of infiltrating macrophages express pSTAT3. Genetic deletion of the Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 3 (SOCS3) in myeloid cells in the LysM-Cre+/-:SOCS3fl/fl mice resulted in spontaneous STAT3 activation and accelerated CNV formation. Inhibition of STAT3 activation using a small peptide LLL12 suppressed laser-induced CNV. Our results suggest that monocytes, in particular the intermediate subset of monocytes are activated in nAMD patients. STAT3 activation in circulating monocytes may contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularisation in AMD. PMID:27009107

  12. Icaritin Reduces Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression via the Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Guang; Lu, Rui; Ye, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ya-Qin; Zhou, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Icaritin, a traditional Chinese medicine, possesses antitumor activity. The current study aimed to investigate icaritin effect and potential mechanism on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development. OSCC cells proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy were analyzed after incubation with icaritin at different concentrations and incubation times. The expressions of proteins related to proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy, as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signal network, were also evaluated by western blot. Furthermore, STAT3 was knocked down by siRNA transfection to determine STAT3 role in OSCC cell proliferation and apoptosis. An oral specific carcinogenesis mouse model was used to explore icaritin effect on OSCC in vivo. Icaritin significantly inhibited OSCC proliferation in vitro and reduced the expression of both the cell-cycle progression proteins cyclin A2 and cyclin D1. Besides, icaritin increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression leading to apoptosis, and it activated autophagy. Icaritin significantly inhibited the expression of phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the in vivo experiment, the number of malignant tumors in the icaritin-treated group was significantly lower than the control. Overall, icaritin suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited STAT3 signaling in OSCC in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, icaritin might be a potential therapeutic agent against OSCC development. PMID:28085115

  13. Targeting STAT3 in adoptively transferred T cells promotes their in vivo expansion and antitumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Scuto, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Deng, Jiehui; Forman, Stephen; Figlin, Robert; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells to improve natural immune response and antitumor functions has shown promise for treating cancer. However, the requirement for extensive ex vivo manipulation of T cells and the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment limit this therapeutic modality. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to circumvent these limitations by engineering Stat3-deficient CD8+ T cells or by targeting Stat3 in the tumor microenvironment. We show that ablating Stat3 in CD8+ T cells prior to their transfer allows their efficient tumor infiltration and robust proliferation, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor growth inhibition. For potential clinical translation, we combined adoptive T cell therapy with an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma tumor models. Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 in dendritic cells and T cells, reduced conversion of transferred Foxp3− T cells to tumor-associated T regulatory cells while increasing transferred CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation at the tumor site, leading to inhibition of primary tumor growth. These data demonstrate that adoptively transferred T cells can be expanded and activated in vivo either by engineering Stat3 silenced T cells or by targeting Stat3 systemically with small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:21118964

  14. Artesunate acts as fuel to fire in sensitizing HepG2 cells towards TRAIL mediated apoptosis via STAT3 inhibition and DR4 augmentation.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated in vitro, the role of artesunate (ATS) with comparable potency to oxaliplatin (OXP) in sensitizing tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistant HepG2 cells towards apoptosis. ATS in consistency with OXP was found to reverse TRAIL resistant HepG2 cells towards TRAIL mediated apoptosis by enhancing caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Additionally, ATS also suppressed the nuclear translocation of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) thereby sensitizing the HepG2 cells towards only death receptor 4 (DR4) mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ATS exposure in TRAIL resistant cells resulted in significant increase of both DR4/DR5 expression and STAT3 inhibition thereby arbitrating TRAIL mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The increase in expression was comparable to that of STAT3 silenced cells. From all the above observations, we conclude that ATS up-regulated DR4 expression by targeting STAT3, which in turn sensitized HepG2 cells to TRAIL mediated apoptosis.

  15. Sorafenib with ASC‐J9® synergistically suppresses the HCC progression via altering the pSTAT3‐CCL2/Bcl2 signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Li, Gonghui; Sun, Yin; Shi, Liang; Ma, Wen‐Lung; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is currently used as a standard treatment to suppress the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in advanced stages. However, patients who receive Sorafenib treatment eventually develop resistance without clear mechanisms. There is a great need for better efficacy of Sorafenib treatment in combination with other therapies. Here, we demonstrated that the treatment combining Sorafenib with ASC‐J9® could synergistically suppress HCC progression via altering cell‐cycle regulation, apoptosis and invasion. Mechanism dissection suggests that while Sorafenib impacts little or even slightly increases the activated/phosphorylated STAT3 (p‐STAT3), a key stimulator to promote the HCC progression, adding ASC‐J9® significantly suppresses the p‐STAT3 expression and its downstream genes including CCL2 and Bcl2. Interrupting these signals via constitutively active STAT3 partially reverses the synergistic suppression of Sorafenib‐ASC‐J9® combination on HCC progression. In vivo studies further confirmed the synergistic effect of Sorafenib‐ASC‐J9® combination. Together, these results suggest the newly developed Sorafenib‐ASC‐J9® combination is a novel therapy to better suppress HCC progression. PMID:27668844

  16. Gallic acid inhibition of Src-Stat3 signaling overcomes acquired resistance to EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Ai N.H.; Hua, Tuyen N.M.; Kim, Min-Kyu; Vo, Vu T.A.; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Rho, Jin Kyung; Kim, Ki Woo; Jeong, Yangsik

