Science.gov

Sample records for ecc injection experiments

  1. Condensation during gravity driven ECC: Experiments with PACTEL

    SciTech Connect

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H.; Kouhia, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper provides the results of the second series of gravity driven emergency core cooling (ECC) experiments with PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop). The simulated accident was a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a break in a cold leg. The ECC flow was provided from a core makeup tank (CMT) located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. The CMT was pressurized with pipings from the pressurizer and a cold leg. The tests indicated that steam condensation in the CMT can prevent ECC and lead to core uncovery.

  2. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Experiments of ECCS strainer blockage and debris settling in suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, G.E.; Johnson, A.B.; Murthy, P.; Padmanabhan

    1996-03-01

    If a rupture occurs in a nuclear power station pipe that leads to or from the reactor pressure vessel, the resultant Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) would initiate a chain of events involving complex flow phenomena. In a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), the steam or liquid pipe break pressurizes the dry well, forcing the inert containment gases and steam through downcomers into the suppression pool, thoroughly mixing any particulates and pipe insulation debris carried with the gas flow to the pool. As the steam flow decreases, its unsteady condensation at the end of the downcomers (Condensation Oscillation and Chugging) produces continued water motion in the suppression pool and downcomers. During the blowdown event, high pressure and then low pressure pumps automatically start injecting water from the suppression pool into the reactor to keep its temperature under control. Proper functioning of this Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is critical for the first 30 minutes or so, before operators have time to consider and align alternative sources of cooling water. A major concern for proper operation of the ECCS is the effect of fragmented insulation and plant particulates on the head loss at pump suction strainers. Sufficient loss could exceed the NPSH margin, causing cavitation with a resultant loss of pump capacity and longevity. The bead loss increases with the mass of debris accumulated on the pump strainers, which in turn is dependent on the debris concentration versus time in the suppression pool. This paper describes two sets of experiments that quantified the strainer head loss. One set of experiments considered the mixing and settling of fibrous insulation debris and fine iron oxide particles in the suppression pool during and after chugging. These tests used a reduced scale facility which duplicated the kinetic energy per unit water volume to define the concentration of the actual materials in the pool versus time.

  5. ECC Water Film Spreading, ECC Water Bypass and Sweep-out Phenomena in the Downcomer with DVI of APR1400 under LBLOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Han Kon; Oh, Seung Jong

    2002-07-01

    In the present study, several experiments related to the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in downcomer with DVI under LBLOCA (Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident) were carried out using the experimental facility of plane-channel type scaled down as 1/7 ratio of prototype reactor (APR1400). Especially, phenomena such as ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) water entrainment and mixing in the downcomer were focused in the present study. Water film spreading was studied and compared with the full-scaled experiment and the experiment with a 1/7 scaled cylindrical-type test section to see the scaling effect and its curvature effect. It turns out that the curvature effect is negligible and the present modified linear scaling law is more appropriate than the linear scaling law. The water height and the amount of ECC water bypass by onset of sweep-out were measured from the visual observation of sweep-out in the downcomer. From this test, the onset of continuous sweep-out was used to analyze the water height in the downcomer. The amount of ECC water bypass by sweep-out was measured and compared with the UCB and KfK correlations. It is found that the best fit of the data from the present experiment lies between the predictions by the two correlations. ECC water mixing phenomena in downcomer were observed focusing on the ECC water film behavior. From the air and water mixing tests, it is concluded that ECC water bypass fraction is highly dependent on DVI position rather than gas flow rates and ECC water bypass fraction is less than 10% of injection ECC water. From the steam and water mixing tests, it is concluded that ECC bypass fraction with steam injection is under 1.5% and much less than that with an air injection because of the condensation in the downcomer. (authors)

  6. [3 1/2 years experiences with ECCE with tunnel incision].

    PubMed

    Häberle, H; Anders, N; Antoni, H J; Pham, D T; Wollensak, J

    1997-01-01

    Since January 1992 planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) is performed routinely with the no-stitch technique at our clinic. To minimize surgically induced astigmatism further, modified wound constructions for planned ECCE with on 1.1-mm tunnel width were evaluated. The follow-up time was up to 3 years postoperatively. For 250 eyes wound closure was performed prospectively either sutureless (n = 70), with a single perpendicular suture (n = 100) or cross sutures (n = 40) at the 12 o'clock position or sutureless in the temporal position (n = 40). The complication rate was 4% (filtering bleb, iris prolapse or transient hypotonia). There were no wound ruptures, but once endophthalmitis was observed. Late mean astigmatism after up to 3 years follow-up for vertical incision was 2.05 +/- 1.16 D (1.01 +/- 0.96 D preoperatively) for sutureless wound closure, 1.63 +/- 1.08 D (0.86 +/- 0.95 D) for perpendicular and 1.76 +/- 0.88 D (0.73 +/- 0.55 D) for cross-sutures. A temporal incision resulted in 0.78 +/- 0.52 D (1.0 +/- 0.69 D) of astigmatism and was only performed on eyes with against the rule astigmatism preoperatively. Surgically induced astigmatism was stabilized early. For with the rule astigmatism preoperatively, a 12 o'clock incision with a perpendicular single suture is recommended and for against the rule astigmatism, a temporal incision.

  7. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  8. Fault injection experiments using FIAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, James H.; Czeck, Edward W.; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

    1990-01-01

    The results of several experiments conducted using the fault-injection-based automated testing (FIAT) system are presented. FIAT is capable of emulating a variety of distributed system architectures, and it provides the capabilities to monitor system behavior and inject faults for the purpose of experimental characterization and validation of a system's dependability. The experiments consist of exhaustively injecting three separate fault types into various locations, encompassing both the code and data portions of memory images, of two distinct applications executed with several different data values and sizes. Fault types are variations of memory bit faults. The results show that there are a limited number of system-level fault manifestations. These manifestations follow a normal distribution for each fault type. Error detection latencies are found to be normally distributed. The methodology can be used to predict the system-level fault responses during the system design stage.

  9. To ECC or not to ECC: the question remains.

    PubMed

    Driggers, Rita W; Zahn, Christopher M

    2008-12-01

    The usefulness of endocervical curettage (ECC) in evaluating women who have abnormal cervical cytology and histopathology has been debated for years; data regarding performance of ECC in the diagnostic evaluations of squamous and glandular lesions are mixed. There are no well-done randomized trials or systematic reviews regarding the usefulness of ECC. The yield on ECC increases in the setting of unsatisfactory colposcopy; in this situation, there seems less controversy regarding performance of an ECC. Reproducibility of ECC-rendered diagnosis is a concern. Data are needed to further define the role of ECC in evaluating women who have cervical disease.

  10. Fatigue enhancement of concrete beam with ECC layer

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Christopher K.Y. . E-mail: ckleung@ust.hk; Cheung, Y.N.; Zhang Jun

    2007-05-15

    The pseudo strain-hardening behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) is a desirable characteristic for it to replace concrete to suppress brittle failure. This widespread use of ECC in the industry is, however, limited by its high cost. To achieve higher performance/cost, ECC can be strategically applied in parts of a structure that is under relatively high stress and strain. In this paper, layered ECC-concrete beams subjected to static and fatigue flexural loads were investigated by experiments. The static test results showed that the application of a layer of ECC on the tensile side of a flexural beam increased its flexural strength and the degree of improvement increased with the thickness of ECC applied. In addition, the layer of ECC enhanced the ductility of the beam and the failure mode changed from brittle to ductile. Under four-point cyclic loading, the ECC layer significantly improved the fatigue life of the beam. Moreover, in comparison to plain concrete beams, layered ECC beams could sustain fatigue loading at a larger deflection without failure. The great improvement in fatigue performance was attributed to the effectiveness of ECC in controlling the growth of small cracks. The experimental findings reflect the feasibility of using ECC strategically in critical locations for the control of fatigue crack growth.

  11. Estimated human absorbed dose for (68)Ga-ECC based on mice data: comparison with (67)Ga-ECC.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Yousefnia, Hassan; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Lahooti, Afsaneh

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, the efficacies of (68)Ga-based tracers are comparable to that of (18)F-based agents and have stimulated researchers to investigate the potential of (68)Ga-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. In this study, the human absorbed dose of (68)Ga labeled with ethylenecysteamine cysteine (68)Ga-ECC and (67)Ga-ECC was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. For biodistribution of (67)Ga/(68)Ga-ECC, three mice were killed by CO2 asphyxiation at each selected times after injection (15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min for (68)Ga-ECC and 0.5, 2 and 48 h for (67)Ga-ECC), and then the tissue (heart, lung, brain, intestine, skin, stomach, kidneys, liver, muscle and bone) was removed. (68)Ga-ECC as a new PET renal imaging agent was prepared with radiochemical purity of >97 % in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for (68)Ga-ECC showed that the most of the activity extracted from the urinary tract very fast. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated that the absorbed dose of the most organs after injection of (67)Ga-ECC is approximately tenfold higher than the amount after (68)Ga-ECC injection. The results showed that (68)Ga-ECC is a more appropriate agent rather than (67)Ga-ECC and generally can be a good candidate for PET renal imaging applications.

  12. [Patient's pain feeling and surgeon's comfort--ECCE versus phacoemulsification].

    PubMed

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Eliks, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej

    2004-01-01

    To compare patient's pain and surgeon's comfort during ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia and phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. 120 patients scheduled for planned routine cataract extraction were divided in 2 groups: group 1-60 eyes, ECCE under retrobulbar anesthesia and group II-60 eyes, phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Immediately after operation patients were asked, to answer questions about their feeling during surgery. Simultaneously, the surgeon filled up the questionnaire, concerning patients behavior during the entire procedure. Statistically significant higher level of pain was reported in group I (ECCE). The most painful moment of the procedure was retrobulbar injection. During surgery pain feeling in both groups was similar. Both types of anesthesia provided very good level of surgeon's comfort. The longer operation, the higher level of pain and lower surgeon's comfort were reported in both groups. Patients having ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia reported more pain comparing to phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Both anesthesia methods provided high level of surgeon's comfort.

  13. [Pittsburgh experience with botulinum toxin A injection].

    PubMed

    de Miguel, F; Chancellor, M B

    2006-03-01

    We report one institution's six-year experience using botulinum toxin A (BONT-A) in the bladder and urethra in 110 patients for a variety of lower urinary tract dysfunction. 110 patients (age 19-82) were injected with BONT-A into the bladder (n=42) or urethra (n=68), 35 M, 75 F. Voiding dysfunction included: neurogenic detrusor overactivity and/or detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, overactive bladder (OAB), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), bladder neck obstruction (BNO) and interstitial cystitis (IC). Currently, 27 patients have undergone further injections (up to 6) at intervals > 6 months. All the patients with bladder BONT-A injection had preoperative evidence of involuntary detrusor contractions during urodynamic testing. Analysis of the 110 patients indicates that 67.3% reported a decrease or absence of incontinence. Diaries indicate a decrease in both day and night voiding symptoms. Efficacy occurred within 7 days and lasted for at least 6 months. Condition specific QOL symptom scores also demonstrated improvement. There have been no long-term complications. Two MS women with mild baseline stress urinary incontinence reported increased leakage with stress after BONT-A external sphincter injection. One MS woman who had a bladder injection had an increased residual urine from 78 to 155 ml. She did not have to perform intermittent catheterization. BONT-A injection is a safe and promising treatment modality for a variety of lower urinary tract dysfunctions for both skeletal and smooth muscle dysfunction. In our series, BONT-A is equally effective in women as it is in men. Bladder injections with BONT-A are effective for not only neurogenic detrusor overactivity but also overactive bladder. BONT-A can even be considered for IC.

  14. ECC's Future: Picturing the Possible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.; Youngren, Tom

    This report by the President's Planning Commission at Elgin Community College (ECC) presents two visions of the college's future based on community and staff views of how the college should develop and provides goals to help realize these visions. First, the report presents the basic planning assumptions, or megatrends, on which the scenarios for…

  15. Computer simulations of the noise injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.W.; Hale, J.R.; Schultz, J.H.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    An objective of the Noise Injection Experiment (NIE) is to calibrate the numerical methods used to estimate the noise level in the proposed internal, cowound voltage sensors to be used in the superconducting magnets, such as those in ITER and TPX. A time-varying magnetic field is applied to the sample windings and the pick-up signals in the parallel and helical sensors (some are internally terminated) are measured. A computer model is developed to predict the results, and the measurements are compared with the computer simulations.

  16. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR`s and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ``natural zinc`` plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry.

  17. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ( lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li[sup +] line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li[sup +] emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from [approximately]0.3 to [approximately]7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  18. The ESX-5 associated eccB-EccC locus is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bottai, Daria; Batoni, Giovanna; Orgeur, Mickael; Aulicino, Anna; Counoupas, Claudio; Campa, Mario; Brosch, Roland; Esin, Semih

    2012-01-01

    The recently described ESX-5 secretion system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most important modulators of host-pathogen interactions due to its crucial impact on PPE protein secretion, cell wall stability and virulence. Although various components of the ESX-5 secretion machinery have been defined, other ESX-5 core components still remain to be characterized. In this study, we focused on EccB(5) and EccC(5), a transmembrane protein (EccB(5)) and a membrane-bound ATPase (EccC(5)), both predicted to be building blocks of the M. tuberculosis ESX-5 membrane-associated complex. In vitro expression studies demonstrated that EccB(5) and EccC(5) encoding genes constitute an operon. The expression of this operon is essential for M. tuberculosis, since the deletion of the eccB(5)-eccC(5) genomic segment at the ESX-5 locus is possible only after the integration of a second functional copy of eccB(5)-eccC(5) genes into the M. tuberculosis chromosome. The characterization of two M. tuberculosis conditional mutant strains (Mtb(Pptr)eccB(5) and Mtb(Pptr)eccC(5)), in which the eccB(5)-eccC(5) operon or the eccC(5) gene, respectively, were expressed under the control of an anhydrotetracycline-repressible promoter, confirmed that the repression of eccB(5)-eccC(5) genes is detrimental for growth of M. tuberculosis both in vitro and in THP-1 human macrophage cell line. Moreover, analysis of the secretome of Mtb(Pptr)eccB(5)-eccC(5) and Mtb(Pptr)eccC(5) strains revealed that both EccB(5) and EccC(5) are required for secretion of ESX-5 specific substrates, thus confirming that they are indeed components of the ESX-5 secretion machinery. Taken together these findings demonstrate the importance of an intact and functional ESX-5 system for viability of M. tuberculosis, thus opening new interesting options for alternative antimycobacterial control strategies.

