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Sample records for ebr-ii superheater tubes

  1. Fatigue Testing of Metallurgically-Bonded EBR-II Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier

    2006-12-01

    Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on 2¼Cr-1Mo steel specimens machined from ex-service Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) superheater duplex tubes. The tubes had been metallurgically bonded with a 100 µm thick Ni interlayer; the specimens incorporated this bond layer. Tests were performed at room temperature in air and at 400°C in air and humid Ar; cracks were grown at varied levels of constant ?K. Crack growth tests at a range of ?K were also performed on specimens machined from the shell of the superheater. In all conditions the presence of the Ni interlayer was found to result in a net retardation of growth as the crack passed through the interlayer. The mechanism of retardation was identified as a disruption of crack planarity and uniformity after passing through the porous interlayer. Full crack arrest was only observed in a single test performed at near-threshold ?K level (12 MPa?m) at 400°C. In this case the crack tip was blunted by oxidation of the base steel at the steel-interlayer interface.

  2. JAEA Fatigue Analysis of EBR-II Duplex Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Jackson; D. L. Porter; W. R. Lloyd; N. Kisohara

    2011-03-01

    Small, notched three-point bend specimens machined from duplex tubes, which were extracted from an EBR-II superheater, were fatigued through the nickel interlayer to determine propensity for crack arrest within this interlayer. Several of these specimens were fatigued in the near threshold, and steady state regimes of Paris Law behavior. Additionally, two specimens were fatigued to the edge of the nickel interlayer and then monotonically loaded. Micro-hardness profiles of the nickel interlayer were also measured. Fatigue behavior was found to be similar to previous studies in that arrest was only noted in the near threshold Paris regime (attributed to the presence of voids) and in the steady state regime exhibited an acceleration of crack growth rate through the nickel interlayer followed by a slight retardation. Monotonic loading resulted in crack branching or delamination along the interlayer. Although archival material was not available for this study, the hardness of the nickel interlayer was determined to have been lowered slightly during service by comparison to the expected hardness of a similar nickel braze prepared as specified for fabrication of these tubes.

  3. JAEA Fatigue Analysis of EBR-II Duplex Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Jackson; D. L. Porter; W. R. Lloyd

    2009-07-01

    This work addresses questions brought up concerning the mechanisms associated with fatigue crack growth retardation and/or arrest within the nickel bond layer in duplex 2¼ Cr-1Mo steel superheater tubes. Previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) indicated that the nickel bond layer did not function as a crack arrestor during fatigue crack propagation with the exception of one, isolated case involving an exceptionally low fatigue load and a high temperature (400 0C) environment. Since it is atypical for a fatigue crack to propagate from a relatively soft material (the nickel bond layer) to a harder material (the 2¼ Cr-1Mo steel) there has been speculation that the nickel bond layer was hardened in service. Additionally, there are questions surrounding the nature of the fatigue crack propagation within the nickel bond layer; specifically with regard to the presence of voids seen on micrographs of the bond layer and oxidation within the steel along the edge of the nickel bond layer. There is uncertainty as to the effect of these voids and/or oxide barriers with respect to potential fatigue crack arrest.

  4. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Kish, Joseph; Singbeil, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  5. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  6. High-Temperature Graphitization Failure of Primary Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Mandal, N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the main cause of unit outages of the plant, which further affects the reliability, availability and safety of the unit. So failure analysis of boiler tubes is absolutely essential to predict the root cause of the failure and the steps are taken for future remedial action to prevent the failure in near future. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the primary superheater tube in a thermal power plant boiler. Visual inspection, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as the part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it is concluded that the superheater tube is failed due to graphitization for prolonged exposure of the tube at higher temperature.

  7. Thermomechanical CSM analysis of a superheater tube in transient state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Dawid; Madejski, Paweł

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermomechanical computational solid mechanics analysis (CSM) of a pipe "double omega", used in the steam superheaters in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The complex cross-section shape of the "double omega" tubes requires more precise analysis in order to prevent from failure as a result of the excessive temperature and thermal stresses. The results have been obtained using the finite volume method for transient state of superheater. The calculation was carried out for the section of pipe made of low-alloy steel.

  8. EBR-II fuel slug casting experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C. W.; Batte`, G. L.; Tracy, D. B.; Griffiths, V.

    1987-07-01

    The following paper presents a chronology of EBR-II fuel slug casting experience. Starting with the early vendor campaigns, the paper explains how production of EBR-II fuel, as well as fuel for off-site reactors, has evolved. The production facilities (i.e., EFL, Room 20, FMF, etc.) and casting techniques are discussed in detail. The paper also presents how the original casting operations have improved and the problems encountered as the techniques were developed. Extensive descriptions and data are given on the major experimental programs currently ongoing at EBR-II. Major programs include the IFR lead subassemblies, large diameter slugs, IFR metal fuel RBCB, and the FFTF subassembly program. Concluding the paper is a brief description of future development projects being considered and a summation of how EBR-II Fuels and Materials has been able to overcome various administration obstacles (i.e., improved security and safeguards measures) to continue to meet the increasing demands of fuel production while maintaining an aggressive and active research and development program in fuel slug production.

  9. Sulfur containing sediments influenced wear of superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoffe, P.

    1996-10-01

    The failed superheater tube was investigated at the point of failure and at a distance of 25 cm. At both of the cross sections two layers of sediment were detected. The external one contains Na2SO4 and Na3VO3 in concentration relation 6.4:1 approximately. The internal layer that situated on the tube surface consisted of V2O3 mainly (about 70%) and sodium pyrosulfates Na2SO3{center_dot}xSO3. The tube surface was covered with usual passive oxides such as Cr2O3, Fe2CrO4, and magnetite. In the failed section the last layer contained iron and chromium sulfides. Thinning of the wall was detected in both sections, but it was more evident in the failed section. Thermodynamic and kinetic estimations of the results were carried out. The following failure mechanism was proposed: (1) at 460 C the pyrosulfate dissociates with SO3 emanation, during SO3 interaction with steel both passive oxides and iron sulfide are produced simultaneously, sulfides damage the passive (protective) film; (2) in vicinity of partition the temperature increases and the structure of steel is changed, SO3 penetration along grain boundaries is possible, and it leads to embrittlement of the steel through sulfidization; (3) the embrittled layer is stripped off by falling ash deposit and collapsed passive film, thinning of the tube is accelerated at such a region. So, sulfur containing sediment accelerates the wear of the tube. This acceleration is strong especially in the vicinity of the boiler walls.

  10. The EBR-II fuel cycle story

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This volume on the history of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR) program and the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) offers both the historical perspective and ''reasons why'' the project was so successful. The operation of the FCF in conjunction with the EBR-II was prepared because of the unique nature of the pyrmetallurgical processing system that was demonstrated at the time. Following brief descriptions and histories of the EBR-I and EBR-II reactors, the FCF and its process requirements are described. The seven principal process steps are presented, including for each one, the development, equipment used, operating procedures, results, problems and other data. Scrap and waste disposition, analytical control, safety, management, and cost of the FCF are also included.

  11. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Earle, O.K.; Henslee, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D&D plan has necessitated this current action. The EBR-II is a pool-type reactor. The primary system contains approximately 87,000 gallons of sodium, while the secondary system has 13,000 gallons. In order to properly dispose of the sodium in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), a facility has been built to react the sodium to a dry carbonate powder in a two stage process. Deactivation of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) presents unique concerns. Residual amounts of sodium remaining in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude future concerns with sodium-air reactions that generate explosive mixtures of hydrogen and leave corrosive compounds. Residual amounts of sodium on components will effectively {open_quotes}solder{close_quotes} components in place, making future operation or removal unfeasible.

  12. EBR-II and TREAT Digitization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Digitizing the technical drawings for EBR-II and TREAT provides multiple benefits. Moving the scanned or hard copy drawings to modern 3-D CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) format saves data that could be lost over time. The 3-D drawings produce models that can interface with other drawings to make complex assemblies. The 3-D CAD format can also include detailed material properties and parametric coding that can tie critical dimensions together allowing easier modification. Creating the new files from the old drawings has found multiple inconsistencies that are being flagged or corrected improving understanding of the reactor(s).

  13. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J A; Earle, O K; Henslee, S P; Wells, P B; Zahn, T P

    1996-01-01

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D and D plan has necessitated this current action.

  14. Phase Identification and Internal Stress Analysis of Steamside Oxides on Plant Exposed Superheater Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    2012-05-01

    During long-term, high-temperature exposure of superheater tubes in thermal power plants, various oxides are formed on the inner side (steamside) of the tubes, and oxide spallation is a serious problem for the power plant industry. Most often, oxidation in a steam atmosphere is investigated in laboratory experiments just mimicking the actual conditions in the power plant for simplified samples. On real plant-exposed superheater tubes, the steamside oxides are solely investigated microscopically. The feasibility of X-ray diffraction for the characterization of steamside oxidation on real plant-exposed superheater tubes was proven in the current work; the challenges for depth-resolved phase analysis and phase-specific residual stress analysis at the inner side of the tubes with concave surface curvature are discussed. Essential differences between the steamside oxides formed on two different steels typically applied for superheaters, ferritic-martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 and lean austenitic stainless steel TP347H, respectively, are revealed by X-ray diffraction.

  15. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G.; Shingledecker, John P.; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic-structural behavior of the EBR-II IHX for overpower transients

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.; Feldman, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the effects of the Operational Reliability Testing (ORT) program on major plant components of the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II (EBR-II). This paper describes the integrated thermal-hydraulic-structural analyses conducted for the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with the aid of the NATDEMO, THTB, and ANSYS codes. An extensive analysis revealed the stress limiting area to be the junction between the upper head and upper tube sheet. The analyses indicate, however, that the EBR-II IHX, the major plant component most affected by the ORT program, will be able to withstand the thermal stress and accumulated fatigue damage during the lifetime of the plant including the ORT program.

  17. Kahe pioneers use of T91 for superheater-tube replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, J.F.; Clark, R.

    1995-01-01

    Modified 9Cr steel--referred to as T91 for tubing and P91 for piping--is a relatively new alloy that has seen more powerplant service in Europe than in the US. In Germany, for example, P91 has been specified in most high-pressure/high-temperature refurbishment work since the late 1980s, and has been used in virtually all new construction projects since 1992. The 9Cr steel was first used in the US by Dayton Power and Light Co. (DP and L) in a piping application. DP and L used P91 to replace one secondary-superheater header in 1990 and to replace three more headers over the next two years. The utility`s P91 headers have been in operation for more than 33,000 hours without incident. At least two other major US utilities have used the new alloy for piping application since then. Hawaiian Electric Co. (HECO) is one of the first US utilities to apply 9Cr steel to tubing projects. HECO`s Kahe station Unit 5 had experienced a series of failures of secondary-superheater tubes. Availability of this 150-MW base-load facility is essential to system reliability for the entire island of Oahu. A life-extension study proved the feasibility of replacing the entire secondary-superheater tube bundle and T91 was selected as the optimum material. This article describes the selection and replacement processes.

  18. Structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels for superheater tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    The structure and properties of high-temperature austenitic steels intended for superheater tubes are analyzed. Widely used Kh18N10T (AISI 304) and Kh16N13M3 (AISI 316) steels are found not to ensure a stable austenitic structure and stable properties during long-term thermal holding under stresses. The hardening of austenitic steels by fine particles of vanadium and niobium carbides and nitrides and γ'-phase and Fe2W and Fe2Mo Laves phase intermetallics is considered. The role of Cr23C6 chromium carbides, the σ phase, and coarse precipitates of an M 3B2 phase and a boron-containing eutectic in decreasing the time to failure and the stress-rupture strength of austenitic steels is established. The mechanism of increasing the stress-rupture strength of steels by boron additions is described. The chemical compositions, mechanical properties, stress-rupture strength, and creep characteristics of Russian and foreign austenitic steels used or designed for superheater tubes intended for operation under stress conditions at temperatures above 600°C are presented. The conditions are found for increasing the strength, plasticity, and thermodeformation stability of austenite in steels intended for superheater tubes operating at 700°C under high stresses for a long time.

  19. Oxide scale exfoliation and regrowth in TP347H superheater tubes: Oxide scale exfoliation and regrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, A. S.; Wright, I. G.; Shingledecker, J. P.

    2012-07-23

    This paper provides an introduction to a comprehensive model being developed to predict and control oxide scale exfoliation from the steam-side of superheater and reheater tubes in steam boilers. The model deals with the main phenomena involved in scale growth and failure in steam, and incorporates major variables related to boiler design and operation. The considerations used to calculate oxide growth under the specific constrains of small diameter tubes carrying high-pressure steam and operating with large temperature gradients under temperature and pressure cycling conditions, as well as the evolution of stresses and strains in the scales, are indicated but only a cursory description is given of the details of the analytical treatments. An example is presented of calculations made with the model to predict the extent of blockage expected in a single superheater loop as a function of time and outlet steam temperature under several realistic service conditions. The results suggest that problems due to scale exfoliation would be expected early in the operating life of superheater tubes made from austenitic steel TP347H.

  20. Benchmark specifications for EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is hosting an IAEA-coordinated research project on benchmark analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactor passive safety tests performed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The benchmark project involves analysis of a protected and an unprotected loss of flow tests conducted during an extensive testing program within the framework of the U.S. Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate the inherently safety features of EBR-II as a pool-type, sodium-cooled fast reactor prototype. The project is intended to improve the participants' design and safety analysis capabilities for sodium-cooled fast reactors through validation and qualification of safety analysis codes and methods. This paper provides a description of the EBR-II tests included in the program, and outlines the benchmark specifications being prepared to support the IAEA-coordinated research project. (authors)

  1. Failure Investigation of Radiant Platen Superheater Tube of Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Mandal, A.; Roy, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a radiant platen superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis, are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these, metallographic analysis and fractography are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to localized creep at high temperature. The corrective actions has also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  2. Investigation into Cause of High Temperature Failure of Boiler Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    The failure of the boiler tubes occur due to various reasons like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion. This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a final superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement, microstructural examination are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these investigations, sulfur print, Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD) are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure of final super heater tube. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to the combination of localized high tube metal temperature and loss of metal from the outer surface due to high temperature corrosion. The corrective actions have also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  3. Analysis of grid-assembly shielding of EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Franklin, F.C.; Kucera, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Differing neutron exposure rates to the EBR-II lower grid plenum assembly resulting from the historical changes in reactor configuration and shielding are analyzed to obtain the fluences and the steel displacements-per-atom values in this irreplaceable component.

  4. Materials Selection for Superheater Tubes in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Chimenos, J. M.; Fernández, A. I.; Segarra, M.

    2014-09-01

    Corrosion reduces the lifetime of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) superheater tubes more than any other cause. It can be minimized by the careful selection of those materials that are most resistant to corrosion under operating conditions. Since thousands of different materials are already known and many more are developed every year, here the selection methodology developed by Prof. Ashby of the University of Cambridge was used to evaluate the performance of different materials to be used as MSWI superheater tubes. The proposed materials can operate at steam pressures and temperatures over 40 bars and 400 °C, respectively. Two case studies are presented: one makes a balanced selection between mechanical properties and cost per thermal unit; and the other focuses on increasing tube lifetime. The balanced selection showed that AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel (wrought, hard tempered) is the best candidate with a good combination of corrosion resistance, a relatively low price (0.83-0.92 €/kg) and a good thermal conductivity (23-27 W/m K). Meanwhile, Nitronic 50/XM-19 stainless steel is the most promising candidate for long-term selection, as it presents high corrosion resistance with a relatively low price (4.86-5.14 €/kg) compared to Ni-alloys.

  5. Prediction of remaining lifetime of superheater/reheater tubes in boilers burning high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The secondary superheater and reheater tubes in steam boilers are susceptible to a form of accelerated corrosion which is related to the formation of complex sulfates of sodium, potassium, and iron which may have melting temperatures as low as 552/sup 0/C. The conditions required for this form of corrosion to occur include the deposition on the tubes of alkali- and sulfur- (and possibly iron-) containing species (from the coal), sufficient time and a temperature gradient in the deposit to allow the formation and migration of the corrosive species to the tube surface, and a tube surface temperature above the melting temperature of the complex sulfates. The factors that must be considered in a life expectancy calculation are: oxidation rate, molten salt corrosion rate, trisulfate melting point, original tube diameter, loss of outside diameter, internal scale thickness, and operating time. A computer program has been developed to carry out the life expectancy calculation based on these factors. This program was tested on the reheater of a 600 MW coal-fired boiler of General Public Utilities (GPU) which operates with 540/sup 0/C and 4.83 MPa reheat. Tube sections were removed from the vertical section of the reheater for evaluation. The output indicated that after 90,000 hours the tubes would be thinned to 3.4 mm (135 mils), which agreed with actual measurements. Tube failure was predicted at 108,000 hours, when the tube wall would be reduced to 2.8 mm (111 mils). In this case tube replacement within two years was recommended to avoid forced outages. 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  7. Evaluation of Anticorrosion Performance of New Materials for Alternative Superheater Tubes in Biomass Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Hongliang; He, Yuwu

    2016-09-01

    One way of controlling alkali chloride-induced corrosion in biomass boilers is by designing new alloy materials used as superheater tubes. Four newly designed Cr-Ni alloy was designed and studied for applicability in biomass power plants. High-temperature oxidation experiments and high-temperature corrosion experiments were carried out for evaluation material characterization. Through analysis and discussion of the corrosion kinetics and oxidation kinetics, it can be concluded that materials with series number of "2xx" and "3xx" had better endurance ability in KCl environment under 650°C and 700°C than TP316 material. In the same conditions, 3xx material had better anticorrosion ability in 700°C with KCl environment.

  8. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  9. Data systems in FFTF and EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Warrick, R.P.; Ritter, W.M.

    1980-02-01

    This paper describes the Data System used to monitor operation and collect experimental data in FFTF. This data system has evolved since initial inception from a relatively simple, single computer system monitoring a relatively few (approx. 1000) instrument channels important for operation to one which has increased capability to support the long-range testing needs in FFTF. The system, while still relatively simple, now contains multiple computers which normally perform independent functions. The computers, however, provide backup processing for certain simple tasks. Operator interfacing is provided through CRT's. The output capabilities of the system are described. A description of the Data System in EBR-II is also included.

  10. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  11. PRD components of an EBR-II configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear components of the power reactivity decrement (PRD) for a heterogeneous loading (run 93A) of Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) have been calculated using the EBRPOCO program together with an addition to the program, RODCO, which accounts for effects of axial positionings of control rods. The program calculates detailed axially delineated contributions of the components of the PRD for every subassembly of the reactor configuration. The sum of these contributions is subtracted from the corresponding measured PRD value to give the nonlinear (subassembly-bowing) component.

  12. Expert system determination of power level for EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, T.L.; Makowitz, H. )

    1992-01-01

    The Tightly Coupled Transient Analysis System (TCTAS) is under development for use at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The premise is that during plant operation, it would be useful to compare plant conditions to values generated by a simulation. This capability could reveal inconsistent plant behavior such as temperatures or pressures that are different than expected. By using much faster than real-time simulation, it could help predict possible problems and allow running relevant operational scenarios. The system currently includes a data acquisition system (DAS) that reports plant parameters each second. Graphic displays for major plant subsystems are available for displaying DAS data, simulation data, and DAS data as interpreted by the expert system. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) is operational and has been tested. An expert system is currently used for interpreting DAS data before comparing it to DSNP data. Instrumentation difficulties have made some EBR-II data either suspect or unavailable. Other sensors are not connected to the DAS. These problems force either humans or the expert system to make assumptions in order to compute certain plant parameters. The expert system, like the experts, assumes steady-state conditions.

  13. EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project status

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

    1998-07-01

    The application of electrometallurgical technology to spent nuclear fuel treatment is being demonstrated by treating 410 kg uranium spent driver fuel and 1,200 kg uranium spent blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent driver and blanket fuel. This fuel is a metallic uranium alloy and contains elemental sodium, which is a reactive material. Since reactive material is considered hazardous by US Environmental Protection Agency regulations, this fuel requires treatment before disposal in a geologic repository. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration conditions this fuel in an integrated process where the fuel is converted into three different products: low enriched uranium (LEU), ceramic waste and metallic waste. This demonstration was initiated in June 1996 and has treated approximately 50% of the driver fuel. The higher throughput equipment that will be used for blanket treatment processes has been installed in the hot cell facility and is being tested with depleted uranium. Metal waste forms have been produced from the irradiated metals from the driver fuel. Ceramic waste process equipment has been built and is being tested before installation in the hot cell facilities. This paper discusses the processes and the current results from the first 20 months of operation.

  14. Performance of advanced oxide fuel pins in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.A.; Jensen, S.M.; Hales, J.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Makenas, B.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of design and operating parameters on mixed-oxide fuel pin irradiation performance were established for the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) advanced oxide EBR-II test series. Fourteen fuel pins breached in-reactor with reference 316 SS cladding. Seven of the breaches are attributed to FCMI. Of the remaining seven breached pins, three are attributed to local cladding over-temperatures similar to the breach mechanism for the reference oxide pins irradiated in EBR-II. FCCI was found to be a contributing factor in two high burnup, i.e., 11.7 at. % breaches. The remaining two breaches were attributed to mechanical interaction of UO/sub 2/ fuel and fission products accumulated in the lower cladding insulator gap, and a loss of cladding ductility possibly due to liquid metal embrittlement. Fuel smear density appears to have the most significant impact on lifetime. Quantitative evaluations of cladding diameter increases attributed to FCMI, established fuel smear density, burnup, and cladding thickness-to-diameter ratio as the major parameters influencing the extent of cladding strain.

  15. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  16. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F.

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  17. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A.

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  18. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-03-09

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH.

  19. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  20. EBR-II fuel handling console digital upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.G.; Wiege, D.D.; Christensen, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    The main fuel handling console and control system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are being upgraded to a computerized system using high-end workstations for the operator interface and a programmable logic controller (PLC) for the control system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics will be provided for the operator which will show the relative position of under-sodium fuel handling equipment. This equipment is operated remotely with no means of directly viewing the transfer. This paper describes various aspects of the modification including reasons for the upgrade, capabilities the new system provides over the old control system, philosophies and rationale behind the new design, testing and simulation work, diagnostic features, and the advanced graphics techniques used to display information to the operator.

  1. Simplified modeling of the EBR-II control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, P.L.

    1995-06-25

    Simplified models of EBR-II control and safety rods have been developed for core modeling under various operational and shutdown conditions. A parametric study was performed on normal worth, high worth, and safety rod type control rods. A summary of worth changes due to individual modeling approximations is tabulated. Worth effects due to structural modeling simplification are negligible. Fuel region homogenization and burnup compression contributes more than any other factor. Reference case C/E values (ratio of calculated worth from detailed model to measured worth) of 1.072 and 1.142 for safety and normal worth rods indicate acceptable errors when the approximations are used. Fuel burnup effect illustrates rod worth sensitivity to the modeling approximation. Aggregate effects are calculated under a reduced mesh.

  2. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  3. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results.

  4. An overview of the EBR-II PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.J.; Chang, Y.W.; Deitrich, L.W.; Ragland, W.A. ); Lehto, W.K.; Schaeffer, R.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, EBR-II, is a 60 MW(t) liquid sodium cooled, pool type fast reactor which has operated successfully as a power reactor and irradiation facility for over 25 years. Argonne National Laboratory is currently performing a Probabilistic Risk Assessment of EBR-II. An overview of the PRA is presented with special attention to those issues which are important to EBR-II such as the passive decay heat removal capabilities and the passive shut down capability provided by the reactivity feedbacks. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Yingling, G. E.; Curran, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II.

  6. Approximating axially dependent radial-displacement reactivities of EBR-II subassembly rows

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-12-31

    Reactivities resulting from radial displacement of the Experimental Breeder reactor II (EBR-II) subassembly rows are used in calculations of bowing components of reactivity and of grid-plate expansion reactivity. The method uses perturbation-quantity outputs from a modified R-Z geometry diffusion theory calculation to obtain axially delineated reactivity coefficients for an azimuthally homogenized approximation of an EBR-II configuration.

  7. Life assessment of boiler pressure parts. Volume 7, Life assessment technology for superheater/reheater tubes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grunloh, H.J.; Ryder, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    The severe environment in which superheater and reheater tubes operate can lead to premature failure by the interaction of possible damage mechanisms. One such mechanism, creep-rupture, has been studied extensively and the means of measuring the extent of such damage and the methods of assessing its effects on the remaining service life of superheater/reheater tubes are the subjects of this volume. A study was initially performed to identify techniques in current use in industry for measuring parameters that are pertinent to the creep-rupture damage mechanisms. A plan was implemented to apply these techniques in the field, at two selected host utility boilers, and in the laboratory. The field studies included tracking failure histories, assembling representative sets of plant operating data, installing inlet and outlet pad-type thermocouples, designing and installing in-furnace chordal-type thermocouples, conducting component-wide steamside oxide and tube wall thickness surveys, and selecting and extracting tube samples for laboratory evaluations. The laboratory studies included metallographic measurement of steamside oxide and tube wall thicknesses, accelerated creep-rupture testing, including tube burst tests and miniature uniaxial creep-rupture tests, and ultimate tensile strength testing. Evaluations on the use of ultrasonic methods for measuring oxide and tube wall thickness are offered, newly-developed creep-rupture life and creep strain rate models are presented, and recommendations are made concerning the optimal stress formula for use in damage assessment and remaining life calculations. Recommendations are made for use of an integrated application of inspection and calculational methods incorporating simplified probabilistic techniques to efficiently conduct component-wide evaluations.