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have clinically benefited to lung cancer patients harboring a subset of activating EGFR mutations. However, even with the remarkable therapeutic response at the initial TKI treatment, most lung cancer patients eventually have relapsed aggressive tumors due to acquired resistance to the TKIs. Here, we report that 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid or gallic acid (GA), a natural polyphenolic compound, shows anti-tumorigenic effects in TKI-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using both in vitro growth assay and in vivo xenograft animal model, we demonstrated tumor suppressive effect of GA was more selective for the TKI-resistant cancer compared to the TKI-sensitive one. Mechanistically, GA treatment inhibited Src-Stat3-mediated signaling and decreased the expression of Stat3-regulated tumor promoting genes, subsequently inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the TKI-resistant lung cancer but not in the TKI-sensitive one. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo xenograft experiments showed the TKI-resistant tumor-selective growth inhibition and suppression of Src-Stat3-dependent signaling in the GA-treated tumors isolated from the xenograft model. This finding identified an importance of Src-Stat3 signaling cascade in GA-mediated tumor-suppression activity and, more importantly, provides a novel therapeutic insight of GA for advanced TKI-resistant lung cancer. PMID:27419630

  17. Immature immunosuppressive CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells in melanoma patients are Stat3hi and overexpress CD80, CD83, and DC-sign.

    PubMed

    Poschke, Isabel; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Hansson, Johan; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Kiessling, Rolf

    2010-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as key immune modulators in various tumor models and human malignancies, but their characteristics in humans remain to be unequivocally defined. In this study, we have examined circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSC in 34 advanced malignant melanoma (MM) patients. Their frequency is significantly increased and associated with disease activity. Contrary to the common notion that MDSC are a heterogeneous population of exclusively immature cells, we find the coexpression of markers associated with mature phenotype. We show for the first time the overexpression of CD80, CD83, and DC-Sign in human MDSC. Further, increased levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), an important regulator in MDSC development and function, were noted in MM-MDSC. Stat3 was altered toward an active, phosphorylated state in the HLA-DR(-) population of CD14(+) cells and was more reactive to activating stimuli in patients. Importantly, inhibition of Stat3 abolished their suppressive activity almost completely. The described MM-MDSC use arginase in conjunction with other yet undefined mechanisms to suppress CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Several observations suggest a redox imbalance in MDSC and indicate an important role of Stat3-dependent oxidative stress in MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression. These results emphasize the diversity of MDSC in human cancer and provide potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  18. Leptin-induced Growth Stimulation of Breast Cancer Cells Involves Recruitment of Histone Acetyltransferases and Mediator Complex to CYCLIN D1 Promoter via Activation of Stat3*

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Neeraj K.; Vertino, Paula M.; Anania, Frank A.; Sharma, Dipali

    2010-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. Leptin, the key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control also acts as a growth factor on certain organs in both normal and disease state. In this study, we analyzed the role of leptin and the molecular mechanism(s) underlying its action in breast cancer cells that express both short and long isoforms of leptin receptor. Leptin increased MCF7 cell population in the S-phase of the cell cycle along with a robust increase in CYCLIN D1 expression. Also, leptin induced Stat3-phosphorylation-dependent proliferation of MCF7 cells as blocking Stat3 phosphorylation with a specific inhibitor, AG490, abolished leptin-induced proliferation. Using deletion constructs of CYCLIN D1 promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we show that leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 promoter activity is mediated through binding of activated Stat3 at the Stat binding sites and changes in histone acetylation and methylation. We also show specific involvement of coactivator molecules, histone acetyltransferase SRC1, and mediator complex in leptin-mediated regulation of CYCLIN D1 promoter. Importantly, silencing of SRC1 and Med1 abolished the leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 expression and MCF7 cell proliferation. Intriguingly, recruitment of both SRC1 and Med1 was dependent on phosphorylated Stat3 as AG490 treatment inhibited leptin-induced recruitment of these coactivators to CYCLIN D1 promoter. Our data suggest that CYCLIN D1 may be a target gene for leptin mediated growth stimulation of breast cancer cells and molecular mechanisms involve activated Stat3-mediated recruitment of distinct coactivator complexes. PMID:17344214

  19. CD24 promoted cancer cell angiogenesis via Hsp90-mediated STAT3/VEGF signaling pathway in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Yanling; Xiang, Cheng; Zhou, Huanyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Qing, Haitao; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Huabao; Peng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    CD24 is involved in tumor progression of various cancers, but the effects of CD24 on tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer are still unknown. We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism and role of CD24 on colorectal cancer (CRC) angiogenesis. Our data showed that the microvessal density (MVD) was related to the expression of CD24 in primary and metastasis CRC. Silencing of CD24 could dramatically decrease human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration, invasion and tubule formation, but trivially affected cell proliferation. We also mechanically showed that silencing CD24 could downregulate the expression of VEGF via inhibiting the phosphorylation and translocation of STAT3. Moreover, Hsp90 was identified as the down-interaction protein of CD24 with co-immunoprecipitation assay and systematic mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence results showed Hsp90 partly co-localized with CD24 in CRC cell membrane and there was a positive correlation between CD24 and Hsp90 expression in CRC tissues. We gradually evidenced that Hsp90 modulated the stability and degradation of CD24 in a proteasome-depended manner, and transferred the signal transmission from CD24 to STAT3. 17-AAG, a specific Hsp90, could abrogate the CD24 induce- HUVEC migration, invasion and tubule formation in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our results suggested that CD24 induced CRC angiogenesis in Hsp90-dependent manner and activated STAT3-mediated transcription of VEGF. We provided a new insight into the regulation mechanism of tumor angiogenesis by exploring the role of CD24 in angiogenesis. PMID:27494878