  19. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic compounds: Anaerobic field injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Mosbaek, H.; Christensen, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, a continuous field injection experiment is being performed in the anaerobic part of a pollution plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. This natural gradient experiment includes an injection of 18 different xenobiotic compounds with bromide as a tracer. The injection is taking place under methanogenic/sulfate-reducing conditions and the compounds will, as they migrate with the groundwater, pass through a zone where the redox conditions have been determined as iron-reducing.

  20. Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Enedy, S.

    1993-01-01

    Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and over-recovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.

  1. Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Enedy, Steve

    1993-01-28

    Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and overrecovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.

  2. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  3. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  4. Nanoscale characterization of engineered cementitious composites (ECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard Li, Victor C.

    2011-02-15

    Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are ultra-ductile fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. The nanoscale chemical and mechanical properties of three ECC formulae (one standard formula, and two containing nanomaterial additives) were studied using nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Nanoindentation results highlight the difference in modulus between bulk matrix ({approx} 30 GPa) and matrix/fiber interfacial transition zones as well as between matrix and unreacted fly ash ({approx} 20 GPa). The addition of carbon black or carbon nanotubes produced little variation in moduli when compared to standard M45-ECC. The indents were observed by electron microscopy; no trace of the carbon black particles could be found, but nanotubes, including nanotubes bridging cracks, were easily located in ultrafine cracks near PVA fibers. Elemental analysis failed to show a correlation between modulus and chemical composition, implying that factors such as porosity have more of an effect on mechanical properties than elemental composition.

  5. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  6. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  7. Flux-Level Transit Injection Experiments with NASA Pleiades Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    Flux-Level Transit Injection (FLTI) experiments are executed with NASA's Pleiades supercomputer for the Kepler Mission. The latest release (9.3, January 2016) of the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline is used in the FLTI experiments. Their purpose is to validate the Analytic Completeness Model (ACM), which can be computed for all Kepler target stars, thereby enabling exoplanet occurrence rate studies. Pleiades, a facility of NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Division, is one of the world's most powerful supercomputers and represents NASA's state-of-the-art technology. We discuss the details of implementing the FLTI experiments on the Pleiades supercomputer. For example, taking into account that ~16 injections are generated by one core of the Pleiades processors in an hour, the “shallow” FLTI experiment, in which ~2000 injections are required per target star, can be done for 16% of all Kepler target stars in about 200 hours. Stripping down the transit search to bare bones, i.e. only searching adjacent high/low periods at high/low pulse durations, makes the computationally intensive FLTI experiments affordable. The design of the FLTI experiments and the analysis of the resulting data are presented in “Validating an Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments” by Catanzarite et al. (#2494058).Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  9. Experiments on Plume Spreading by Engineered Injection and Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, D. C.; Jones, M.; Tigera, R. G.; Neupauer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The notion that groundwater remediation is transport-limited emphasizes the coupling between physical (i.e., hydrodynamic), geochemical, and microbiological processes in the subsurface. Here we leverage this coupling to promote groundwater remediation using the approach of engineered injection and extraction. In this approach, inspired by the literature on chaotic advection, uncontaminated groundwater is injected and extracted through a manifold of wells surrounding the contaminated plume. The potential of this approach lies in its ability to actively manipulate the velocity field near the contaminated plume, generating plume spreading above and beyond that resulting from aquifer heterogeneity. Plume spreading, in turn, promotes mixing and reaction by chemical and biological processes. Simulations have predicted that engineered injection and extraction generates (1) chaotic advection whose characteristics depend on aquifer heterogeneity, and (2) faster rates and increased extent of groundwater remediation. This presentation focuses on a complimentary effort to experimentally demonstrate these predictions experimentally. In preparation for future work using refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, the experiments reported here use a Hele-Shaw apparatus containing silicone oil. Engineered injection and extraction is used to manipulate the geometry of an initially circular plume of black pigment, and photographs record the plume geometry after each step of injection of extraction. Image analysis, using complimentary Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, reveals the thickness and variability of the dispersion zone surrounding the deformed plume of black pigment. The size, shape, and evolution of this dispersion zone provides insight into the interplay between engineered injection and extraction, which generates plume structure, and dispersion (here Taylor dispersion), which destroys plume structure. These experiments lay the groundwork for application of engineered

  10. Injection of calcium phosphate pastes: prediction of injection force and comparison with experiments.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Ahmed; Tassin, Jean-François; Bosco, Julia; Deterre, Rémi; Axelos, Monique A V; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics suspensions (ICPCS) are used in bone and dental surgery as injectable bone substitutes. This ICPCS biomaterial associates biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer. Different ICPCS were prepared and their rheological properties were evaluated in parallel disks geometry as a function of the BCP weight ratio (35, 40, 45 and 50 %). The suspensions show a strongly increased viscosity as compared to the suspending fluid and the high shear rate part of the flow curve can be fitted with a power law model (Ostwald-de Waele model). The fitting parameters depend on the composition of the suspension. A simple device has been used to characterize extrusion of the paste using a disposable syringe fitted with a needle. The injection pressure of four ICPCS formulations was studied under various conditions (needle length and radius and volumetric flow rate), yielding an important set of data. A theoretical approach based on the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids was used to predict the necessary pressure for injection, on the basis of flow curves and extrusion conditions. The extrusion pressure calculated from rheological data shows a quantitative agreement with the experimental one for model fluids (Newtonian and HPMC solution) but also for the suspension, when needles with sufficiently large diameters as compared to the size of particles, are used. Depletion and possibly wall slip is encountered in the suspensions when narrower diameters are used, so that the injection pressure is less than that anticipated. However a constant proportionality factor exists between theory and injection experiments. The approach developed in this study can be used to correlate the rheological parameters to the necessary pressure for injection and defines the pertinent experimental conditions to obtain a quantitative agreement between theory and experiments.

  11. DE-1/Siple VLF wave-injection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inan, U. S.

    1985-01-01

    Results of Siple/DE-1 VLF wave-injection/reception experiments indicate that the injected signals, while propagating in the magnetosphere in the non-ducted mode, are on occasion amplified, generate sidebands and trigger VLF emissions. The propagation paths include direct non-ducted paths as well as reflected modes involving propagation initially in a 'duct' followed by a reflected non-ducted path up to the satellite. Calibrated measurements of the wave magnetic and electric intensities are used to estimate the local refractive index.

  12. eccCL: parallelized GPU implementation of Ensemble Classifier Chains.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Herbst, Alexander; Rasch, Ari; Gorlatch, Sergei; Heider, Dominik

    2017-08-17

    Multi-label classification has recently gained great attention in diverse fields of research, e.g., in biomedical application such as protein function prediction or drug resistance testing in HIV. In this context, the concept of Classifier Chains has been shown to improve prediction accuracy, especially when applied as Ensemble Classifier Chains. However, these techniques lack computational efficiency when applied on large amounts of data, e.g., derived from next-generation sequencing experiments. By adapting algorithms for the use of graphics processing units, computational efficiency can be greatly improved due to parallelization of computations. Here, we provide a parallelized and optimized graphics processing unit implementation (eccCL) of Classifier Chains and Ensemble Classifier Chains. Additionally to the OpenCL implementation, we provide an R-Package with an easy to use R-interface for parallelized graphics processing unit usage. eccCL is a handy implementation of Classifier Chains on GPUs, which is able to process up to over 25,000 instances per second, and thus can be used efficiently in high-throughput experiments. The software is available at http://www.heiderlab.de .

  13. The Effects of BOTOX® Injections on Emotional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Brandt, Fredric; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    Although it was proposed over a century ago that feedback from facial expressions influence emotional experience, tests of this hypothesis have been equivocal. Here we directly tested this facial feedback hypothesis (FFH) by comparing the impact on self-reported emotional experience of BOTOX injections (which paralyze muscles of facial expression) and a control Restylane injection (which is a cosmetic filler that does not affect facial muscles). When examined alone, BOTOX participants showed no pre- to post-treatment changes in emotional responses to our most positive and negative video clips. Between-groups comparisons, however, showed that relative to controls, BOTOX participants exhibited an overall significant decrease in the strength of emotional experience. This result was attributable to a) a pre- vs. post decrease in responses to mildly positive clips in the BOTOX group and b) an unexpected increase in responses to negative clips in the Restylane control group. These data suggest that feedback from facial expressions is not necessary for emotional experience, but may influence emotional experience in some circumstances. These findings point to specific directions for future work clarifying the expression-experience relationship. PMID:20515231

  14. A fault injection experiment using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Mangum, Scott; Scheper, Charlotte

    1988-01-01

    The preparation for, conduct of, and results of a simulation based fault injection experiment conducted using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation facilities is described. An objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of the diagnostic self-test sequences used to uncover latent faults in a logic network providing the key fault tolerance features for a flight control computer. Another objective was to develop methods, tools, and techniques for conducting the experiment. More than 1600 faults were injected into a logic gate level model of the Data Communicator/Interstage (C/I). For each fault injected, diagnostic self-test sequences consisting of over 300 test vectors were supplied to the C/I model as inputs. For each test vector within a test sequence, the outputs from the C/I model were compared to the outputs of a fault free C/I. If the outputs differed, the fault was considered detectable for the given test vector. These results were then analyzed to determine the effectiveness of some test sequences. The results established coverage of selt-test diagnostics, identified areas in the C/I logic where the tests did not locate faults, and suggest fault latency reduction opportunities.

  15. Experiences with ACE inhibitors early after acute myocardial infarction. Rationale and design of the German Multicenter Study on the Effects of Captopril on Cardiopulmonary Exercise parameters post myocardial infarction (ECCE).

    PubMed

    Kleber, F X; Reindl, I; Wenzel, M; Rodewyk, P; Beil, S; Kosloswki, B; Doering, W; Sabin, G V; Hinzmann, S; Winter, U J

    1993-12-01

    Left ventricular damage by necrosis of myocardial tissue can lead to compromise of left ventricular function, to left ventricular volume increase and ultimately to development of heart failure. This sequence in the pathophysiology has been shown to be blunted by ACE inhibitors. Volume increase, however, can also be helpful in restoring stroke volume and ameliorate elevation of filling pressures. Furthermore, very early institution of ACE inhibition has failed to improve short-term mortality after myocardial infarction in one large trial. The aim of the ECCE trial therefore is, to investigate the early effects of the ACE inhibitor captopril on compromise of exercise capacity, thought to be a first measurable sign of developing heart failure. The ECCE trial is a randomized, seven-center investigation, studying the effects of ACE inhibition on oxygen uptake in a double blind, placebo controlled design in a group of 204 patients. Sample size was calculated on the basis of a pilot trial. The study design and first not unblinded data of 104 patients are presented. The population consists of predominantly male patients with mostly first myocardial infarction. They were admitted to hospital within five hours of onset of chest pain. End-diastolic volumes were normal, but ejection fraction was moderately compromised. ACE inhibition was started after the first day, but within 72 hours of onset of chest pain. After four and after twelve weeks, oxygen uptake was considerably below expected values and one third of the patients had severe compromise of exercise capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Gas-injection experiments on a dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Barnouin, O.; Javedani, J.; Del Medico, S.; Miley, G.H.; Bromley, B.

    1994-12-31

    Rockford Technology Associates, Inc. (RTA) has been doing experiments on the Dense Plasma focus (DPF) device at the Fusion Studies Laboratory of the University of Illinois. This DPF consists of four racks of five 2-{mu}F capacitors whose charge is switched onto the inner electrode of a plasma focus by four Trigatron spark gaps. The stored energy is 12.5 kJ at 25 kV. The bank is usually discharged in a static fill of H{sub 2} at {approx} 6 torr. Preliminary experiments aimed at exploring the potential of the DPF device as a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and as an x-ray source for lithography have investigated various alternative ways of injecting gas between the electrodes. One of those approaches consists of injecting gas from the tip of the inner electrode at a steady rate. In this operation, the DPF chamber pressure was held constant by running the vacuum pump at full throttle. This operation simulated simultaneous pulsed injection at the base insulator and electrode tip. Hydrogen was fed through a 1/16th-inch hole at a flow rate of {approx} 90 cm/s. Pulsing was then performed at 23 kV, and the corresponding variations of the current were observed using a Rogowski coil. It is found that the plasma collapses into a pinch at the same time as in conventional experiments using a static fill. The singularity in the current waveform is slightly smaller with tip injection, but its size and shape are easily reproducible. Further details and comparison of this operation with conventional pulsing will be presented.

  17. First neutral beam injection experiments on KSTAR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Chang, D H; Kim, T S; In, S R; Lee, K W; Jin, J T; Chang, D S; Oh, B H; Bae, Y S; Kim, J S; Park, H T; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Kashiwagi, M; Dairaku, M; Tobari, H; Hanada, M

    2012-02-01

    The first neutral beam (NB) injection system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1∕3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly, which is designed to deliver a 1.5 MW, NB power of deuterium at 95 keV. Before the beam injection experiments, discharge, and beam extraction characteristics of the ion source were investigated. The ion source has good beam optics in a broad range of beam perveance. The optimum perveance is 1.1-1.3 μP, and the minimum beam divergence angle measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy is 0.8°. The ion species ratio is D(+):D(2)(+):D(3)(+) = 75:20:5 at beam current density of 85 mA/cm(2). The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A∕kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, a deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. The edge pedestal formation in the T(i) and T(e) profiles was verified through CES and electron cyclotron emission diagnostics. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and plasma stored energy were found.

  18. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  19. Mini ECC vs. conventional ECC: an examination of venous oxygen saturation, haemoglobin, haematocrit, flow, cardiac index and oxygen delivery.