  8. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; S. L. Hayes; M. K. Meyer; H. Tsai

    2008-06-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR-II as part of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data, and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few minor actinide-bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MA’s. Of primary interest are the affect of the MA’s on fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995-1996, and currently represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior.

  9. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Carmack; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; H. Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR II as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few MA bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide, and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MAs. Of primary interest are the effect of the MAs on fuel cladding chemical interaction and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995–1996 and, currently, represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior. This report provides a summary of the X501 fabrication, characterization, irradiation, and post irradiation examination.

  10. A survey of recent EBR-II passive safety testing

    SciTech Connect

    Planchon, H.P.; Golden, G.H.; Sackett, J.I.; Singer, R.M.; Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Feldman, E.E.; Sevy, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    During the last two years, the testing program at EBR-II has investigated the capabilities of liquid metal reactors (LMRs) to perform vital safety functions passively. In particular the tests have examined post shutdown decay heat removal by natural circulation and passive shutdown of the reactor after accidents which lead to undercooling. The undercooling accidents have been divided into two categories - the loss of flow without scram (LOFWS) (a family of events involving a loss of forced flow through the reactor), and the loss of heat sink without scram (LOHSWS) (a family of events involving a loss of the ability to transfer reactor heat to down stream components which generate steam and electricity.) The type of ''passive shutdown'' that has been examined is caused by natural processes - principally thermal expansion of the reactor structures, fuel and coolant. As used in this paper the term excludes automatic control of power, operator intervention or negative reactivity generated by special in-core devices. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Flow dependence of the PRD in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-12-31

    The linear (and Doppler) feedback components of the power reactivity decrement (PRD) for various loading configurations of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) have been reported. (The PRD at a power is here the negative of the reactivity required to bring the reactor from zero-power, hot-critical, to that power.) The delineation of the feedback components into power dependent and power-to-flow dependent parts have also been reported. The nonlinear feedback component, primarily due to bowings of the subassembly ducts, is deduced by subtraction of the calculated total linear (and small Doppler) component from the measured values of PRD as a function of reactor power. Furthermore, this component is generally assumed to be a function of the power-to-flow ratio of the reactor for purposes of estimating PRD values at differing flows. If the nonlinear reactivity component is indeed solely power-to-flow dependent, then the values of measured total PRDs for differing flows should lie for the respective power values, corresponding to equivalent power-to-flow values, on a straight line having a negative slope. (This slope would be the power rate of the solely power part of the linear component of the PRD). Evidence that this may not be a reasonable assumption is reported.

  12. EBR-II metallic driver fuel - a live option

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1981-10-01

    The exceptional performance of metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver-fuel elements of uranium-5 wt percent fissium clad in austenitic stainless steel. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. The irradiation performance has been improved by decreasing the fuel smear density, increasing the plenum volume, increasing the cladding thickness, and selecting a higher-strength, lower-swelling cladding alloy which exhibits less fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of the element lifetime. Lifetimes much greater than 10 at. percent could be achieved by a design change of the restrainer, which currently limits life. Use of U-Pu-Zr fuel alloy with current cladding material would provide higher-temperature capability. Metallic fuel systems with their inherently superior breeding and irradiation performance are a capable and attractive next-generation power systems. 19 refs.

  13. Comparison of measured and calculated composition of irradiated EBR-II blanket assemblies.

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K. N.

    1998-07-13

    In anticipation of processing irradiated EBR-II depleted uranium blanket subassemblies in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West, it has been possible to obtain a limited set of destructive chemical analyses of samples from a single EBR-II blanket subassembly. Comparison of calculated values with these measurements is being used to validate a depletion methodology based on a limited number of generic models of EBR-II to simulate the irradiation history of these subassemblies. Initial comparisons indicate these methods are adequate to meet the operations and material control and accountancy (MC and A) requirements for the FCF, but also indicate several shortcomings which may be corrected or improved.

  14. Calculation of temperature coefficients of reactivity for EBR-II kinetic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature coefficients of reactivity for use in coupled neutronics-thermohydraulics kinetics codes, as for example the EROS code used for Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) kinetic analyses, are both loading and problem-modeling sensitive. To enable appropriate temperature coefficients to be calculated for differing loading configurations and differing subassembly groupings in the kinetics analyses, an addition ((TEMCO) has been made to the EBRPOCO code. EBRPOCO calculates detailed axially-delineated contributions of the linear and Doppler components of the power-reactivity-decrement (PRD) for every subassembly and control rod location in an EBR-II configuration. This paper provides the results of the EBR-II kinetics analysis and lists the temperature coefficients of reactivity for varying subassembly types and conditions.

  15. Electrorefining Experience For Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; K. M. Goff; R. W. Benedict

    2005-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. This report summarizes technical advancements made in electrorefining of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mk-IV electrorefiner since the pyrochemical processing was integrated into the AFCI program in 2002. The significant advancements include improving uranium dissolution and noble metal retention from chopped fuel segments, increasing cathode current efficiency, and achieving co-collection of zirconium along with uranium from the cadmium pool.

  16. Off-normal performance of EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor) driver fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Fryer, R.M.; Koenig, J.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The off-normal performance of EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel has been more than satisfactory as demonstrated by robust reliability under repeated transient overpower and undercooled loss-of-flow tests, by benign run-beyond-cladding-breach behavior, and by forgiving response to fabrication defects including lack of bond. Test results have verified that the metallic driver fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events. This behavior has allowed EBR-II to operate in a combined steady-state and transient mode to provide test capability without limitation from the metallic driver fuel.

  17. Feedback-reactivity time-dependencies for a negative reactivity insertion in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge of time-dependencies (and magnitudes) of feedback components is necessary for interpretation and understanding of transient behaviors. Described herein is one analysis of negative insertion (approx. 36 cents) of a control rod from full power during Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) run 93a. The time-dependencies of the component feedbacks have been analyzed using 24 channels in the EROS computer code. Seventy distinct temperature coefficients of reactivity were used in conjunction with this 24-channel EBR-II model. These temperature coefficients of reactivity were obtained using an addition (TEMCO) to the EBRPOCO code.

  18. Fluence, dosimetry, and steel-dpa rates in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivities of steel displacements-per-atom (dpa) rates to fluence-rate spectra in regions of th Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are presented. Low sensitivities in EBR-II of ratios of dpa-to-fission rates assuming /sup 240/Pu as a dosimeter suggests its possible use for adjusting calculated dpa-rates for effects of errors in calculated fluence-spectra. Extension of the method to outer regions, having more degraded spectra, by use of /sup 10/B-shielded /sup 240/Pu dosimeters is also suggested.

  19. Calculation of temperature coefficients of reactivity for EBR-II kinetic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature coefficients of reactivity for use in coupled neutronics-thermohydraulics kinetics codes, as for example the EROS code used for Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) kinetic analyses are both loading and problem-modeling sensitive. To enable appropriate temperature coefficients to be calculated for differing loading configurations and differing subassembly groupings in the kinetics analyses, an addition (TEMCO) has been made to the EBRPOCO code. EBRPOCO calculates detailed axially delineated contributions of the linear and Doppler components of the power-reactivity-decrement (PRD) for every subassembly and control rod location in an EBR-II configuration.

  20. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi Xu, Jian-Qun; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  1. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You; Xu, Jian-Qun

    2014-07-01

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  2. Current status of experimental breeder reactor-II [EBR-II] shutdown planning

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, M. D.; Griffin, C. D.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Earle, O. K.

    2000-05-08

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor--II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was shutdown in September, 1994 as mandated by the US Department of Energy. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the Sodium Process Facility. The sodium environment and the EBR-II configuration, combined with the radiation and contamination associated with thirty years of reactor operation, posed problems specific to liquid metal reactor deactivation. The methods being developed and implemented at EBR-II can be applied to other similar situations in the US and abroad.

  3. Subtask 12H1: Vanadium alloy irradiation experiment X530 in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Hins, A.G.; Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the X530 experiment in EBR-II was to obtain early irradiation performance data, particularly the fracture properties, on the new 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled reactor shutdown at the end of September 1994. To obtain early irradiation performance data on the new 500-kg production heat of the V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled EBR-II shutdown, an experiment, X530, was expeditiously designed and assembled. Charpy, compact tension, tensile and TEM specimens with different thermal mechanical treatments (TMTs), were enclosed in two capsules and irradiated in the last run of EBR-II, Run 170, from August 9 through September 27. For comparison, specimens from some of the previous heats were also included in the test. The accrued exposure was 35 effective full power days, yielding a peak damage of {approx}4 dpa in the specimens. The irradiation is now complete and the vehicle is awaiting to be discharged from EBR-II for postirradiation disassembly. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Vanadium alloy irradiation experiment X530 in EBR-II{sup *}

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Hins, A.G.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the X530 experiment in EBR-II was to obtain early irradiation performance data, particularly the fracture properties, on the new 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti material before the scheduled reactor shutdown at the end of September 1994.

  5. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S.

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  7. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  8. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  9. Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

  10. Results and implications of the EBR-II inherent safety demonstration tests

    SciTech Connect

    Planchon, H.P.; Golden, G.H.; Sackett, J.I.; Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3, 1986 two milestone tests were conducted in Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-II). The first test was a loss of flow without scram and the second was a loss of heat sink without scram. Both tests were initiated from 100% power and in both tests the reactor was shut down by natural processes, principally thermal expansion, without automatic scram, operator intervention or the help of special in-core devices. The temperature transients during the tests were mild, as predicted, and there was no damage to the core or reactor plant structures. In a general sense, therefore, the tests plus supporting analysis demonstrated the feasibility of inherent passive shutdown for undercooling accidents in metal-fueled LMRs. The results provide a technical basis for future experiments in EBR-II to demonstrate inherent safety for overpower accidents and provide data for validation of computer codes used for design and safety analysis of inherently safe reactor plants.

  11. Operational-safety advantages of LMFBR's: the EBR-II experience and testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W.; Golden, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    LMFBR's contain many inherent characteristics that simplify control and improve operating safety and reliability. The EBR-II design is such that good advantage was taken of these characteristics, resulting in a vary favorable operating history and allowing for a program of off-normal testing to further demonstrate the safe response of LMFBR's to upsets. The experience already gained, and that expected from the future testing program, will contribute to further development of design and safety criteria for LMFBR's. Inherently safe characteristics are emphasized and include natural convective flow for decay heat removal, minimal need for emergency power and a large negative reactivity feedback coefficient. These characteristics at EBR-II allow for ready application of computer diagnosis and control to demonstrate their effectiveness in response to simulated plant accidents. This latter testing objective is an important part in improvements in the man-machine interface. (MMI)

  12. Unprotected loss-of-heat sink simulation in the EBR-II plant

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.E.; Mohr, D.

    1984-01-01

    Two unprotected loss-of-heat sink transients initiated from near full power conditions in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) plant have been simulated. In one transient the secondary sodium flow is reduced to nearly zero (0.5% of its initial value) while in the other the flow simply coasts down to a natural-convective rate of about 8%. In spite of the large difference in primary heat removal rates, which the difference in secondary flow rates represents, both transients have very similar overall behavior. In addition, the large volume of sodium in the primary tank causes a slowly rising tank temperature in response to net heat addition. An important result is that the negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the reactor cause it to shut itself down in a benign manner in both cases. Experiments based on these simulations are planned for the EBR-II in 1985.

  13. Analysis of EBR-II neutron and photon physics by multidimensional transport-theory techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jacqmin, R.P.; Finck, P.J.; Palmiotti, G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper contains a review of the challenges specific to the EBR-II core physics, a description of the methods and techniques which have been developed for addressing these challenges, and the results of some validation studies relative to power-distribution calculations. Numerical tests have shown that the VARIANT nodal code yields eigenvalue and power predictions as accurate as finite difference and discrete ordinates transport codes, at a small fraction of the cost. Comparisons with continuous-energy Monte Carlo results have proven that the errors introduced by the use of the diffusion-theory approximation in the collapsing procedure to obtain broad-group cross sections, kerma factors, and photon-production matrices, have a small impact on the EBR-II neutron/photon power distribution.

  14. Electrochemical Dissolution of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Li; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict; K. M. Goff

    2006-06-01

    Pyrochemical processing is a promising technology for closing the nuclear fuel cycle for next generation nuclear reactors. At Idaho National Laboratory (INL), such a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). A successful demonstration of the technology was performed from 1996 to 1999 for the Department of Energy (DOE). Since 2002, processing of the spent fuel and associated research and development activities have been carried out under DOE’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program. Electrorefining is considered to be the signature or central technology for pyrochemical processing. This paper summarizes recent experience and results in electrorefining, specifically focusing on electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mark-IV (Mk-IV) electrorefiner (ER).

  15. Experimental and calculational analyses of actinide samples irradiated in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Gilai, D.; Williams, M.L.; Cooper, J.H.; Laing, W.R.; Walker, R.L.; Raman, S.; Stelson, P.H.

    1982-10-01

    Higher actinides influence the characteristics of spent and recycled fuel and dominate the long-term hazards of the reactor waste. Reactor irradiation experiments provide useful benchmarks for testing the evaluated nuclear data for these actinides. During 1967 to 1970, several actinide samples were irradiated in the Idaho EBR-II fast reactor. These samples have now been analyzed, employing mass and alpha spectrometry, to determine the heavy element products. A simple spherical model for the EBR-II core and a recent version of the ORIGEN code with ENDF/B-V data were employed to calculate the exposure products. A detailed comparison between the experimental and calculated results has been made. For samples irradiated at locations near the core center, agreement within 10% was obtained for the major isotopes and their first daughters, and within 20% for the nuclides up the chain. A sensitivity analysis showed that the assumed flux should be increased by 10%.

  16. SASSYS-1 computer code verification with EBR-II test data

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.; Dunn, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    The EBR-II natural circulation experiment, XX08 Test 8A, is simulated with the SASSYS-1 computer code and the results for the latter are compared with published data taken during the transient at selected points in the core. The SASSYS-1 results provide transient temperature and flow responses for all points of interest simultaneously during one run, once such basic parameters as pipe sizes, initial core flows, and elevations are specified. The SASSYS-1 simulation results for the EBR-II experiment XX08 Test 8A, conducted in March 1979, are within the published plant data uncertainties and, thereby, serve as a partial verification/validation of the SASSYS-1 code.

  17. Evidence of fast non-linear feedback in EBR-II rod-drop measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-06-01

    Feedback reactivities determine the time dependence of a reactor during and after a transient initiating event. Recent analysis of control-rod drops in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Reactor has indicated that some relatively fast feedback may exist which cannot be accounted for by the linear feedback mechanisms. The linear and deduced non-linear feedback reactivities from a control-rod drop in EBR-II run 93A using detailed temperature coefficients of reactivity in the EROS kinetics code have been reported. The transient analyses have now been examined in more detail for times close to the drop to ascertain if additional positive reactivity is being built-in early in the drop which could be gradually released later in the drop.

  18. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor) subassembly types

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-09-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel.

  19. EBR-II argon cooling system restricted fuel handling I and C upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Start, S.E.; Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    The instrumentation and control of the Argon Cooling System (ACS) restricted fuel handling control system at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is being upgraded from a system comprised of many discrete components and controllers to a computerized system with a graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes the aspects of the upgrade including reasons for the upgrade, the old control system, upgrade goals, design decisions, philosophies and rationale, and the new control system hardware and software.

  20. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Sheryl Morton; Carl Baily; Tom Hill; Jim Werner

    2006-02-01

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a lowtemperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform posttest examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL.

  1. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Sheryl L.; Baily, Carl E.; Hill, Thomas J.; Werner, James E.

    2006-01-20

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a low-temperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform posttest examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL.

  2. Feasibility of Ground Testing a Moon and Mars Surface Power Reactor in EBR-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Sheryl L.; Baily, Carl E.; Hill, Thomas J.; Werner, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Ground testing of a surface fission power system would be necessary to verify the design and validate reactor performance to support safe and sustained human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has several facilities that could be adapted to support a ground test. This paper focuses on the feasibility of ground testing at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facility and using other INL existing infrastructure to support such a test. This brief study concludes that the INL EBR-II facility and supporting infrastructure are a viable option for ground testing the surface power system. It provides features and attributes that offer advantages to locating and performing ground testing at this site, and it could support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration schedules for human exploration of the Moon. This study used the initial concept examined by the U.S. Department of Energy Inter-laboratory Design and Analysis Support Team for surface power, a low-temperature, liquid-metal, three-loop Brayton power system. With some facility modification, the EBR-II can safely house a test chamber and perform long-term testing of the space reactor power system. The INL infrastructure is available to receive and provide bonded storage for special nuclear materials. Facilities adjacent to EBR-II can provide the clean room environment needed to assemble and store the test article assembly, disassemble the power system at the conclusion of testing, and perform posttest examination. Capability for waste disposal is also available at the INL.

  3. Planning for closure and deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Poland, H.F.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-07-01

    In January 1994, DOE terminated the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program. Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a detailed plan to put Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a safe condition, including removal of irradiated fueled subassemblies from the plant, transfer of subassemblies, and removal and stabilization of primary and secondary sodium liquid heat transfer metal. The goal of deactivation is to stabilize the EBR-II complex until decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) is implemented, thereby minimizing maintenance and surveillance. Deactivation of a sodium cooled reactor presents unique concerns. Residual sodium in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude concerns with explosive sodium-air reactions. Also, residual sodium on components will effectively solder these items in place, making removal unfeasible. Several special cases reside in the primary system, including primary cold traps, a cesium trap, a cover gas condenser, and systems containing sodium-potassium alloy. The sodium or sodium-potassium alloy in these components must be reacted in place or the components removed. The Sodium Components Maintenance Shop at ANL-W provides the capability for washing primary components, removing residual quantities of sodium while providing some decontamination capacity. Considerations need to be given to component removal necessary for providing access to primary tank internals for D&D activities, removal of hazardous materials, and removal of stored energy sources. ANL-W`s plan for the deactivation of EBR-II addresses these issues, providing for an industrially and radiologically safe complex, requiring minimal surveillance during the interim period between deactivation and D&D. Throughout the deactivation and closure of the EBR-II complex, federal environmental concerns will be addressed, including obtaining the proper permits for facility condition and waste processing and disposal. 2 figs.

  4. Evidence of fast nonlinear feedback in EBR-II rod-drop measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Feedback reactivities determine the time dependence of a reactor during and after a transient initiating event. Recent analysis of control-rod drops in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has indicated that some relatively fast feedback may exist that cannot be accounted for by the linear feedback mechanisms. The magnitude of the positive insertion appears dependent on the amount of inserted reactivity and the run configuration. This phenomenon may be caused by a small, but rapid, change in core dimensions.

  5. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D. ); Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): Instrumentation for core surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    EBR-II has operated for 25 years in support of several major programs. During this time period, several of the original, non-replaceable, flow sensors, RDT sensors and thermocouples have failed in the primary system. This has led to the development of new sensors and the use of calculated values using computer models of the plant. It is important for the next generation of LMR reactors to minimize or eliminate the use of non-replaceable sensors. EBR-II is perhaps the best modeled reactor in the world, thanks to a dedicated T-H analysis program. The success of this program relied on excellent measurements of temperature and flow in subassemblies in the core. The instrumented subassemblies of the XX series provided that measurement capability. From this test series, EBR-II calculations showed that the core could withstand a loss-of-flow without scram accident and a loss-of-heat sink without scram accident from full reactor power without core damage. From this, reactor designers can now design with confidence, inherently safe reactors. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Delineations of power and power-to-flow feedback components of EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed contributions of feedback components by regions for various experimental breeder reactor-II (EBR-II) configurations have been reported assuming given values for the coolant flows. The separation of these components into power dependent and power-to-flow dependent parts if reported here for EBR-II run 93A. The power-reactivity-decrement (PRD) can then be expressed as the sum of parts which enables the PRD for other values of coolant flow to be estimated. The delineations of the components also enhance the understanding of the contributions of the various components and regions in the feedback process in EBR-II. Separation of the components into power and power-to-flow delineations were made by calculations of the components of the PRD assuming infinite coolant flow and comparing with results previously reported for finite flow. Subtractions of the infinite-flow feedback values from the corresponding finite-flow values give the power-to-flow portions. These linear and Doppler components of the PRDs were calculated using the EBRPOCO program together with an addition to the program (RODCO) which accounts for the effects of axial positionings of control rods.

  8. EBR-II facility for cleaning and maintenance of LMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cleaning and maintenance of EBR-II sodium wetted components is accomplished in a separate hands-on maintenance facility known as the Sodium Components Maintenance Shop (SCMS). Sodium removal is mostly done using alcohol but steam or water is used. The SCMS has three alcohol cleaning systems: one for small nonradioactive components, one for small radioactive components, and one for large radioactive components. The SCMS also has a water-wash station for the removal of sodium with steam or water. An Alcohol Recovery Facility removes radioactive contaminants from the alcohol and reclaims the alcohol for reuse. Associated with the large components cleaning system is a major component handling system.

  9. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-03-14

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles.

  10. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-03-01

    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement.

  11. EBR-II time constant calculation using the EROS kinetics code

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    System time constants are important parameters in determining the dynamic behavior of reactors. One method of determining basic time constants is to apply a step change in power level and determine the resulting temperature change. This methodology can be done using any computer code that calculates temperature versus time given either a power input or a reactivity input. In the current analysis this is done using the reactor kinetics code EROS. As an example of this methodology, the time constant is calculated for an Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel pin.

  12. A probabilistic method for evaluating reactivity feedbacks and its application to EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The probability that reactivity feedbacks fail to prevent damage is computed by propagating data and modeling uncertainties through transient calculations, with these uncertainties being constrained by experimental evidence. Screening processes are used to identify the most important parameters and accident initiators. The response surface method is used to facilitate the error propagation and a Monte Carlo rejection technique is used to force the parameter variations to be consistent with the observed distribution of experimental quantities. The reliability of the failure probability estimates is evaluated. This process is applied to ATWS events in the PRA for the EBR-II reactor. The loss-of-normal-power (LONP), loss-of-flow and transient overpower accidents without scram were found to warrant detailed analysis and a complete analysis has been made for the first of these. Six parameters are primarily responsible for the LONP outcome variations. The conditional probability of minor core damage from LONP without scram is 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}. The uncertainty in this estimate is a factor of 2. This damage estimate would be an order of magnitude higher if experimental information about feedbacks in EBR-II was not used. the conditional probability of major core damage from LONP without scram is <10{sup {minus}6}. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Breached fuel pin contamination from Run Beyond Cladding Breach (RBCB) tests in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, R.P.; Strain, R.V.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, I.

    1988-09-01

    Studies indicate there may be a large economic incentive to permit some continued reactor operation with breached fuel pin cladding. A major concern for this type of operation is the potential spread of contamination in the primary coolant system and its impact on plant maintenance. A study of the release and transport of contamination from naturally breached mixed oxide Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel pins was performed as part of the US Department of Energy/Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (DOE/PNC) Run Beyond Cladding Breach (RBCB) Program at EBR-II. The measurements were made using the Breached Fuel Test Facility (BFTF) at EBR-II with replaceable deposition samplers located approximately 1.5 meters from the breached fuel test assemblies. The effluent from the test assemblies containing the breached fuel pins was routed up through the samplers and past dedicated instrumentation in the BFTF before mixing with the main coolant flow stream. This paper discusses the first three contamination tests in this program. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

    SciTech Connect

    Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep.

  15. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor II) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D. )

    1989-11-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations.

  16. Comparisons of PRD (power-reactivity-decrements) components for various EBR-II configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1986-09-19

    Comparison of detailed calculations of contributions by region and component of the power-reactivity-decrements (PRD) for four differing loading configurations of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) are given. The linear components and Doppler components are calculated. The non-linear (primarily subassembly bowing) components are deduced by differences relative to measured total PRD values. Variations in linear components range from about 10% to as much as about 100% depending upon the component. The deduced non-linear components differ both in magnitude and sign as functions of reactor power. Effects of differing assumptions of the nature of the fuel-to-clad interactions upon the PRD components are also calculated.

  17. EBR-II secondary sodium loop Plugging Temperature Indicator control system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary sodium coolant loop Plugging Temperature Indicator (PTI) control system was upgraded in 1993 to a real-time computer based system. This was done to improve control, to remove obsolete and high maintenance equipment, and to provide a graphical CRT based operator interface. A goal was to accomplish this inexpensively using small, reliable computer and display hardware with a minimum of purchased software. This paper describes the PTI system, the upgraded control system and its operator interface, and development methods and tools. The paper then assesses how well the system met its goals, discusses lessons learned and operational improvements noted, and provides some recommendations and suggestions on applying small real-time control systems of this type.

  18. EBR-II Static Neutronic Calculations by PHISICS / MCNP6 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Paolo Balestra; Carlo Parisi; Andrea Alfonsi

    2016-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Shutdown Heat Removal Tests (SHRT) performed in the '80s at the Experimental fast Breeder Reactor EBR-II, USA. The scope of the CRP is to improve and validate the simulation tools for the study and the design of the liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Moreover, training of the next generation of fast reactor analysts is being also considered the other scope of the CRP. In this framework, a static neutronic model was developed, using state-of-the art neutron transport codes like SCALE/PHISICS (deterministic solution) and MCNP6 (stochastic solution). Comparison between both solutions is briefly illustrated in this summary.