  20. A signal transducer and activator of transcription 3·Nuclear Factor κB (Stat3·NFκB) complex is necessary for the expression of fascin in metastatic breast cancer cells in response to interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marylynn; Huang, Jianyun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Zhang, J Jillian

    2014-10-24

    IL-6 mediated activation of Stat3 is a major signaling pathway in the process of breast cancer metastasis. One important mechanism by which the IL-6/Stat3 pathway promotes metastasis is through transcriptional regulation of the actin-bundling protein fascin. In this study, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the fascin gene promoter. We show that in addition to IL-6, TNF-α increases Stat3 and NFκB binding to the fascin promoter to induce its expression. We also show that NFκB is required for Stat3 recruitment to the fascin promoter in response to IL-6. Furthermore, Stat3 and NFκB form a protein complex in response to cytokine stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an overlapping STAT/NFκB site in a highly conserved 160-bp region of the fascin promoter is sufficient and necessary to induce transcription in response to IL-6 and TNF-α.

  1. STAT3 inhibition is a therapeutic strategy for ABC-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Scuto, Anna; Kujawski, Maciej; Kowolik, Claudia; Krymskaya, Ludmila; Wang, Lin; Weiss, Lawrence M; Digiusto, David; Yu, Hua; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Persistent STAT3 signaling contributes to malignant progression in many diverse types of human cancer. STAT3 is constitutively active in activated B-cell (ABC)-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), a class of nongerminal center derived DLBCL cells for which existing therapy is weakly effective. In this report, we provide a preclinical proof of concept that STAT3 is an effective molecular target for ABC-like DLBCL therapy. Direct inhibition of STAT3 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the growth of human ABC-like DLBCL in mouse models in a manner associated with apoptosis, repression of STAT3 target genes, and inhibition of a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Together, these results suggest that STAT3 is essential to maintain the pathophysiology of ABC-like DLBCL and therefore that STAT3 inhibition may offer a promising approach in its therapy.

  2. Inhibition of STAT3 with the Generation 2.5 Antisense Oligonucleotide, AZD9150, Decreases Neuroblastoma Tumorigenicity and Increases Chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Odate, Seiichi; Veschi, Veronica; Yan, Shuang; Lam, Norris; Woessner, Richard; Thiele, Carol J

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor of peripheral sympathoadrenal neuroblasts. The long-term event-free survival of children with high-risk neuroblastoma is still poor despite the improvements with current multimodality treatment protocols. Activated JAK/STAT3 pathway plays an important role in many human cancers, suggesting that targeting STAT3 is a promising strategy for treating high-risk neuroblastoma.Experimental Design: To evaluate the biologic consequences of specific targeting of STAT3 in neuroblastoma, we assessed the effect of tetracycline (Tet)-inducible STAT3 shRNA and the generation 2.5 antisense oligonucleotide AZD9150 which targets STAT3 in three representative neuroblastoma cell line models (AS, NGP, and IMR32).Results: Our data indicated that Tet-inducible STAT3 shRNA and AZD9150 inhibited endogenous STAT3 and STAT3 target genes. Tet-inducible STAT3 shRNA and AZD9150 decreased cell growth and tumorigenicity. In vivo, STAT3 inhibition by Tet-inducible STAT3 shRNA or AZD9150 alone had little effect on growth of established tumors. However, when treated xenograft tumor cells were reimplanted into mice, there was a significant decrease in secondary tumors in the mice receiving AZD9150-treated tumor cells compared with the mice receiving ntASO-treated tumor cells. This indicates that inhibition of STAT3 decreases the tumor-initiating potential of neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of STAT3 significantly increased neuroblastoma cell sensitivity to cisplatin and decreased tumor growth and increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice in vivoConclusions: Our study supports the development of strategies targeting STAT3 inhibition in combination with conventional chemotherapy for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1771-84. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Lobie, Peter E; Odze, Robert D; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2015-08-01

    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and 3) BAR-T cells that express oncogenic H-Ras(G12V). STAT3CA transformed only the H-Ras(G12V)-expressing BAR-T cells (evidenced by loss of contact inhibition, formation of colonies in soft agar, and generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice), and did so in a p53-independent fashion. The transformed cells had elevated levels of both mitochondrial (Ser727) and nuclear (Tyr705) phospho-STAT3. Introduction of a STAT3CA construct with a mutated tyrosine phosphorylation site into H-Ras(G12V)-expressing Barrett's cells resulted in high levels of mitochondrial phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) with little or no nuclear phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705), and the cells still formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. Thus tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is not required for tumor formation in Ras-expressing Barrett's cells. We conclude that mitochondrial STAT3 (Ser727) can contribute to oncogenesis in Barrett's cells that express oncogenic Ras. These findings suggest that agents targeting STAT3 might be useful for chemoprevention in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