    PubMed

    Döbele, T; Schwirtz, G; Gahl, B; Eckstein, F

    2010-05-01

    In our clinical daily routine, it is noticeable that lower cardiac indices are reached more often without negative consequences when using mini extracorporeal circulation (ECC) systems than when using open ECC systems. We evaluated haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, blood flow, cardiac index (CI) and mixed-venous oxygen saturation (vSO2) in patients undergoing surgery using mini ECC (n=10 cases) and ECC (n=10 cases). This analysis shows that, with a mini ECC system, the range of oxygen delivery is equal to that achieved when using an open standard ECC system, despite a lower cardiac index. This phenomenon can be explained through a significant lower haemodilution and, therefore, a higher concentration of haemoglobin.

  20. Determinants of ECC in Sardinian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Solinas, G; Sanna, A; Maida, C; Castiglia, P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of determinants on the presence of caries in pre-school children. A matched case-control study (1:2) was designed: 55 children (32 males, 23 females) with at least one buccal or lingual caries lesion on one primary maxillary incisor were selected (caries affected=1) and compared to randomly selected controls (no caries=0) paired for age and gender. Several variables concerning oral hygiene habits, use of fluoride supplementation, dietary habits, socio-economic status of the family and lifestyle factors were considered as risk predictors for early childhood caries (ECC). A conditional logistic regression model was used to perform matched case-control analysis. Bottle feeding at night (OR=1.90; 95%CI=1.03-3.50) and socio-economic level (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.01-2.81) were positively associated with case status. We conclude that ECC seemed to be associated with bottle feeding at night and a low socio-economic level.

  1. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  2. The HAARP Magnetospheric Wave Injection Experiment: Conditions and Dependencies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkowski, M.

    2009-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) ionospheric heating facility in Alaska (L = 4.9) is able to generate electromagnetic radiation in the 500 Hz - 10 kHz (ELF/VLF) frequency range. In an on-going experiment the HAARP facility is used to inject ELF/VLF waves into the magnetosphere to trigger wave-particle interactions with radiation belt electrons that result in the non-linear amplification of the wave, known as the coherent whistler mode instability. The conditions associated with observations of magnetospherically amplified signals known as ‘echoes’ are examined. Conditions enabling the propagation of the HAARP generated ELF/VLF signals along field aligned paths are found to be key dependencies. The assessment is based on geomagnetic indices and experiments involving ELF/VLF generation using different HF beam positions. Since HAARP signals are found to be injected primarily very close to the heating facility, the position of the plasmapause is a key parameter in echo observations.

  3. DE 1 VLF observations during Activny wave injection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Helliwell, R. A.; Molchanov, O. A.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report on coordinated high-altitude satellite observations in support of one of the first space-based very low frequency (VLF) wave injection experiments, namely the USSR Aktivny mission. The Aktivny satellite (A) was designed to carry a VLF transmitter (nominal frequency approximately 10 kHz, transmitter power approximately 10 kW) coupled to a 20-m-diameter loop antenna in a nearly polar orbit (83 deg inclination, apogee approximately 2500 km, perigee approximately 500 km). We focus our attention on conjunction experiments between the Aktivny and DE 1 satellites. Because of problems in the deployment of the loop antenna, the radiated power capability of the antenna was significantly reduced. Although this substantially reduced the expectation of receiving detectable signal levels on the satellite, the DE 1/Aktivny conjunction experiments were nevertheless carried out as a means of possibly placing an upper limit on the radiated power. During the period November 1989 through April 1990, a total of 10 DE 1/Aktivny wave injection sessions were conducted. During each session the Aktivny transmitter operated at 10.537 kHz with 1 s On - 1 s Off format, for a period of 6 min centered around the conjunction time. During three conjunction periods (December 12, 26, and 27, 1989) both DE 1 and Aktivny were in the southern hemisphere, and DE 1 was at relatively low altitudes (ranging from 6211 to 14,810 km), thus providing the best conjunction possibilities according to the ray tracing criteria developed above. On most days, Omega transmitter signals as well as commonly occuring natural wave phenomena such as whistlers (0(+)) and hiss were clearly seen well above the background level, but there was no evidence of the Aktivny 1 s On/ 1 s Off pattern. Though no Aktivny signals were detected by the LWR on the DE 1 satellite, the experimental constraints allow us to place an upper limit on the total power radiated by the Aktivny transmitter in the whistler-mode. Using

  4. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit. PMID:28241502

  5. Views from the 1995 ECC conference

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, J.C.; Haegelin, J.K.; Underwood, J.K.

    1995-12-01

    The Engineering and Construction Contracting Division (ECC) of the AIChE held its 27th Annual Conference in Scottsdale, Arizona, Sept. 7--8, 1995. Each year the conference is attended by management representatives from manufacturers, producers, engineering and construction contractors, consultants and major equipment suppliers. The 1995 conference theme was, Applying Advanced Methodology to Improve Project Execution. What were the issues and recommendations resulting from the conference? Here are the composite results from the annual workshops, as well as some perspectives from three selected participants. The paper discusses modularization in the process industry, innovative construction practices, creation and use of 3-D models for the plant`s life cycle, alliances and pay-for-performance contracting, and new workshop formats, and ends with general views from selected participants.

  6. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-02-23

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  7. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-12-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection (`lithiumization`). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li{sup +} line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li{sup +} emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from {approximately}0.3 to {approximately}7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  8. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  9. Optical injection using colliding laser pulses: experiments at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemans, W. P.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, C.; Faure, J.; van Tilborg, J.; Marcelis, B.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Fubiani, G.; Shadwick, B. A.; Dugan, G.; Cary, J.; Giacone, R.

    2002-11-01

    Laser driven acceleration in plasmas has succeeded in producing electron beams containing multi-nC's of charge, with some fraction of the electrons having energies in excess of 10's of MeV's but 100 % energy spread. One of the current challenges is to produce electron beams with much reduced energy spread. We report on experimental progress in the laser triggered injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator using the colliding pulse method (E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682 (1997).), (C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E 59, 6037 (1999).). The experiments use the l'OASIS multi-beam 10 Hz high power Ti:Al_2O3 laser system (W.P. Leemans et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2510 (2001).). In the present experiments, two counter propagating beams (30^rc angle) are focused onto a high density gas jet. Preliminary results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. Details of the experiments will be shown as well as comparisons with simulations.

  10. Optimal preparation of the ECC ozonesonde. [electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The ECC background current was identified as the removal of residual tri-iodide (iodine) as the cell approaches equilibrium. The altitude dependence of this source of the background current is expected to be only slowly changed in the troposphere with a more rapid decrease in the stratosphere. Oxygen does not play a role in the background current except in the unlikely situation where the electrodes have had all forms of iodine removed from them and the electrodes have not re-equilibrated with the sonde solutions before use. A solution mass transport parameter in the ECC was identified and its altitude dependence determined. The mass transport of tri-iodide dominates in the chemical transduction of ozone to electrical signal. The effect of the mass transport on the ECC background current is predicted. An electrochemical model of the ECC has been developed to predict the response of the ECC to various ozone vertical profiles. The model corresponds very closely to the performance of the ECC in the laboratory. Based on this model, an ECC with no background current is predicted to give total ozone values within 1% of the correct value, although the vertical profile may be in error by as much as + or - 15%.

  11. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  12. Computer modeling of a three-dimensional steam injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The experimental results and CT scans obtained during a steam-flooding experiment with the SUPRI 3-D steam injection laboratory model are compared with the results obtained from a numerical simulator for the same experiment. Simulation studies were carried out using the STARS (Steam and Additives Reservoir Simulator) compositional simulator. The saturation and temperature distributions obtained and heat-loss rates measured in the experimental model at different stages of steam-flooding were compared with those calculated from the numerical simulator. There is a fairly good agreement between the experimental results and the simulator output. However, the experimental scans show a greater degree of gravity override than that obtained with the simulator for the same heat-loss rates. Symmetric sides of the experimental 5-spot show asymmetric heat-loss rates contrary to theory and simulator results. Some utility programs have been written for extracting, processing and outputting the required grid data from the STARS simulator. These are general in nature and can be useful for other STARS users.

  13. [Experiences with botulinum toxin injections against spasticity in children].

    PubMed

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Karstensen, Anne Bergsjø; Risberg, Knut; Bergsaker, David Kristian; Sommer, Finn Fredrik

    2006-02-09

    Botulinum toxin injection is one of the newer options in the treatment of spasticity. Treatment with botulinum toxin is always combined with physiotherapy and often with casting. We show the extent to which botulinum toxin treatment has been taken into use in our department and discuss advantages and disadvantages of giving botulinum toxin injections at local hospitals. 88 children with cerebral palsy aged 14 months to 16 years were treated with botulinum toxin between March 2000 and Dec. 2004. Injections were given in an outpatient setting, usually with the patient sedated with midazolam. Clinical examination after injection included assessment of spasticity and range of movement of joints. Motor function was videotaped. Side effects were continuously supervised. We performed 278 treatments; during the last year (2004) 7 treatments a month on average. 59 children were injected in lower limbs only, 14 were injected in upper limbs only, and 15 were injected in both upper and lower limbs. No serious side effects were recorded, neither from the botulinum toxin itself nor related to the injection procedure. Assessment of indications for the use of botulinum toxin is now part of the medical follow up for children with spastic cerebral palsy. Treatment can safely be given at the paediatrics department in a local hospital. Injection in superficial muscles of the lower limbs is an easy task, while injection in small muscles and deep-seated muscles requires more special skills.

  14. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0) and 66 (26.2%) were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8%) participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004) and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019). A majority (67.9%) reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%). Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions. PMID:20465842

  15. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Milloy, M-J; Fairbairn, Nadia; Hayashi, Kanna; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-13

    Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand. Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0) and 66 (26.2%) were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8%) participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004) and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019). A majority (67.9%) reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%). Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions.

  16. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): what's in a name?

    PubMed

    De Grauwe, A; Aps, J K; Martens, L C

    2004-06-01

    It is evident from the number of published scientific papers on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) that interest in this problem has grown in recent years. Many authors have been trying to devise a clear definition or classification for ECC. The aim of this review was to inventory the prevalence of ECC and to seek a consensus regarding definition and diagnosis. Further attention was paid to the aetiological factors including the role of microrganisms. Finally, education, parenting and treatment procedures were discussed. For this review, epidemiological studies on caries prevalence in children aged between 0 and 36 months were compiled through a systematic approach using Medline. This clearly showed that ECC continues to be a serious public health problem and that there is a great variety of definitions and diagnoses used worldwide, reflected in the prevalence data. This review confirms the multicausal aetiology and the need for further research. The authors strongly support the recommendations formulated at the workshop in Bethesda 1999, and the policy statements by the AAPD. More efforts should be made to reach the high risk groups within populations, in order to reduce the prevalence of ECC and S-ECC (Severe Early Childhood Caries) and consequently to ameliorate the quality of life of these children. Long-term intervention studies are required for the evaluation of these efforts.

  17. Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chijin; D, Liu; S, Livingstone; A, K. Singh; E, Zhang; A, Hirose

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Hα radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.

  18. Effect of injection angle on artificial cavitation using the design of experiment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahr-e-Babaki, M. Ghorbani; Keikha, A. Jamali; Mehr, A. Behzad

    2017-06-01

    Using the supercavitation phenomenon is necessary to reach high velocities underwater. Supercavitation can be achieved in two ways: natural and artificial. In this article, the simulation of flows around a torpedo was studied naturally and artificially. The validity of simulation using theoretical and practical data in the natural and artificial phases was evaluated. Results showed that the simulations were consistent with the laboratory results. The results in different injection coefficient rates, injection angles, and cavitation numbers were studied. The obtained results showed the importance of cavitation number, injection rate coefficient, and injection angle in cavity shape. At the final level, determining the performance conditions using the Design of Experiment (DOE) method was emphasized, and the performance of cavitation number, injection rate coefficient, and injection angle in drag and lift coefficient was studied. The increase in injection angle in the low injection rate coefficient resulted in a diminished drag coefficient and that in the high injection rate coefficient resulted in an enhanced drag coefficient.

  19. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  20. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  1. Experience of intravitreal injections in a tertiary Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hinai, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To find out statistical data regarding intravitreal injections in an outpatient department setup at a tertiary center in Oman. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Data collection of patients who underwent intravitreal injections from November 2009 to May 2013 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Results: Throughout a period of 42 months, a total of 711 intravitreal injections were performed. That included 214 patients (275 eyes). Around one-third of the eyes received two injections or more. The injected agents were bevacizumab (59.8%), ranibizumab (32.3%), triamcinolone (7.5%), and very few patients with endophthalmitis received intravitreal antibiotics and antifungal agents. The three most common indications for the injection therapy were diabetic macular edema (50.9%), choroidal neovascularization (24.3%), and retinal vein occlusive diseases (11.5%). Serious adverse events were rare, and they occurred as ocular (0.9% per patient) and systemic (3.3% per patient). There were 42 eyes received intravitreal triamcinolone, and 24% of them developed intraocular hypertension that required only medical treatment. Conclusion: Different intravitreal agents are currently used to treat many ocular diseases. Currently, therapy with intravitreal agents is very popular, and it carries a promising outcome with more efficiency and safety. PMID:26903722

  2. Injection safety for immunisation--Andhra Pradesh experience.

    PubMed

    Kaipilyawar, Satish B; Rao, R Gopal Krishna

    2005-04-01

    Injection safety is one component of a major immunisation project being implemented in partnership with Government of Andhra Pradesh and PATH, an international NGO. Prior to the project wrong and dangerous injection giving practices were present among the staff which needed immediate attention. It was decided to introduce auto disable syringes along with safety boxes with high quality training to staff and make all these available to all districts along with hepatitis B introduction in the routine immunisation. The State of Andhra Pradesh became the first to implement 'bundling' concept in the immunisation project. Implementation was planned to be done in a phased manner to cover all the 23 districts over a five-year period. For routine immunisation sessions, smaller locally produced boxes may be more acceptable. The Government of India made a decision on 21st July, 2004 on implementing injection safety. Injection safety and proper disposal of used needles and syringes can be successfully advocated if medical associations, paediatric associations, key governmental bodies and international agencies come together. PATH established a group and holds the secretariat for the India injection safety coalition on similar basis as the Safe Injection Global Network of WHO (SIGN). Description of AP system for safe disposal of needles and syringes using manual needle-cutters and plastics recycling has been depicted in this article.