  19. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Morphologies of uranium deposits produced during electrorefining of EBR-II spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T. C.

    2000-02-15

    The morphologies of U metal samples from deposits produced by electrorefining of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent fuel were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and metallography. The morphologies were analyzed to find correlations with the chemistry of the samples, the ER run conditions, and the deposit performance. A rough correlation was observed between morphology and Zr concentration; samples with Zr contents greater than approximately 200 ppm showed fine-grained, polycrystalline dendritic morphologies, while samples with Zr contents less than approximately 100 ppm were comprised of agglomerations or linked chains of rhomboidal single crystals. There were few correlations found between morphology, run conditions, and deposit performance.

  1. Extended overpower transient testing of LMFBR oxide pins in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.; Tani, S.; Shibahara, I.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a joint effort between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan and the US Department of Energy, a series of five extended slow overpower transient tests are being conducted in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) on preirradiated mixed oxide fuel and blanket pins. In the first two tests conducted in the series, fuel and blanket pins were subjected to a 0.1%/s power ramp to approx. 60% overpower before the transient termination. None of the test pins breached during the transient. A significant cladding breaching margin over the normal PPS trip setting of approx. 12 to 15% was thus demonstrated for the 0.1%/s ramp. The transient-induced pin cladding strains, caused principally by fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, were small but measurable.

  2. Performance of commercially produced mixed-oxide fuels in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J.W.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1980-11-01

    Commercially produced fuels for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) were irradiated in EBR-II under conditions of high cladding temperature (approx. 700/sup 0/C) and low power (approx. 200 W/cm) to verify that manufacturing processes did not introduce variables which significantly affect general fuel performance. Four interim examinations and a terminal examination were completed to a peak burnup of 5.2 at. % to provide irradiation data pertaining to fuel restructuring and dimensional stability at low fuel temperature, fuel-cladding reactions at high cladding temperature and general fuel behavior. The examinations indicate completely satisfactory irradiation performance for low heat rates and high cladding temperatures to 5.2 at. % burnup.

  3. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  4. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic reactor concept under development by Argonne National Laboratory. Much of the technology for the IFR is being demonstrated at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) on the Department of Energy site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The IFR concept relies on four technical features to achieve breakthroughs in nuclear power economics and safety: (1) a pool-type reactor configuration, (2) liquid sodium cooling, (3) metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle with on-site reprocessing. The purpose of this paper will be to summarize our latest results of irradiation testing uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) fuel in the EBR-II. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Tightly coupled'' simulation utilizing the EBR-II LMR: A real-time supercomputing and AI environment

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.; Barber, D.G.; Cordes, G.A.; Powers, A.K.; Scott, R. Jr.; Ward, L.W. ); Sackett, J.I.; King, R.W.; Lehto, W.K.; Lindsay, R.W.; Staffon, J.D. ); Gross, K.C. ); Doster, J.M. ); Edwards, R.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University P

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Supercomputing and AI environment utilizing a CRAY X-MP/216, a fiber-optic communications link, a distributed network of workstations and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and its associated instrumentation and control system is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper summarizes various activities that make up this supercomputing and AI environment. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Irradiation and compatibility testing of Li/sub 2/O materials at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.L.; Krsul, J.R.; Laug, M.T.; Tetenbaum, M.; Walters, L.C.

    1982-12-01

    A study was made of the neutron-irradiation behavior of /sup 6/Li-enriched Li/sub 2/O material in EBR-II. In addition, a stress corrosion study was performed ex-reactor to test compatibility of Li/sub 2/O materials with a variety of stainless steels. Results of the irradiation testing showed that tritium and helium retention in the Li/sub 2/O (approx. 89% dense) lessened with neutron exposure. Helium tritium retention appeared to approach steady-state after approx. 1% /sup 6/Li burnup. The effect was likely caused by the formation of open porosity in the pellets. The stress corrosion studies, using a 316 stainless steel (Ti-modified) and a 35% Ni alloy, showed that stress does not enhance the corrosion, and that dry Li/sub 2/O is not significantly corrosive, the LiOH content producing the corrosive effects. Corrosion, in general, was not severe as a passivation in sealed capsules seemed to occur after a time greatly reducing corrosion rates.

  7. Initiating the D&D Project for the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2010-08-01

    A novel decommissioning project is underway to close the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) “fast” reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facility near Idaho Falls, ID. The facility was placed in cold shutdown in 1994 and work began on the removal of the metallic sodium coolant. The bulk of the sodium was drained and treated beginning in 2001. The residual sodium heel was chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005 using a novel carbon dioxide treatment. Approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. A RCRA Waste Treatment Permit, issued in 2002 by the State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, requires annual progress toward closure of the facility, and that all regulated materials be removed or deactivated, and the waste products removed by 2022. The baseline sodium removal technology would result in about 100,000 gallons of low-level waste solution requiring treatment along with separate handling of the large components (intermediate heat exchanger, rotating plug, etc) outside of the primary tank.

  8. Visual imagery and the user model applied to fuel handling at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-06-01

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving visual display designs and the user`s perspective model of a system. The studies involved a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in expanding design choices which included the ``comfort parameters`` and ``perspective reality`` of the user`s model of the world. In developing visual displays for the EBR-II fuel handling system, the focus would be to incorporate the comfort parameters that overlap from each of the representation systems: visual, auditory and kinesthetic then incorporate the comfort parameters of the most prominent group of the population, and last, blend in the other two representational system comfort parameters. The focus of this informal study was to use the techniques of meta-modeling and synesthesia to develop a virtual environment that closely resembled the operator`s perspective of the fuel handling system of Argonne`s Experimental Breeder Reactor - II. An informal study was conducted using NLP as the behavioral model in a v reality (VR) setting.

  9. Tensile properties of vanadium alloys irradiated at 390{degrees}C in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Nowicki, L.J.

    1997-08-01

    Vanadium alloys were irradiated in Li-bonded stainless steel capsules to {approx}390{degrees}C in the EBR-II X-530 experiment. This report presents results of postirradiation tests of tensile properties of two large-scale (100 and 500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-Ti and laboratory (15-30 kg) heats of boron-doped V-4Cr-4Ti, V-8Cr-6Ti, V-5Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si alloys. Tensile specimens, divided into two groups, were irradiated in two different capsules under nominally similar conditions. The 500-kg heat (No. 832665) and the 100-kg heat (VX-8) of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated in one of the subcapsules exhibited complete loss of work-hardening capability, which was manifested by very low uniform plastic strain. In contrast, the 100-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated in another subcapsule exhibited good tensile properties (uniform plastic strain 2.8-4.0%). A laboratory heat of V-3Ti-1Si irradiated in the latter subcapsule also exhibited good tensile properties. These results indicate that work-hardening capability at low irradiation temperatures varies significantly from heat to heat and is influenced by nominally small differences in irradiation conditions.

  10. Swelling and tensile properties of EBR-II-irradiated tantalum alloys for space reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The tantalum alloys T-111, ASTAR-811C, Ta-10 W, and unalloyed tantalum were examined following EBR-II irradiation to a fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 650 to 950 K. Swelling was found to be negligible for all alloys; only tantalum was found to exhibit swelling, 0.36%. Tensile testing revealed that irradiated T-111 and Ta-10 W are susceptible to plastic instability, but ASTAR-811C and tantalum were not. The tensile properties of ASTAR-811C appeared adequate for current SP-100 space nuclear reactor designs. Irradiated, oxygen-doped T-111 exhibited no plastic deformation, and the abrupt failure was intergranular in nature. The absence of plastic instability in ASTAR-811C is encouraging for alloys containing carbide precipitates. These fine precipitates might prevent dislocation channeling, which leads to plastic instability in many bcc metals after irradiation. 10 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Midplane and off-midplane axial leakage simulation of heterogeneous subassemblies in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1984-01-01

    Generally EBR-II XY geometry and one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical neutron flux calculations using transport theory analysis assume energy independent DB/sup 2/-type absorptions to simulate effects of axial leakages. This assumption, while generally resulting in satisfactory eigenvalues and high- and intermediate-energy flux spectra, gives large errors in the low-energy flux spectra where the flux levels are smaller. These midplane errors, and more importantly the off-midplane errors, can be reduced by using a more realistic leakage model: space and energy dependent leakage absorption cross sections. Analyses have been reported in which transport theory methods using row-wise azimuthally-homogeneous RZ-geometry boundary angular fluxes to calculate space and energy dependent leakage absorptions which were then used in subsequent 1D cylindrical simulations of RZ calculations. The present paper extends the study to include heterogeneous core loading configurations. This study contains modeling of heterogeneous XYZ loadings using heterogeneous XY geometry and space and energy dependent leakage absorptions. Because of the complexities arising from the three-dimensional analysis, the results presented here use diffusion theory. Although the actual negative leakage absorption values can be used in the CITATION diffusion theory code, it was found that the ..sigma../sub s/(1..-->..g) method gave better results in the core region of these studies.

  12. Nonlinear PRD components of EBR-II compared with bowing analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear components of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) for Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) runs 85A, 93A, 99A, and 122A have been reported. These nonlinear components were deduced by subtraction of the calculated linear (and Doppler) components from the measured PRD curves. The linear (and Doppler) components of the PRDs were calculated using the EBRPOCO program together with an addition to the program (RODCO) that accounts for the effects of positionings of the control rods. Corresponding calculated bowing components of these runs have now been calculated assuming that the hex can ducts are unirradiated and thus have been assumed to have neither swelling nor bowing at the zero-power level in the analyses. Furthermore, the initial separations of the subassemblies at the contact-button levels are all assumed to be the unirradiated nominal 0.002 in. (0.051 mm). Comparison of these calculations with the bowing components deduced from the measurements enable the signs and magnitudes of the effects of the unknown initial conditions to be ascertained.

  13. SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew C. Morrison; Kenneth J. Bateman; Michael F. Simpson

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT SCALE UP OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR THE EBR-II SPENT FUEL TREATMENT PROCESS Matthew C. Morrison, Kenneth J. Bateman, Michael F. Simpson Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 The ceramic waste process is the intended method for disposing of waste salt electrolyte, which contains fission products from the fuel-processing electrorefiners (ER) at the INL. When mixed and processed with other materials, the waste salt can be stored in a durable ceramic waste form (CWF). The development of the CWF has recently progressed from small-scale testing and characterization to full-scale implementation and experimentation using surrogate materials in lieu of the ER electrolyte. Two full-scale (378 kg and 383 kg) CWF test runs have been successfully completed with final densities of 2.2 g/cm3 and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. The purpose of the first CWF was to establish material preparation parameters. The emphasis of the second pre-qualification test run was to evaluate a preliminary multi-section CWF container design. Other considerations were to finalize material preparation parameters, measure the material height as it consolidates in the furnace, and identify when cracking occurs during the CWF cooldown process.

  14. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  15. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  16. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Kramer, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The next step in the development of metal fuels for the integral fast reactor (IFR) is the conversion of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) core to one containing the ternary U-20 Pu-10 Zr alloy clad with HT-9 cladding, i.e., the Mk-V core. This paper presents results of three hot-cell furnace simulation tests on irradiated Mk-V-type fuel elements (U-19 Pu-10 Zr/HT-9), which were performed to support the safety case for the Mk-V core. These tests were designed to envelop an umbrella (bounding) unlikely loss-of-flow (LOF) event in EBR-II during which the calculated peak cladding temperature would reach 776[degree]C for < 2 min. The principal objectives of these tests were (a) demonstration of the safety margin of the fuel element, (b) investigation of cladding breaching behavior, and (c) provision of data for validation of the FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL codes.

  17. Feedback components of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled compared to a U10Zr-fueled EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-12-31

    Calculated feedback components of the regional contributions of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) and of the temperature coefficients of reactivity of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled and of a U10Zr-fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are compared. The PRD components are also separated into power-to-flow dependent and solely power dependent parts. The effects of these values upon quantities useful for indicating the comparative potential inherent safety characteristics of these EBR-II loadings are presented.

  18. Feedback components of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled compared to a U10Zr-fueled EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated feedback components of the regional contributions of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) and of the temperature coefficients of reactivity of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled and of a U10Zr-fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are compared. The PRD components are also separated into power-to-flow dependent and solely power dependent parts. The effects of these values upon quantities useful for indicating the comparative potential inherent safety characteristics of these EBR-II loadings are presented.

  19. Benchmark Simulations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Responses during EBR-II Inherent Safety Tests using SAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Rui; Sumner, Tyler S.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced system analysis tool SAM is being developed for fast-running, improved-fidelity, and wholeplant transient analyses at Argonne National Laboratory under DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. As an important part of code development, companion validation activities are being conducted to ensure the performance and validity of the SAM code. This paper presents the benchmark simulations of two EBR-II tests, SHRT-45R and BOP- 302R, whose data are available through the support of DOE-NE’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program. The code predictions of major primary coolant system parameter are compared with the test results. Additionally, the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code simulation results are also included for a code-to-code comparison.

  20. Benchmark Simulations of the Thermal-Hydraulic Responses during EBR-II Inherent Safety Tests using SAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Rui; Sumner, Tyler S.

    2016-04-17

    An advanced system analysis tool SAM is being developed for fast-running, improved-fidelity, and whole-plant transient analyses at Argonne National Laboratory under DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. As an important part of code development, companion validation activities are being conducted to ensure the performance and validity of the SAM code. This paper presents the benchmark simulations of two EBR-II tests, SHRT-45R and BOP-302R, whose data are available through the support of DOE-NE’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program. The code predictions of major primary coolant system parameter are compared with the test results. Additionally, the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code simulation results are also included for a code-to-code comparison.

  1. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Holland, J.W.; Kramer, J.M. )

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses three furnace heating tests which were conducted with irradiated, HT9-clad and U-19wt.%Pu-l0wt.%Zr-alloy fuel, Mk-V-type fuel elements in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. In general, very significant safety margins for fuel-element cladding breaching have been demonstrated in these tests, under conditions that would envelop a bounding unlikely loss-of-flow event in EBR-II. Highlights of the test results will be given, as well as discussions of the cladding breaching mechanisms, axial fuel motion, and fuel surface liquefaction found in high-temperature testing of irradiated metallic fuel elements.

  2. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  3. Stress Analysis of the LHA-1 Class Superheater Header by Finite Element Method.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Years the United States Navy has experienced an unusually large number of failures of the superheater header tube attachment weld utilized in the...process the top of the header and the surface of the superheater tube is exposed to the air inside the boiler . Using this information. boundary...these stresses could significantly contribute to the failure of the superheater header. As indicated in Appendix E, an excerpt from the ASME boiler

  4. Improved superheater component longevity by steam flow redistribution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, K.; Lee, C.; Moser, R.; Rettig, T.; Clark, K.

    1992-12-01

    A common problem in fossil fuel boilers is excessive tube metal temperatures in local regions of superheater and reheater tube banks. The resulting increased high temperature creep rates in the tubes in each local hot region lead to unacceptably high tube failure rates at these locations. In this situation, the utility often decides that the entire superheater must be replaced when, in fact, only a small percentage of the tubes is at end of life. The local hot regions are generally caused by heat flux nonuniformities on the fireside and also by steam flow nonuniformities. In this work, a solution to this problem is demonstrated which utilizes the concept of steam flow redistribution. The tube-to-tube steam flowrates are increased for hot tubes and decreased for cold tubes, subject to the constraint that total steam flowrate remains unaffected. The flowrate changes are accomplished by installing steam flow controllers in individual tubes to modify the flow resistance in each tube in a predictable manner. A guideline has been developed for designing, installing, and testing a pattern of steam flow controllers which optimizes the steam flow redistribution for a specific boiler. The optimum design achieves the maximum economic benefit by reducing the future tube failure rate and extending the life of the superheater. The general guideline, engineering design, economic assessment, and field testing procedures are described in detail. The general guideline and specific engineering procedures have been demonstrated for a site specific case, the superheater at San Diego Gas & Electric Company`s South Bay Plant, Unit 1. This study and demonstration provide both initial validation of the concept of steam flow redistribution to improve superheater longevity and incentive to apply the concept to other units.

  5. Improved superheater component longevity by steam flow redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, K.; Lee, C.; Moser, R.; Rettig, T.; Clark, K. )

    1992-12-01

    A common problem in fossil fuel boilers is excessive tube metal temperatures in local regions of superheater and reheater tube banks. The resulting increased high temperature creep rates in the tubes in each local hot region lead to unacceptably high tube failure rates at these locations. In this situation, the utility often decides that the entire superheater must be replaced when, in fact, only a small percentage of the tubes is at end of life. The local hot regions are generally caused by heat flux nonuniformities on the fireside and also by steam flow nonuniformities. In this work, a solution to this problem is demonstrated which utilizes the concept of steam flow redistribution. The tube-to-tube steam flowrates are increased for hot tubes and decreased for cold tubes, subject to the constraint that total steam flowrate remains unaffected. The flowrate changes are accomplished by installing steam flow controllers in individual tubes to modify the flow resistance in each tube in a predictable manner. A guideline has been developed for designing, installing, and testing a pattern of steam flow controllers which optimizes the steam flow redistribution for a specific boiler. The optimum design achieves the maximum economic benefit by reducing the future tube failure rate and extending the life of the superheater. The general guideline, engineering design, economic assessment, and field testing procedures are described in detail. The general guideline and specific engineering procedures have been demonstrated for a site specific case, the superheater at San Diego Gas Electric Company's South Bay Plant, Unit 1. This study and demonstration provide both initial validation of the concept of steam flow redistribution to improve superheater longevity and incentive to apply the concept to other units.

  6. Zr-rich layers electrodeposited onto stainless steel cladding during the electrorefining of EBR-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D., Jr.; Mariani, Robert D.

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent nuclear fuels. The initial demonstration of this process is being conducted on U-Zr alloy fuel elements irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). We report the first metallographic characterization of cladding hull remains for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent metallic fuel. During the electrorefining process, Zr-rich layers, with some U, deposit on all exposed surfaces of irradiated cladding segments (hulls) that originally contained the fuel alloy that was being treated. In some cases, not only was residual Zr (and U) found inside the cladding hulls, but a Zr-rind was also observed near the interior cladding hull surface. The Zr-rind was originally formed during the fuel casting process on the fuel slug. The observation of Zr deposits on all exposed cladding surfaces is explained with thermodynamic principles, when two conditions are met. These conditions are partial oxidation of Zr and the presence of residual uranium in the hulls when the electrorefining experiment is terminated. Comparisons are made between the structure of the initial irradiated fuel before electrorefining and the morphology of the material remaining in the cladding hulls after electrorefining.

  7. Review of behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in extended overpower transient tests in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.; Nagai, S.; Nakae, N.

    1994-10-01

    From a series of five tests conducted in EBR-II, a substantial data base has been established on the performance of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor under slow-ramp transient overpower conditions. Each test contained 19 preirradiated fuel elements with varying design and prior operating histories. Elements with aggressive design features, such as high fuel smear density and/or thin cladding, were included to accentuate transient effects. The ramp rates were either 0.1 or 10% {Delta}P/P/s and the overpowers ranged between {approx}60 and 100% of the elements` prior power ratings. Six elements breached during the tests, all with aggressive design parameters. The other elements, including all those with moderate design features for the reference or advanced long-life drivers for PNC`s prototype fast reactor Monju, maintained their cladding integrity during the tests. Posttest examination results indicated that fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) was the most significant mechanism causing the cladding strain and breach. In contrast, pressure loading from the fission gas in the element plenum was less important, even in high-burnup elements. During an overpower transient, FCMI arises from fuel/cladding differential thermal expansion, transient fuel swelling, and, significantly, the gas pressure in the sealed central cavity of elements with substantial centerline fuel melting. Fuel performance data from these tests, including cladding breaching margin and transient cladding strain, are correlatable with fuel-element design and operating parameters. These correlations are being incorporated into fuel-element behavior codes. At the two tested ramp rates, fuel element behavior appears to be insensitive to transient ramp rate and there appears to be no particular vulnerability to slow ramp transients as previously perceived.

  8. Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compounds in EBR-II and FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    LR Greenwood

    1999-06-17

    The Fusion Breeder Reactor (FUBR) and Breeder Exchange Matrix (BEATRIX) experiments were cooperative efforts by members of the International Energy Agency to investigate the irradiation behavior of solid breeder materials for tritium production to support future fusion reactors. Lithium ceramic materials including Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with varying {sup 6}Li enrichments from 0 to 95% were irradiated in a series of experiments in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR II) and in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) over a period of about 10 years from 1982 to 1992. These experiments were characterized in terms of the nominal fast neutron fluences and measured {sup 6}Li burnup factors, as determined by either mass spectrometry or helium measurements. Radiation damage in these compounds is caused by both the {sup 6}Li-burnup reaction and by all other possible neutron reactions with the atoms in the compound materials. In this report, displacements per atom (dpa) values have been calculated for each type of material in each of the various irradiations that were conducted. Values up to 11% {sup 6}Li-burnup and 130 dpa are predicted for the longest irradiations. The dpa cross sections were calculated for each compound using the SPECOMP computer code. Details of the dpa calculations are presented in the report. Total dpa factors were determined with the SPECTER computer code by averaging the dpa cross sections over the measured or calculated neutron flux spectra for each series of irradiations. Using these new calculations, previously measured radiation damage effects in these lithium compounds can be compared or correlated with other irradiation data on the basis of the dpa factor as well as {sup 6}Li-burnup.

  9. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through

  10. Development of a graphical user interface allowing use of the SASSYS LMR systems analysis code as an EBR-II interactive simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P.L.; Briggs, L.L.; Gross, K.C.; Ku, J.Y.; Staffon, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The SASSYS computer program for safety analyses of liquid-metal- cooled fast reactors has been adapted for use as the simulation engine under the graphical user interface provided by the GRAFUN and HIST programs and the Data Views software package under the X Window System on UNIX-based computer workstations to provide a high fidelity, real-time, interactive simulator of the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number II (EBR-II) plant. In addition to providing analysts with an interactive way of performing safety case studies, the simulator can be used to investigate new control room technologies and to supplement current operator training.

  11. Microstructural characterization and density change of 304 stainless steel reflector blocks after long-term irradiation in EBR-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.; Garner, F. A.; Freyer, P. D.; Okita, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Isobe, Y.; Allen, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    While thin reactor structural components such as cladding and ducts do not experience significant gradients in dpa rate, gamma heating rate, temperature or stress, thick components can develop strong local variations in void swelling and irradiation creep in response to gradients in these variables. In this study we conducted microstructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy of two 52 mm thick 304-type stainless steel hex-blocks irradiated for 12 years in the EBR-II reactor with accumulated doses ranging from ∼0.4 to 33 dpa. Spatial variations in the populations of voids, precipitates, Frank loops and dislocation lines have been determined for 304 stainless steel sections exposed to different temperatures, different dpa levels and at different dpa rates, demonstrating the existence of spatial gradients in the resulting void swelling. The microstructural measurements compare very well with complementary density change measurements regarding void swelling gradients in the 304 stainless steel hex-block components. The TEM studies revealed that the original cold-worked-state microstructure of the unirradiated blocks was completely erased by irradiation, replaced by high densities of interstitial Frank loops, voids and carbide precipitates at both the lowest and highest doses. At large dose levels the amount of volumetric void swelling correlated directly with the gamma heating gradient-related temperature increase (e.g. for 28 dpa, ∼2% swelling at 418 °C and ∼2.9% swelling at 448 °C). Under approximately iso-thermal local conditions, volumetric void swelling was found to increase with dose level (e.g. ∼0.2% swelling at 0.4 dpa, ∼0.5% swelling at 4 dpa and ∼2% swelling at 28 dpa). Carbide precipitate formation levels were found to be relatively independent of both dpa level and temperature and induced a measurable densification. Void swelling was dominant at the higher dose levels and caused measurable decreases in density. Void swelling

  12. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  13. Effect of Oxyfuel Combustion on Superheater Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Matthes, S.A.; Bullard, S.J.

    2008-03-16

    Combustion of coal in an oxygen environment (as opposed to air) will facilitate the sequestering of carbon dioxide by minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the exit gas stream. The presence of higher levels of certain gases associated with oxyfuel combustion (eg, CO2, SO2, and H2O) may impact the corrosion of waterwalls, superheaters, headers, reheaters, and other boiler components. Research is being conducted on bare and ash-embedded boiler tube materials in simulated oxyfuel- combustion and air-combustion environments at a superheater temperature of 675°C. Alloys were exposed at temperature to two different gaseous environments. Preliminary results show: (1) an increase in corrosion rate of bare K02707, K11547, K21590, K91560, K92460, S30409, S34700, and N06617 exposed to the oxyfuel combustion environment when compared to the air combustion environment; (2) an increase in corrosion rate of alloys K21590, K92460, S34700, and N06617, when embedded in ash in comparison to bare exposure; and (3) no effect of gaseous environment on alloy corrosion rate when embedded in ash.