  4. Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3α

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3β, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3α, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3α, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

  5. Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

  6. NVP-BKM120, a novel PI3K inhibitor, shows synergism with a STAT3 inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells harboring KRAS mutations

    PubMed Central

    PARK, EUNJU; PARK, JINAH; HAN, SAE-WON; IM, SEOCK-AH; KIM, TAE-YOU; OH, DO-YOUN; BANG, YUNG-JUE

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are frequently observed in many types of cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. PI3K can become activated by various pathways, one of which includes RAS. RAS can not only directly activate the PI3K/AKT pathway via binding to p110 of PI3K, but also regulates mTOR via ERK or RSK independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, actively mutated RAS can constitutively activate PI3K signaling. Additionally, in RAS tumorigenic transformation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been known also to be required. In this study, we examined the efficacy of NVP-BKM120, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells and hypothesized that the combined inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 would be synergistic in KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells. NVP-BKM120 demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in 11 human gastric cancer cell lines by decreasing mTOR downstream signaling. But NVP-BKM120 treatment increased p-AKT by subsequent abrogation of feedback inhibition by stabilizing insulin receptor substrate-1. In KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells, either p-ERK or p-STAT3 was also increased upon treatment of NVP-BKM120. The synergistic efficacy study demonstrated that dual PI3K and STAT3 blockade showed a synergism in cells harboring mutated KRAS by inducing apoptosis. The synergistic effect was not seen in KRAS wild-type cells. Together, these findings suggest for the first time that the dual inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant gastric cancer patients. PMID:22159814

  7. Novel synthetic derivatives of the natural product berbamine inhibit Jak2/Stat3 signaling and induce apoptosis of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sangkil; Xie, Jun; Perkins, Angela; Ma, Yuelong; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Rong-Zhen; Huang, Wendong; Horne, David A; Jove, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Persistent Jak/Stat3 signal transduction plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. Activated Jak/Stat3 signaling has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics discovery and development. Berbamine (BBM), a natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis used for treatment of cancer patients. While BBM has been shown to have potent antitumor activities with low toxicity in various cancer types, the molecular mechanism of action of BBM remains largely unknown. Here, we determine the antitumor activities of 13 synthetic berbamine derivatives (BBMDs) against human solid tumor cells. BBMD3, which is the most potent in this series of novel BBMDs, exhibits over 6-fold increase in biological activity compared to natural BBM. Moreover, BBMD3, directly inhibits Jak2 autophosphorylation kinase activity in vitro with IC(50)0.69 μM. Autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinase at Tyr1007/1008 sites also was strongly inhibited in the range of 15 μM of BBMD3 in human melanoma cells at 4h after treatment. Following inhibition of autophosphorylation of Jak2, BBMD3 blocked constitutive activation of downstream Stat3 signaling in melanoma cells. BBMD3 also down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1and Bcl-x(L), associated with induction of apoptosis. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the novel berbamine derivative BBMD3 is an inhibitor of the Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, providing evidence for a molecular mechanism whereby BBMD3 exerts at least in part the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. In addition, BBMD3 represents a promising lead compound for development of new therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  8. A sesquiterpene lactone antrocin from Antrodia camphorata negatively modulates JAK2/STAT3 signaling via microRNA let-7c and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Ye, Min; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wang, Liang-Shun; Tzeng, David T W; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Alexander T H; Yang, Zhen; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and current therapies fail to treat this disease in majority of cases. Antrodia camphorata is a medicinal mushroom being widely used as food dietary supplement for cancer prevention. The sesquiterpene lactone antrocin is the most potent among >100 secondary metabolites isolated from A. camphorata. However, the molecular mechanisms of antrocin-mediated anticancer effects remain unclear. In this study, we found that antrocin inhibited cell proliferation in two non-small-cell lung cancer cells, namely H441 (wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor, IC50 = 0.75 μM) and H1975 (gefitnib-resistant mutant T790M, IC50 = 0.83 μM). Antrocin dose dependently suppressed colony formation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by activated caspase-3 and increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Gene profiling studies indicated that antrocin downregulated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that antrocin suppressed both constitutively activated and interleukin 6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and its subsequent nuclear translocation. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through the suppression of JAK2 and interaction between STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Additionally, antrocin increased microRNA let-7c expression and suppressed STAT signaling. The combination of antrocin and JAK2/STAT3 gene silencing significantly increased apoptosis in H441 cells. Such dual interruption of JAK2 and STAT3 pathways also induced downregulation of antiapoptotic protein mcl-1 and increased caspase-3 expression. In vivo intraperitoneal administration of antrocin significantly suppressed the growth of lung cancer tumor xenografts. Our results indicate that antrocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for human lung cancer cells through constitutive inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