  3. [ECCE with self-sealing cataract incision. Technique and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Pham, D T; Wollensak, J; Drosch, S

    1995-06-01

    We present of modified technique for sutureless ECCE with a trapezoidal tunnel incision of 11 mm. The operation can be performed in a closed system because of the self-sealing wound construction. Compared to the sutured corneoscleral ECCE the new procedure has important advantages: the procedure is safe even during the critical phase following nucleus extraction. The procedure is therefore safer, faster, more economical and suture-induced astigmatism is avoided. Clinical experience after 2 years showed that postoperative complications were reduced significantly. Iris prolapse, wound dehiscens and hyphema occurred at a rate of 2%. The astigmatism (Jaffe analysis) was at a rate of 2 D, stable within 4 weeks after surgery, and did not change up to 2 years postoperatively. The astigmatism induced was then reduced about 0.5 D by a radical suture.

  4. Particle balance studies in TEXTOR during experiments of pellet injection, helium injection, and ICR-heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, T.; Noda, N.; Finken, K. H.; Gray, D. S.; Winter, J.; Alt-Ii Team; Textor Team

    1995-04-01

    Analysis based on the particle conservation law has been carried out to observe the global fuelling process in tokamak discharges. The response of the net recycling flux from the first wall is investigated in the tokamak TEXTOR, using calibrated signals of the gas feed rate, the neutral gas pressure in the vessel, the total amount of electrons, and the particle removal rates by the ALT-II belt-pump limiter and by a main pump unit. Net absorption (pumping) of hydrogen by the wall is observed for almost all tokamak discharges since a new wall conditioning technique called siliconisation is employed. The net absorption or fuelling depending on the discharge condition influenced by injection of pellets, by helium gas injection combined with neutral beam injection, and by rf heating can be interpreted in terms of the particle-induced desorption effect with depth profile taken into consideration.

  5. Manual ECCE, the present state of the art.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, M

    1994-11-01

    Manual ECCE has proved to be safe surgery compatible with small incision, no stitches, possible topical anesthesia, very cost effective and quick rehabilitation. The technique has a learning curve and needs experience. "Mini-nuc" stands for mini nucleus. This surgery can be achieved only if performed under positive intraocular pressure (IOP). A BSS bottle is connected to the eye by an anterior chamber maintainer (ACM). The height of the BSS bottle controls the IOP during the surgery. Controlled IOP is a principle suggested for all kinds of cataract surgery. It creates continuous flow which washes out of the eye cortex debris, blood, pigment, etc. The BSS contains antibiotics and adrenalin, it creates low turbulence due to the small amount of BSS used per case, 30-50 cc. A round capsulorhexis is essential. A special way of hydrodissection creates a very small hard core nucleus delivered to the anterior chamber and is extracted out through a sclero-corneal tunnel using a glide introduced under the nucleus to guide the nucleus out. Positive IOP during all stages of surgery creates the best operative conditions for controlled surgery throughout all manipulations. This technique is a very cost effective system and at the same time provides a high quality procedure.

  6. LABORATORY MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS OF OXIDATION PROCESSES AFTER STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aggressive thermal methods such as steam injection or resistive heating are known to be effective for the recovery of many types of volatile and semivolatile compounds. It has been suggested that oxidation or other chemical reactions that occur at remediation temperatures can ai...

  7. ECC ozonesonde performance at high altitudes: Pump efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The ECC ozonesonde sampling behavior was examined at pressures ranging from 60 to 6 hPa with the objective of evaluating uncertainties in high altitude ozone data caused by variations in pumping efficiency. The averaged pump efficiency correction curve for a 43 sample set of 3A type ECC pumps showed a 2-3% bias from the curve provided by the manufacturer. In addition, random pump to pump variations (2 sigma) + or - were 5% at 6 hPa. These values probably represent minimum errors since the pumps were from the same production batch. A seven sample set of the newer 4A type ECC pumps was examined, with similar findings as for the 3A types.

  8. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  9. Visual outcomes after anterior vitrectomy: comparison of ECCE and phacoemulsification.

    PubMed Central

    Bobrow, J C

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether vitrectomy instrumentation improved outcomes when vitreous loss occurred during either extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) or phacoemulsification (PE) with posterior chamber lens implantation (PCIOL). METHODS: A consecutive series of ECCE + PCIOL (group 1: 1985-1989) and PE + PCIOL (group 2: 1993-1997) surgeries by a single surgeon was reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: In group 1, 14 of 647 patients (2.2%) and in group 2, 9 of 665 patients (1.4%) experienced vitreous loss. In group 1, final visual acuity averaged 20/83; in group 2, 20/25 (P = .005). Average follow-up was 5.7 years (group 1) and 3.2 years (group 2). Uveitis, glaucoma, corneal problems, and retinal problems were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior vitrectomy reduced complications from vitreous loss. Fewer vitreous losses occurred with PE than ECCE. Patients with vitreous loss after PE attained better vision. PMID:10703129

  10. Visual outcomes after anterior vitrectomy: comparison of ECCE and phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, J C

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether vitrectomy instrumentation improved outcomes when vitreous loss occurred during either extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) or phacoemulsification (PE) with posterior chamber lens implantation (PCIOL). A consecutive series of ECCE + PCIOL (group 1: 1985-1989) and PE + PCIOL (group 2: 1993-1997) surgeries by a single surgeon was reviewed retrospectively. In group 1, 14 of 647 patients (2.2%) and in group 2, 9 of 665 patients (1.4%) experienced vitreous loss. In group 1, final visual acuity averaged 20/83; in group 2, 20/25 (P = .005). Average follow-up was 5.7 years (group 1) and 3.2 years (group 2). Uveitis, glaucoma, corneal problems, and retinal problems were assessed. Anterior vitrectomy reduced complications from vitreous loss. Fewer vitreous losses occurred with PE than ECCE. Patients with vitreous loss after PE attained better vision.

  11. Assessment of human effective absorbed dose of 67 Ga-ECC based on biodistribution rat data.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Yousefnia, Hassan; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Afarideh, Hossien

    2015-02-01

    In a diagnostic context, determination of absorbed dose is required before the introduction of a new radiopharmaceutical to the market to obtain marketing authorization from the relevant agencies. In this work, the absorbed dose of [67 Ga]-ethylenecysteamine cysteine [(67 Ga)ECC] to human organs was determined by using distribution data for rats. For biodistribution data, the animals were sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation at selected times after injection (0.5, 2 and 48 h, n = 3 for each time interval), then the tissue (blood, heart, lung, brain, intestine, feces, skin, stomach, kidneys, liver, muscle and bone) were removed. The absorbed dose was determined by Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) method after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. Our prediction shows that a 185-MBq injection of (67)Ga-ECC into the humans might result in an estimated absorbed dose of 0.029 mGy in the whole body. The highest absorbed doses are observed in the spleen and liver with 33.766 and 16.847 mGy, respectively. The results show that this radiopharmaceutical can be a good SPECT tracer since it can be produced easily and also the absorbed dose in each organ is less than permitted absorbed dose.

  12. Simulations of pulsed electron beam injection during active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the characteristics of the spacecraft charging, particle acceleration, and wave emissions during beam injection, turnoff and subsequent pulsing of the beam. It is shown that, during beam injection, the beam current is neutralized by a spatially separate return current region extending several tens of meters from the beam region, with the currents being closed across the field lines by the perpendicular acceleration of ambient plasma ions into the beam region. After beam turnoff, this current system reverses after a time lag of about an ion plasma period. The current reversal is accompanied by prolonged electron collection by the spacecraft near the beam region, preferential ion collection by sections of the spacecraft magnetically connected to the initial return current regions, and the creation of hot plasma extending well into the return current regions. Because of the time lag, the currents induced in the plasma during periodic beam injection can be strongly modified from the imposed beam current.

  13. 16-Kbit SPI phase change memory chip with ECC scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiyun; Chen, Houpeng; Song, Zhitang; Li, Xi; Hong, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Jin, Rong; Wang, Zhaomin; Cai, Daoling

    A serial peripheral interface (SPI) 16-Kbit phase change memory chip based on 0.13μm CMOS process is designed. It contains a parallel error correcting code (ECC) circuit, which can correct 2 bits in every 8 bits without clock delay, enabling the write and read operations performed at bus speed. All the data transfers in 8-bit groups and can be read or written with write protection scheme by unlimited cycle, in which address can automatically increase one by one. Simulation results show that the chip can work correctly in SPI mode and with ECC scheme. It is now under testing.

  14. Performance tests on the Kohmyr ECC ozone sonde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, A. R.; Torres, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the Kohmyr ECC ozone sonde are determined. Emphasis is placed on establishing and testing for leak-free connections and stable pump flow rates as well as properly adjusting the pumping pressure. Calibration of the Kohmyr ECC ozone sondes and Dasibi monitors is described. Raw ordinate data and ozone connection data are presented in tabular form. The results of a linear regression treatment of the sonde-indicated ozone concentration vs. Dasibi readings for each switch position are included along with averages of the regression parameters over the six sequencing switch positions. It is suggested that sondes and Dasibi monitors be individually calibrated before flight.

  15. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, Hamid Reza; Van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-02-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptococci are important organisms in the initiation and progression of dental caries. Recent evidence demonstrates that these bacteria are found in the mouths of pre-dentate infants and are acquired via vertical and/or horizontal transmission from human reservoirs. This information should facilitate the focusing of clinical interventions that prevent or delay infant infection, thereby reducing the prevalence of dental caries (ECC) in babies and toddlers.

  16. Characterization of EccA3, a CbbX family ATPase from the ESX-3 secretion pathway of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Amit; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Shree, Sonal; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2017-04-08

    EccA family proteins are conserved components of ESX secretion pathways in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Here, we report the characterization of EccA3 (Rv0282), a CbbX family AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) protein from the ESX-3 pathway that is required for in vitro growth of mycobacteria, secretion of virulence factors, and acquisition of iron and zinc. EccA3 is a thermostable ATPase with a molecular weight of ~68kDa. It exists as a dodecamer in the apo form and associates as a hexamer in the presence of ATP. Its C-terminal region consists of a CbbX-like AAA-domain while the N-terminal region contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain with lower homology to other EccA-type proteins. Further, the C-terminal domain functions as the oligomerization domain and also exhibits ATPase activity. Mutational analysis, steady state kinetics and molecular docking studies identify R573 as the important 'sensor arginine' and R505 as an 'arginine finger' in EccA3. Dynamic fluorescence quenching experiments suggest that the N-terminal domain moves closer to the C-terminal domain upon ATP-binding. The ATP-dependent 'open-close' relative movements of the two domains might help EccA3 interaction and secretion of essential virulence factors.

  17. Joint and soft tissue injections in the community: questionnaire survey of general practitioners' experiences and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gormley, G J; Corrigan, M; Steele, W K; Stevenson, M; Taggart, A J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the numbers and types of joint and soft tissue injections performed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore attitudes to training in joint and soft tissue injection and perceived barriers to performing injections. A self administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 410 (30%) of 1367 GPs in Northern Ireland. Two mailings were used to increase the response rate. Questions explored the GPs' demographic characteristics, types and numbers of injections performed, previous training experience, attitudes towards training, and perceived barriers. The overall response rate was 75%. Practitioners who were men, worked in a "rural" or "mixed" locality, and had had a previous post in rheumatology, orthopaedics, or sports medicine were more likely to perform joint and soft tissue injections. Forty six per cent of GPs did not currently perform any injections; 5% of GPs performed most of the injections in the community. Injections into the shoulder, knee, and lateral epicondylitis were found to be the most commonly performed injections. The GPs preferred to train on "real patients" rather than "mannequin models". Those GPs who had trained on "real patients" were more likely to perform injections. The main perceived barrier to performing joint and soft tissue injections in the community was the "inability to maintain injection skills". Postgraduate training, methods of training, and the ability to maintain injection skills seemed to be determinants affecting GP confidence and the amount of joint and soft tissue injections that they performed. Most injections were performed by a few GPs in the community. These findings may have implications for the developing role of GP specialists in primary care trusts.

  18. Hydrothermal injection experiments at the Raft River KGRA, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, W.F.; McAtee, R.E.; Capuano, R.M.; Sill, W.

    1982-12-14

    The optimal development and management of a geothermal resource requires a knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. Reservoir engineering analysis techniques for permeable aquifers have been undergoing development for several decades but little attention has been paid to fracture-dominated systems. A program to test the ability of Huff-Puff tests to help characterize a fracture-dominated reservoir is presented. Several series of these injection (Huff)-backflow (Puff) tests were conducted at the Raft River KGRA in Southern Idaho. These test series are described and preliminary results and interpretations are discussed.

  19. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  20. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F P; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25-30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of injectable therapies influence patient

  1. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  2. Deportation Experiences of Women Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico. PMID:21917563

  3. Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2012-04-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.

  4. Competing atomic processes in Ba and Sr injection critical velocity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, P. T.; Torbert, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect requires a superthermal electron population to ionize through collisional impact. Such superthermal electrons can however lose energy to competing atomic processes, as well as to ionization, thus limiting the efficiency of the effect. Considering Ba and Sr magnetospheric injection experiments designed to test the CIV theory, it is found that in both cases roughly 60 percent of the superthermal electron energy is lost on exciting line radiation. Moreover, energy loss to background neutral oxygen places a strict limit on the injected cloud densities for which critical velocity effects are possible; a finding which explains the consistently negative results in radial injection experiments.

  5. Competing atomic processes in Ba and Sr injection critical velocity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, P. T.; Torbert, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect requires a superthermal electron population to ionize through collisional impact. Such superthermal electrons can however lose energy to competing atomic processes, as well as to ionization, thus limiting the efficiency of the effect. Considering Ba and Sr magnetospheric injection experiments designed to test the CIV theory, it is found that in both cases roughly 60 percent of the superthermal electron energy is lost on exciting line radiation. Moreover, energy loss to background neutral oxygen places a strict limit on the injected cloud densities for which critical velocity effects are possible; a finding which explains the consistently negative results in radial injection experiments.

  6. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  7. Active experiments in space in conjunction with Skylab. [barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two papers are presented which relate to the Skylab barium shaped charge experiments. The first describes the L=6.6 OOSIK barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972. Rocket payload, instrumentation, data reduction methods, geophysical environment at the time of the experiment, and results are given. The second paper presents the observation of an auroral Birkeland current which developed from the distortion of a barium plasma jet during the above experiment.