  14. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  15. Characterization of degraded EBR-II fuel from the ICPP-603 basin: National spent nuclear fuel program, FY 1999 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-04-17

    Characterization data is reported for sodium bonded Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the late 1970's. Sixteen stainless steel storage containers were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. Ten of the containers had leaked water due to improper sealing. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide particulate formed and filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas analysis determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium-137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a caustic solution of NaOH.

  16. Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J.; Wurth, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

  17. A description of the ceramic waste form production process from the demonstration phase of the electrometallurical treatment of EBR-II spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M. F.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Bateman, K. J.; Battisti, T. J.; Hirsche, K. L.; Frank, S. M.; Sinkler, W.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Nuclear Technology

    2001-06-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) process has been designed and developed for stabilizing sodium-bonded, metallic fuel into two high-level waste forms. This process has recently been successfully demonstrated with irradiated EBR-II fuel at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Part of the EMT process is to immobilize fission-product-bearing waste salt, which results from electrorefining, in a ceramic waste form-a glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is formed by hot isostatically pressing salt-loaded zeolite at temperatures up to 850 {sup o}C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The specific unit operations that comprise ceramic waste production include steps for salt grinding, zeolite drying, blending salt and zeolite and glass frit in a v-blender, and consolidating the powders in a hot isostatic press. The results of testing these unit operations with irradiated salt from the EMT demonstration are summarized and include some preliminary characterization of the final irradiated ceramic waste form created by this process.

  18. A Description of the Ceramic Waste Form Production Process from the Demonstration Phase of the Electrometallurgical Treatment of EBR-II Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Goff, K. Michael; Johnson, Stephen G.; Bateman, Kenneth J.; Battisti, Terry J.; Toews, Karen L.; Frank, Steven M.; Moschetti, Tanya L.; O'Holleran, Tom P.; Sinkler, Wharton

    2001-06-15

    The electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) process has been designed and developed for stabilizing sodium-bonded, metallic fuel into two high-level waste forms. This process has recently been successfully demonstrated with irradiated EBR-II fuel at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Part of the EMT process is to immobilize fission-product-bearing waste salt, which results from electrorefining, in a ceramic waste form - a glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is formed by hot isostatically pressing salt-loaded zeolite at temperatures up to 850 deg. C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The specific unit operations that comprise ceramic waste production include steps for salt grinding, zeolite drying, blending salt and zeolite and glass frit in a v-blender, and consolidating the powders in a hot isostatic press. The results of testing these unit operations with irradiated salt from the EMT demonstration are summarized and include some preliminary characterization of the final irradiated ceramic waste form created by this process.

  19. Validation of the integration of CFD and SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test 17

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Vilim, R.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses have demonstrated the need to model multidimensional phenomena, particularly thermal stratification in outlet plena, during safety analyses of loss-of-flow transients of certain liquid-metal cooled reactor designs. Therefore, Argonne's reactor systems safety code SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is being enhanced by integrating 3D computational fluid dynamics models of the plena. A validation exercise of the new tool is being performed by analyzing the protected loss-of-flow event demonstrated by the EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Test 17. In this analysis, the behavior of the coolant in the cold pool is modeled using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, while the remainder of the cooling system and the reactor core are modeled with SAS4A/SASSYS-1. This paper summarizes the code integration strategy and provides the predicted 3D temperature and velocity distributions inside the cold pool during SHRT-17. The results of the coupled analysis should be considered preliminary at this stage, as the exercise pointed to the need to improve the CFD model of the cold pool tank. (authors)

  20. Transition metals in superheat melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, Petr; Wolfbauer, Michael-Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments with silicate melts doped with transition element oxides was carried out at atmospheric pressures of inert gas at temperatures exceeding liquidus. As predicted from the shape of fO2 buffer curves in T-fO2 diagrams the reducing conditions for a particular oxide-metal pair can be achieved through the T increase if the released oxygen is continuously removed. Experimental studies suggest that transition metals such as Cr or V behave as siderophile elements at temperatures exceeding liquidus temperatures if the system is not buffered by the presence of other oxide of more siderophile element. For example the presence of FeO prevents the reduction of Cr2O3. The sequence of decreasing siderophility of transition elements at superheat conditions (Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr) matches the decreasing degree of depletion of siderophile elements in mantle rocks as compared to chondrites.

  1. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, William; Singbeil, Douglas; Keiser, James R

    2012-01-01

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  2. NUCLEAR SUPERHEATER FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Holl, R.J.; Klecker, R.W.; Graham, C.B.

    1962-05-15

    A description is given of a boiling water reactor having a superheating region integral with the core. The core consists essentially of an annular boiling region surrounding an inner superheating region. Both regions contain fuel elements and are separated by a cylindrical wall, perforations being provided in the lower portion of the cylindrical wall to permit circulation of a common water moderator between the two regions. The superheater region comprises a plurality of tubular fuel assemblies through which the steam emanating from the boiling region passes to the steam outlet. Each superheater fuel assembly has an outer double-walled cylinder, the double walls being concentrically spaced and connected together at their upper ends but open at the bottom to provide for differential thermal expansion of the inner and outer walls. Gas is entrapped in the annulus between the walls which acts as an insulating space between the fissionable material inside and the moderator outside. (AEC)

  3. Results of examination of the TGMP-314 boiler superheaters of the power-generating units at Kashira state district power plant using a magnetic ferrite meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigating the elemental composition of the scale and the metal of a tube circuit from the austenitic steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti are presented. The superheater is part of the high-pressure convection steam superheater of a TGMP-314 supercritical-pressure gas-and-oil-fired once-through boiler that had been operated for a long period of time. A structurally transformed layer, poor in iron, manganese, and chromium and rich in nickel was detected on the outer surface. The layer consisted predominantly of the FeNi3 phase with ferromagnetic properties. The heat-resistance test of the steel in contact with ash that simulated the combustion products of fuel oil showed that the higher the temperature and the longer the test time, the higher the content of the ferritic phase in the layer was. The established pattern of the structural transformations underlies a method for nondestructive control of the thermal nonuniformity and detection of "worst" tube circuits of superheaters from austenitic steel. The magnetic ferritometry complements the conventional selective thickness gauging that does not characterize the condition of the heating surfaces of hightemperature steel grades to the full extend. Data on damageability of high-pressure convection superheaters and low-pressure second-stage convection superheaters with rarefied tube banks of TGMP-314 boilers are presented. The damage is caused by overheating resulting from the nonuniform temperature field at the inlet and by the nonuniform flue gas velocity field in rarefied superheater banks. Sections of the tube circuits from the steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti, outlet superheater stages of the TGMP-314 boiler of the power-generating units at Kashira SDPP were examined using an MF-51NTs AKASKAN magnetic ferrite meter. Thermal nonuniformity was established and the "worst" superheater tube circuits were detected. It was shown that the zones with the "worst" and damaged tube circuits coincide. The results of examining

  4. Air inleak monitoring overcoming the `superheat` problem

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, C.; Rendle, C.

    1995-06-01

    Air inleak monitoring has been carried out for many years by Performance Engineers making the appropriate measurements of flow, temperature and absolute pressure. Instrumentation packages were produced in the late 1980s that brought together these measurements and made the necessary calculation, using firstly analog and subsequently digital techniques. These units used readings taken at one point long the air extraction pipework (Fig. 1). This single point approach has been shown to work satisfactorily on a number of installation, particularly those with large air inleak rates. There are, however, many installations where the procedure cannot work as a result of their being in `superheated mode`. The selection and design of sensors and sensing points to meet the fundamental physical requirements of the calculation process has resulted in the ability to monitor air inleak rates in a very wide range of conditions of both superheat and non-superheat for low and high air inleak rates. The paper discusses the observations made on installations in conventional and nuclear stations and the effect of changing pumping rates and other plant variables.

  5. Attainable superheat of ethane-methane solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidakov, V. G.; Pankov, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Methods of measuring lifetime and continuous pressure decrease were used to study kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated ethane-methane solutions. The attainable superheats of solutions at two pressure values (1.0 and 1.6 MPa) and two concentrations of methane (2.1 and 6.0 mole %) were determined experimentally in the range of nucleation rate J = 1·104-3·108 s-1m-3. At temperatures 266.5, 270.0, and 273.15 K, the attainable stretching of the studied solutions was measured. The experimental results were compared with the theory of homogeneous nucleation. At nucleation rates J ≥ 2.5·106 s-1m-3, there is a fair agreement of the theory and experiment. The discrepancy in attainable superheat temperatures T n does not exceed 0.8 K. It is shown that significant underheating of solution to theoretical values T n at J < 2.5·106 s-1m-3 cannot be bound only with heterogeneous nucleation but is conditioned by other factors as well.

  6. Variation of superheat with subcooling in nucleate pool boiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, R. L.; Merte, H., Jr.; Ulucakli, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is presented that explains the variation of superheat with subcooling that has been observed by a number of researchers investigating nucleate boiling heat transfer at constant heat flux. It is shown that superheat initially increases with increasing subcooling near saturated conditions because of the way in which changes in active site density and average bubble frequency with increasing subcooling affect the rate of heat removal from the heater surface by enthalpy transport and microlayer evaporation. As subcooling increases further, natural convection begins to play an increasingly important role in the heat transfer process. Ultimately, natural convection is able to accommodate the entire imposed heat flux, after which superheat decreases as subcooling increases. The success of the analysis in explaining the variation of superheat with subcooling suggests that the rate of the heat removal from the heater surface is completely determined by the mechanisms of enthalpy transport, natural convection, and microlayer evaporation.

  7. Gas fired superheaters in a resource recovery installation

    SciTech Connect

    Eber, S.M.; Fedele, G. ); Kettler, D.J.; Worsley, C.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Modern resource recovery facilities which generate electric power operate on a Rankine thermodynamic cycle. Waste is incinerated on a moving grate in a waterwall lined furnace. The liberated heat is absorbed in the waterwalls, and in several zones of the steam generator, including superheater, boiler, and economizer. The steam which is produced is expanded in a steam turbine generator, and electric power is generated as a result. This paper demonstrates that adding a gas fired superheater and additional generating capacity to a resource recovery unit can be accomplished in a technically and economically viable manner, and can complement the plant design options currently under consideration by utilities and private developers. In regions of the country facing a garbage disposal crisis as well as load growth projections that will necessitate capacity additions in the 1990s, addition of gas fired superheaters to conventionally designed resource recovery installations makes practical technical as well as economic sense.

  8. Current Status of Superheat Spray Modeling With NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzan, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of liquid fuel behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA's supersonics project office initiative on high altitude emissions, we have undertaken an effort to assess the accuracy of various existing CFD models used in the modeling of superheated sprays. As a part of this investigation, we have completed the implementation of a modeling approach into the national combustion code (NCC), and then applied it to investigate the following three cases: (1) the validation of a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle, (2) the differences between two superheat vaporization models were studied based on both hot and cold flow calculations of a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, (3) the spray characteristics generated by a single-element LDI (Lean Direct Injector) experiment were studied to investigate the differences between superheat and non-superheat conditions. Further details can be found in the paper.

  9. Application of composite heat transfer tubes in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Metallurgically bonded composite steel tubes have the potential to fulfill combined corrosion and strength requirements in power plants which cannot be met by existing tube materials. The component materials can be chosen freely among existing steel grades as long as heat treatment compatibility during manufacture is ensured. Service trials with a composite superheater tube made of a high creep strength austenitic steel clad with a 25Cr-20Ni steel were carried out with encouraging results. The corrosion rate was found to be lowered to about one third of that for conventional austenitic superheater steels. This good experience has led to installation on a larger scale of this type of composite tube in the final superheaters of a number of coal-fired power stations in the United Kingdom. A composite tube with 50 Cr-50 Ni alloy in the outer component has been put into service in superheaters with extremely severe corrosion conditions. The reported results indicate a considerably increased life on these tubes in relation to conventional austenitic superheater tubes.

  10. Effects of Liquid Superheat on Droplet Disruption and Vaporization in Supersonic Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22 2.14 Degrees of Superheat ................................ 23 2.15 Superheat Limit Correlated to Redlich - Kwong Equation 23 3.1...pressure can be approximated using 15 the Redlich - Kwong equation , as shown in Fig. 2-15. 4 Based on the temperature of the droplets in the test section...liniit (Ttý/T 4 Figure 2.15 Superheat Limit Correlated to Redlich - Kwong Equation 4 0 24 COMPUTATIONAL MODEL A one-dimensional model of the expected

  11. Features of brittle damages and hydrogen impregnation of high-pressure boiler tube metal

    SciTech Connect

    Vainman, A.B.; Smiyan, O.D.; Girnyi, S.I.; Kostyuchenko, N.P.; Vasilik, A.V.; Melekhov, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A significant number of failures encountered in high-pressure steam boilers of thermal electric power stations are caused by damage of the tubes of the steam superheaters, which are made of 20, 12Kh1MF, 12Kh2MFSR and 12Kh18N10T steels. A statistical analysis made by the authors determined that a large number of the failures result from the action of hydrogen on the tubes. In this paper, the mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion, corrosion crack propagation, and brittle failure for steam superheater tubes were analyzed. Hydrogen-related intergranular cracking and thermal fatigue were assessed for the tube steels. It was concluded that hydrogen had a significant effect on processes of crack origin and propagation both in the superheater and in the unheated tubes of the boilers.

  12. The Superheat Phenomenon in the Combustion of Magnesium Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafirovich, E. IA.; Goldshleger, U. I.

    1992-01-01

    Magnesium is known to be a likely fuel for engines that could work in the CO2 atmospheres of Mars and Venus. The present paper reports temperature measurements of magnesium samples during combustion in CO2. The burning sample temperature increases with the decrease in the initial size. The temperature of the 1-mm samples is 300-400 K higher than the boiling point of magnesium. The stability of the superheated drop is explained by the presence of a porous shell on the surface. An attempt has been made to describe vaporization on the superheated drop by the Knudsen-Langmuir equation. During combustion at high-pressure fragment ejection of the flame is observed in high-speed motion pictures. This phenomenon is shown to be connected with the drop superheat. The repeated fracture of the outer shell formed in the flame ensures the complete burnout of metal particles at high pressure.

  13. The Superheat Phenomenon in the Combustion of Magnesium Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafirovich, E. IA.; Goldshleger, U. I.

    1992-01-01

    Magnesium is known to be a likely fuel for engines that could work in the CO2 atmospheres of Mars and Venus. The present paper reports temperature measurements of magnesium samples during combustion in CO2. The burning sample temperature increases with the decrease in the initial size. The temperature of the 1-mm samples is 300-400 K higher than the boiling point of magnesium. The stability of the superheated drop is explained by the presence of a porous shell on the surface. An attempt has been made to describe vaporization on the superheated drop by the Knudsen-Langmuir equation. During combustion at high-pressure fragment ejection of the flame is observed in high-speed motion pictures. This phenomenon is shown to be connected with the drop superheat. The repeated fracture of the outer shell formed in the flame ensures the complete burnout of metal particles at high pressure.

  14. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    PubMed

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  15. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  16. Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.; Wright, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures increased, corrosion problems multiplied. The problems have been alleviated by covering the waterwalls with either refractory or weld overlays of nickel-based alloys and using high nickel-chromium alloys for superheater tubes. Changes in furnace design to provide uniform combustion and avoid reducing conditions in the waterwall zone and to lower the gas temperature in the superheater also have helped minimize corrosion.

  17. An electrochemical investigation of corrosion of superheater tube in waste incineration environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, K.; Matsunaga, Y.; Yukawa, K.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of Fe, Cr, Ni, and two commercial alloys in molten chloride/sulfate mixture and chloride mixture was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and free corrosion potential measurements at 350 C and 560 C. Cr is effective to suppress corrosion in molten chloride/sulfate mixture, whereas Ni is effective for molten chloride. Mo works to suppress corrosion in nobler potential regime. Both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are considered to act as an oxidant in chloride/sulfate mixture as in chloride salt.

  18. Attack of superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings by coal-ash corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S.; Blough, J.L.; DeVan, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    Twenty stainless steels, nickel alloys, claddings, and intermetallics have been evaluated for resistance to coal-ash attack. Six series of test conducted to determine effects of two gas and three ash compositions at 650 and 700C (1202 and 1292F) for times up to 800 hours.

  19. Multifrequency tests in the EBR-II reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.E.; Mohr, D.; Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    A series of eight multifrequency tests was conducted on the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. In half of the tests a control rod was oscillated and in the other half the controller input voltage to the intermediate-loop-sodium pump was perturbed. In each test the input disturbance consisted of several superimposed single-frequency sinusoidal harmonics of the same fundamental. The tests are described along with the theoretical and practical aspects of their development and design. Samples of measured frequency responses are also provided for both the reactor and the power plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel`s response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals.

  1. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

    SciTech Connect

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option.

  2. Effect of superheat on macrostructure and macrosegregation in continuous cast low-alloy steel slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikkarainen, T.; Vuorenmaa, V.; Rentola, I.; Leinonen, M.; Porter, D.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of superheat on grain sedimentation and macrosegregation has been investigated using experimental castings of a low-alloyed steel grade. With a high superheat of ∼ 40 °C, the central equiaxed parts of the slabs consisted of randomly oriented fine dendrites but with a low superheat of ∼ 10 °C, coarse globular structures formed. The mean carbon content measured with optical emission spectroscopy was of the order of 15% smaller with coarse globular structures than in fine equiaxed dendritic structures. Electron probe microanalysis of other alloying elements indicates that the negative segregation in the slab central zones is caused by sedimentation of globulites. With superheat in the range ∼ 20 - 40 °C, the equiaxed zone is bordered by a columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) zone. In this region a positive macrosegregation of carbon and other alloying elements was observed. These phenomena are important when considering the through-thickness properties of the slabs and final products.

  3. Study made of corrosion resistance of stainless steel and nickel alloys in nuclear reactor superheaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, S.; Hart, R. K.; Lee, R. H.; Ruther, W. E.; Schlueter, R. R.

    1967-01-01

    Experiments performed under conditions found in nuclear reactor superheaters determine the corrosion rate of stainless steel and nickel alloys used in them. Electropolishing was the primary surface treatment before the corrosion test. Corrosion is determined by weight loss of specimens after defilming.

  4. STEAM-SIDE OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION BEHAVIOR IN SUPERHEATERS AND REHEATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Shingledecker, John P.; Wright, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in materials for power plants include not only new materials with higher-temperature capabilities, but also the use of current materials at increasingly higher temperatures. This latter activity builds on extensive experience of the performance of the various alloys, and provides a basis for identifying changes in alloy behavior with increasing temperature as well as understanding the factors that ultimately determine the maximum use temperatures of the different alloy classes. This paper presents results from an effort to model the exfoliation processes of steam-side oxide scales in a manner that describes as accurately as possible the evolution of strains in oxides growing inside small-diameter tubes subjected to large thermal gradients and to thermal transients typical of normal steam boiler operation. One way of portraying the results of such calculations is by plotting the evolving strains in a given oxide scale on an Exfoliation Diagram (of the type pioneered by Manning et al. of the British Central Electricity Research Laboratory) to determine the earliest time at which the trajectory of these strains intersects a criterion for scale failure. Understanding of how such strain trajectories differ among different alloys and are affected by the major variables associated with boiler operation has the potential to suggest boiler operating strategies to manage scale exfoliation, as well as to highlight the mode of scale failure and the limitations of each alloy. Preliminary results are presented of the strain trajectories calculated for alloys T22, T91, and TP347 subjected to the conditions experienced by superheaters under assumed boiler operating scenarios. For all three alloys the earliest predicted scale failures were associated with the increased strains developed during a boiler shut-down event; indeed, in the cases considered it appeared unlikely that scale failure would occur in any practically meaningful time due to strains accumulated during

  5. Effect of the melt superheat on equiaxed solidification of Al-20 wt% Cu alloy investigated by in situ synchrotron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shifeng; Yang, Guangyu; Xiao, Lei; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Jie, Wanqi

    2017-10-01

    Effect of the melt superheat on equiaxed solidification of Al-20 wt% Cu alloy was investigated by in-situ synchrotron radiography at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. For comparison, the corresponding DSC analysis was also conducted. It was found that the grain size decreased with increasing the melt superheat. The relationship between the final mean grain size and the melt superheat can be expressed as: d = 4919.3 × ΔT-0.33 . During solidification, the mean grain size increased sharply in the first 70 s, then reached the final grain size gradually. Furthermore, with increasing the melt superheat, the mean nucleation rate increased, which can be attributed to the fact that increasing the melt superheat led to an increase in nucleation undercooling, and the growth rate and the duration of free growth stage decreased. As the melt superheat increased from 100 °C to 160 °C, the mean nucleation rate increased by 78.2% while the mean growth rate only decreased by 19.3%, which indicated that the high mean nucleation rate and the consequent low mean growth rate may be the real reasons for grain refinement. The increased nucleation density caused earlier growth deceleration due to solutal impingement effects.

  6. Effects of sintered powder structural thickness on thin-film evaporation heat transfer at low superheat levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han Lee, Cho; Yang Tsai, Yao

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between thin-film evaporation heat transfer and structural thickness, this study develops a novel facility and method. The experiment reveals the effects of structural thickness at low superheat levels. The experimental results are integrated into figures for the thickness design of sintered powder structures in two-phase heat transfer devices. The facility includes features such as data acquisition at a high sampling rate, heat loss control, directly sintered specimens, stable environment pressure loops, and visualization techniques. Six types of powder were sintered, including powders 45 μm, 75 μm, and 150 μm in diameter and spheral or dendritic powder shapes. The experimental results show that heat flux increases with increased superheat at low superheat levels with temperature differences lower than 6 °C. At the same superheat levels, heat flux decreases proportionally to the thicker thickness of the sintered powder structure in all six types of powder. Therefore, thicker structures increase thermal resistance, requiring a higher temperature difference to transfer the same amount of heat. Furthermore, thin-film evaporation occurs at a low level of superheat, which can dissipate heat at high heat density or during low levels of superheat.

  7. Approaching the limits of two-phase boiling heat transfer: High heat flux and low superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palko, J. W.; Zhang, C.; Wilbur, J. D.; Dusseault, T. J.; Asheghi, M.; Goodson, K. E.; Santiago, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate capillary fed porous copper structures capable of dissipating over 1200 W cm-2 in boiling with water as the working fluid. Demonstrated superheats for this structure are dramatically lower than those previously reported at these high heat fluxes and are extremely insensitive to heat input. We show superheats of less than 10 K at maximum dissipation and varying less than 5 K over input heat flux ranges of 1000 W cm-2. Fabrication of the porous copper layers using electrodeposition around a sacrificial template allows fine control of both microstructure and bulk geometry, producing structures less than 40 μm thick with active region lateral dimensions of 2 mm × 0.3 mm. The active region is volumetrically Joule heated by passing an electric current through the porous copper bulk material. We analyze the heat transfer performance of the structures and suggest a strong influence of pore size on superheat. We compare performance of the current structure to existing wick structures.

  8. Effect of superheat on the solidification structures of AISI 310S austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbayraktar, S.; Koursaris, A.

    1996-04-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the evolution of macrostructure and microstructure in AISI 310S stainless steel during solidification. Experimental findings suggested that the macrostructure a/nd the microstructure of the cast material responded differently to variations in casting temperature. As the casting temperature decreased, the macrostructure was refined, as expected, but the microstructure coarsened. A relationship was established between the proportion of equiaxed zone and superheat as follows: pct equiaxed zone = a + b ln (1/{Delta}T), where a and b are constants. The relationship between grain width and superheat could be expressed by the equation: gw = e(c+d/{Delta}T), where c and d are constants determined by the distance from the edge of the ingot. The relationship between primary arm spacing and superheat could be expressed by the equation: {lambda}{sub 1} = p + q ln (1/{Delta}T), where p and q are constants determined by the distance from the edge of the ingot. The parameter grain width ratio has been introduced to describe the relationship between the shape and the nucleation and growth kinetics of the columnar grains.

  9. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  10. Model of the evaporating meniscus in a capillary tube

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.W.; Herdt, G.C. )

    1992-05-01

    A mathematical model describing the evaporating meniscus in a capillary tube has been formulated incorporating the full three-dimensional Young-Laplace equation, Marangoni convection, London-van der Waals dispersion forces, and nonequilibrium interface conditions. The results showed that varying the dimensionless superheat had no apparent effect on the meniscus profile. However, varying the dispersion number produced a noticeable change in the meniscus profile, but only at the microscopic level near the tube wall. No change in the apparent contact angle was observed with changes in the dimensionless superheat or dispersion number. In all cases, the dimensionless mean curvature was asymptotic to a value equal to that for a hemispherical meniscus. The local interfacial mass flux and total mass transfer rate increased dramatically as the dispersion number was increased, suggesting that surface coatings can play an important role in improving or degrading capillary pumping. The model also predicted that the local capillary pressure remains constant and equal to 2{sigma}/r{sub c} regardless of changes in the dimensionless superheat and dispersion number. It should be noted that the results in this study are theoretical in nature and require experimental verification.