  9. The Synthetic β-Nitrostyrene Derivative CYT-Rx20 Inhibits Esophageal Tumor Growth and Metastasis via PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Chen; Su, Yu-Han; Wang, Yen-Yun; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hou, Yi-An; Wang, Chie-Hong; Huang, Ying-Fong; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The β-nitrostyrene family have been implicated for anti-cancer property. However, the pharmacological role of β-nitrostyrene in esophageal cancer remain unclear. Here, a β-nitrostyrene derivative, CYT-Rx20, was synthesized and assessed for its anti-cancer activities and underlying mechanism in esophageal cancer. CYT-Rx20 induced cytotoxicity in esophageal cancer cells by promoting apoptosis through activation of caspase cascade and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Besides, CYT-Rx20 inhibited esophageal cancer cell migration and invasion by regulating the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. CYT-Rx20 decreased cell viability and migration through suppression of the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 pathways. Of note, the cytotoxicity and anti-migratory effect of CYT-Rx20 were enhanced by co-treatment with SC79 (AKT activator) or colivelin (STAT3 activator), suggesting the dependency of esophageal cancer cells on AKT and STAT3 for survival and migration, an oncogene addiction phenomenon. In xenograft tumor-bearing mice, CYT-Rx20 significantly reduced tumor growth of the implanted esophageal cancer cells accompanied by decreased Ki-67, phospho-AKT, and phospho-STAT3 expression. In orthotopic esophageal cancer mouse model, decreased tumor growth and lung metastasis with reduced Ki-67 and phospho-STAT3 expression were observed in mice treated with CYT-Rx20. Together, our results suggest that CYT-Rx20 is a potential β-nitrostyrene-based anticancer compound against the tumor growth and metastasis of esophageal cancer. PMID:27875549

  10. Characterization of molecular recognition of STAT3 SH2 domain inhibitors through molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Hee; Li, Chenglong

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an anti-cancer target protein due to its over-activation in tumor cells. The Tyr705-phosphorylated (pTyr) STAT3 binds to the pTyr-recognition site of its Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain of another STAT3 monomer to form a homo-dimer, which then causes cellular anti-apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor invasion. Recently, many STAT3 SH2 dimerization inhibitors have been discovered via both computational and experimental methods. To systematically assess their binding affinities and specificities, for eight representative inhibitors, we utilized molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and ensuing energetic analysis to compare their binding characteristics. The inhibitors' binding free energies were calculated via MMPB(GB)SA, and the STAT3 SH2 binding "hot spots" were evaluated through binding energy decomposition and hydrogen bond (H-bond) distribution analysis. Several conclusions can be drawn: (1) the overall enthalpy-entropy compensation paradigm is preserved for the STAT3 SH2/ligand binding thermodynamics; (2) at one end of the binding spectrum, two compounds bind to SH2 due to their minimum entropic penalties that result from their relative rigidities and increased dynamics of SH2 upon their binding; at the other end of the binding spectrum, one compound shows a typical weak binder behavior due to its loose binding in the SH2's strongest enthalpy-contributing binding subsite; (3) hydrogen bonding seems a strong indicator to evaluate the SH2/ligand binding potency, which echoes a finding that CH/π non-classical H-bond is responsible for some pTyr peptides binding to their corresponding SH2 domains; (4) STAT3 SH2 domain possesses three binding "hot spots": pTyr705-binding pocket with polar residues and contributing the largest binding enthalpy (two-thirds); Leu706 subsite which is the most dynamic and hardest to target; a hydrophobic side pocket which is unique to STAT3 and very targetable, which

  11. Shp2 Inhibits Proliferation of Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer via Dephosphorylation of Stat3.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chen; Han, Tao; Tang, Hua; Huang, Kenan; Min, Jie; Li, Jing; Ding, Xinyu; Xu, Zhifei

    2017-01-12

    Shp2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2) was originally reported as an oncogene in kinds of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, recent studies indicated that Shp2 may act as tumor suppressors in several tumor types. We investigated the function of Shp2 in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The expression level of Shp2 was analyzed in tumor tissues in comparison with adjacent normal tissues of ESCC patients by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Shp2 was knocked down by Short hairpin RNA to evaluate its function in ESCC cell lines. The relationship between Shp2 and p-Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in human ESCC tissues was statistically examined. A significant low expression of Shp2 was found in ESCC tissues. Low expression of Shp2 was related to poorer overall survival in patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Knockdown of Shp2 increased the growth of ESCC cell lines both in vivo and vitro. Activation of Stat3 (p-Stat3) was induced by Shp2 depletion. Expression of p-Stat3 was negatively correlated with Shp2 expression in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, knockdown of Shp2 attenuated cisplatin-sensitivity of ESCC cells. Shp2 might suppress the proliferation of ESCC by dephosphorylation of p-Stat3 and represents a novel research field for targeted therapy.