  8. Soil remediation by heat injection: Experiments and numerical modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, C.; Emmert, M.; Faerber, A.

    1995-03-01

    In order to understand physical processes of thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction methods in porous media the isothermal, multiphase formulation for the numerical model MUFTE will be extended by a non-isothermal, multiphase-multicomponent formulation. In order to verify the numerical model, comparison with analytical solutions for well defined problems will be carried out. To identify relevant processes and their interactions, the results of the simulation will be compared with well controlled experiments with sophisticated measurement equipment in three different scales. The aim is to compare the different numerical solution techniques namely Finite Element versus Integral Finite Difference technique as implemented in MUFTE and TOUGH2 [9] respectively.

  9. Injecting learning experience into geoethics for human and natural sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crookall, David

    2016-04-01

    Our early life experience has a strong influence on our actions in later life. Humans today are just starting to re-learn, collectively, how to treat Earth with the respect that it deserves and that is needed for our offspring to inherit a decent home. However, we still have a long way to go to instill in people at large the ethics, knowledge and skills necessary to ensure a healthy journey for humanity on spaceship. The experience of early upbringing, of schooling and of everyday life is probably the only path strong enough to develop in people a strong desire for ethical behaviour towards their environment. The problem is that the measures taken today to ensure the development of ethical behaviours in the population at large are woefully inadequate. At best, western school programmes contain a few lessons devoted to the environment, and even then they usually just pay lip service to the basics of the environment; they rarely aim to instill skills and knowledge in order to understand and care deeply for the environment. My presentation will suggest some practical ways to help communities build ethical frameworks and strategies to guide and generate tools, methods and activities that guide young people (pupils, students, scholars, researchers) to toward more ethical behaviours regarding their environment and their communities. Examples might include: - Developing geoethical dimensions of internships, in all areas; - Designing, testing and running simulation/games+debriefing providing a rich affective-cognitive context for grappling with geoethical problems- eg, FISH BANKS, KEEP COOL. - Pressuring governments to make geoethics, environmental care and climate change understanding central components of (almost) all educational programmes (in, eg, history, language, business, law, medicine, etc). - Subsidizing environmental-care summer schools for families and teachers at all levels. - Etc. One of my actions is founding a academic journal in the area, maybe with the

  10. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  11. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  12. External-injection Experiment at SPARC_LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. R.; Bacci, A.; Belleveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Maroli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.

    At the SPARC_LAB facility of INFN-LNF we are installing two transport lines for ultra-short electron bunches and an ultra- intense laser pulses, generated by the SPARC photo-injector and by the FLAME laser in a synchronized fashion at the tens of f s level, to co-propagate inside a hydrogen filled glass capillary, in order to perform acceleration of the electron bunch by a plasma wave driven by the laser pulse. The main aim of this experiment is to demonstrate that a high brightness electron beam can be accelerated by a plasma wave without any significant degradation of its quality. Motivations of the technical choices made and expected performances are reported.

  13. An enhancement of plasma density by neutral gas injection observed in SEPAC Spacelab-1 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Yanagisawa, M.; Obayashi, T.; Kubota, S.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    An enhancement of plasma density observed during a neutral gas injection in Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators by the Space Shuttle/Spacelab-1 is presented. When a plume of nitrogen gas was injected from the orbiter into space, a large amount of plasma was detected by an onboard plasma probe. The observed density often increased beyond the background plasma density and was strongly dependent on the attitude of the orbiter with respect to the velocity vector. This effect has been explained by a collisional interaction between the injected gas molecules and the ionospheric ions relatively drifting at the orbital speed.

  14. Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

  15. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R.

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  16. From serpentinization to carbonation: New insights from a CO2 injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Frieder; McCollom, Thomas M.

    2013-10-01

    We injected a CO2-rich hydrous fluid of seawater chlorinity into an ongoing, mildly reducing (H2(aq)≈3 mmol/kg) serpentinization experiment at 230 °C and 35 MPa to examine the changes in fluid chemistry and mineralogy during mineral carbonation. The chemistry of 11 fluid samples was measured, speciated, and compared with MgO-SiO2-H2O-CO2 (MSHC) phase equilibria to approximate the reaction pathway from serpentinization to carbonation. Although the overall system was in apparent disequilibrium, the speciated activities of dissolved silica (aSiO2(aq)) and carbon dioxide (aCO2(aq)) evolved roughly along MSHC equilibrium phase boundaries, indicative of 4 distinct mineral assemblages over time: (1) serpentine-brucite (± magnesite) before the injection, to (2) serpentine-talc-magnesite 2 h after the injection, to (3) quartz-magnesite (48 h after injection), and (4) metastable olivine-magnesite (623 h after injection) until the experiment was terminated. Inspection of the solid reaction products revealed the presence of serpentine, magnesite, minor talc, and magnetite, in addition to relict olivine. Although quartz was saturated over a short segment of the experiment, it was not found in the solid reaction products. A marked and rapid change in fluid chemistry suggests that serpentinization ceased and precipitation of magnesite initiated immediately after the injection. A sharp decrease in pH after the injection promoted the dissolution of brucite and olivine, which liberated SiO2(aq) and dissolved Mg. Dissolved Mg was efficiently removed from the solution via magnesite precipitation, whereas the formation of talc was relatively sluggish. This process accounts for an increase in aSiO2(aq) to quartz saturation shortly after the injection of the CO2-rich fluid. Molecular dihydrogen (H2(aq)) was generated during serpentinization of olivine by oxidation of ferrous iron before the injection; however, no additional H2(aq) was generated after the injection. Speciation

  17. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  18. Three-dimensional spiral injection scheme for the g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Hiromi; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Oide, Katsunobu; Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Saito, Naohito; Mibe, Tsutomu; Abe, Mitsushi

    2016-10-01

    A newly developed three-dimensional spiral injection scheme for beam insertion into a solenoidal storage ring is reported. A new planned muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC aims to measure g - 2 to a factor of 5 better statistical precision and a factor of 100 better sensitivity for the electric dipole moment (EDM) measurement compared to previous experiments. The J-PARC experiment will use a 3-T MRI solenoid magnet as the muon storage ring with a 0.66 m diameter to achieve a 1-ppm level of local uniformity. The previous g - 2 injection scheme is not applicable for beam injection into a small ring. The new scheme provides a smooth injection utilizing a radial solenoidal fringe field, without causing an error field in the storage volume. The expected storage efficiency is 80% and over, which is to be compared to 3.5% for the previous g - 2 experiment. In addition, the ability to control the storage plane is important for the EDM measurement. In this paper, we introduce the conceptual design and required beam parameters in terms of Twiss functions and the expected injection efficiency.

  19. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-08-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma.

  20. The experience of an increase in the injection of ethylphenidate in Lothian April 2014-March 2015.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Con; Smith, Linda; Coull, Alison; Shanley, Jim

    2016-05-01

    New psychoactive substances are causing increasing harm across the UK but the use of new psychoactive substance by injecting has become a significant problem within Lothian since the beginning of 2014. Data indicate a rapid rise in the number of existing drug injectors, particularly heroin injectors, moving to new psychoactive substance injecting. This paper reports the experiences within Lothian of a sudden increase in injecting of ethylphenidate over one year. A temporary class drug order was placed on ethylphenidate on 10 April 2015, and as yet the effects of this are unknown. Data specifically relating to new psychoactive substance recorded during injecting equipment provision transactions conducted by the NHS are reported. A survey was utilised to gather more detailed data from new psychoactive substance injectors. Injection of new psychoactive substance, including ethylphenidate has had significant adverse effects on physical and mental health. Risky behaviour such as sharing of equipment is known, and there are risks of transmission of infections. The rapid increase in injecting ethylphenidate has had a major impact on injecting equipment provision services, health services and public health. More work is required to identify routes to recovery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  2. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy: 30-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmic, Ante; Cigit, Irenej; Zupancic, Bozidar; Bumci, Igor; Popovic, Ljiljana; Kljenak, Antun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role and our experience of injection sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children. METHODS: In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 children. In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform operative treatment. RESULTS: In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerotherapy. In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful. In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment. Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%). In children who needed operative treatment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal complications. PMID:18205264

  3. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  4. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  5. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  6. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  7. Experiment of Injecting Phase Cal Ahead of the Feed: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Dmitrij; Maslenikov, Anatolij; Vytnov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    For developing the Russian VLBI network of new generation, a few experiments of injecting the phase calibration signal ahead of the feed were carried out. In the experiments an external broadband phase calibration signal was emitted through a special feed to a receiver horn directly. Prototypes of the feed for a frequency range of 2-18 GHz were created. The first experiments on injection phase cal ahead of the feed were carried out at Svetloe Observatory of the QUASAR VLBI network. The phase cal signal was emitted by the broadband feed installed on the roof of a mirror cabin, reflected by the sub-reflector, and received by the horn of the receiving system. The results of these experiments are considered.

  8. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; H. Neilson; W. Reiersen; M. Zarnstorff

    2002-02-11

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system.

  9. SAG injection in a North Sea stratified reservoir: Flow experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanssen, J.E.; Surguchev, L.M.; Svorstoel, I.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a study of a novel recovery process for stratified reservoirs with large permeability contrasts. A slug of foaming surfactant is injected alternately with gas, thus by analogy with WAG making this a SAG injection process. A combined experimental and numerical evaluation demonstrating effective diversion by foam and significant recovery potential over WAG of the method is reported. An experiment with the new process was performed in a visual 2-D porous medium flow model approximately scaled to the conditions of a North Sea reservoir that is characterized by high permeability contrast and limited interlayer communication. The experiment showed poor performance of conventional WAG, which swept mainly the high-permeable layer. Placement of a surfactant slug and later foam generation in the swept layer was successfully demonstrated and gave efficient injectant diversion into the other layers, resulting in complete sweep of the reservoir model by continued WAG. In summary the results of this paper show experimentally and by simulation on the same system that SAG injection as implemented here is superior to WAG injection and that the rich observations made in the experimental ca be matched with reasonable accuracy using a commercial simulator with only empirical parameters.

  10. Assessment of self-injection experience in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: psychometric validation of the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire (SIAQ)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous self-injection of medication has benefits for the patient and healthcare system, but there are barriers such as dexterity problems and injection anxiety that can prevent self-injection being used effectively. An accurate method of evaluating patients' experiences with self-injection would enable assessment of their success in giving self-injections and the likelihood of them adhering to a self-injection regimen. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure overall patient experience with subcutaneous self-injection (the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire [SIAQ]), and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods The construct validity and reliability of the SIAQ were tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who volunteered to inject certolizumab pegol using a standard syringe during an open-label multinational extension trial of the long-term safety and efficacy of this drug. The SIAQ PRE module was self-completed before the first self-injection, and the POST module was self-completed following each of three fortnightly self-injections. Results Ninety-seven patients completed the SIAQ. All items correlated well with their respective domains in confirmatory factor analysis. As predicted, compared with other participants, patients with very low scores (less than 3 out of 10) in PRE causal domains (Feelings about injections and Self-confidence) were significantly less satisfied with their first self-injection, as were patients with a very low score in any POST causal domain (Self-confidence, Feelings about injections, Injection-site reactions and Ease of use), demonstrating known-groups validity. Causal domain scores generally correlated most strongly with the Satisfaction with self-injection domain, supporting convergent validity. The SIAQ demonstrated internal consistency and reproducibility; Cronbach's α and the test-retest coefficient were > 0.70 for all domains. Sensitivity and responsiveness were also

  11. Electron beam injection experiments - Replication of flight observations in a laboratory beam plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.; Mcgarity, J. O.; Konradi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent electron beam injection experiments in the lower ionosphere have produced two perplexing results: (1) At altitudes from 140 km to 220 km, the beam associated 391.4 nm intensity is relatively independent of altitude despite the decreasing N2 abundance. (2) The radial extent of the perturbed region populated by beam associated energetic electrons significantly exceeds the nominal gyrodiameter for 90 deg injection. A series of laboratory measurements is described in which both of these flight results appear to have been closely reproduced. The laboratory results are reasonably consistent with the transition from a collision dominated to collisionless beam-plasma discharge configuration.

  12. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  13. Simulation experiments to generate broadband chaos using dual-wavelength optically injected Fabry-Perot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaid, Hafiz Muhammad; Khawar Islam, Muhammad; Obaid Ullah, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    Broadband chaos can be generated by beating two wavelengths in a hybrid arrangement of Fabry-Perot (FP) Laser and Fiber ring cavity by injecting dual wavelengths. The bandwidth of generated chaos can be controlled by detuning different modes of FP Laser for beating. The bandwidth of generated chaos increased to many folds depending upon the injected strength and wavelength spacing matched to FP laser modes. The bandwidth enhancement in different simulation experiments conducted is optimized by varying different parameters of FP laser and cavity. The waveforms are analyzed and Lyapunov exponents are calculated in order to validate the existence of high bandwidth non-pulsating chaos.

  14. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  15. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  16. Operational experience of the upgraded LHC injection kicker magnets during Run 2 and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M. J.; Adraktas, A.; Bregliozzi, G.; Goddard, B.; Ducimetière, L.; Salvant, B.; Sestak, J.; Vega Cid, L.; Weterings, W.; Vallgren, C. Yin

    2017-07-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, there were also sporadic issues with vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during Long Shutdown 1 (LS 1). These upgrades included a new design of beam screen to reduce both beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet and the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during the first years of Run 2 of the LHC, including a discussion of faults and kicker magnet issues that limited LHC operation. In addition, in light of these issues, plans for further upgrades are briefly discussed.

  17. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments.

    PubMed

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders; Larsen, Niels B

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate that fabrication of well-defined nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of thermoplastic polymers. Chips featuring nanochannel arrays, microchannels and integrated interconnects are produced in a single processing step by injection molding. The resulting open channel structures are subsequently sealed by facile plasma-enhanced thermal bonding of a polymer film. This fast, inexpensive and industry-compatible method thus provides a single-use all-polymer platform for nanofluidic lab-on-a-chip applications. Its applicability for nanofluidics is demonstrated by DNA stretching experiments performed on individual double-stranded DNA molecules confined in the injection molded nanochannels. The obtained results are consistent with measurements performed in costly state-of-the-art silica nanochannels, for both straight and tapered channel geometries.