  11. Effect of the Solidification Rate on Microstructure of Cast Mg Alloys at Low Superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Gregory; Rimkus, Nathan; Murphy, Aeriel; Boehmcke, Paige; El-Kaddah, Nagy

    This paper investigates the effect of cooling rate on the grain size and microstructure of Mg AZ31B alloy cast at a superheat of 8°C using the Magnetic Suspension Melting (MSM) process, which is capable of melting and casting at superheats less than 5°C. In this study, the Mg alloy was unidirectionally solidified in a bottom-chill mold with stainless steel and copper chill blocks. The solidification parameters, namely growth velocity (V) and temperature gradient (G), were determined from numerical simulation of the cooling curves, which was found to be in good agreement with measurements. For the investigated solidification rates, metallographic examination showed globular solidification morphology, and the grain size was inversely proportional to the square root of the cooling rate. Microprobe analysis of the cast ingots also showed that Al segregation occurs primarily at the grain boundaries, and the solidification rate affects the size and distribution of both the secondary α phase and the intermetallic Mg17Al12 phase.

  12. Development of clad boiler tubes extruded from bimetallic centrifugal castings

    SciTech Connect

    Sponseller, D.L.; Bakker, W.T.; Timmons, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    Wrought tubes of T-11 steel, externally clad with SS310, have been produced by a new method. The alloys were united directly from the molten state by centrifugal casting. In the optimum process, temperatures were controlled to prevent meltback of the SS310 outer layer by the higher melting T-11 stream. Hollow extrusion billets were prepared from the heavy-walled cast bimetallic tubes and successfully hot extruded to 84-mm OD x 64-mm ID tubes, and to 51-mm OD x 38-mm ID tubes. For the most part, thicknesses of the cladding and of the tube wall are rather uniform around the circumference and from end to end of the tubes. Hardness and tensile properties of annealed 51-mm tubes are uniform from end to end of a tube, and between tubes, and readily conform to ASTM A 213; tubes satisfy the flattening and flaring requirements of ASTM A 450. The cladding is metallurgically bonded to be base metal, as revealed by metallography, and by two tests developed for this study: a bond shear strength test and a twist test. In the latter test, rings 3.1 mm in thickness are slotted and severely twisted with a special tool. In tubes made by the optimum process, minute fissures that form adjacent to some of the pressure points during twist testing occupy just 3% of the bond-line length. Cost estimates for commercial production of 51-mm tubes via the centrifugal casting route suggest that such tubes should be considerably less expensive than conventionally clad tubes (extruded from composite billets assembled from heavy-walled wrought tubes). Such tubes should be attractive for the following applications in utility boilers: high-corrosion areas of existing coal-fired boilers, in both steam-generating tubes and superheaters; water walls, screen tubes, and superheater tubes of municipal waste-incineration boilers; future ultra super-critical boilers operating a higher temperatures and pressures; and steam-generating tubes of Syngas coolers of integrated coal gasification power plants.

  13. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  14. Audit calculations with CORCON-MOD 3 of the duration of superheat in NUREG/CR-5423

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.; Heames, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    Analyses have shown that early rupture of the Mark-I boiling water reactor containment-by the direct action of core debris depends strongly on the time that core debris is superheated above its liquidus. The analyses of the duration of superheat in the core debris are compared to predictions obtained with the CORCON-MOD 3 computer code. The predicitons of this computer code as functions of the core debris mass, composition, and initial superheat are used to create a polynomial response surface. This response surface is used in a Monte Carlo analysis to produce probability distributions for the duration of superheat in core debris in the drywell of a Mark-I containment. It is concluded that to a high level of confidence (>90%) the duration of superheating predicted with the CORCON-MOD 3 code is less than what has been used in the analyses of the threats to the Mark-I containment liner. Based on these results, to the extent superheat duration dictates the threat to the liner, analyses in NUREG/CR-5423 would appear to overestimate the threat to the liner in comparison to threats estimated using the predictions of the duration of superheating obtained with CORCON-MOD 3.

  15. Formation of deposits on the surfaces of superheaters and economisers of MSW incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, J.; Pfrang-Stotz, G.; Bergfeldt, B.; Seifert, H.; Knapp, P.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of deposits depends on the temperature profile and boiler geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mineralogy of deposits defines critical and uncritical zones in the boiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical zones in boilers can be characterised by a classification systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific measures to enhance energy efficiency can be defined. - Abstract: Mineralogical and chemical investigations of deposits from superheaters and economisers from a MSWI plant in Mannheim, Germany, lead to a classification system which provides information about the most critical parameters leading to fouling and corrosion. With the help of this classification system parameters like the geometry of boilers and the waste input can be changed in order to prolong run times between revisions and enhance energy efficiency of MSWI plants.

  16. Fuzzy modeling and predictive control of superheater steam temperature for power plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Shen, Jiong; Li, Yiguo; Lee, Kwang Y

    2015-05-01

    This paper develops a stable fuzzy model predictive controller (SFMPC) to solve the superheater steam temperature (SST) control problem in a power plant. First, a data-driven Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is developed to approximate the behavior of the SST control system using the subspace identification (SID) method. Then, an SFMPC for output regulation is designed based on the TS-fuzzy model to regulate the SST while guaranteeing the input-to-state stability under the input constraints. The effect of modeling mismatches and unknown plant behavior variations are overcome by the use of a disturbance term and steady-state target calculator (SSTC). Simulation results for a 600 MW power plant show that an offset-free tracking of SST can be achieved over a wide range of load variation. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic stability experimental/analytical program results on a multiple tube sodium heated steam generator model employing double wall tubes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Efferding, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are described of a test program which induced water/steam dynamic instability in the multiple tube circuits of a sodium heated, double-wall tube, steam generator model whose water/steam side is designed to operate under once-through conditions with exit superheat (457/sup 0/C/855/sup 0/F; 15.8 MPa/2290 psia). The instability thresholds were determined experimentally with off-nominal operation in order to establish the stability margin that exists with and without the damping orifice configuration employed at the inlet of each tube circuit. Two classes of experiments were performed; one with low magnitudes of water/steam mass velocity resulting in high exit superheat (Benson Cycle), and the other with high magnitudes of mass velocity and no bulk exit steam superheat (Sulzer Cycle). Analytical prediction of the instability inception conditions were compared with experiment and are included along with an evaluation of the applicability of the analysis method to plant scale stability evaluations.

  18. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  19. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  20. Ejection of Moon From Superheat Earth in Context of the Dichotomous Conception of the Origin of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, V. N.

    2007-12-01

    In framework of the dichotomous conception of the Solar system formation /(Kompanichenko, 1992, 2005/) the origin of Earth-Moon system is considered in the common row with origin of the rest planet-satellite/(s/) systems. These systems have a lot of common peculiarities that emphasizes unity of their formation. Thus, almost all satellites turn with the same side to the maternal planets. According to the dichotomous hypothesis, all satellites were ejected from the maternal superheat planets about 4.5 Gyr. At the beginning of this process young Sun ejected superheat protoplanetary mass due to extraordinary high level of inner nonequilibrium. At this early stage of a star evolution the heat expansion may much prevail over the gravitational compression because of still insufficient mass of the synthesized heavy core. Division of some very young stars into two components was corroborated by the direct observations /(Mirabel and Rodriguez, 1999/). According to the model of Solar system formation, the triple cycle of dichotomy /(division into two components/) occurred: 1st cycle - formation of inner and outer components; 2nd - appearance of two inner and two outer components; 3rd - emergence of four inner and four outer solar planets. Then some of the superheat planets ejected satellites. The ejected from Jupiter protosatellite mass divided into 4 fragments during the double cycle of dichotomy. The following double cycle of dichotomy of each fragment had led to formation of 16 Jupiter's satellites. The spontaneous process of the initial protoplanetary mass destroying was accompanied by ejection of numerous smaller clots of matter transformed later on into hard asteroids, comets and meteorites. In context of this global process, dichotomy of the superheat Earth and Moon had led to much decrease of their energetic potential and transition to quieter character of evolution. The reduced level of inner nonequilibrium didn't allow the early Earth to eject some more superheat

  1. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  2. Tube supports

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, K.A.

    1989-01-10

    This patent describes an apparatus consisting of parallel tubes arranged in the form of a tube bundle having a first plurality of parallel tube rows with lanes between adjacent rows and a second plurality of parallel tube rows with lanes between adjacent rows and support structure for supporting the tubes. The support structure consists of at least a first baffle and a second baffle, wherein each baffle comprises an outer ring surrounding the tube bundle and at least one slat attached to the outer ring as a chord and extending through the tube bundle between adjacent rows in one of the parallel tube rows. At least one slat is characterized by corrugations or folds extending along its length for point contact with the tubes of the bundle, the slat in the first baffle extending in lanes between the first plurality of parallel tube rows, and the slat in the second baffle extending in lanes between the second plurality of parallel tube rows.

  3. Chemical cleaning clears San Miguel's boiler tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.; Wofford, J. ); Magel, R. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes chemical cleaning of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) boiler, an opposed-fired, natural circulation, reheat unit. At maximum continuous rating, steam flow is 3,054,000 lb/hr at a pressure of 2,925 psig. The superheater and reheater design temperatures are both 1,005 F. Boiler volume is 69,000 gallons. The Unit 1 boiler had not been cleaned since 1980, its original start-up date. Tube sample analyses indicated deposit densities ranging from 12 to 26 grams/ft[sup 2]. Utility boiler tubes will, over time, accumulate an internal layer of iron oxides and other deposits that inhibit flow and heat transfer, even with well-controlled water chemistry. Tube deposits can speed up corrosion, cause tube overheating, and be a precursor to tube failure. Deposits can influence such phenomena as phosphate hideout, and reduce boiler efficiency. For many utility boilers, a periodic cleaning is necessary to remove internal deposits before they can cause serious problems. Regardless of the benefits, chemical cleanings often make plant managers, engineers, and operators anxious because the process has been known to cause equipment damage or extend the length of an outage.

  4. Study to reduce the cost of bimetallic boiler tubes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sponseller, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a new method of producing low-alloy steel boiler tubes, clad with stainless steel. In this method the two metals are united directly in the casting stage by centrifugal casting; the hollow bimetallic casting is then cut into billets that are hot extruded. By this method, high-quality clad tubes can be produced at markedly lower cost than by the conventional method of producing clad tubes. This brings the cost down to a level where clad tubes can be considered for applications, such as the following, in U.S. electric utility boilers: (1) High-corrosion areas of existing coal-fired boilers, in both steam-generating tubes and superheaters. (2) Future boilers designed to achieve higher efficiency levels (i.e., ultra supercritical boilers operating at higher pressures and temperatures). (3) The steam-generating tubes of Syngas coolers of integrated coal gasification/electric power generating plants.

  5. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  6. Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

    1999-09-12

    The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

  7. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  8. Tracheostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R; Altobelli, Neila P

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in dimensions between tubes with the same inner diameter from different manufacturers are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed and may be fenestrated. Some tracheostomy tubes are designed with an inner cannula. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to appreciate the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient. The optimal frequency of changing a chronic tracheostomy tube is controversial. Specialized teams may be useful in managing patients with a tracheostomy. Speech can be facilitated with a speaking valve in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously. In mechanically ventilated patients with a tracheostomy, a talking tracheostomy tube, a deflated cuff technique with a speaking valve, or a deflated cuff technique without a speaking valve can be used to facilitate speech. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. PREDICTION OF OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN STEAM TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation results are presented for the prediction of the likelihood of oxide scale exfoliation from superheater tubes. The scenarios considered involved alloys T22, TP347H, and TP347HFG subjected to a simplified operating cycle in a power plant generating supercritical steam. The states of stress and strain of the oxides grown in steam were based solely on modeling the various phenomena experienced by superheater tubes during boiler operation, current understanding of the oxidation behavior of each alloy in steam, and consideration of operating parameters such as heat flux, tube dimensions, and boiler duty cycle. Interpretation of the evolution of strain in these scales, and the approach to conditions where scale failure (hence exfoliation) is expected, makes use of the type of Exfoliation Diagrams that incorporate various cracking and exfoliation criteria appropriate for the system considered. In these diagrams, the strain accumulation with time in an oxide is represented by a strain trajectory derived from the net strain resulting from oxide growth, differences in coefficients of thermal expansion among the components, and relaxation due to creep. It was found that an oxide growing on a tube subjected to routine boiler load cycling conditions attained relatively low values of net strain, indicating that oxide failure would not be expected to occur during normal boiler operation. However, during a boiler shut-down event, strains sufficient to exceed the scale failure criteria were developed after times reasonably in accord with plant experience, with the scales on the ferritic steel failing in tension, and those on the austenitic steels in compression. The results presented illustrate that using this approach to track the state of strain in the oxide scale through all phases of boiler operation, including transitions from full-to-low load and shut-down events, offers the possibility of identifying the phase(s) of boiler operation during which oxide

  10. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  11. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    MedlinePlus

    ... warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain persistent vomiting or diarrhea trouble passing gas or having a bowel movement pink-red tissue (called granulation tissue) coming out ...

  12. Surveillance application using patten recognition software at the EBR-II Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    The System State Analyzer (SSA) is a software based pattern recognition system. For the past several year this system has been used at Argonne National Laboratory`s Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactor for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Currently there are two versions of the SSA being used at EBR-2. One version of SSA is used for daily surveillance and trending of the reactor delta-T and startups of the reactor. Another version of the SSA is the QSSA which is used to monitor individual systems of the reactor such as the Secondary Sodium System, Secondary Sodium Pumps, and Steam Generator. This system has been able to detect problems such as signals being affected by temperature variations due to a failing temperature controller.

  13. Surveillance application using patten recognition software at the EBR-II Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The System State Analyzer (SSA) is a software based pattern recognition system. For the past several year this system has been used at Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactor for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Currently there are two versions of the SSA being used at EBR-2. One version of SSA is used for daily surveillance and trending of the reactor delta-T and startups of the reactor. Another version of the SSA is the QSSA which is used to monitor individual systems of the reactor such as the Secondary Sodium System, Secondary Sodium Pumps, and Steam Generator. This system has been able to detect problems such as signals being affected by temperature variations due to a failing temperature controller.

  14. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  15. Status of RBCB testing of LMR oxide fuel in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Bottcher, J.H.; Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B. ); Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Shikakura, S.; Katsuragawa, M. . Oarai Engineering Center)

    1991-01-01

    The status is given of the the American-Japanese collaborative program in Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 to determine the run-beyond-cladding-breach performance of (UPu)O{sub 2} fuel pins for liquid-metal cooled reactors. Phase 1 of the collaboration involved eighteen irradiation tests over 1981--86 with 5.84-mm pins in 316 or D9 stainless steel. Emphasis in Phase 2 tests from 1989 onwards is with larger diameter (7.5mm) pins in advanced claddings. Results include delayed neutron and fission gas release data from breached pins, the impact of fuel-sodium reaction product formation on pin performance, and fuel and fission product contamination from failures. 13 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Validation of the REBUS-3/RCT methodologies for EBR-II core-follow analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R. D.

    1991-09-01

    Operations and material control and accountancy requirements for the Fuel Cycle Facility will demand accurate prediction of the mass flow from EBR-2 into the facility. This will require validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated binary- and ternary-fueled Mark-3, Mark-4, and Mark-5 assemblies. The present study demonstrates that the REBUS- 3/RCT methodologies can meet these requirements. Validation is achieved via a two-step procedure. First, a set of detailed core- follow depletion calculations using the REBUS-3/RCT codes is performed for an extensive series of EBR-2 runs. Second, the results of this analysis are compared with experimental determinations of burnup and U and Pu isotopic weight fractions that have been measured in IFR fueled test assemblies irradiated in EBR-2. The results of these comparisons are very good and indicate that mass flow predictions based on the methods and models used in this study are adequate for operational and MCA requirements in FCF. 26 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Initial results for electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S. X.

    1998-05-04

    Initial results are reported for the anode behavior of spent metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefining process. The anode behavior has been characterized in terms of the initial spent fuel composition and the final composition of the residual cladding hulls. A variety of results have been obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Some of the process variables considered are average and maximum cell voltage, average and maximum anode voltage, amount of electrical charge passed (coulombs or amp-hours) during the experiment, and cell resistance. The main goal of the experiments has been the nearly complete dissolution of uranium with the retention of zirconium and noble metal fission products in the cladding hulls. Analysis has shown that the most indicative parameters for determining an endpoint to the process, recognizing the stated goal, are the maximum anode voltage and the amount of electrical charge passed. For the initial experiments reported here, the best result obtained is greater than 98% uranium dissolution with approximately 50% zirconium retention. Noble metal fission product retention appears to be correlated with zirconium retention.

  18. Recent advances during the treatment of spent EBR-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B. R.; Mariani, R. D.; Vaden, D. E.; Sherman, S. R.; Li, S. X.; Keiser, D. D., Jr.

    2000-03-20

    Several recent advances have been achieved for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. In anticipation of production operations at Argonne National Laboratory-West, development of both electrorefining and metal processing has been ongoing in the post-demonstration phase in order to further optimize the process. These development activities show considerable promise. This paper discusses the results of recent experiments as well as plans for future investigations.

  19. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Brian R.; Frank, S. M.; McCartin, W. M.; Cummings, D. G.; Giglio, J. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Hahn, P. A.; Yoo, T. S.; Marsden, K. C.; Bateman, K. J.; Patterson, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 °C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  20. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  1. Validation of the REBUS-3/RCT methodologies for EBR-II core-follow analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    One of the many tasks to be completed at EBR-2/FCF (Fuel Cycle Facility) regarding fuel cycle closure for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is to develop and install the systems to be used for fissile material accountancy and control. The IFR fuel cycle and pyrometallurgical process scheme determine the degree of actinide of actinide buildup in the reload fuel assemblies. Inventories of curium, americium and neptunium in the fuel will affect the radiation and thermal environmental conditions at the fuel fabrication stations, the chemistry of reprocessing, and the neutronic performance of the core. Thus, it is important that validated calculational tools be put in place for accurately determining isotopic mass and neutronic inputs to FCF for both operational and material control and accountancy purposes. The primary goal of this work is to validate the REBUS-2/RCT codes as tools which can adequately compute the burnup and isotopic distribution in binary- and ternary-fueled Mark-3, Mark-4, and Mark-5 subassemblies. 6 refs.

  2. EBR-II in-vessel natural circulation experiments on hot and cold pool stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Feldman, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II is located in a cylindrical pool of liquid sodium which is part of the cold-leg of the primary flow circuit. A vertical string of 32 thermocouples spans the 8 m tank height, at each of two diametrically opposed locations in the primary tank. Local temperatures were measured with these 64 thermocouples during dynamic tests. The instantaneous spacial temperature distribution obtained from a string of thermocouples can be viewed on a personal computer. The animation which results from displaying successive spacial distributions provide a very effective way to quickly obtain physical insights. The design of the two strings of thermocouples, the software used to create the animation, measured data from three different types of tests--two unprotected reactor transients, and one with the reactor at decay power levels and the reactor cover lifted, are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Studies of axial-leakage simulations for homogeneous and heterogeneous EBR-II core configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1985-08-01

    When calculations of flux are done in less than three dimensions, leakage-absorption cross sections are normally used to model leakages (flows) in the dimensions for which the flux is not calculated. Since the neutron flux is axially dependent, the leakages, and hence the leakage-absorption cross sections, are also axially dependent. Therefore, to obtain axial flux profiles (or reaction rates) for individual subassemblies, an XY-geometry calculation delineating each subassembly has to be done at several axial heights with space- and energy-dependent leakage-absorption cross sections that are appropriate for each height. This report discusses homogeneous and heterogeneous XY-geometry calculations at various axial locations and using several differing assumptions for the calculation of the leakage-absorption cross section. The positive (outward) leakage-absorption cross sections are modeled as actual leakage absorptions, but the negative (inward) leakage-absorption cross sections are modeled as either negative leakage absorptions (+-B/sup 2/ method) or positive downscatter cross sections (the ..sigma../sub s/(1 ..-->.. g) method). 3 refs., 52 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described.

  5. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  6. Boiling incipience in a reboiler tube

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, H.; Alam, S.S. )

    1991-03-01

    This heating surface and liquid temperature distributions were experimentally obtained to identify the boiling incipience conditions in a single vertical tube thermosiphon reboiler with water, acetone, ethanol, and ethylene glycol as test liquids. The test section was an electrically heated stainless steel tube of 25.56-mm i.d. and 1900 mm long. The uniform heat flux values were used in the range of 3800--40 000 W/m{sup 2}, while inlet liquid subcooling were varied from 0.2 to 45.5{degrees} C. The liquid submergence was maintained around 100, 75, 50 and 30%. All the data were generated at 1-atm pressure. The maximum superheats attained around boiling incipience were taken from the wall temperature distributions and correlated with heat flux and physical properties of liquids using the expression of Yin and Abdelmessih. The heated sections required for onset of fully developed boiling with net vapor generation were determined assuming a thermal equilibrium model. In this paper a dimensionless correlation relating these values with heat flux, liquid subcooling, and submergence is proposed.

  7. Proceedings: Third international conference on boiler tube failures in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The objectives of the conference were to review, document and transfer technology on all aspects of BTF. To meet these objectives, papers and presentations were provided on the following topics: general overview of BTF around the world; waterwall fireside corrosion; corrosion fatigue; root cause analysis; non-destructive evaluation for BTF; superheater failures; condition assessment and data acquisition; and boiler tube failure reduction programs. Each topic was discussed in a separate conference session. Discussions followed each paper and are included in the proceedings. A questionnaire was completed by the attendees on BTF and the remaining needs for research and development. The results are provided in Appendix A.

  8. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  9. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  10. Proceedings: International conference on boiler tube failures in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, R.B.

    1992-04-01

    An international conference on boiler tube failures (BTF) in fossil plants was conducted on November 5--7, 1991, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in La Jolla, California. The objectives of the conference were to review, document and transfer technology on all aspects of BTF. To meet these objectives, papers and presentations were provided on the following topics: general overview of BTF around the world; corrosion fatigue in waterwalls of drum units; thermal fatigue in supercritical waterwalls; superheater/reheater failures; flyash erosion; waterwall mechanisms; life assessment; NDE; BTF in the USSR; predictive/maintenance planning; waterside mechanisms; BTF reduction programs. Each topic was discussed in a separate conference session. Discussions followed each paper and are included in the proceedings. A questionaire was completed by the attendees on BTF and the remaining needs for research and development, the results are provided in Appendix A.

  11. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  12. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  13. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  14. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  15. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  16. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  17. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum tube ... Q-tip to clean the skin around the J-tube 1 to 3 times a day with ... To flush the J-tube, follow the instructions your nurse gave you. You will use the syringe to slowly push warm water into ...

  18. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  19. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  20. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  1. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  2. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  3. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  4. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  5. Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

  6. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on this ... you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, ...

  7. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth defects & other health conditions > Neural tube defects Neural tube defects E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the ...

  8. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  9. Tube-shape verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.

  10. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  11. Mist/steam cooling in a 180{degree} tube bend

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study on mist/steam cooling in a highly heated, horizontal 180{degree} tube bend has been performed. The mist/steam mixture is obtained by blending fine water droplets (3{approximately}15 microns) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bar. The test section consists of a thin wall ({approximately}0.9 mm), welded, circular, stainless steel 180-degree tube (20 mm ID) with a straight section downstream of the curved section, and is heated directly by a DC power supply. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet to steam mass ratio at about 2%. The results show that the heat transfer performance of steam can be significantly improved by adding mist into the main flow. Due to the effect of centrifugal force, the outer wall of the test section always exhibits a higher heat transfer enhancement than the inner wall. The highest enhancement occurs at a location on the outer wall about 45{degree} downstream of the inlet of the test section. Generally, only a small number of droplets can survive the 180{degree} turn and be present in the downstream straight section, as observed by a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) system. The overall cooling enhancement of the mist/steam flow ranges from 40% to 300%. It increases as the main steam flow increases, but decreases as the wall heat flux increases.

  12. New laser tracheal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungemach, Josef; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Hoermann, Karl; Preponis, E.

    1996-09-01

    The complication of a laser induced tube fire during surgery was first published in 1979. The protection of tracheal tubes against ignition is necessary to enable a safe laser surgery of the upper airway. in an experimental study a new compound tube was tested: this tube had a higher laser resistance than a pure metal tube. The damage threshold of this tube was tested against the emission of various lasers as CO2. The metal tube was damaged within seconds at CO2 laser power densities of 103 W/cm2 whereas the damage threshold of the compound tube was 3.106 W/cm2. We compared the compound laser tube to the so far used metal tube in a prospective clinical trial in our department of ENT in patients undergoing CO2-laser surgery of the upper airway. 66 patients were included into the study: 33 received the compound tube, 33 the metal tube. During endotracheal intubation the handling of the compound tube was better. During laser surgery high airway pressures occured more often with the metal tube. Whereas kinking was the problem of the compound tubes. Destruction of cuffs occured in both groups but did not cause any complications. No tube or cuff fire was noticed.

  13. EC Tube Fits

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-03

    In the design of the EC, the beam tube, through which the beam line travels, can be found in the IH tube which is centrally located in the IH module. However, also between the beam tube and the IH tube lie both the vacuum and inner tubes of the vacuum and inner vessels. It is the vacuum between these vessels which provides insulation between the ambient beam tube and liquid argon in the cryostat. while the vacuum tube is supported along its length with the inner tube as best as possible, the inner tube will only be supported at the ends. The beam tube will also be end-supported, but it will be allowed to rest directly on the inner surface of the vacuum tube. It is required that the beam tube be able to slide in and out of the vacuum tube with relative ease in order that the EC's can be moved away from the CC when necessary (repair work, etc.). Although the frequency of such a move is not known, it is hoped to be low, and it would therefore be desirable, for cost reasons, to be able to use stock tubing for the vacuum and beam tubes instead of using specially machined tubing.