  12. Acetylation directs survivin nuclear localization to repress STAT3 oncogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijuan; Holloway, Michael P; Ma, Li; Cooper, Zachary A; Riolo, Matthew; Samkari, Ayman; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Chin, Y Eugene; Altura, Rachel A

    2010-11-12

    The multiple functions of the oncofetal protein survivin are dependent on its selective expression patterns within immunochemically distinct subcellular pools. The mechanism by which survivin localizes to these compartments, however, is only partly understood. Here we show that nuclear accumulation of survivin is promoted by CREB-binding protein (CBP)-dependent acetylation on lysine 129 (129K, Lys-129). We demonstrate a mechanism by which survivin acetylation at this position results in its homodimerization, while deacetylation promotes the formation of survivin monomers that heterodimerize with CRM1 and facilitate its nuclear export. Using proteomic analysis, we identified the oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 as a binding partner of nuclear survivin. We show that acetylated survivin binds to the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the STAT3 dimer and represses STAT3 transactivation of target gene promoters. Using multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing, we identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (A → G) at Lys-129 that exists as a homozygous mutation in a neuroblastoma cell line and corresponds with a defect in survivin nuclear localization. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic equilibrium between survivin acetylation and deacetylation at amino acid 129 determines its interaction with CRM1, its subsequent subcellular localization, and its ability to inhibit STAT3 transactivation, providing a potential route for therapeutic intervention in STAT3-dependent tumors.

  13. MicroRNA-424 impairs ubiquitination to activate STAT3 and promote prostate tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Dallavalle, Cecilia; Civenni, Gianluca; Merulla, Jessica; Ostano, Paola; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Rossi, Simona; Losa, Marco; D’Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Sessa, Fausto; Thalmann, George N.; Zitella, Andrea; Chiorino, Giovanna; Catapano, Carlo V.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations and deletions in components of ubiquitin ligase complexes that lead to alterations in protein turnover are important mechanisms in driving tumorigenesis. Here we describe an alternative mechanism involving upregulation of the microRNA miR-424 that leads to impaired ubiquitination and degradation of oncogenic transcription factors in prostate cancers. We found that miR-424 targets the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 and identified STAT3 as a key substrate of COP1 in promoting tumorigenic and cancer stem-like properties in prostate epithelial cells. Altered protein turnover due to impaired COP1 function led to accumulation and enhanced basal and cytokine-induced activity of STAT3. We further determined that loss of the ETS factor ESE3/EHF is the initial event that triggers the deregulation of the miR-424/COP1/STAT3 axis. COP1 silencing and STAT3 activation were effectively reverted by blocking of miR-424, suggesting a possible strategy to attack this key node of tumorigenesis in ESE3/EHF–deficient tumors. These results establish miR-424 as an oncogenic effector linked to noncanonical activation of STAT3 and as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27820701

  14. An Activating Mutation in STAT3 Results in Neonatal Diabetes Through Reduced Insulin Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Velayos, Teresa; Martínez, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Aguayo, Anibal; Camarero, Cristina; Urrutia, Inés; Martínez de LaPiscina, Idoia; Barrio, Raquel; Santin, Izortze; Castaño, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life. Genetic studies have allowed the identification of several genes linked to the development of NDM; however, genetic causes for ∼20% of the cases remain to be clarified. Most cases of NDM involve isolated diabetes, but sometimes NDM appears in association with other pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. Recent reports have linked activating mutations in STAT3 with early-onset autoimmune disorders that include diabetes of autoimmune origin, but the functional impact of STAT3-activating mutations have not been characterized at the pancreatic β-cell level. By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel missense mutation in the binding domain of the STAT3 protein in a patient with NDM. The functional analyses showed that the mutation results in an aberrant activation of STAT3, leading to deleterious downstream effects in pancreatic β-cells. The identified mutation leads to hyperinhibition of the transcription factor Isl-1 and, consequently, to a decrease in insulin expression. These findings represent the first functional indication of a direct link between an NDM-linked activating mutation in STAT3 and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

  15. Merging Absolute and Relative Quantitative PCR Data to Quantify STAT3 Splice Variant Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Turton, Keren B.; Esnault, Stephane; Delain, Larissa P.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2016-01-01

    Human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of many genes containing a tandem splicing site. Alternative donor splice sites 3 nucleotides apart result in either the inclusion (S) or exclusion (ΔS) of a single residue, Serine-701. Further downstream, splicing at a pair of alternative acceptor splice sites result in transcripts encoding either the 55 terminal residues of the transactivation domain (α) or a truncated transactivation domain with 7 unique residues (β). As outlined in this manuscript, measuring the proportions of STAT3's four spliced transcripts (Sα, Sβ, ΔSα and ΔSβ) was possible using absolute qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The protocol therefore distinguishes and measures highly similar splice variants. Absolute qPCR makes use of calibrator plasmids and thus specificity of detection is not compromised for the sake of efficiency. The protocol necessitates primer validation and optimization of cycling parameters. A combination of absolute qPCR and efficiency-dependent relative qPCR of total STAT3 transcripts allowed a description of the fluctuations of STAT3 splice variants' levels in eosinophils treated with cytokines. The protocol also provided evidence of a co-splicing interdependence between the two STAT3 splicing events. The strategy based on a combination of the two qPCR techniques should be readily adaptable to investigation of co-splicing at other tandem splicing sites. PMID:27768061

  16. Shp2 Inhibits Proliferation of Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer via Dephosphorylation of Stat3

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chen; Han, Tao; Tang, Hua; Huang, Kenan; Min, Jie; Li, Jing; Ding, Xinyu; Xu, Zhifei