  18. Fate of herbicides in a shallow aerobic aquifer: A continuous field injection experiment (Vejen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Mette M.; Rügge, Kirsten; Tuxen, Nina; HøJberg, Anker L.; MosbæK, Hans; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2001-12-01

    A continuous, natural gradient, field injection experiment, involving six herbicides and a tracer, was performed in a shallow aerobic aquifer near Vejen, Denmark. Bentazone, (±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid (MCPP), dichlorprop, isoproturon, and the dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlor-benzamide (BAM) were injected along with 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (not discussed in this paper) and the tracer bromide. The injection lasted for 216 days and created a continuous plume in the aquifer. The plume was monitored in three dimensions in 96 multilevel samplers of 6-9 points each for 230 days, with selected individual points for a longer period. The bromide plume followed a complex path through the monitoring network downgradient of the injection wells. The plume movement was controlled by spatially varied hydraulic conductivities of the sand deposit and influenced by asynchronous seasonal variation in groundwater potentials. An average flow velocity of 0.5 m/d was observed, as depicted by bromide. Bentazone, BAM, MCPP, and dichlorprop retardation was negligible, and only slight retardation of isoproturon was observed in the continuous injection experiment and a preceding pulse experiment. No degradation of bentazone was observed in the aerobic aquifer during the monitoring period. BAM and isoproturon were not degraded within 5 m downgradient of the injection. The two phenoxy acids MCPP and dichlorprop were both degraded in the aerobic aquifer. Near the source a lag phase was observed followed by fast degradation of the phenoxy acids, indicating growth kinetics. The phenoxy acids were completely degraded within l m downgradient of the injection wells, resulting in the plumes being divided into small plumes at the injection wells and pulses farther downgradient. During the lag phase, phenoxy acids had spread beyond the 25 m long monitoring network. However, the mass of the phenoxy acids passing the 10-25 m fences never matched the corresponding bentazone or

  19. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  20. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice. PMID:24723953

  1. Thomson Scattering Measurements During Local Helicity Injection in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique currently being developed at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment. In LHI, helicity is injected by compact, high-power current sources located in the plasma scrape off layer that drive bulk plasma current through magnetic reconnection. Investigations of the electron temperature and density evolution in LHI plasmas are being pursued using the multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic on Pegasus. It has been expanded to provide a total of 24 spatial channels using a set of three high-throughput transmission gratings and intensified CCD cameras. Measurements have been made in two separate helicity injector configurations: a low-field-side (outboard midplane) configuration; and a high-field-side (lower divertor) configuration. Initial observations during injection showed 50 injection methods yield peaked temperature profiles in the core; however, a more rapid rise in Te from the edge to the core was observed in the case of outboard injection. Further analysis of electron temperature and density profiles is required to understand the electron confinement scaling associated with LHI. These initial results suggest this startup technique is scalable to MA-class devices with relatively modest injector requirements. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  2. High-fidelity injection detectability experiments: a tool for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Wallstrom, Garrick L; Wagner, M; Hogan, W

    2005-08-26

    When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org).

  3. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments: a Tool for Evaluating Syndromic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, Garrick L.; Wagner, M.; Hogan, W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. Objective The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. Methods HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. Results An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. Conclusion HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org). PMID:16177698

  4. Part weight verification between simulation and experiment of plastic part in injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Idayu, N.; Faizal, K. M.; Sanusi, M.; Izamshah, R.; Shahir, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the main objective is to determine the percentage difference of part weight between experimental and simulation work. The effect of process parameters on weight of plastic part is also investigated. The process parameters involved were mould temperature, melt temperature, injection time and cooling time. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow software was used to run the simulation of the plastic part. Taguchi method was selected as Design of Experiment to conduct the experiment. Then, the simulation result was validated with the experimental result. It was found that the minimum and maximum percentage of differential of part weight between simulation and experimental work are 0.35 % and 1.43 % respectively. In addition, the most significant parameter that affected part weight is the mould temperature, followed by melt temperature, injection time and cooling time.

  5. [Visco-hydraulic irrigation of the lens cortex. A safe ECCE method].

    PubMed

    Friedburg, D

    1994-12-01

    The safe and effective Hydrojet nucleus expression (Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1993; 202:288-291) should be completed by a safe non traumatic and easy to perform method of cortex removal. OPERATION TECHNIQUE: 8-mm tunnel incision, spiral capsulorhexis, hydrodissection and viscodissection of the nucleus, hydrojet nucleus expression. The lens cortex can be separated from the lens capsule by injection of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Metho), the viscoelastic substance acts as a wedge to separate the cortex from the capsule step by step. Finally the cortex is expressed by the injection of Metho. The capsule remains so clean, that often polishing is not necessary. PMMA lenses with an over all diameter of 10 or 11-mm and 7-mm optics were implanted. In 100 consecutive cases complications which occurred intraoperatively or within the following 2 days were listed. The following complications occurred: Hyphaema (2x, the blood disappeared spontaneously within 4-5 days), small cortex flake in the anterior chamber (2x), rhexis rim not intact (1x, nevertheless exact lens centration in the bag). No lesion of the capsule/zonule diaphragm, no fibrin reaction, no corneal edema. The method described is a safe method for ECCE. Capsulorhexis and tunnel incision are required. The method does not need any high technology equipment.

  6. Fracture propagation during fluid injection experiments in shale at elevated confining pressures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Mike; Mecklenburgh, Julian; Rutter, Ernest; Fauchille, Anne-Laure; Taylor, Rochelle; Lee, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale-gas has focused attention upon the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales. Fracture propagation trajectories in these materials depend on the interaction between the anisotropic mechanical properties of the shale and the anisotropic in-situ stress field. However, there is a general paucity of available experimental data on their anisotropic mechanical, physical and fluid-flow properties, especially at elevated confining pressures. Here we report the results of laboratory-scale fluid injection experiments, for Whitby mudstone and Mancos shale (an interbedded silt and mudstone), as well as Pennant sandstone (a tight sandstone with permeability similar to shales), which is used an isotropic baseline and tight-gas sandstone analogue. Our injection experiments involved the pressurisation of a blind-ending central hole in an initially dry cylindrical sample. Pressurisation was conducted under constant volume-rate control, using silicone oils of various viscosities. The dependence of breakdown pressure on confining pressure was seen to be dependent on the rock strength, with the significantly stronger Pennant sandstone exhibiting much lower confining-pressure dependence of breakdown pressure than the weaker shales. In most experiments, a small drop in the injection pressure record was observed at what is taken to be fracture initiation, and in the Pennant sandstone this was accompanied by a small burst of acoustic energy. Breakdown was found to be rapid and uncontrollable after initiation if injection is continued, but can be limited to a slower (but still uncontrolled) rate by ceasing the injection of fluid after the breakdown initiation in experiments where it could be identified. A simplified 2-dimensional model for explaining these observations is presented in terms of the stress intensities at the tip of a pressurised crack. Additionally, we present a suite of supporting mechanical, flow and elastic

  7. New Generation of ELF/VLF Wave Injection Experiments for HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.; Watkins, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a ray tracing study to investigate the feasibility of a new generation of wave injection experiments from HAARP transmitter (L 4.9). Highly successful whistler mode wave injection experiments from SIPLE station, Antarctica, have established the importance of such experiments to study magnetospheric wave-particle interactions, and for cold and hot plasma diagnostics [Helliwell and Katsufrakis, 1974; Carpenter and Miller, 1976; Sonwalkar et al., 1997]. Modulated heating experiments from HAARP have shown that it is possible to launch ELF/VLF waves into the magnetosphere that can be observed on the ground after one-, two-, and multi-hop ducted propagation [Inan et al., 2004]. Recent research has also shown that ionospheric heating experiments using HAARP can lead to the formation of magnetospheric ducts [e.g. Milikh et al., 2010; Fallen et al., 2011]. Collectively, these results indicate that the HAARP (or similar) transmitter can be used first to form ducts on nearby L shells, and then to inject and trap transmitter generated ELF/VLF waves in those ducts. Ray tracing studies using a model magnetosphere shows that ELF/VLF waves in a few kilohertz range can be trapped in ducts with L shells near the HAARP transmitter. For example, 1.5 kHz waves injected from L shell = 4.9 and altitude = 200 km can be trapped in ducts located within 0.3 L of the transmitter L-shell. The duct parameters needed for ray-trapping are typically duct width dL 0.1-0.3 and duct enhancement factor dNe/Ne 10-20% or more. The location of plasmapause with respect to transmitter plays a role in the nature of trapping. The duct locations and parameters required for trapping ELF/VLF waves inside the ducts are consistent with past observations of ducts generated by the HAARP transmitter. Ray tracing calculations provide trapped wave normal angles, time delays, resonant energetic electron energy, estimates of wave intensity inside the duct, on the ground, and on satellites such DEMETER, Van

  8. EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTS OF INJECTION OF EGG-ALBUMEN AND SOME OTHER PROTEIDS

    PubMed Central

    Sollmann, Torald; Brown, E. D.

    1902-01-01

    degeneration of the hepatic epithelium, which are so acute as to be fully developed when death occurs in 1½ hours after injection. Doses of 0.35 grm. per kilo. do not produce this change. Chloretone did not cause the degeneration, but is followed by congestion of the abdominal viscera. 18. Native egg-albumen, injected into the femoral vein of a dog, was followed in one case by a fatal ending with convulsions and coma, after several intervening cases of good health. Further experiments demonstrated that there is no toxicity inherent in fresh egg-albumen, nor can it be developed by breeding the eggs in the shell. The cause of the above fatal issue must therefore be sought in some extraneous toxic agent which contaminated the solution. Muscle-extracts were also devoid of toxicity. Alkali-albumin produces no changes beyond those which may be attributed to the free alkali contained therein. PMID:19866971

  9. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture.

    PubMed

    Novakowski, K S; Bickerton, G; Lapcevic, P

    2004-09-01

    Tracer experiments conducted using a flow field established by injecting water into one borehole and withdrawing water from another are often used to establish connections and investigate dispersion in fractured rock. As a result of uncertainty in the uniqueness of existing models used for interpretation, this method has not been widely used to investigate more general transport processes including matrix diffusion or advective solute exchange between mobile and immobile zones of fluid. To explore the utility of the injection-withdrawal method as a general investigative tool and with the intent to resolve the transport processes in a discrete fracture, two tracer experiments were conducted using the injection-withdrawal configuration. The experiments were conducted in a fracture which has a large aperture (>500 microm) and horizontally pervades a dolostone formation. One experiment was conducted in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and the other in the direction opposite to the natural gradient. Two tracers having significantly different values of the free-water diffusion coefficient were used. To interpret the experiments, a hybrid numerical-analytical model was developed which accounts for the arcuate shape of the flow field, advection-dispersion in the fracture, diffusion into the matrix adjacent to the fracture, and the presence of natural flow in the fracture. The model was verified by comparison to a fully analytical solution and to a well-known finite-element model. Interpretation of the tracer experiments showed that when only one tracer, advection-dispersion, and matrix diffusion are considered, non-unique results were obtained. However, by using multiple tracers and by accounting for the presence of natural flow in the fracture, unique interpretations were obtained in which a single value of matrix porosity was estimated from the results of both experiments. The estimate of porosity agrees well with independent measurements of porosity obtained from

  10. Analysis of cavity pressure and warpage of polyoxymethylene thin walled injection molded parts: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrier, P.; Tosello, G.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number of conclusions concerning improvements to simulation accuracy are presented regarding: pvT data, mesh, short shots, cavity pressure for process control validation as well as molding machine geometry modelling. Eventually, a methodology for improved molding simulations of cavity injection pressure, filling pattern and warpage was established.

  11. Field-scale gas tracing experiment in unsaturated fractured media: from deep injection to surface monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Sabroux, J.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Adler, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    For CO2 sequestration as for other applications, it is important to understand transfer mechanisms of gases in unsaturated fractured rocks from experiment and to develop modeling capabilities. We carried out a field-scale tracing experiment using SF6 with the aim to serve for a forthcoming experiment using CO2. The experimental site was well characterized (mineralogy and fracturation). Transport parameters were estimated from the field, especially permeability and dilution factor. We also evaluated methods to monitor tracer breakthrough at the surface. At the Roselend Natural Laboratory (French Alps), a tunnel provides access to the heart of unsaturated fractured crystalline rocks, at 55 m depth below ground surface. This underground research facility allows studying gas exchange between a 60 m3 chamber isolated at the dead-end of the tunnel and the surface. At the topographic surface, ten 10 meter-long vertical boreholes and one 60 meter-long subhorizontal borehole were used to monitor tracer breakthrough. Stereological analysis of fractures in the tunnel previously led to permeability estimation. Similar analysis of drilled cores (density and orientation of fractures) gave additional permeability estimates in the subsurface. Gas permeability was also determined from pneumatic injection tests in both the injection chamber and subsurface boreholes. Steady-state and transient experiments were analyzed by modeling in real geometry. Long-term continuous pressure monitoring in the isolated chamber and the packed-off boreholes were also used for permeability estimation. We found equivalent air permeability of the order of 10-12 m2 which compares well with previous estimations. Following baseline determination, SF6 was injected at 1000 ppmV in the isolated chamber that was then pressurized to 150 mbar above atmospheric pressure during 2 hours. During all the experiment SF6 concentration was continuously monitored inside the isolated chamber and in front of the isolation

  12. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  13. [Combination surgery (ECCE+IOL+TE) and intraocular pressure levels].

    PubMed

    Hornová, J

    1997-08-01

    The authors investigated the effect of a combined operation, ECCE + TE + IOL, on reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), changes in antiglaucomatous treatment and on vision six months after operation. In 1994 36 eyes were operated, 16 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 8 eyes with angular glaucoma (PACG) and 12 eyes with marked exfoliative syndrome (CG). Six months after operation the IOP declined from 26.4 mm Hg to 13.3 mm Hg (P 0.05), antiglaucomatous treatment was reduced from 2.55 to 1.11 (P 0.05), vision improved by 0.39, i.e. by 2-3 lines of optotypes (P 0.05). 89% of the operated patients have a vision better than 0.5. Comparison of values before and after operation revealed a more marked drop of IOP in CG (P 0.05) than in POAG.