  14. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  15. Tubing suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    Berner, P. C.; Brickman, E. L.

    1985-12-31

    A tubing suspension system for undersea well production operations employs a nonoriented tubing hanger having an inner body for supporting a tubing string and a landing collar for supporting the tubing hanger on a wellhead casing. The tubing hanger includes three co-operating concentric sleeve assemblies which are employed to lock and seal the tubing hanger to the wellhead housing. The outer sleeve assembly includes a locking actuator and a dual seal assembly and is separately retrievable from the remainder of the hanger assmebly. A nonorienting hydraulic set running tool is employed to run the tubing hanger, set the seals, lock the tubing hanger to the wellhead casing, retrieve either the outer sleeve assembly or the entire tubing hanger. The running tool includes a hydraulically controlled actuating sleeve which carries a latch dog assembly which locks with the tubing hanger.

  16. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  17. Rapid evaporation at the superheat limit of methanol, ethanol, butanol and n-heptane on platinum films supported by low-stress SiN membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Eric J.; Avedisian, C. Thomas; Cavicchi, Richard C.; Chung, Do Hyun; Rah, Jeff; Carrier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The bubble nucleation temperatures of several organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, butanol, n-heptane) on stress-minimized platinum (Pt) films supported by SiN membranes is examined by pulse-heating the membranes for times ranging from 1 µs to 10 µs. The results show that the nucleation temperatures increase as the heating rates of the Pt films increase. Measured nucleation temperatures approach predicted superheat limits for the smallest pulse times which correspond to heating rates over 108 K/s, while nucleation temperatures are significantly lower for the longest pulse times. The microheater membranes were found to be robust for millions of pulse cycles, which suggests their potential in applications for moving fluids on the microscale and for more fundamental studies of phase transitions of metastable liquids. PMID:28065997

  18. Rapid evaporation at the superheat limit of methanol, ethanol, butanol and n-heptane on platinum films supported by low-stress SiN membranes.

    PubMed

    Ching, Eric J; Avedisian, C Thomas; Cavicchi, Richard C; Chung, Do Hyun; Rah, Jeff; Carrier, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    The bubble nucleation temperatures of several organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, butanol, n-heptane) on stress-minimized platinum (Pt) films supported by SiN membranes is examined by pulse-heating the membranes for times ranging from 1 µs to 10 µs. The results show that the nucleation temperatures increase as the heating rates of the Pt films increase. Measured nucleation temperatures approach predicted superheat limits for the smallest pulse times which correspond to heating rates over 10(8) K/s, while nucleation temperatures are significantly lower for the longest pulse times. The microheater membranes were found to be robust for millions of pulse cycles, which suggests their potential in applications for moving fluids on the microscale and for more fundamental studies of phase transitions of metastable liquids.

  19. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  20. Eustachian tube (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in ... become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. Bacteria trapped ...

  1. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  2. PEG tube insertion -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... shower or bathe. Keeping the PEG-tube in Place If the feeding tube comes out, the stoma ... eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 100. ...

  3. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NG - infants Images Feeding tube References Kim YS. Nasogastric and nasoenteric tube insertion. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap ...

  4. Eustachian tube patency

    MedlinePlus

    ... refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep the middle ear free of ...

  5. Guide tube flow diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Berringer, R.T.; Myron, D.L.

    1980-11-04

    A nuclear reactor upper internal guide tube has a flow diffuser integral with its bottom end. The guide tube provides guidance for control rods during their ascent or descent from the reactor core. The flow diffuser serves to divert the upward flow of reactor coolant around the outside of the guide tube thereby limiting the amount of coolant flow and turbulence within the guide tube, thus enhancing the ease of movement of the control rods.

  6. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  7. 1992 tubing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper is helpful to those designing oil well completions or purchasing tubing with proprietary or premium connections. Tables contain specifications and application data for over 100 different tubing joints, including those used with fiberglass pipe. The tables this year contain dimensional and performance data for coiled tubing.

  8. Prediction of stainless steel activation in experimental breeder reactor 2 (EBR-II) reflector and blanket subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bunde, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stainless steel structural components in nuclear reactors become radioactive wastes when no longer useful. Prior to disposal, certain physical attributes must be analyzed. These attributes include structural integrity, chemical stability, and the radioactive material content among others. The focus of this work is the estimation of the radioactive material content of stainless steel wastes from a research reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  12. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  13. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  14. Pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark A; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow rapidly in a strictly polarized manner as they transport male reproductive cells through female flower tissues to bring about fertilization. Vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent model system to investigate processes underlying directional cell expansion. In this chapter, we describe materials and methods required for (1) the identification of novel factors essential for polarized cell growth through the isolation and analysis of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in pollen tube growth and (2) the detailed functional characterization of pollen tube proteins based on transient transformation and microscopic analysis of cultured tobacco pollen tubes.

  15. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  16. The compact circulating fluidized bed boiler with a finned tube impact separator and a uniflow square cyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiaodong; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua; Jiang Xuguang; Yang Jialin; Huang Guoquan; Ni Mingjiang; Cen Kefa

    1999-07-01

    Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University has introduced a circulating fluidized bed boiler with two stage compact separation. A finned tube impact separator is located at the outlet of the furnace and a uniflow square cyclone is adopted behind the superheater. The flow characteristics of the finned tube separator are measured using a three dimensional particles dynamics analyzer. The measurements show that the reflux flow existing near the front of a finned tube has a very important effect on particle separation. The shape of a uniflow square cyclone is different with a conventional uniflow cyclone and can be laid conveniently in the flue duct of the boiler. A lot of experimental studies have been done focusing on the above separators' performances. The experimental results show that separation efficiency of the uniflow square cyclone can be up to 99% for particles with mean size 0.167 mm and its pressure drop is lower than 1,000 Pa. To change the shape of the cyclone's exhaust pipe is very effective. Based on the results, the optimization design of the separators is reported. The finned tube impact separator has been successfully applied in several circulating fluidized bed boilers. Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University has designed a compact circulating fluidized bed boiler with the finned tube impact separator and a uniflow square cyclone, and the boilers capacity is 65 t/h (12 MWe).

  17. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, N.; Kamath, S. Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure. PMID:27397467

  18. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  19. Selection of stainless steel tubes to minimize hot corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, H.; Makiura, H.

    1982-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steel tubes of AISI 304, 316, 321, and 347 types are sometimes exposed to severe hot corrosion environments in superheaters and reheaters of utility boilers. Hot corrosion depends on the existence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the oil-fired boilers, and of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the coal-fired boilers. Among various kinds of ash corrosions, the alkali sulphate-side corrosion has been mainly studied. Type 347 steel better resistance to alkali sulphate-side corrosion than 304, 316, and 321 steels. Alloying with Nb was more effective than Mo or Ti. A (Cr, Fe, Ni)-spinel oxide layer with little ash content formed at the scale-metal interface in 347 steel. In field tests, 347 tubes have maintained good resistance to both fire-side and steam-side corrosion for five years. However, 321 tubes were removed after three years of service, because of severe fire-side corrosion.

  20. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  1. Kaumana lava tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1974-01-01

    The entrance to Kaumana Lava Tube is in a picnic ground next to Highway 20 (Kaumana Drive) about 6.5 km southwest of Hilo. The area is passed on the way to the Kona Coast via the Saddle Road and is identified by a Hawaii Visitors Bureau sign. Although it is not the largest lava tube in the islands, Kaumana Lava Tube is an interesting geological formation, displaying many of the features typical of lava tube interiors. It is accessible, relatively easy to walk through, and is in an excellent state of preservation. The tube developed in a historic lava flow (1881, from Mauna Loa), and many aspects of lava tube activity are observed.

  2. Ruggedized electronographic tube development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their glass components and lack of far ultraviolet sensitivity, currently available Spectracons are not suited for rocket launch. Technology developed for second generation image tubes and for magnetically focused image tubes can be applied to improve the optical and mechanical properties of these magnetically focused electronographic tubes whose 40 kilovolt signal electrons exit a 4-micrometer thick mica window and penetrate a photographic recording emulsion.

  3. COAXIAL TUBE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Niemoth, H.R.

    1963-02-26

    BS>This patent shows a device for quickly coupling coaxial tubes in metal-to-metal fashion, so as to be suitable for use in a nuclear reactor. A threaded coliar urges a tapered metal extension on the outer coaxial tube into a tapered seat in the device and simultaneously exerts pressure through a coaxial helical spring so that a similar extension on the inner tube seats in a similar seat near the other end. (AEC)

  4. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  5. Programming DNA tube circumferences.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Hariadi, Rizal F; Sahu, Sudheer; Choi, Harry M T; Park, Sung Ha; Labean, Thomas H; Reif, John H

    2008-08-08

    Synthesizing molecular tubes with monodisperse, programmable circumferences is an important goal shared by nanotechnology, materials science, and supermolecular chemistry. We program molecular tube circumferences by specifying the complementarity relationships between modular domains in a 42-base single-stranded DNA motif. Single-step annealing results in the self-assembly of long tubes displaying monodisperse circumferences of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, or 20 DNA helices.

  6. Tubing weld cracking test

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.

    1995-12-31

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators.

  7. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  8. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  9. Retrograde gastrojejunostomy tube migration.

    PubMed

    Adesina, Adeleke; Rammohan, Guhan; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J) tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  10. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  11. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    DOEpatents

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  12. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Outwater, J.O.

    2000-05-23

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  13. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  14. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  15. Influence of Melt Superheat, Sr Modifier, and Al-5Ti-1B Grain Refiner on Microstructural Evolution of Secondary Al-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmonov, Jovid; Timelli, Giulio; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-11-01

    The role of impurity elements and melt superheat on the efficiency of Sr modification, grain refinement with Al-Ti-B and the precipitation behavior of intermetallic phases in a secondary Al-7Si-3Cu-0.3Mg alloy were investigated. Metallographic and thermal analysis techniques were used to quantitatively examine the macro- and microstructural changes occurring with modifier and grain refiner additions at various pouring temperatures. The results indicate how the Sr modification and grain refinement with Al-Ti-B can be effective enough despite the presence of impurity elements in the material and the variation of pouring temperature. A slight poisonous effect of impurities, in particular, Zr and V, in the grain refinement efficiency can be eventually induced due to their action in promoting the formation of primary AlSiTi compounds. Moreover, grain refiner addition exerted a pronounced influence on the precipitation sequence of Fe-rich phases. The TiB2 particles appeared to promote the formation of Al5FeSi during solidification by acting as a favorable nucleation site.

  16. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  17. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  18. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  19. Fallopian Tube Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Amy Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Fallopian tube catheterization is used for treatment of infertility caused by proximal tubal occlusion, and has replaced surgical treatment for this condition. More recently, fallopian tube catheterization has been used for tubal sterilization. Interventional radiologists tested numerous methods for tubal occlusion using the rabbit as an animal model. As a result, a tubal device has recently been Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent sterilization using hysteroscopic guidance; it can also be placed fluoroscopically by fallopian tube catheterization as an “off-label” procedure. This is a 5-year continuation and update on a procedure that has been done by interventional radiologists for 25 years; history of the development of fallopian tube catheterization in women has been published in detail in this journal. Highlighted in this article will be description of the basic components needed for fallopian tube catheterization. PMID:24436565

  20. Holder for Straightening Bent Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, A. R.; Polzien, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    One-piece holder restrains bent metal tube against further bending during straightening operation. Holder consists of handle 16 in. (41 cm) long welded to short, strong tube that fits around tube to be straightened.

  1. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  2. Optimization of pulse tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    1999-03-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) of pulse tube coolers is mainly determined by irreversible processes in the regenerator. In this paper, a general and basic definition for the efficiency of regenerators is proposed. The efficiency of the regenerator, and consequently of the cooler as a whole, is affected by the system which is used to control the pressure in the tube. For a general pressure-wave form, it is shown that in the optimum situation, under certain conditions, the variation of the pressure in the tube is proportional to the variation of the pressure in the compressor. In that case the COP is independent of the form of the pressure wave.

  3. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  4. Kinking of medical tubes.

    PubMed

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  5. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  6. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    Air passing through vocal cords (larynx) causes them to vibrate, creating sounds and speech. A tracheostomy tube blocks most of the air from passing through your vocal cords. Instead, your breath (air) goes out ...

  7. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... written materials as well as DVDs on a range of topics of interest to tube feeders, including ... be caused by several things. Power failure/low battery. Pump charger parts aren’t fully connected. Pump ...

  8. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  9. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  10. Snorkeling and Jones tubes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lewis Y W; Weatherhead, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  11. Enteral nutrition by tube.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S

    1990-01-01

    When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.

  12. Bull Moose Tube Company

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  13. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  14. Gastrostomy tube placement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100125.htm Gastrostomy tube placement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Building with Tubes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance, Ed.

    Text and illustrations show how to assemble furniture and toys out of cardboard tubes and sheets. Basic directions are provided, and the tools and materials necessary to the assembly of specific items are described. (MLF)

  16. Using a nasogastric tube.

    PubMed

    Candy, C

    1986-09-01

    This discussion of the use of a nasogastric tube covers the equipment needed, the method, rehydration and feeding, prolonged nasogastric feeding, and stopping nasogastric feeding. A nasogastric tube is useful when children are unable to drink safely and in sufficient amounts for any of the following reasons: severe dehydration; if intravenous (IV) therapy is unavailable; low birth weight infants; or the child is drowsy or vomiting. Severely malnourished children may be fed initially in this way if they are too weak or anorexic to eat or drink normally. The following equipment is needed: nasogastric tube; lubricating fluid; a syringe; blue litmus paper, if available; adhesive tape; stethoscope if available; and fluid to be given. Explain to the child's parents and the child, if old enough to understand, what will be done; lie infants flat; measure the approximate length from the child's nostril to the ear lobe and then to the top of the abdomen with the tube and mark the position; clean the nostrils to remove the mucus, and lubricate the tip of the tube and gently insert into the nostril; give the child a drink of water if he or she is conscious; continue to pass the tube down until the position marked reaches the nostril; use the syringe to suck up some fluid and test with blue litmus paper to check that the tube is in the stomach; and inject 5-10 ml of fluid (saline or oral rehydration solution, not milk formula) by syringe if satisfied the tube is in the correct position. Where possible, give a continuous drip of fluid. If this is not possible, give frequent small amounts using the syringe as a funnel. If feeding continues for more than 24 hours, clean the nostrils daily with warm water and change the tube to the other nostril every few days. Also keep the mouth very clean with a dilute solution of 8% sodium bicarbonate, if available, or citrus fruit juice. To remove the tube, remove the adhesive tape, take the tube out gently and smoothly, and offer the child a

  17. Tubing crimping pliers

    DOEpatents

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  18. Heat transfer during condensation of HFC-134a and R-404A inside of a horizontal smooth and micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect

    Sapali, S.N.; Patil, Pradeep A.

    2010-11-15

    In recent small and medium capacity refrigeration systems, the condenser tubes are provided with micro-fins from inside. The vapour refrigerant at the compressor outlet and the condenser inlet is in superheat state. As it advances in the condenser it is in two phases and at the outlet it is in sub cooled liquid. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) during condensation of HFC-134a and R-404A in a smooth (8.56 mm ID) and micro-fin tubes (8.96 mm ID) are experimentally investigated. Different from previous studies, the present experiments are performed for various condensing temperatures, with superheating and sub cooling and using hermetically sealed compressor. The test runs are done at average saturated condensing temperatures ranging from 35 C to 60 C. The mass fluxes are between 90 and 800 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The experimental results indicate that the average HTC increases with mass flux but decreases with increasing condensing temperature for both smooth and micro-fin tubes. The average condensation HTCs of HFC-134a and R-404A for the micro-fin tubes were 1.5-2.5 and 1.3-2 times larger than that in smooth tube respectively. The HTCs for R-404A are less than that of HFC-134a. New correlations based on the data gathered during the experimentation for predicting condensation HTCs are proposed for wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  19. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  20. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Creep-Rupture Behavior of Ni-Based Alloy Tube Bends for A-USC Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingledecker, John

    Advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boiler designs will require the use of nickel-based alloys for superheaters and reheaters and thus tube bending will be required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II PG-19 limits the amount of cold-strain for boiler tube bends for austenitic materials. In this summary and analysis of research conducted to date, a number of candidate nickel-based A-USC alloys were evaluated. These alloys include alloy 230, alloy 617, and Inconel 740/740H. Uniaxial creep and novel structural tests and corresponding post-test analysis, which included physical measurements, simplified analytical analysis, and detailed microscopy, showed that different damage mechanisms may operate based on test conditions, alloy, and cold-strain levels. Overall, creep strength and ductility were reduced in all the alloys, but the degree of degradation varied substantially. The results support the current cold-strain limits now incorporated in ASME for these alloys for long-term A-USC boiler service.

  2. Coiled tubing operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworsky, A.S. II )

    1991-11-01

    Coiled tubing offers many advantages over conventional jointed tubing used for drilling in oil fields, including time savings, pumping flexibility, fluid placement, reduced formation damage and safety. The article gives an overview of coiled tubing history and development. Operating concepts are explained, along with descriptions of the major equipment and components associated with coiled tubing use in the oil field today.

  3. Circle nephrostomy tube revisited

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Yasser A.; Diab, Christian; Valenti, David; Andonian, Sero

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There are few options for patients requiring chronic urinary drainage using nephrostomy tubes. Although circle nephrostomy tube (CNT) was invented in 1954, it is rarely used. Its advantages include longer indwelling time such that it is changed semi-annually when compared with the standard nephrostomy tube (SNT), which is changed monthly. However, there are no studies comparing indwelling times and costs with these two tubes. The aim of the present study was to compare CNT with SNT in terms of frequency of tube changes, reasons for earlier tube changes, and associated costs. Methods: Patients who had CNT inserted between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. The indications for chronic indwelling nephrostomy tubes were tabulated. The frequency of tube changes was compared between CNT and SNT in the same patients. Furthermore, costs associated with insertion and exchange of CNT and SNT were analyzed. Results: Seven patients with mean age of 71.9 ± 7.6 years (range 43–96) had a total of 36 CNT changes. The mean number of CNT changes was four (range 2–5) at a mean interval of 168.3 ± 15.6 days (range 120–231). All patients had SNT prior to converting to CNT. When compared with the mean interval for SNT changes, the mean interval for CNT changes was significantly longer (44.8 ± 19.4 vs. 168.3 ± 41.3 days; p=0.028). Tube blockage and urinary leakage were the most common reasons for earlier than scheduled CNT changes. In our centre, CNT insertion and exchange cost $1965.48 and $923.96 compared with $1450.43 and $803.81 for SNT, respectively. There was an estimated cost savings of $46 861.10 (range $87 414.30 –$40 553.20) for the whole cohort by switching from SNTs to CNTs. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size as the main limitation, this study confirms that CNTs are associated with significantly fewer changes and lower cost when compared with SNTs for poor-surgical-risk patients requiring chronic NTs.

  4. Tracheostomy tubes and related appliances.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2005-04-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, to provide protection from aspiration, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles, from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in length between tubes of the same inner diameter, but from different manufacturers, are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be angled or curved, a feature that can be used to improve the fit of the tube in the trachea. Extra proximal length tubes facilitate placement in patients with large necks, and extra distal length tubes facilitate placement in patients with tracheal anomalies. Several tube designs have a spiral wire reinforced flexible design and have an adjustable flange design to allow bedside adjustments to meet extra-length tracheostomy tube needs. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed. Cuffs on tracheostomy tubes include high-volume low-pressure cuffs, tight-to-shaft cuffs, and foam cuffs. The fenestrated tracheostomy tube has an opening in the posterior portion of the tube, above the cuff, which allows the patient to breathe through the upper airway when the inner cannula is removed. Tracheostomy tubes with an inner cannula are called dual-cannula tracheostomy tubes. Several tracheostomy tubes are designed specifically for use with the percutaneous tracheostomy procedure. Others are designed with a port above the cuff that allows for subglottic aspiration of secretions. The tracheostomy button is used for stoma maintenance. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to understand the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient.

  5. Neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechanisms underlying neural tube closure and NTDs may be informed by experimental models, which have revealed numerous genes whose abnormal function causes NTDs and have provided details of critical cellular and morphological events whose regulation is essential for closure. Such models also provide an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors and to develop novel preventive therapies.

  6. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  7. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  8. The electrostatic storage tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An electrostatic camera system is discussed which is based on the electrostatic storage tube. The development of the system was begun following a series of experiments which indicated that the device offers signficantly improved performance over currently available devices. The approach used in developing the high performance camera involves: converting the input image to an electron image at low loss, applying a low noise gain process, and storing the resulting charge pattern in a low-loss target. The basic processes and elements of the electrostatic storage tube are illustrated and discussed. Graphs that depict the camera performance characteristics are included.

  9. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  10. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  11. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  12. Investigation of Pitot tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herschel, W H; Buckingham, E

    1917-01-01

    Report describes the principles of operation and characteristics of some of the instruments which have been devised or used to measure both low and high speeds of aeroplanes. Since the pitot tube is the instrument which has been most commonly used in the United States and Great Britain as a speedometer for aeroplanes, it is treated first and somewhat more fully than the others.

  13. Misdirected Minitracheostomy Tube

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajmer; Nanda, Chinmaya; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope. PMID:28074805

  14. Misdirected minitracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajmer; Nanda, Chinmaya; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope.

  15. Tube welding and brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    Brochures outline the tools, equipment, materials, and techniques used for joining tubes by automatic and semiautomatic welding and brazing. A few of the metals being joined are stainless steels of various diameters and thickness. Techniques have been developed for on-site or work-bench repair.

  16. Snorkeling and Jones tubes

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported. PMID:27330470

  17. Flux Tube Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.

    2011-05-01

    This Fortran code computes magnetohydrostatic flux tubes and sheets according to the method of Steiner, Pneuman, & Stenflo (1986) A&A 170, 126-137. The code has many parameters contained in one input file that are easily modified. Extensive documentation is provided in README files.

  18. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  19. Investigations of structural transformation within metal (austenite chromium-manganese steel) at the external surface of steam superheating tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The elemental composition of an altered layer at the external surface of a steam superheating tube of grade DI59 steel is investigated after long-term operation. It is shown that the layer is located between a scale and a matrix and depleted by silicon, manganese, copper, and chromium with the maximum oxidizer affinity, enriched by iron and nickel to 90%, and mainly composed of the α-Fe phase (ferrite) with the ferromagnetic properties. The layer formed as a result of selective oxidation and diffusion from the matrix into the metal scale with the less standard free energy of the formation of sulfides and oxides. A magnetic ferrite meter is used in the experimental investigation of the layer evolution by testing grade DI59 steel for heat resistance in air environment at temperatures of 585, 650, and 700°C for 15 × 103 h; creep at a temperature of 750°C and a stress of 60 MPa; and long-term strength at temperatures of 700 and 750°C and stresses of from 30 to 80 MPa. Specimens for tests are made of tubes under as-received conditions. The relationship between the ferrite phase content in the surface metal layer and the temperature and time of test is determined. The dependence is developed to evaluate the equivalent temperature for operation of the external surface of steam superheating tubes using data of magnetic ferritometry. It is shown that operation temperatures that are determined by the ferrite phase content and the σ phase concentration in the metal structure of steam superheating tubes with the significant operating time are close. It is proposed to use magnetic ferritometry for revelation of thermal nonuniformity and worst tubes of steam superheaters of HPP boilers.

  20. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  1. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  2. Calibration of image dissector tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingman, E. E., III

    1976-01-01

    Technique employs computer-controlled light-emitting diode (LED), precision machined mask, and analog-to-digital coverter (ADC). Computer turns on LED which floods masked face of tube. Intensity pattern, generated as tube is electromagnetically swept, is fed to ADC which controls tube calibration.

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  4. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  5. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  6. Tubing rotator reduces tubing wear in rod pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M. ); Brown, C. )

    1994-04-04

    Tubing failures are both expensive and time-consuming. The most common failure results from rod cutting, or, erosion of the tubing ID because of continuous, reciprocating contact with the rod string. Installation of tubing rotators has decreased tubing failures in West Texas waterflood sucker-rod pumped wells. Pumping unit movement powers the rotator system, turning the tubing string at about 1 revolution/day. The rotator system has both surface and subsurface components. A reduction gear box attached to the walking beam converts the pumping unit's reciprocating strokes into rotary motion. A drive line transfers this rotary motion to a gear-driven suspension mandrel in the rotating tubing hanger. Near the bottom of the tubing string, a rotating tubing anchor/catcher allows the entire tubing string, including the tail pipe, seating nipple, and gas and mud anchor to rotate. The rotator hanger suspends the weight of the tubing string on a bearing system. One model of the hanger has a load capacity of 135,000 lb. A surface swivel allows rotation below the pumping tee so that the flow lines remain stationary. Also included in the string is a safety shear coupling to prevent over torquing the tubing.