    2017-01-01

    Shp2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2) was originally reported as an oncogene in kinds of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, recent studies indicated that Shp2 may act as tumor suppressors in several tumor types. We investigated the function of Shp2 in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The expression level of Shp2 was analyzed in tumor tissues in comparison with adjacent normal tissues of ESCC patients by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Shp2 was knocked down by Short hairpin RNA to evaluate its function in ESCC cell lines. The relationship between Shp2 and p-Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in human ESCC tissues was statistically examined. A significant low expression of Shp2 was found in ESCC tissues. Low expression of Shp2 was related to poorer overall survival in patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Knockdown of Shp2 increased the growth of ESCC cell lines both in vivo and vitro. Activation of Stat3 (p-Stat3) was induced by Shp2 depletion. Expression of p-Stat3 was negatively correlated with Shp2 expression in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, knockdown of Shp2 attenuated cisplatin-sensitivity of ESCC cells. Shp2 might suppress the proliferation of ESCC by dephosphorylation of p-Stat3 and represents a novel research field for targeted therapy. PMID:28085101

  17. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  18. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated. PMID:26788112

  19. Stat3 Activation in Urothelial Stem Cells Leads to Direct Progression to Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Philip Levy; Lay, Erica Julianne; Jian, Weiguo; Parra, Diana; Chan, Keith Syson

    2012-01-01

    Two subtypes of human bladder cancer, noninvasive papillary and muscle-invasive cancer, develop through independent pathologic and molecular pathways. Human invasive bladder cancer frequently develops without prior clinical evidence of a noninvasive tumor stage. However, an animal model that recapitulates this unique clinical progression of invasive bladder cancer has not yet been developed. In this study, we created a novel transgenic mouse model of invasive bladder cancer by targeting an active dimerized form of Stat3 to the basal cells of bladder epithelium. When exposed to the carcinogen nitrosamine, Stat3-transgenic mice developed invasive cancer directly from carcinoma in situ (CIS), bypassing the noninvasive papillary tumor stage. Remarkably, invasive bladder cancer driven by active Stat3 was predominantly composed of stem cells, which were characterized by cytokeratin 14 (CK14) staining and enhanced tumor sphere-forming ability. Active Stat3 was also shown to localize to the nucleus of human invasive bladder cancers that were primarily composed of CK14+ stem cells. Together, our findings show that Stat3-induced stem cell expansion plays a critical role in the unique clinical progression of invasive bladder cancer through the CIS pathway. PMID:22532166

  20. Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Si; Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Evaluation of quantitative assays for the identification of direct signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Furtek, Steffanie L; Matheson, Christopher J; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip

    2016-11-22

    In many forms of cancer the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor remains constitutively active, driving cancer survival and progression. The critical role of STAT3 in tumorigenesis has prompted a campaign of drug discovery programs to identify small molecules that disrupt the function of STAT3, with more recent efforts focusing on direct STAT3 inhibition. There are two target binding sites for direct STAT3 inhibitors: the SH2 dimerization domain and the DNA-binding domain. An in vitro fluorescence polarization assay, using recombinant STAT3 protein, has successfully identified compounds that target the SH2 domain; however, no assay has been reported to identify inhibitors that bind the DNA-binding domain. The lack of such a quantitative assay has limited the identification and development of STAT3 DNA-binding domain inhibitors. Here, we report a modified DNA-binding ELISA to incorporate recombinant STAT3 protein to evaluate small molecules that prevent STAT3-DNA binding. The concomitant use of the ELISA and fluorescence polarization assay enables the classification of direct STAT3 inhibitors by their site of action. Our data provide further support that niclosamide inhibits STAT3 through interaction with the DNA-binding domain. Furthermore, the ELISA can support medicinal chemistry efforts by identifying DNA-binding domain inhibitors and allowing the determination of an IC50 value, supporting the ranking of inhibitors and development of structure-activity relationships. Therefore, we propose a tandem evaluation approach to identify small molecules that target the SH2 domain or the DNA-binding domain of STAT3, which allows for quantitative evaluation of candidate STAT3 inhibitors.

  2. Evaluation of quantitative assays for the identification of direct signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Furtek, Steffanie L.; Matheson, Christopher J.; Backos, Donald S.; Reigan, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In many forms of cancer the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor remains constitutively active, driving cancer survival and progression. The critical role of STAT3 in tumorigenesis has prompted a campaign of drug discovery programs to identify small molecules that disrupt the function of STAT3, with more recent efforts focusing on direct STAT3 inhibition. There are two target binding sites for direct STAT3 inhibitors: the SH2 dimerization domain and the DNA-binding domain. An in vitro fluorescence polarization assay, using recombinant STAT3 protein, has successfully identified compounds that target the SH2 domain; however, no assay has been reported to identify inhibitors that bind the DNA-binding domain. The lack of such a quantitative assay has limited the identification and development of STAT3 DNA-binding domain inhibitors. Here, we report a modified DNA-binding ELISA to incorporate recombinant STAT3 protein to evaluate small molecules that prevent STAT3-DNA binding. The concomitant use of the ELISA and fluorescence polarization assay enables the classification of direct STAT3 inhibitors by their site of action. Our data provide further support that niclosamide inhibits STAT3 through interaction with the DNA-binding domain. Furthermore, the ELISA can support medicinal chemistry efforts by identifying DNA-binding domain inhibitors and allowing the determination of an IC50 value, supporting the ranking of inhibitors and development of structure-activity relationships. Therefore, we propose a tandem evaluation approach to identify small molecules that target the SH2 domain or the DNA-binding domain of STAT3, which allows for quantitative evaluation of candidate STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:27793003