  14. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  15. [Macular threshold after ECCE and posterior chamber IOL implantation].

    PubMed

    Baltatzis, S; Georgopoulos, G; Andreanos, D

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the macular threshold after ECCE and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, was studied in an effort to determine the time period needed for full postoperative recovery of macular function. We evaluated 22 eyes in 20 patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber IOL implantation. There were 12 men and 8 women between the ages of 40 and 62 years with mean age of 53 years. Postoperative visual field testing was performed within the central 4 degrees with an automated static perimeter (Humphrey Visual Field Analyser), using a macular threshold test pattern. It has been established that central retinal sensitivity in pseudophakia shows a postoperative decrease and consequently recovers to almost normal levels within one month. The exact cause of this reduction remains under discussion and further control mainly with fluorescein angiography is necessary.

  16. Hydroclast and Peperite generation: Experimental Results produced using the Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, W. S.; Mastin, L. G.; Spieler, O.; Kunzmann, T.; Shaw, C. S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment (SMILE) allows for the effusive and explosive injection of molten glass into a variety of media - air, water, water spray, and wet sediments. Experiments have been preformed using the SMILE apparatus to evaluate the mechanisms of "turbulent shedding" during shallow submarine volcanic eruptions and magma/wet-sediment interactions. In these experiments, approximately 0.5 kg of basaltic melt with 5 wt.% Spectromelt (dilithium tetraborate) is produced in an internally heated autoclave at 1150° C and ambient pressure. The molten charge is ejected via the bursting of a rupture disc at 3.5 MPa into the reaction media, situated within the low pressure tank (atmospheric conditions). Preliminary experiments ejecting melt into a standing water column have yielded hydroclasts of basalt. SEM images of the clasts show ubiquitous discontinuous skins ("rinds") that are flaked, peeled, or smeared away in strips. Adhering to the clast surfaces are flakes, blocks, and blobs of detached material, up to 10 μm in size. The presence of partially detached rinds and rind debris likely reflects repeated bending, scraping, impact, and other disruption through turbulent velocity fluctuations. These textures are comparable to littoral explosive deposits at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where lava tubes are torn apart by wave action, the lava is quenched, and thrown back on the beach as loose fragments (hyaloclastite). Preliminary experiments injecting melt into wet sediments show evidence of sediment ingestion and fluidal textures. These results support the interpretation that peperite generation can be driven by hydrodynamic mixing of a fuel and a coolant.

  17. Electrons precipitation stimulated by plasma jets injection in FLUXUS and NORTH STAR active rocket experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, B.; Erlandson, R.; Lynch, K.; Meng, C.; Podgorny, I.; Pfaff, R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Sobyanin, D.; Zetzer, J.

    In Russian-American active rocket experiments FLUXUS (49? N, 47? E, 1997) and NORTH STAR (70? N, 148? W, 1999) high-velocity plasma jets were injected along and across the geomagnetic field respectively. In the both experiments high- density plasma jets pushed out the magnetic field. Later, when the magnetic field penetrated into the plasma jet, plasma was polarized and E=-VxB/c electric field was registered. As a result, Alfvén waves, carrying the field-aligned currents, propagate along the magnetic field lines. If the current density is rather high, the field-aligned electric fields can appear, and electrons would be accelerated along the magnetic field lines. Electron fluxes with energy from several eV to 2 keV were revealed in the both experiments. During NORTH STAR experiment electron fluxes caused by auroral precipitation were also registered

  18. Microorganisms as tracers in groundwater injection and recovery experiments: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Modern day injection and recovery techniques designed to examine the transport behavior of microorganisms in groundwater have evolved from experiments conducted in the late 1800s, in which bacteria that form red or yellow pigments were used to trace flow paths through karst and fractured- rock aquifers. A number of subsequent groundwater hydrology studies employed bacteriophage that can be injected into aquifers at very high concentrations (e g., 1013 phage ml-1) and monitored through many log units of dilution to follow groundwater flow paths for great distances, particularly in karst terrain. Starting in the 1930s, microbial indicators of fecal contamination (particularly coliform bacteria and their coliphages) were employed as tracers to determine potential migration of pathogens in groundwater. Several injection and recovery experiments performed in the 1990s employed indigenous groundwater microorganisms (both cultured and uncultured) that are better able to survive under in situ conditions. Better methods for labeling native bacteria (e.g by stable isotope labeling or inserting genetic markers; such as the ability to cause ice nucleation) are being developed that will not compromise the organisms' viability during the experimental time course.

  19. Microorganisms as tracers in groundwater injection and recovery experiments: a review.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R W

    1997-07-01

    Modern day injection and recovery techniques designed to examine the transport behavior of microorganisms in groundwater have evolved from experiments conducted in the late 1800s, in which bacteria that form red or yellow pigments were used to trace flow paths through karst and fractured-rock aquifers. A number of subsequent groundwater hydrology studies employed bacteriophage that can be injected into aquifers at very high concentrations (e.g., 10(13) phage ml-1) and monitored through many log units of dilution to follow groundwater flow paths for great distances, particularly in karst terrain. Starting in the 1930s, microbial indicators of fecal contamination (particularly coliform bacteria and their coliphages) were employed as tracers to determine potential migration of pathogens in groundwater. Several injection and recovery experiments performed in the 1990s employed indigenous groundwater microorganisms (both cultured and uncultured) that are better able to survive under in situ conditions. Better methods for labeling native bacteria (e.g. by stable isotope labeling or inserting genetic markers, such as the ability to cause ice nucleation) are being developed that will not compromise the organisms' viability during the experimental time course.

  20. Numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection into liquid metal coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, E. V.; Lobanov, P. D.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Mosunova, N. A.; Chuhno, V. I.; Kutlimetov, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    Presented paper contains results of a numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection in water and liquid metal which have been performed at the Institute of Thermophysics Russian Academy of Science (IT RAS). Obtained experimental data are very important to predict processes that take place in the BREST-type reactor during the hypothetical accident with damage of the steam generator tubes, and may be used as a benchmark to validate thermo-hydraulic codes. Detailed description of models to simulate transport of gas phase in a vertical liquid column is presented in a current paper. Two-fluid model with closing relation for wall friction and interface friction coefficients was used to simulate processes which take place in a liquid during injection of gaseous phase. It has being shown that proposed models allow obtaining a good agreement between experimental data and calculation results.

  1. H.F. emission related to the Li+ ion beam injected into ionosphere - ``PLAZMA'' rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Z.; Zbyszynski, Z.; Agafonov, U. F.; Managadze, G. G.; Mayorov, A. D.

    1993-10-01

    The H.F. emission generated by artificial ion beam injected into ionosphere was observed either with a wave detector and ion gun attached to the rocket through out the flight, or when the gun was deployed on subpayload. Generally the observations show unstructured shape of the H.F. spectrum. In the PLAZMA active rocket experiment - when ionospheric plasma was perturbed by the operation of impulse ion gun, which injected 300 A, 8.3 eV Li+ions - the waves in the 0.1 - 10 MHz frequency range were observed. The results have shown, that when the wave detector and the ion gun are attached to the rocket the emission enhances in the lower as well as in the upper parts of the spectrum. On the other hand only the lower increase is maintained when ion gun is removing away on the subpayload. The observed sequence of H.F. spectra is presented.

  2. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; D. Liu; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-03-25

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I{sub p} {approx} 0.5 MA) and electron density (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented.

  3. Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Experiments for Ground Flow Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbecher, E.; Maier, F.

    2012-04-01

    We present a closer look on the Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Experiment (SWIW) also known as Push-Pull Experiments and its ability to determine the groundwater velocity, as one of the major parameters concerning reservoir management. SWIW are tripartite. One starts with the tracer injection, followed by a quiescence period, where the tracer transport is dominated by the ambient flow field in the reservoir. The last phase is the withdrawal where the tracer break trough curve (BTC) is recorded. From the shape of the BTC, we are able to determine the groundwater velocity. The problem is numerically modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics. We compare with an advanced inversion scheme, based on analytical solutions and implemented in MATLAB. The results show that the BTC of a SWIW experiment is highly dependent on interaction between the parameters for groundwater velocity, pumping rates and the duration of the quiescence phase as well as the reservoir geometry. For the specific tracer applied in the model a minor influence is given by diffusion, dispersion and sorption processes. In dependence of the quiescence time and the groundwater velocity one can distinguish between three characteristic BTC types for the single tracer SWIW. These are given for tracers around the well, tracer between well and stagnation point and tracer beyond the stagnation point. The transition between these different cases is also discussed. The COMSOL Multiphysics model is used to investigate observations from a SWIW experiment performed recently in Japan. The latter is performed in cooperation with Technical University Berlin. Acknowledgements: Gebo, Logro

  4. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, I.; Basaldud, R.; Horikoshi, N.; Okazaki, Y.; Benítez Garcia, S. E.; Ortínez, A.; Ramos Benítez, V. R.; Cárdenas, B.; Wakamatsu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  5. A Cross-Hole, Multi-Year Tracer Injection Experiment in the Volcanic Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.; Neira, N. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Clark, J. F.; Becker, K.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the first cross-hole tracer injection experiment in the volcanic ocean crust. The test site is on 3.5 to 3.6 M.y. old seafloor on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Six borehole subseafloor observatories (CORKs) were installed during three scientific ocean drilling expeditions, five arrayed along a 1 km profile aligned with the strike of underlying abyssal hills (Holes 1026B, 1301A/B, and 1362A/B), and one offset 2.4 km to the east (1027C). Before installing the sixth CORK in Hole 1362B, in 2010, we injected a mixture of tracers (dissolved gas, metal salts, particles) during 24 hours into the upper ocean crust. Seafloor samplers connected CORKs, sampling from different locations in the crust, were recovered during servicing expeditions in 2011 and 2013; downhole samplers that contain records from the full four years following tracer injection will be recovered in Summer 2014. Analyses of dissolved gas tracers collected with wellhead samplers through 2013 suggest that the dominant flow direction in upper basement is south to north, as inferred from regional thermal data and the chemistry of geochemical (pore fluid and borehole) samples. The apparent tracer flow rate in upper basement is on the order of meters/day, but calculations are complicated by an incomplete CORK seal in Hole 1301A, which resulted in discharge from this system that also "pulled" water and tracer to the south. Samples were collected from the tracer injection borehole, Hole 1362B, and a sampling site 200 m to the north, Hole 1362A, beginning one year after tracer injection, after opening a large-diameter ball valve on the wellhead of Hole 1362B to initiate a long-term free flow experiment. Analyses of these samples suggest that much of the tracer injected in 2010 remained close to Hole 1362B rather than being advected and dispersed into the formation. It also appears that much of the tracer transport to Hole 1362A occurred within one or more

  6. Development Of A Methodology For The Application Of Synthetic DNA In Stream Tracer Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppen, J.; Bogaard, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stream tracer injection experiments are useful for characterizing hydrological and biogeochemical processes in streams. We used non-conservative synthetic DNA and conservative NaCl in six instantaneous tracer injection experiments in streams in the Benelux. The main aim was to compare the performance of injected synthetic DNA tracer 'T23' with NaCl. In all experiments, the shapes of the T23 and NaCl breakthrough curves (BTCs) were similar. Recovered T23 mass ranged from 2.9-52.6%, while recovered NaCl tracer mass ranged from 66.7% to complete mass recovery. In batch experiments, T23 decay was not detected. However, in those batches, we observed an unexplained initial T23 mass loss of 40-97%. In batches with sediment, T23 attachment rate coefficients ranged from close to zero to 0.2 hr-1. Advective and dispersive transport parameters of both NaCl and T23 fitted with STAMMT-L were similar. However, compared to T23, fitted storage zone areas of NaCl were 2-5 times larger, while storage zone exchange coefficients were two times larger. Fitted mass dilution factors of T23 ranged from 1.6-34.8. Together, these results pointed towards the disappearance of a part of the T23 mass due to both initial losses and attachment or sorption of T23 mass in those storage zone(s), while decay was not important. Our research demonstrated that artificial DNA can be a valuable tool to determine advective and dispersive transport in brooks, but not to assess solute mass exchange processes related to surface transient storage or hyporheic exchange.

  7. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-12-30

    Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2%) were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2%) participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48), non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39), syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32), and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82). Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9%) reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4%) of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202). Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai prisons.

  8. A self-injection acceleration test experiment for the FLAME laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labate, L.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benedetti, C.; Benocci, R.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Ciricosta, O.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Faccini, R.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Gallo, S.; Fioravanti, S.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Köster, P.; Levato, T.; Lollo, V.; Pace, E.; Pathak, N.; Rossi, A.; Serafini, L.; Turchetti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Valente, P.; Vicario, C.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2010-10-01

    A 250-TW laser system (FLAME - Frascati laser for acceleration and multidisciplinary experiments) is now in its commissioning phase in a new laboratory at LNF-INFN in the framework of the PLASMONX (Plasma acceleration and monochromatic X-ray generation) project. The laser will deliver<25 fs duration pulses with an energy up to 6 J, at a 10 Hz repetition rate. An ad hoc target area has also been designed and is currently being set up, allowing the first test experiments of electron laser wakefield acceleration to be carried out over the next few months in a safe, radiation-protected environment. An overview of the main features of the laser system and target area is given, along with a survey of the design and set-up of the self-injection test experiment, which is expected to reach the production of sub-GeV electron bunches.

  9. Charge-carrier relaxation in disordered organic semiconductors studied by dark injection: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Schaefer, C.; de Groot, J.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of stationary charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors has matured during recent years. However, charge-carrier relaxation in nonstationary situations is still poorly understood. Such relaxation can be studied in dark injection experiments, in which the bias applied over an unilluminated organic semiconductor device is abruptly increased. The resulting transient current reveals both charge-carrier transport and relaxation characteristics. We performed such experiments on hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based organic semiconductor. Modeling the dark injection by solving a one-dimensional master equation using the equilibrium carrier mobility leads to a too-slow current transient, since this approach does not account for carrier relaxation. Modeling by solving a three-dimensional time-dependent master equation does take into account all carrier transport and relaxation effects. With this modeling, the time scale of the current transient is found to be in agreement with experiment. With a disorder strength somewhat smaller than extracted from the temperature-dependent stationary current-voltage characteristics, also the shape of the experimental transients is well described.