  7. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  8. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  9. Tube coupling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N. (Inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  10. YouTube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  11. Joined concentric tubes

    DOEpatents

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  12. Gun Tube Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    researchers to use ingenious approximation techniques (Rapp 1990) and curve fitting to produce a history of tube heating during the interior ballistic cycle... Automotive Command U.S. Army Materiel Command ATTN: ASQNC-TAC-DIT (Technical ATTN: AMCAM Information Center) 5001 Eisenhower Avenue Warren, MI 48397-5000...36360 ATTN: ATRC-L, Mr. Cameron Fort Lee, VA 23801-6140 2 Program Manager U.S. Army Tank- Automotive Command 1 Commandant ATTN: AMCPM-ABMS, T. Dean (2

  13. A wandering tube.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe; Schattner, Ami

    2016-12-05

    The predominant causes of acute mechanical small bowel obstruction in geriatric patients are adhesions and hernias, which is not much different than in other adult age groups. Unusual etiologies may be encountered, such as volvulus or gallstone ileus, but a displaced feeding gastrostomy tube is a distinctly rare cause of intestinal obstruction which needs to be considered by emergency physicians as it may be increasingly encountered.

  14. [Patulous eustachian tube].

    PubMed

    Kovacević, D; Radosavljević, M; Jelesijević, J

    1995-01-01

    Patulous eustachian tube is a pathological condition which exists more often than we make a diagnosis, and a patient is not often aware of his disease. This disease can be manifested with various symptoms: respiratory synchrony noises in the ear, because of the penetration of the air current through the eustachian tube and with the movement of the eardrum outwards and inside, with autophony, reduction of the hearing, the buzzing, dizziness and disturbance of the balance. Two patients are presented. The first one was sick for many years from various chronics exhausted diseases: Jackson's epilepsy, temporary vascular brain disturbances, tuberculosis of lung, stomach ulcer, heart diseases, the patient is from low class, on one side, and also suffers from some local diseases: a paralysis of soft palate and palatal arcs, a chronic catarrhal rhinitis and sinusitis, a deviation of nasal dividing wall and hindered breathing through the nose, on the other side. Many years the patient didn't know for patological condition in the ears and in the eustachian tubes. After improving the hygienic conditions, the physical condition and local therapy, the patient felt much better. The second patient, with considerable shorter evolution of the disease and mild symptomatology, showed the amplified symptoms of the disease of the Eustachian tube in the course of the acute otitis. It is attained a satisfying calming of the manifestative symptoms by remedy therapie. Man must thing about possibility of the appearance of this pathology condition in various disease or conditions, which can take to the fast lost of the weight and physical and moral exhaustion of the patient, i.e. an adult, first as the protection of the appearance of the disease (condition) and afterwards, eventually early and regulary treatment in order to prevent various possible, above mentioned complications.

  15. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  16. Tube bundle system

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, W.; Mohamed, K.; Addis, J.; Karnack, F.

    2015-01-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine PMID:26306052

  17. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  18. TUBE SHEARING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Wilner, L.B.

    1960-05-24

    Explosive operated valves can be used to join two or more containers in fluid flow relationship, one such container being a sealed reservoir. The valve is most simply disposed by mounting it on the reservoir so thst a tube extends from the interior of the reservoir through the valve body, terminating at the bottom of the bore in a closed end; other containers may be similarly connected or may be open connected, as desired. The piston of the valve has a cutting edge at its lower end which shears off the closed tube ends and a recess above the cutting edge to provide a flow channel. Intermixing of the fluid being transferred with the explosion gases is prevented by a copper ring at the top of the piston which is force fitted into the bore at the beginning of the stroke. Although designed to avoid backing up of the piston at pressures up to 10,000 psi in the transferred fluid, proper operation is independent of piston position, once the tube ends were sheared.

  19. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  20. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  1. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  2. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  3. Tube thoracostomy; chest tube implantation and follow up

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an urgent medical situation that requires urgent treatment. We can divide this entity based on the etiology to primary and secondary. Chest tube implantation can be performed either in the upper chest wall or lower. Both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can place a chest tube with minimal invasive techniques. In our current work, we will demonstrate chest tube implantation to locations, methodology and tools. PMID:25337405

  4. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  5. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  6. Microwave Tube Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    t’ibes discussed demonstrate a 2000-hour life in the laboratory but exhibit only a 200- hour i’fc in systems. The tubes reported on were broadband , helix ...control. Two such critical operations are helix winding and pyrolytic deposition. The ,slow-wave structureof .he modem TWT -is rarely a simple uniform...Il No customer complaint (2) 1I Open helix (1) 1 High harmonics, low power<l) The group A and B -symptoms indicated by the failure report data weL

  7. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  8. First Reconnected Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, L.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Markidis, S.; Spanswick, E. L.; Baker, J. B.; Clausen, L. B.; Larson, D. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Frey, H. U.; Singer, H. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Wolfgang, B.

    2011-12-01

    THEMIS observations from the magnetic equator (the equatorial plane) in the near-earth tail reveal a great amount of information regarding the plasma environment in the vicinity of the first reconnected flux tubes (a subgroup of dipolarization fronts). Two sequential observations of dipolarization fronts are analyzed in detail using three of the THEMIS spacecraft. Particle acceleration to high energies (>50 keV) is observed together with a void region interpreted as a region to which the full electron distribution has incomplete access. Whistler waves, which are observed, could be driven by one of the two electron populations located in the wake of the first reconnected flux tubes. The detailed observations are compared with 2D and 3D implicit kinetic simulation of reconnection events. This presentation focuses on the similarity between observation and simulation. One key aspect of this presentation is a demonstration of how different the signature is when observing at vs off the magnetic equator, since most observations in the literature (unlike the observations presented here) are from off the equator. For this event, additional spacecraft and ground observations have been analyzed, which demonstrate that a reconfiguration of the magnetosphere is taking place. However, the focus of this presentation is on the small scale (<~10 di), rather than the large scale (~20 Re).

  9. Free compression tube. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  10. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  11. Improved Mechanical Seals For Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W.; Anderson, Raymond H.; Fuson, Phillip L.; Chickles, Colin D.; Jones, Cherie A.

    1996-01-01

    Improved tube-to-fitting seals made by application of soft metal pieces to either ends of tubes or to interior of fittings. Metal silver, gold, platinum, tin, or other easily malleable metal selected to be inert with fluid of use. Metal plated, evaporated, or sputter-deposited. Coat of soft metal thin, so no changes required in design or tolerances of standard fittings. Technique suitable for hydraulic or other fluid systems in which leakage from mechanically joined sections of tubes occur.

  12. YouTube Sharathon Crackerbarrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This year at the AAPT Summer Meeting in Philadelphia, there was a session called ``YouTube Sharathon Crackerbarrel.'' The session allowed many teachers to share their YouTube videos and explain how they use YouTube in their classroom. Unfortunately, I had a conflicting meeting and had to miss this session. Dean Baird was the originator of the session and also served as host. In addition, he forwarded a few of the best videos to me.

  13. The special relativistic shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Kevin W.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  14. Improved Mechanical Seals For Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W.; Anderson, Raymond H.; Fuson, Phillip L.; Chickles, Colin D.; Jones, Cherie A.

    1996-01-01

    Improved tube-to-fitting seals made by application of soft metal pieces to either ends of tubes or to interior of fittings. Metal silver, gold, platinum, tin, or other easily malleable metal selected to be inert with fluid of use. Metal plated, evaporated, or sputter-deposited. Coat of soft metal thin, so no changes required in design or tolerances of standard fittings. Technique suitable for hydraulic or other fluid systems in which leakage from mechanically joined sections of tubes occur.

  15. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  16. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  17. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  18. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  19. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  20. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  1. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  2. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  3. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L.; Stephens, R.K. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on coiled tubing units which are used for many types of remedial well operations, including sand plugbacks, cement squeezes, fill cleanouts, underreaming, acid stimulations, and fishing. Fishing operations include removal of inflatable bridge plugs, lock mandrels stuck in profile nipples, coiled tubing, coiled tubing bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) and wireline. Recommended guidelines for selecting candidates, proper tool string configuration and operational techniques are presented here to assist coiled tubing supervisors and company representatives in the planning and implementation of efficient and effective fishing operations. Treatment of these areas are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather generally representative of common applications. Each fishing operation requires individualized analysis and planning.

  4. Coiled tubing. operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, C.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Coiled tubing is being used with increasing frequency in conventional or traditional production operations. Demand for coiled pipe in these types of applications is expected to experience rapid growth as standard 2 (3/8) and 2 (7/8)-in. OD tubing sizes and units equipped to run larger pipe become more readily available. This paper reports on a recent market survey which indicated that coiled tubing used for velocity strings and standard production tubing installations are two areas with the most potential for immediate and near-term expansion. Other applications include: well casing and liners, gravel packing, artificial lift, flowlines and pipelines.

  5. Rubber tubes in the sea.

    PubMed

    Farley, F J M; Rainey, R C T; Chaplin, J R

    2012-01-28

    A long tube with elastic walls containing water is immersed in the sea aligned in the direction of wave travel. The waves generate bulges that propagate at a speed determined by the distensibility of the tube. If the bulge speed is close to the phase velocity of the waves, there is a resonant transfer of energy from the sea wave to the bulge. At the end of the tube, useful energy can be extracted. This paper sets out the theory of bulge tubes in the sea, and describes some experiments on the model scale and practical problems. The potential of a full-scale device is assessed.

  6. Robotic Booking Of Coolant Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Gutow, David A.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Robotic tube-booking subsystem proposed for use in automated manufacturing cell described in "Robotic Processing of Rocket-Engine Nozzles" (MFS-29927). Includes electric or pneumatic end effector that inspects gaps under guidance of control processor connected to robotic vision subsystem. After inspecting each gap, end effector books tubes in vicinity, then reinspects to ensure attainment of desired gap. Makes entire tube-gap area brazeable, without damage to tubes, with consistent results. In addition, robotic booking takes less time and costs less than manual booking.

  7. Charm production in flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.; Nazareth, R. A. M. S.; Pech, G.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that the nonperturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single nonelementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. In their turn these clusters, or ``fireballs,'' decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange, and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  8. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  9. Effect of the sequence of tube rolling in a tube bundle of a shell and tube heat exchanger on the stress-deformed state of the tube sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselishchev, M. F.; Plotnikov, P. N.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    Rolling the tube sheet of a heat exchanger with U-shaped tubes, as exemplified by the vapor cooler GP-24, was simulated. The simulation was performed using the finite element method with account of elas- tic-plastic properties of the tube and tube sheet materials. The simulation consisted of two stages; at the first stage, maximum and residual contact stress in the conjunction of a separate tube and the tube sheet was determined using the "equivalent sleeve" model; at the second stage, the obtained contact stress was applied to the hole surface in the tube sheet. Thus, different tube rolling sequences were simulated: from the center to the periphery of the tube sheet and from the periphery to the center along a spiral line. The studies showed that the tube rolling sequence noticeably influences the value of the tube sheet residual deflection for the same rolling parameters of separate tubes. Residual deflection of the tube sheet in different planes was determined. It was established that the smallest residual deflection corresponds to the tube rolling sequence from the periphery to the center of the tube sheet. The following dependences were obtained for different rolling sequences: maximum deformation of the tube sheet as a function of the number of rolled tubes, residual deformation of the tube sheet along its surface, and residual deflection of the tube sheet as a function of the rotation angle at the periphery. The preferred sequence of tube rolling for minimizing the tube sheet deformation is indicated.

  10. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  11. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  12. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  13. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    DOEpatents

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  14. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  15. Equations determine coiled tubing collapse pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Avakov, V.; Taliaferro, W.

    1995-07-24

    A set of equations has been developed for calculating pipe collapse pressure for oval tubing such as coiled tubing. When coiled tubing is placed onto a reel, the tubing is forced into an oval shape and never again returns to perfect roundness because the coiling process exceeds the plasticity limits of the tubing. Straightening the tubing for the trip into the well does not restore roundness. The consequence of this physical property is that all coiled tubing collapse pressure calculations should be made considering oval tubing, not round tubing. Tubing collapse can occur when formation pressure against the coiled tubing exceeds the collapse resistance inherent in the coiled tubing. As coiled tubing becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more susceptible to collapse from outside pressure.

  16. Drop tube research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the activities performed in the Drop Tube Study which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 1, 1991 through October 30, 1992. During the performance of this contract the utilization of these ground-based containerless processing facilities has been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of solidification experiments in a simulated space environment, without the expense of a space-based experiment. A number of periodic reports have been given to the TCOR during the course of this contract hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

  17. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  18. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  19. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes...

  20. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes...

  1. Aluminum foil lined composite tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Gernert, N.J.; Sarraf, D.B.; Armstrong, D.L.; Blood, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the development of lightweight aluminum foil lined polymer matrix composite tubing for applications ranging from heat pipe construction to fluid transport tubing and tankage structure for future spacecraft. The metal lining is completely hermetic and endows the tubing with metal like characteristics without compromising its lightweight or strength advantages. It consists of one wrap of 0.076 mm thick aluminum foil that is rolled in a cylindrical shape and seam welded. Each end of the foil tube transitions to a short section of heavy wall aluminum tubing that is welded to the foil tube creating a leak tight lining. Composite fibers are braided over the lining and then resin transfer molded. The epoxy resin bonds to the fibers and to the lining, forming an integral tube. The demonstration tubing that was constructed was 25.4 mm in diameter, 4.57 m long and had an average mass per unit length of 0.131 kg/m. Extension of this technology to other metal lining materials for containment of various fluids is feasible. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  3. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Gronseth, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Drilling with a continuous (rather than jointed) drill string is an old concept that is gaining new attention as a result of recent advances made in coiled tubing and drilling technology. The development of larger diameter, reliable, high-strength coiled tubing and smaller diameter, positive displacement motors, orienting tools, surveying systems and fixed cutting drill bits have given drilling with a continuous drill string a capability that was previously unattainable. Like its many other uses, (e.g., squeeze cementing, wellbore cleanouts, flow initiation, logging) the continuity of coiled tubing gives it several advantages over conventional drill strings. These include: drilling underbalanced safely, significantly reduced trip time, continuous circulation, smaller surface requirements. Coiled tubing drilling operations have smaller surface lease requirements than most conventional rigs due to the smaller footprint of the coiled tubing unit and associated equipment. Current coiled tubing drilling operations have the following limitations: conventional rig assistance is required for well preparation; conventional rigs must assist in running long protective and production casing strings or liners; hole sizes are smaller; working depth capabilities are shallower, coiled tubing life is less. This paper goes on to discuss the history of continuous drill strings and includes information on tubing units, circulating systems, drilling fluids, well control systems, downhole tools, orientation tools, and bottomhole assemblies. It then gives a cost comparison and an application of this type of drilling.

  4. Tube-Wall Thickness Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.; Baily, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Eddy-current measurements detect wear of thin walls (0.01 in) (0.25 mm) in small diameter (0.19 in) (5 mm) heat exchanger tubing. Flexible durable thin rod inserts eddy-current coil into the heatexchanger tube.

  5. Tube-Wall Thickness Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.; Baily, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Eddy-current measurements detect wear of thin walls (0.01 in) (0.25 mm) in small diameter (0.19 in) (5 mm) heat exchanger tubing. Flexible durable thin rod inserts eddy-current coil into the heatexchanger tube.

  6. Open vacuum tube in space.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, A A; Arends, H J

    1979-11-01

    After having reviewed briefly the reliability of vacuum tubes on spacecraft, it is shown that the operation in space of a vacuum tube with an open structure is possible provided adequate measures are taken. The tube considered here is a multielectrode electron gun emitting electrons into space, in order to control the potential of a satellite. To avoid the failure of the most sensitive element of the gun, namely the impregnated tungsten cathode, the gun design includes such characteristics as a slow warming up of the heater element, a reactivation program used in case of cathode contamination, and a clean opening system which is not contaminant. Similarities with communication tubes are considered and the advantages of open tubes are mentioned.

  7. Expert system controlled microwave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Siambis, J.; Bacher, H.; Bemis, T.; Hargreaves, T.; Rogers, R.; Symons, R.; Vaughan, R.; Kolte, G.; Lee, M.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture, reliable, long-life operation and life-time cost-effective performance and recycling of high value microwave tubes can benefit significantly by the introduction and integration of expert system controls in microwave tubes. Expert systems are based on a computer module equipped with (a) sensors to measure the state of the system (b) a database and computational capability to compare the measured state of the system against a programmed state (c) capable of deciding and initiating corrective action on the state of the system through (d) adaptive controls and activators capable of modifying the operating state. The authors have begun the investigation and development of an expert system using the klystron tube L-5838 as a testbed. Initially, all sensors and controls are placed outside the vacuum envelope of the tube in order to minimize the insertion cost of the expert system. They report here on an expert system for the input cavity of the klystron tube.

  8. Strain rate dependence of the tensile properties of V-(4--5%)Cr-(4--5%)Ti irradiated in EBR-II and HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1998-03-01

    Elevated temperature tensile tests performed on V-(405)Cr-(4-5)Ti indicate that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 200 C, and decreases with increasing strain rate for irradiation and test temperatures near 400 C. This observation is in qualitative agreement with the temperature-dependent strain rate effects observed on unirradiated specimens, and implies that some interstitial solute remains free to migrate in irradiated specimens. Additional strain rate data at different temperatures are needed.

  9. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S. W. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com; Vojvodic, R. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com

    2015-03-31

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  10. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  11. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  12. Rijke tube with flexible walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandre, Shreyas; Nguyen, Bao-Nhat; Li, Marvin

    2011-11-01

    Sound is excited spontaneously in a Rijke tube because the small temperature perturbations in an acoustic field interact with heat transfer from a heat source in the tube. The air particles near the heat source undergo a thermodynamic cyle converting heat to mechanical energy, which is heard as the sound emanating from the Rijke tube. This principle of energy conversion is used in thermoacoustic engines, and the main objective of this study is to improve their performance. The acoustic oscillations in the Rijke tube regulate the thermodynamic cycle, just as in conventional engines the cycle is controlled by the motion of a piston and the action of inlet and exit valves. The acoustic regulation in the Rijke tube, however, does not allow arbitrary control of the cycle in thermodynamic phase space. In this presentation, we introduce a new way of overcoming this limitation, one by using Rijke tubes with flexible walls. We will discuss how this modification allows for more general thermodynamic cycles to be executed by the air particles in the tube. This possibility, when used in thermoacoustic engines, opens a channel for further improving the engine performance.

  13. Comparison of Streak Tube Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffiths, R L; Huey, A W; McDonald, J W; de Dios, G V

    2004-11-04

    The performance of four streak tubes in six streak camera configurations is reported. Evaluations were made as part of a search for a streak tube to replace the obsolete RCA C73435 used in the ICF Program's optical streak cameras. Characteristics measured include linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range. Tubes evaluated are the RCA C73435, Photonis P510, Photek ST-Y, and Hamamatsu N8059. The RCA C73435 was evaluated in three camera configurations: large format CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to an image intensifier tube (IIT), and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. The Photonis and Photek tubes were characterized in configurations where they were directly coupled to large format CCDs. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is {approx}5 times the CCD read noise. The Photonis P510 tube with the E2V CCD forms a well-optimized streak camera system.

  14. Tube wall temperature monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Granton, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    In 1977, Monsanto and Conoco undertook the construction of a new, modern technology ethylene plant at Chocolate Bayou, near Alvin, Texas. This plant included high severity cracking furnaces with potential tube wall temperatures considerably higher than any we had previously experienced. Furnace on-stream time between decokes, a factor in the economics of plant operation, was limited by tube wall temperature, thus requiring its accurate knowledge. Earlier work with other ethylene furnaces had also demonstrated our lack of knowledge concerning high temperature measurements in a furnace firebox environment. This had to change. An outside consultant was called upon to provide a threeday workshop on radiant tube temperature sensing. The workshop consisted of two days of formal training in the theory and practice of temperature measurement and one day of field training. This workshop was conducted at a site away from the plant. Approximately 20 engineers (manufacturing and technical groups) attended. The major topics covered by this workshop are as follows: radiant tube temperature sensing, radiation situation of radiant tubes, g.a. method: sample calculations, noncontact sensors: methods of specifying and purchasing, thermal imager strategies, calibration of noncontact sensors, avoiding problems with noncontact sensors, optical aids to radiant tube viewing, tube temperature management and its environmental implications, and contact temperature sensors.

  15. Sieve Tubes in Action

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, M.; van Bel, A. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract A method was designed for in vivo observation of sieve element/companion complexes by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A leaf attached to an intact fava bean plant was mounted upside down on the stage of a confocal microscope. Two shallow paradermal cortical cuts were made in the major vein. The basal cortical window allowed us to observe the phloem intact. The apical window at 3 cm from the site of observation was used to apply phloem-mobile fluorochromes, which identified living sieve elements at the observation site. In intact sieve tubes, the sieve plates did not present a barrier to mass flow, because the translocation of fluorochromes appeared to be unhindered. Two major occlusion mechanisms were distinguished. In response to intense laser light, the parietal proteins detached from the plasma membrane and formed a network of minute strands and clustered material that aggregated and pressed against the sieve plate. In response to mechanical damage, the evenly distributed P plastids exploded, giving rise to the formation of a massive plug against the sieve plate. In case of mechanical damage, the parietal proteins transformed into elastic threads (strands) that extended throughout the sieve element lumen. Our observations cover the phenomena encountered in previous microscopic and electron microscopic studies and provide a temporal disentanglement of the events giving rise to the confusing mass of structures observed thus far.

  16. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  17. Nonsteady Flow in Capillary Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Ayako

    2000-03-01

    Surface phenomena in the field of electron devices and the problem of how long. It takes plants to absorb water during their growth in hydroponic cultivation is attraching the attention of riseachers. However, the related study of non-steady flow in capillary tubes has a number of issues that require investigation. In response to this situation, we made attempted to assess nonsteady fiow in capillary tubes, the liquid rise time and other issues, using a motion equation that takes factors including the friction force of the tube and the surface tension into consideration.

  18. Expansion tube test time predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  19. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1

  20. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A [Lafayette, CA; Bakulin, Andrey [Houston, TX

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  1. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  2. Nasogastric tube placement: changing culture.

    PubMed

    Eveleigh, Mark; Law, Robert; Pullyblank, Anne; Bennett, Joanne

    The Department of Health recognises that feeding through a misplaced nasogastric feeding tube is largely preventable if appropriate steps are taken, and lists it as a never event. After one such never event at a trust, a team of senior clinical staff, senior nursing staff, radiographers, dietitians and medical educational staff were involved in tackling the causes of the problem. This article discusses the steps they took to change trust culture to make placing nasogastric feeding tubes a safer procedure.

  3. An integrated tube cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkin, P. V.; Karpenko, I. V.

    2010-07-01

    A modern and efficient method for removing deposits from the inner surfaces of tubes used in heat-transfer equipment operating at thermal and nuclear power stations is considered. This method is intended primarily for cleaning steam-turbine condensers, delivery-water heaters, and gas- and oil coolers with thin-walled tubes made of nickel-copper alloys or brass 19-28 mm in diameter, with a 1-mm thick wall, and 5-11 m long.

  4. Boiler tube failure reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Lamping, G.A. ); Jonas, O. ); Niebo, R.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Boiler tube failures are generally recognized as the major cause of forced outages of fossil power generating units for US electric utilities. In almost all cases of serious availability losses, the boiler tube failures are repeat in nature and result in multiple forced outages. Primary factors influencing repeat, rather than random, tube failures are usually found to result from not following state-of-the-art operating, maintenance and/or engineering practices, lack of proper tube failure analysis, wrong choice of corrective/preventive action or solution, and lack of a tube failure reporting and monitoring system. A proven way to prevent costly repeat failures is to implement a formalized Boiler Tube Failure Prevention Program that is supported by senior management and focuses attention and resources on operating, maintenance and engineering controllable parameters that influence repeat tube failures. This report describes such a program, implemented at sixteen utilities under EPRI Research Project RP 1890-7, Boiler Tube Failure Reduction Program.'' Results are presented for ten utilities that began the program in the summer of 1986 with over four years of participation, and for six additional utilities from June of 1988 through December 1990. Both sets of utilities have produced remarkable improvements, the most tangible being substantial reductions in equivalent availability factor losses due to BTF of between 1.5 to 4.5%. Failure mechanism data submitted to the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) over the project term has also made it possible to delineate the leading BTF mechanisms causing problems for the participating utilities. Corrosion fatigue, fly ash erosion and high temperature creep accounted for over 28% of the total reported. 3 figs.

  5. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  6. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Dermatology on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  9. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L. ); Whitlow, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that pulling tubing to clean out a production liner at Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBU WOA) averages $600,000 to $800,000. Coiled tubing underreaming was developed to accomplish this objective at lower costs. Beginning in 1988, these operations have been improved through several generations of procedures and tool designs. Using current technology, the underreamer, in conjunction with coiled tubing, can reduce the cost of drilling out to a liner to about $50,000 or $100,000, depending on the amount and type of material to be removed. PBU WOA, operated by BP Exploration, produces about 600,000 bopd from 395 wells. Another 61 wells are used to inject produced water, seawater and miscible fluids. Most of the remedial well servicing operations are conducted using coiled tubing (CT). Three contract coiled tubing units (CTUs) work daily, performing wellbore cleanouts, stimulations, inflatable bridge plug installations and cement squeeze operations. About 42 underreaming jobs were performed from 1990 to 1991 at PBU WOA for an average cost of between $75,000 and $100,000, a cost savings of $500,000 power well compared to pulling tubing and cleaning out the wells conventionally.