  3. High Glucose-Mediated STAT3 Activation in Endometrial Cancer Is Inhibited by Metformin: Therapeutic Implications for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallbillich, John J.; Josyula, Srirama; Saini, Uksha; Zingarelli, Roman A.; Dorayappan, Kalpana Deepa Priya; Riley, Maria K.; Wanner, Ross A.; Cohn, David E.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2017-01-01

    Objectives STAT3 is over-expressed in endometrial cancer, and diabetes is a risk factor for the development of type 1 endometrial cancer. We therefore investigated whether glucose concentrations influence STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer, and whether such STAT3 expression might be inhibited by metformin. Methods In Ishikawa (grade 1) endometrial cancer cells subjected to media with low, normal, or high concentrations of glucose, expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ishikawa cells were treated with metformin and assessed with cell proliferation, survival, migration, and ubiquitin assays, as well as Western blot and qPCR. Expression of apoptosis proteins was evaluated with Western blot in Ishikawa cells transfected with a STAT3 overexpression plasmid and treated with metformin. A xenograft tumor model was used for studying the in vivo efficacy of metformin. Results Expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was increased in Ishikawa cells cultured in high glucose media. In vitro, metformin inhibited cell proliferation, survival and migration but induced apoptosis. Metformin reduced expression levels of pSTAT3 ser727, total STAT3, and its associated cell survival and anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, metformin treatment was associated with increased degradation of pSTAT3 ser727. No change in apoptotic protein expression was noticed with STAT3 overexpression in Ishikawa cells. In vivo, metformin treatment led to a decrease in tumor weight as well as reductions of STAT3, pSTAT3 ser727, its target proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer is stimulated by a high glucose environment and inhibited by metformin. PMID:28114390

  4. Targeting colorectal cancer via its microenvironment by inhibiting IGF-1 Receptor-insulin receptor substrate and STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lopez, Elsa; Flashner-Abramson, Efrat; Shalapour, Shabnam; Zhong, Zhenyu; Taniguchi, Koji; Levitzki, Alexander; Karin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) exerts critical pro-tumorigenic effects through cytokines and growth factors that support cancer cell proliferation, survival, motility and invasion. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) stimulate colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression via cell autonomous and microenvironmental effects. Using a unique inhibitor, NT157, which targets both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and STAT3, we show that these pathways regulate many TME functions associated with sporadic colonic tumorigenesis in CPC-APC mice, in which cancer development is driven by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene. NT157 causes a substantial reduction in tumor burden by affecting cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and myeloid cells. Decreased cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis were accompanied by inhibition of CAF activation and decreased inflammation. Furthermore, NT157 inhibited expression of pro-tumorigenic cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6, IL-11 and IL-23 as well as CCL2, CCL5, CXCL7, CXCL5, ICAM1 and TGFβ; decreased cancer cell migratory activity and reduced their proliferation in the liver. NT157 represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs that affect both the malignant cell and its supportive microenvironment. PMID:26364612

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces M2 polarization of human macrophages via STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2012-08-24

    It is known that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the small intestine and regulates glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is now used for the treatment of diabetes because of its beneficial role against insulin resistance. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed on many cell types, including macrophages, and GLP-1 suppresses the development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage function. However, there have so far been few studies that have investigated the significance of GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling in macrophage activation. In the present study, we examined the effect of GLP-1 and exenatide, a GLP-1R agonist, on human monocyte-derived macrophage (HMDM) activation. We found that GLP-1 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. Silencing of GLP-1R suppressed the GLP-1-induced STAT3 activation. In addition, alternatively activated (M2) macrophage-related molecules, such as IL-10, CD163, and CD204 in HMDM, were significantly upregulated by GLP-1. Furthermore, the co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with GLP-1-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages increased the secretion of adiponectin compared to co-culture of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes with untreated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that GLP-1 induces macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype, which may contribute to the protective effects of GLP-1 against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Andrographolide causes apoptosis via inactivation of STAT3 and Akt and potentiates antitumor activity of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guo-Qing; Shen, Bai-Yong; Pan, Chun-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Shi, Min-Min; Peng, Cheng-Hong

    2013-09-12

    Gemcitabine is a first-line drug utilised in the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer; however, this drug induces chemo-resistance and toxicity to normal tissue during treatment. Here, we firstly report that andrographolide (ANDRO) alone not only has anti-pancreatic cancer activity, but it also potentiates the anti-tumour activity of gemcitabine. Treatment with ANDRO alone inhibits proliferation of the pancreatic cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Interestingly, ANDRO induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting STAT3 and Akt activation, upregulating the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax, and downregulating the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE, survivin, X-IAP and Bcl-2. Additionally, ANDRO combined with gemcitabine significantly induce stronger cell cycle arrest and more obvious apoptosis than each single treatment. The mechanistic study demonstrates that this synergistic effect is also dependent on the inhibition of STAT3 and Akt activations which subsequently regulates the pathways involved in the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, both ANDRO alone and the combination treatments exhibit efficacious anti-tumour activity in