  10. Nickel-chromium plasma spray coatings: A way to enhance degradation resistance of boiler tube steels in boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-03-15

    Boiler tube steels, namely low carbon steel ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22), were used as substrate steels. Ni-22Cr-10AI-1Y powder was sprayed as a bond coat 150 {mu}m thick before a 200 {mu}m final coating of Ni-20Cr was applied. Coatings were characterized prior to testing in the environment of a coal fired boiler. The uncoated and coated steels were inserted in the platen superheater zone of a coal fired boiler at around 755{sup o}C for 10 cycles, each 100 h. Coated steels showed lower degradation (erosion-corrosion) rate than uncoated steels showed. The lowest rate was observed in the case of Ni-20Cr coated T11 steel. Among the uncoated steels, the observed rate of degradation was the lowest for the T22 steel.

  11. Venturi Tube with Varying Mass Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenscheit, B.

    1948-01-01

    Measurements on three tubes with flow regulated by suction at the trainling edge of the tube are described. It was possible to vary the mass of air flowing through the tube over a large range. Such tubes could be used for shrouded propellers.

  12. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  13. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  14. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  15. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  7. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  8. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following rates...

  9. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following rates...

  10. Tubing vs. buckets: a cost comparison

    Treesearch

    Neil K. Huyler

    1975-01-01

    Equipment investment for tubing-vacuum systems was significantly less than that for bucket systems. Tubing-vacuum systems required about 22 percent less labor input, the major labor input being completed before sap-flow periods. Annual cost of operation was less for tubing-vacuum than the bucket system. Small tubing-vacuum operations showed more profit potential than...

  11. Glareless light-emitting diode lighting tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Li, Tung-Yen; Jwo, Ko-Wen; Wang, Sha-Wei; Tsai, Jang-Zern

    2012-03-01

    We develop a novel light bar waveguide design to produce a glareless light-emitting diode (LED) lighting tube. We design optimal parameters, such as the gap y between the tube and the reflective surface, the relative distance x between the lens and the LED, and so on. Using these parameters, we fabricate an illumination system consisting of LED light bulb installed at both ends of lighting tube. The lighting tube is shaped the same as a traditional fluorescent lighting tube in order to replace traditional lighting tubes without the modification of the lighting stand. The LED lighting tube is glareless to the observer from the side view.

  12. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes... water bar tubes shall thoroughly be cleaned mechanically, washed, and inspected. Circulators and...

  13. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  14. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  15. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  16. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  17. Prevalence of ventilation tubes in children with a tracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    McAfee, J Seth; Demarcantonio, Michael; Fine, Bryan R; Beydoun, Hind; Derkay, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of operative ear disease in pediatric patients with tracheostomy tubes, as well as to identify risk factors predictive of operative otologic interventions in this patient cohort. We hypothesize that the prevalence of operative middle ear disease in patients with a tracheostomy tube is greater than that of the population at large. To validate our anecdotal observations, we queried the CHCA hospital database (PHIS) regarding the association between tympanostomy tube placements in children with tracheostomies. To further investigate, a retrospective chart review was undertaken at our regional tertiary care children's hospital to determine the frequency at which tympanostomy tubes were placed in children who have a tracheostomy. Risk factors were analyzed, applying independent samples t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of operative ear disease. Institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained. Of a population of 181 patients with tracheostomies, 37 (or 20%, 95% CI 15-26%) have undergone placement of ventilation tubes in the past 3 years. No statistically significant difference was noted with regards to gender or race. The operative group had an average age of 23.0 months at the time of tracheostomy, compared to 52.5 months in the non-operative group (p=0.0022). In addition, home living situation, term birth, and craniofacial abnormalities were more frequently observed in the operative versus the non-operative group. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed the same factors as predictors of operative ear disease. The presence of a tracheostomy is associated with an increased risk of requiring ventilation tube placement over the population at large. Risk factors for operative middle ear disease among these children include age at time of the tracheostomy, craniofacial

  18. Inspecting coiled tubing for well operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, M.F.; Pasternack, E.S.; Smith, L.J.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes improvement in a coiled tubing system for insertion of a substantially continuous bendable length of metal tubing into and withdrawal from a wellbore, the system including a tubing injection unit disposed for injecting the length of tubing into the well bore and storage means for dispensing the length of tubing and receiving the length of tubing from the injection unit. The improvement includes: tubing inspection apparatus for substantially continuously inspecting the wall section of the tubing to detect cracks and structural defects which may lead to tubing failure, the apparatus comprising: a source of electromagnetic radiation mounted in proximity to the tubing between the injection unit and a wellhead into which the tubing is injected; a radiation detector unit for receiving signals from the source which have been projected through the wall of the tubing; means for receiving signals form the detector unit for monitoring the structural integrity o the wall of the tubing during one of injecting and withdrawing the tubing with respect to the wellhead; and housing means supported for rotation about a longitudinal axis of the tubing.

  19. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.A.; Blue, T.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Sand production can severely impact well performance and profitability by damaging production equipment or plugging wellbores. Sand control in existing wells may be required because of inadequate initial completion design, recompletion to new intervals or changes in reservoir production characteristics. The most durable and reliable sand control is by conventional gravel packing, but in some cases, conventional packs may not be economic or feasible. Improvements in coiled tubing technology and reliability have resulted in better application and increased acceptance of through-tubing sand control. Concentric gravel packing and sand consolidation are being used more because of advances in equipment, services, downhole tools and fluids. Candidates for these techniques include conventional completions that begin producing sand and wells with gravel pack failures. Economical jobs have been performed successfully in several different wellbore configurations. Some initially non-gravel packed wells are now being designed for possible through-tubing gravel packing, anticipating sand production later in the completion's producing life. This paper reviews the general procedures for installing a through-tubing, washdown mechanical gravel pack using coiled tubing conveyance and placement techniques.

  20. Destroyer Engineered Operating Cycle (DDEOC). System Maintenance Analysis CG-16 and CG-26 Class 1200 PSI Propulsion Plant SWAB Group 200 SMA 1626-200. Review of Experience,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    failures have occurred in the B&W boiler superheater support plate where the tubes pass through the front and...readings are possible, such as main generating boiler tubes ; front, rear, and side wall tubes ; and superheater tubes . 3.2.5.7 Boiler Tube Failures The...rear wall, screen wall, and superheater tubes . While there was no concentration of failures in the B&W boilers , failures or damage to

  1. Hobetron current regulating switch tube

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.B.; Hansen, R.J.; Deb, D.N.; Good, G.R.; Reass, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a novel high power electron tube that can hold off voltages up to hundreds of kilovolts, and switch hundreds of amps of current. They call the divide the Hobertron since it utilizes a hollow electron beam. Unlike magnetron injection gun (MIG) switch tubes, it does not require a magnet. Further, it uses nonintercepting control laments, and a dispenser cathode for long life and reliability. Finally, it features a double walled Faraday cage collector for high power dissipation capability. Current is very tightly controlled against changes in voltage across the switch (it is an almost perfect pentode), thus this tube is ideally suited for direct series switching applications. In the paper, various Hobertron designs, and the computer codes and methods used to create them, will be described.

  2. Core-tube data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wireline core drilling, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a core-tube to capture a rock core sample during drilling. Three types of core-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during core drilling operations using standard wireline diamond core drilling equipment. While these tools are designed for core-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other drilling modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.

  3. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  4. Coiled tubing -- Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II ); Blount, C.G. ); Tailby, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reviews three industry authority's views on developments that will impact coiled tubing equipment and techniques for conventional land locations, Arctic and harsh offshore environments. Examples which are provided include the development of high-strength steels, composite pipe, integral lift devices, abrasive jet drilling, and extended reach drilling. It discusses the application of coiled tubing to well completion and maintenance, including the applications to plugged pipelines. The use of new steels and alloys help increase the corrosion resistance of the drilling stem along with greater load-bearing capacity. The economic advantages of coiled drilling versus jointed tubing drilling is somewhat more questionable as the cost for downhole motors and directional tools remain prohibitively high and borehole diameters remain small.

  5. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.T.; Wimberly, R.D.

    1992-10-01

    Oil and gas wells that flow on initial completion eventually reach a condition of liquid loading that kills the wells. This results form declining reservoir pressure, decreased gas volume (velocity), increased water production and other factors that cause liquids to accumulate at the bottom of the well and exert back pressure on the formation. This restricts or in some cases prevents fluid entry into the wellbore form the formation. Flowing production can be restored or increased by reducing surface backpressure, well bore stimulation, pressure maintenance or by installing a string of smaller diameter tubing. This paper reports on installation (hanging off) of a concentric string of coiled tubing inside existing production tubing which is an economically viable, safe, convenient and effective alterative for returning some of these liquid loaded )logged-up) wells to flowing status.

  6. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  7. [The Use of a Tracheal Tube for Guiding Nasogastric Tube Insertion].

    PubMed

    Saima, Shunsuke; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    An obese patient was scheduled for shoulder joint surgery under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, insertion of a gastric tube was difficult. A new tracheal tube was prepared, the connecter was removed, and the tube was cut longitudinally. The tube was inserted orally into the esophagus. A gastric tube was passed through the nose, and its tip was taken out of the mouth. The tip of the gastric tube was passed through the tracheal tube, and its correct position in the stomach was confirmed by auscultation of the epigastrium. The tracheal tube was carefully taken out from the esophagus leaving the gastric tube in the stomach. The cut tracheal tube was peeled off from the gastric tube. Correct positioning of the gastric tube was re-confirmed.

  8. An approach for safe conversion of an oral endotracheal tube to a nasal endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Hofkamp, Michael; Diao, Zhiying

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach for safe management of a patient with an oral endotracheal tube who required conversion to a nasal endotracheal tube. A 35-year-old man presented for mandibular fracture repair after multiple injuries sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient already had an oral endotracheal tube, and the surgical team requested a nasal endotracheal tube to facilitate surgical exposure and postoperative airway management in anticipation of a wired jaw. A nasal endotracheal tube was inserted through the naris and a video laryngoscope was used to visualize the glottis. A tracheal tube introducer was inserted through the oral endotracheal tube, and the oral endotracheal tube was then withdrawn approximately 5 cm. The nasal endotracheal tube was advanced through the vocal cords alongside the tracheal tube introducer. The nasal endotracheal tube cuff was then inflated and the tracheal tube introducer was withdrawn.

  9. An approach for safe conversion of an oral endotracheal tube to a nasal endotracheal tube

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Zhiying

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach for safe management of a patient with an oral endotracheal tube who required conversion to a nasal endotracheal tube. A 35-year-old man presented for mandibular fracture repair after multiple injuries sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient already had an oral endotracheal tube, and the surgical team requested a nasal endotracheal tube to facilitate surgical exposure and postoperative airway management in anticipation of a wired jaw. A nasal endotracheal tube was inserted through the naris and a video laryngoscope was used to visualize the glottis. A tracheal tube introducer was inserted through the oral endotracheal tube, and the oral endotracheal tube was then withdrawn approximately 5 cm. The nasal endotracheal tube was advanced through the vocal cords alongside the tracheal tube introducer. The nasal endotracheal tube cuff was then inflated and the tracheal tube introducer was withdrawn. PMID:28127145

  10. Anatomy of the Eustachian Tube.

    PubMed

    Leuwer, Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    The eustachian tube consists of 2 compartments: the Rüdinger's safety canal and the auxiliary gap. It is surrounded by a cartilaginous wall on the craniomedial side and a membranous wall on the inferolateral side. The eustachian tube cartilage is firmly attached to the skull base by the lateral and the medial suspensory ligaments, which are separated by the medial Ostmann fat pad. The function of the isometric tensor veli palatini muscle is modulated by hypomochlia, which have an influence on the muscular force vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    We study theoretically the morphologies of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated: varicose, dilated, sinuous, or sausagelike. They are all found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes, or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues: Young’s modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  12. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1991-12-01

    This article outlines the minimum safety requirements that should be considered for onshore and offshore oil well service operations with coiled tubing equipment. These guidelines comply with Minerals Management Service (MMS) regulations issued on May 31, 1988, for offshore work. Where specific MMS regulations are sited, the regulation reference, Incident of Non-Compliance (INC), number is provided. These guidelines can be used by operators and contractors, and although U.S. offshore operations are emphasized, they are applicable wherever coiled tubing services are used.

  13. High Speed Flow in Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-14

    variables such as density or pressure are assumed to depend only on time and not on position along the tube so that only some of the 1-D effects are...ideal gas law). 2) The local linear burning rate (rb) depends on the spatial- average pressure within the tube assembly. 3) The ratio of specific... depends on local pressure . 3) Case AD is the same as case AC except that the ratio of specific heats is no longer constant (i.e., Eq. (2.20) is used to

  14. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  15. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-02-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  16. Coiled tubing 1994: Enhanced value through innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in use of coiled tubing in well completion and development processes. Larger tubing is now available and operations expand into more demanding and critical areas as a result of research and development, innovation, and better understanding of materials and tube development. This article highlights significant coiled tubing operations, services, practices, and applications since 1990. It describes the types of materials used in coiled tubing and the strength associated with each type. Various case studies are described which use this tubing in both horizontal and directional drilling. It also is discussed as it relates to various types of enhanced recovery techniques for oil and gas wells.

  17. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  18. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  19. Conductive PVC for drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, W.

    1991-07-01

    For the construction of wire chambers conductive PVC has been developed. The extrusion of profiles with thin walls is possible and surface resistivities between 100 ω and 500 kω have been achieved with a variation of about ± 30%. This material is used for streamer tubes in the forward region of the LEP-DELPHI experiment at CERN.

  20. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  1. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  2. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  3. A case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube.

    PubMed

    Sankar, V; Shakeel, M; Keh, S; Ah-See, K W

    2012-12-01

    To present the case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube and to highlight the importance of imaging and/or chest X-ray after nasogastric tube insertion, especially in unreliable patients. A 50-year-old man, undergoing radiotherapy treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base, was admitted for pain control and nasogastric tube feeding. This patient required multiple nasogastric tubes over a two-week period. The patient repeatedly denied pulling the nasogastric tube out and we were unable to establish the exact mode of nasogastric tube removal. On one such occasion another tube was inserted and a check X-ray showed two feeding tubes; the latest one was lying in the left main bronchus and the old nasogastric tube was observed in the oesophagus, with its upper end jutting above the hypopharynx. It was apparent that the patient had somehow cut the tube and swallowed it. This case not only illustrates the importance of flexible nasendoscopy and/or chest X-ray for checking the position of the nasogastric tube, but also highlights that some patients are not tolerant of nasogastric tubes. The use of nasogastric tubes should be avoided in these patients to prevent any self-inflicted injury.

  4. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  5. Small bore ceramic laser tube inspection light table

    DOEpatents

    Updike, Earl O.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting small bore ceramic laser tubes, which includes a support base with one or more support rollers. A fluorescent light tube is inserted within the laser tube and the laser tube is supported by the support rollers so that a gap is maintained between the laser tube and the fluorescent tube to enable rotation of the laser tube. In operation, the ceramic tube is illuminated from the inside by the fluorescent tube to facilitate visual inspection. Centering the tube around the axial light of the fluorescent tube provides information about straightness and wall thickness of the laser tube itself.

  6. Ketamine improves nasogastric tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Amir; Golshani, Keihan; Moradi Lakeh, Maziar; Khashayar, Patricia; Moharari, Reza Shariat

    2010-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most common procedures performed in the emergency department (ED) and other hospital settings. The aim of this study was to compare the level of pain during NG tube insertion in groups receiving local ketamine plus water-soluble lubricating gel and water-soluble lubricating gel alone (the latter is the common practice in our hospital). It was hypothesised that ketamine has local anaesthetic effects in reducing the pain of NG tube insertion in the ED. This prospective double-blind randomised clinical trial was performed on alert haemodynamically stable subjects aged >18 years who required NG tube placement for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes in the ED of a teaching hospital during January and June 2008. The subjects were divided into two groups using randomised allocation software. The ketamine group received intranasal ketamine, while an equivalent volume of sterile water was instilled into the nasal cavity in the control group. The same amount of lubricating gel was used in both groups. The pain of NG tube placement was measured using a standard 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The physician was asked to evaluate the difficulty of the procedure using a 5-point Likert scale. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in the study (36 subjects in each group). There was a significant difference between the pain score of the ketamine and control groups (19.03+/-3.56 vs 33.33+/-5.31), while the difficulty score was not statistically different between the two groups (2.39+/-1.25 vs 2.78+/-1.56). Intranasal ketamine is an effective agent in reducing pain during NG tube insertion among patients without serious underlying illness.

  7. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  8. Experimental study on thermal performance of filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ruobing; Ma, Liangdong; Zhang, Jili; Zhao, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube, in which the filled layer is used to transfer energy absorbed by working fluid in the U-tube, is proposed to eliminate the effect of thermal resistance between the absorber tube and copper fin of the conventional solar collector. In this paper, the thermal performance of the filled-type evacuated tube was researched by means of experimental study. In order to avoid the effect of some uncertain factors, the single collector tube was considered as investigated objective. The test setup of the thermal performance of the filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube was established. The results show that the filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube has a favorable thermal performance compared with the evacuated tube with copper fin. The heat efficiency of filled-type evacuated tube is higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube by 12%. The useful energy gain of filled-type evacuated tube is 22% higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube at the practical irradiance received I T = 800 W/m2 and flow rate M f = 0.005 L/s. In addition, the exergy efficiency of the filled-type evacuated tube is higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube.

  9. Outcomes of Infants With Home Tube Feeding: Comparing Nasogastric vs Gastrostomy Tubes.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Syed Tariq; Uhing, Michael R; Duesing, Lori; Visotcky, Alexis; Tarima, Sergey; Nghiem-Rao, T Hang

    2016-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the tube-related complications and feeding outcomes of infants discharged home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with nasogastric (NG) tube feeding or gastrostomy (G-tube) feeding. We performed a chart review of 335 infants discharged from our NICU with home NG tube or G-tube feeding between January 2009 and December 2013. The primary outcome was the incidence of feeding tube-related complications requiring emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, or deaths. Secondary outcome was feeding status at 6 months postdischarge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. There were 322 infants discharged with home enteral tube feeding (NG tube, n = 84; G-tube, n = 238), with available outpatient data for the 6-month postdischarge period. A total of 115 ED visits, 28 hospitalizations, and 2 deaths were due to a tube-related complication. The incidence of tube-related complications requiring an ED visit was significantly higher in the G-tube group compared with the NG tube group (33.6% vs 9.5%, P < .001). Two patients died due to a G-tube-related complication. By 6 months postdischarge, full oral feeding was achieved in 71.4% of infants in the NG tube group compared with 19.3% in the G-tube group (P < .001). Type of feeding tube and percentage of oral feeding at discharge were significantly associated with continued tube feeding at 6 months postdischarge. Home NG tube feeding is associated with fewer ED visits for tube-related complications compared with home G-tube feeding. Some infants could benefit from a trial home NG tube feeding. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  11. When to change a tracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander C; Kher, Sucharita; O'Connor, Heidi H

    2010-08-01

    Knowing when to change a tracheostomy tube is important for optimal management of all patients with tracheostomy tubes. The first tracheostomy tube change, performed 1-2 weeks after placement, carries some risk and should be performed by a skilled operator in a safe environment. The risk associated with changing the tracheostomy tube then usually diminishes over time as the tracheo-cutaneous tract matures. A malpositioned tube can be a source of patient distress and patient-ventilator asynchrony, and is important to recognize and correct. Airway endoscopy can be helpful to ensure optimal positioning of a replacement tracheostomy tube. Some of the specialized tracheostomy tubes available on the market are discussed. There are few data available to guide the timing of routine tracheostomy tube changes. Some guidelines are suggested.

  12. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements.

  13. Cheaper Fabrication Of Tube-Wall Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Daniel A.; Joyce, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive method of forming metal tubes into wall component devised. One initially selects ordinary, imprecisely dimensioned tubes having passed both pressure test and inspections for wall thickness and surface imperfections, and tubes bonded to each other in shorter, simpler procedure. Eliminates need for progressive die forming and attendant inspections after forming steps. Also applicable in fabrication of heat exchangers and other unitary assemblies of tubes.

  14. Cheaper Fabrication Of Tube-Wall Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Daniel A.; Joyce, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive method of forming metal tubes into wall component devised. One initially selects ordinary, imprecisely dimensioned tubes having passed both pressure test and inspections for wall thickness and surface imperfections, and tubes bonded to each other in shorter, simpler procedure. Eliminates need for progressive die forming and attendant inspections after forming steps. Also applicable in fabrication of heat exchangers and other unitary assemblies of tubes.

  15. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  16. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    C. Brunkhorst

    2002-12-12

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance.

  17. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Large tube, small tube, tubeless, or totally tubeless?

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Madhu S; Agarwal, Mayank

    2013-07-01

    The role of percutaneous nephrostomy tube for drainage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedure has come under scrutiny in recent years. The procedure has been modified to use of small diameter tubes, 'tubeless' PCNL, and even 'totally tubeless' PCNL. A review of the available literature confirms that the chosen method of drainage after PCNL has a bearing upon the post-operative course. It is generally recognized now that small tubes offer benefit in terms of reduced post-operative pain and morbidity. Similarly, nephrostomy-free or 'tubeless' PCNL, using a double-J stent or ureteric catheter as alternative form of drainage, can be used with a favorable outcome in selected patients with the advantage of decreased postoperative pain, analgesia requirement, and hospital stay. Although the tubeless technique has been applied for extended indications as well, the available evidence is insufficient, and needs to be substantiated by prospective randomized trials. In addition, 'totally tubeless' approach has also been shown to be feasible in selected patients.

  18. Manifold For Flushing Tubes With Cleaning Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Fogel, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Custom-built manifold mounted on cleaning basket enables simultaneous flushing of 80 tubes with cleaning solution. In original application, tubes components of rocket-engine nozzle under construction. However, basic manifold configuration adapted to other applications (e.g., fabrication of heat exchangers) in which there is need for simultaneous cleaning of many tubes of identical size and shape.

  19. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  20. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  1. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-11-23

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

  2. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, Edmund E.; Lawson, Charles N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  3. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  6. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  7. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  12. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  13. Manifold For Flushing Tubes With Cleaning Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Fogel, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Custom-built manifold mounted on cleaning basket enables simultaneous flushing of 80 tubes with cleaning solution. In original application, tubes components of rocket-engine nozzle under construction. However, basic manifold configuration adapted to other applications (e.g., fabrication of heat exchangers) in which there is need for simultaneous cleaning of many tubes of identical size and shape.

  14. Double tube helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.; De Luca, R.A.

    1987-02-24

    A steam generator is described comprising a container having a closed lower end, divided into longitudinally arranged sections including an uppermost disengaging chamber, an upper plenum, and a lower plenum. The upper plenum is above the lower plenum and contains a multiplicity of double tube helical coils, wherein each of the double tube helical coils is comprised of an inner tube individually enclosed for at least a portion of its length by an outer tube to form a double tube portion and thereby define an annular gap which is outside the inner tube but enclosed by the outer tube; the inner tube being attached at one end to a feedwater inlet, and the inner tube being attached at the other end to a steam outlet; the outer tube being in open communication at both ends with the disengaging chamber; the double tube portion being in the configuration of a helix for part of its length; the upper plenum having no communication with the disengaging chamber and having restricted communication with the lower plenum such that liquid metal entering the upper plenum and flowing to the lower plenum closely contacts at least a portion of the double tube helical coils; and the annular gap being at least partially filled with liquid metal.

  15. Metal tube used as solar engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlicka, J. R.; Guist, L. R.; Beam, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Ends of metal tube are fastened to axles which are supported on bearings so tube can rotate about its long axis while subjected to invariant bending moment that stresses it along longitudinal axis of rotation. Heat absorbed leads to expansion of metal, which unbalances internal forces and generates rotational moment in tube.

  16. Extubation force: tape versus endotracheal tube holders.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jestin; Mayrose, James; Krause, Richard; Jehle, Dietrich

    2007-12-01

    Tape is the standard method for securing endotracheal tubes to prevent extubation. This study examines the force required to extubate endotracheal tubes from cadavers with either tape or one of 4 commercially available endotracheal tube holders. Newly deceased, unembalmed cadavers were intubated with standard tracheal intubation techniques. The endotracheal tube was secured with either tape or one of 4 commercially available endotracheal tube holders. The endotracheal tube was then connected to a force-measuring device and pulled until the cuff was removed from the trachea. The largest force recorded on the device was then marked as the "extubation force" for that trial. When tape was used to secure the endotracheal tube, it required a significantly larger force to extubate than 3 of 4 off-the-shelf endotracheal tube holders. Only the Thomas Tube Holder secured the endotracheal tube better than tape. Although the Thomas Tube Holder had the greatest holding force in this study, tape was shown to be the least expensive and outperformed 3 other commercially available devices used to secure endotracheal tubes.

  17. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  18. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  19. Manual tube-to-tubesheet welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Kiefer, Joseph H.; Smith, Danny J.

    1982-01-01

    A welding torch made of a high temperature plastic which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and the back side of a tube plate and has a ballooned end in which an electrode, filler wire guide, fiber optic bundle, and blanketing gas duct are disposed.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contract all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimental quantities.