  10. The potential of active, in-situ, relativistic electron injection experiments for geospace research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Sanchez, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Active, space-based particle injection experiments have enabled scientific investigations of space plasmas since at least the 1950s. However, these controlled experiments were mainly based on comparatively low energy electron beams (<40 keV) and higher energy experiments have not been undertaken, presumably due in major part to technological unfeasibility. It is now possible to generate relativistic electron beams (500 keV to ~10 MeV) with compact linear accelerators efficiently (~20% wall to beam efficiency is achievable) and with small devices (significant advances in high gradient acceleration have been achieved). We outline the scientific need and technological feasibility of controlled, relativistic, space-based electron beams. Potential scientific investigations include: (a) Atmospheric interactions, involving investigations of ionization and recombination processes, optical and x-ray emissions, modification of the atmosphere potential structure, and discharges; (b) Beam-plasma interactions, which include the interaction of injected relativistic electron beams with whistler waves and the potential generation of VLF signatures via cyclotron and Landau resonances; and (c) Magnetic mapping, including using electron beams as tracers of magnetic field geometry during variable geomagnetic conditions and the wave-particle interactions triggered by the propagation of relativistic electron beams along magnetic field lines.

  11. Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.

    1982-06-01

    Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

  12. I am just a 'maae' (mother): experiences of mothers injecting drugs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2016-09-01

    Mothers who use drugs face much discriminatory action as society in general finds female drug users' modes of caring for their children unacceptable. In this article, I explore the ways in which Thai women's injecting practices revolve around the role of mother 'maae' and the ways they employ tactics to challenge the motherhood discourse. This article draws on in-depth interviews with 30 Thai mothers injecting drugs. Thai mothers injecting drugs struggled with stigma and self-blame. They internalise the values of the mother 'maae', that is, what the mother is supposed to be; attempting to combine their drug use with their parental responsibilities. Having a child is treated as a means for many women to manage the hostile social impacts of being an addict mother as well as anxieties about the future of their children. To maintain identity as a mother, as gender norms dictates, the mothers employ several tactics to defend that identity from the threats. In conclusion, the findings have implications for harm reduction and reproductive services for women using drugs in Thailand; health care providers need to appreciate the ramifications of the lived experiences of the women who take drugs. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. Vas deferens occlusion by percutaneous injection of polyurethane elastomer plugs: clinical experience and reversibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S C

    1990-05-01

    A non-incision method of vas occlusion based on the percutaneous injection of polyurethane elastomer solution to form plugs is described. The results are based on clinical experience in 12,000 men in which only 56 cases of minor complications were recorded. Follow-up of 500 men for up to 3 years demonstrated an azoospermia rate of 98%. Plugs have been removed from 86 men and, to date, 51 have made their wives pregnant. In those from which the plugs have been removed for more than 1 year (n = 31), the pregnancy rate is 100%.

  14. High pressure jet injection of viscous solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD): first clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Pioche, Mathieu; Lépilliez, Vincent; Déprez, Pierre; Giovannini, Marc; Caillol, Fabrice; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rivory, Jérôme; Guillaud, Olivier; Ciocîrlan, Mihai; Salmon, Damien; Lienhart, Isabelle; Lafon, Cyril; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long lasting elevation is a key factor during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and can be obtained by water jet injection of saline solution or by viscous macromolecular solutions. In a previous animal study, we assessed the Nestis Enki II system to combine jet injection and viscous solutions. In the present work, we used this combination in humans in different sites of the digestive tract. Methods: We retrospectively report all of the consecutive ESD procedures performed with jet injection of viscous solutions in four centers. Information was collected about the lesion, the procedure, the histological result, and the outcomes for the patient. Results: In total, 45 resections were completed by six operators: five experts and one beginner with only one previous experience in human ESD. Lesions were located in the esophagus (10), the stomach (11), the duodenum (1), the colon (1) and the rectum (22). Average maximal lesion diameter was 4.8 cm (SD 2.4, range 2 – 11 cm), average lesion surface area was 19.8 cm2 (SD 17.7, range 2.2 – 72 cm2), and average duration of procedure was 79.9 min (SD 50.3 min, range 19 – 225 min). ESD could be conducted while the endoscope was retroflexed at its maximum in 26 cases. Four adverse events were observed: two diminutive perforations and two delayed bleeding occurrences treated conservatively. The R0 resection rate was 91.1 %. The catheter was obstructed in six occurrences of bleeding. Conclusion: Endoscopic submucosal dissection using high pressure injection of viscous macromolecular solutions is safe and effective in different parts of the digestive tract. It does not impede working with the endoscope in the maximal retroflexed position. PMID:26356488

  15. Structures of EccB1 and EccD1 from the core complex of the mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Jonathan M.; Chan, Sum; Evans, Timothy J.; Kahng, Sara; Kim, Jennifer; Arbing, Mark A.; Eisenberg, David; Korotkov, Konstantin V.

    2016-02-27

    The ESX-1 type VII secretion system is an important determinant of virulence in pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This complicated molecular machine secretes folded proteins through the mycobacterial cell envelope to subvert the host immune response. Despite its important role in disease very little is known about the molecular architecture of the ESX-1 secretion system. This study characterizes the structures of the soluble domains of two conserved core ESX-1 components – EccB1 and EccD1. The periplasmic domain of EccB1 consists of 4 repeat domains and a central domain, which together form a quasi 2-fold symmetrical structure. The repeat domains of EccB1 are structurally similar to a known peptidoglycan binding protein suggesting a role in anchoring the ESX-1 system within the periplasmic space. The cytoplasmic domain of EccD1 has a ubiquitin-like fold and forms a dimer with a negatively charged groove. In conclusion, these structures represent a major step towards resolving the molecular architecture of the entire ESX-1 assembly and may contribute to ESX-1 targeted tuberculosis intervention strategies.

  16. Structures of EccB1 and EccD1 from the core complex of the mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Jonathan M.; Chan, Sum; Evans, Timothy J.; ...

    2016-02-27

    The ESX-1 type VII secretion system is an important determinant of virulence in pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This complicated molecular machine secretes folded proteins through the mycobacterial cell envelope to subvert the host immune response. Despite its important role in disease very little is known about the molecular architecture of the ESX-1 secretion system. This study characterizes the structures of the soluble domains of two conserved core ESX-1 components – EccB1 and EccD1. The periplasmic domain of EccB1 consists of 4 repeat domains and a central domain, which together form a quasi 2-fold symmetrical structure. The repeat domains ofmore » EccB1 are structurally similar to a known peptidoglycan binding protein suggesting a role in anchoring the ESX-1 system within the periplasmic space. The cytoplasmic domain of EccD1 has a ubiquitin-like fold and forms a dimer with a negatively charged groove. In conclusion, these structures represent a major step towards resolving the molecular architecture of the entire ESX-1 assembly and may contribute to ESX-1 targeted tuberculosis intervention strategies.« less

  17. Transient Changes in Shallow Groundwater Chemistry During the MSU-ZERT CO2 Injection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Apps, J. A.; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thordsen, J. J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field experiment at Bozeman, Montana, is designed to evaluate atmospheric and near-surface monitoring and detection techniques applicable to the potential leakage of CO2 from deep storage reservoirs. However, the experiment also affords an excellent opportunity to investigate the transient changes in groundwater chemical composition in response to increasing CO2 partial pressures. Between July 9 and August 7, 2008, 300 kg/day of food-grade CO2 was injected into shallow groundwater through a horizontal perforated pipe about 2-2.3 m below the ground surface. Changes in groundwater quality were investigated through comprehensive chemical analyses of 80 water samples taken before, during and following CO2 injection from 10 shallow observation wells located 1-6 m from the injection pipe, and from two distant monitoring wells. Field and laboratory analyses suggest rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of both major and trace element species. A principal component analysis and independent thermodynamic interpretation of the water quality analyses were conducted. Results were interpreted in conjunction with a mineralogical characterization of the shallow sediments and a review of historical records of the chemical composition of rainfall at neighboring monitoring sites. The interpretation permitted tentative identification of a complex array of adsorption/desorption, ion exchange, precipitation/dissolution, oxidation/reduction and infiltration processes that were operative during the test. Geochemical modeling was conducted using TOUGHREACT to test whether the observed water quality changes were consistent with the hypothesized processes, and very good agreement was obtained with respect to the behavior of both major and trace elements.

  18. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length < 15mm) this investigation concentrates on the prediction of the local mechanical properties of an injection molded part. To realize this, the Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  19. The electric field structure of auroral arcs as determined from barium plasma injection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Barium plasma injection experiments have revealed a number of features of electric fields in and near auroral forms extending from a few hundred to many thousands of km in altitude. There is evidence for V-type potential structures over some auroras, but not in others. For some auroral arcs, large E fields are found at ionospheric altitudes outside the arc but the E field inside the arc is near zero. In a few other auroras, most recently one investigated in an experiment conducted from Poker Flat on March 22, 1980, large, rapidly fluctuating E fields were detected by barium plasma near 600 km altitude. These E fields suggest that the motion of auroral rays can be an effect of low-altitude electric fields, or that V-type potential structures may be found at low altitudes.

  20. Determination of physical properties in injection molded composites using the design of experiments method

    SciTech Connect

    Hawks, V.; Saunders, D.; Strong, A.B.; Cole, D. )

    1992-07-01

    The benefits of using Design of Experiments (DOE) for determining effects of critical factors are significantly greater than using one-at-a-time experimental techniques. The volume and validity of the information gained from DOE, especially for manufacturing processes, is very high due to the strong statistical basis of the method and highly organized nature of the results. The use of DOE is described in the case of injection molding of composites to improve and better understand the effects of critical factors on the physical properties of the finished parts. The factors, fiber length, fiber concentration, part temperature, and mold thickness, were tested using a full factorial experiment. The results demonstrated the significance of the factors and their interactions on tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and elongation.

  1. Refractive results after phacoemulsification and ECCE. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dam-Johansen, M; Olsen, T

    1993-06-01

    The refractive results were evaluated in 79 patients undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification using a 6-7 mm tunnel incision, and compared with a group of 77 patients undergoing planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) by the same surgeon. A mean increase in the keratometric cylinder of 0.05D and 0.52D was found in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. This was significantly different from zero for the extracapsular cataract extraction group (p < 0.05) but not for the phacoemulsification group (p > 0.05). By vector analysis, the mean surgically induced astigmatism was 0.91D and 1.36D in the phacoemulsification and the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively (p < 0.01). The IOL power prediction error (spectacle plane) was found to be 0.17D (+/- 0.69 SD) in the phacoemulsification group and 0.02 D (+/- 0.79 SD) in the extracapsular cataract extraction group, respectively. We conclude that phacoemulsification improves the surgical control of the refractive outcome of cataract surgery.

  2. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2%) were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2%) participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48), non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39), syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32), and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82). Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9%) reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4%) of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202). Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai prisons. PMID:20042105

  3. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann; Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  4. Early childhood caries (ECC): a preventive-conservative treatment mode during a 12-month period.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Benjamin; Gluck, George

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate a preventive treatment mode for early childhood caries (ECC). The population to be studied included 30 children who, over a 12-month period, presented with ECC to a private dental clinic. Parents preferred non-invasive, preventive treatment over restorations. Parents were given hygiene and proper feeding instructions. Mesial slicing was performed where proximal caries was observed. Children were examined once every two months. They received supervised professional topical fluoride treatment. Plaque level, brushing, stopping the bottle, eating sweets, appearance of new lesions or exacerbation of existing condition were observed and recorded. In the vast majority of patients, the progression of ECC was arrested after the preventive regimen. Three children required restorations. They had failed to limit sugar consumption and to comply with brushing instruction. General improvement was observed in plaque control, brushing habits and sweets consumption. Preventive measures may successfully arrest ECC and thereby avoid invasive procedures as well as the need of anesthesia.

  5. Is peer injecting a form of intimate partner abuse? A qualitative study of the experiences of women drug users.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nat M J; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Sheard, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Women are over-represented as the recipients of injections of illicit drugs and are often injected by their intimate partners. This study used qualitative research to explore women drug users' experiences of abuse from intimate partners when being injected with illicit drugs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women drug users in the city of Leeds and the area of North Nottinghamshire, UK. The practice of peer injecting illicit drugs places women recipients at risk of physical, economic and emotional abuse from their male intimate partner injectors. However, this was not a universal feature. In trusting, supportive intimate partner relationships peer injecting took place through reciprocal arrangements. Moving away from peer injecting was technically and emotionally difficult for women and rarely straightforward. The implications of the work are discussed as clinicians and wider drug service staff should be aware of the possibility of abuse and enquire about peer injecting when consulting with women injecting drug users. However, clinicians should avoid working within a simplistic clinical framework that views all peer injecting as intrinsically abusive. More research is needed to provide evidence for best practice. Until then, generic principles of best practice management of intimate partner abuse could apply, including enhancing women's motivation to effect change in an abusive situation.

  6. The Psychosocial Consequences of BOTOX Injections for Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Maronian, Nicole C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial consequences of BOTOX® (Allergan, Inc. Irvine, CA) treatment for spasmodic dysphonia (SD). This article also explores how patients judge the success of treatment and make decisions about future treatment based on psychosocial issues relevant to them. Study Design This study follows the phenomenological tradition of qualitative inquiry in which the objective is to explore the lived experiences of a group of persons who share a common phenomenon, in this case receiving BOTOX injections for SD. Methods Six adults with SD who had been receiving BOTOX injections on a long-term basis participated in face-to-face interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to phenomenological guidelines to identify consistent themes as well as differences among participants’ experiences. Results The results are summarized in three primary themes that suggest (1) participants’ experiences vary over time based on changes in factors such as lifestyle and personal priorities; (2) BOTOX has multidimensional psychosocial implications in physical, personal, and social domains; and (3) participants individualize their treatment regimens, taking into consideration the burden of treatment, scheduling priorities, and other strategies to maximize the benefits of BOTOX. Conclusions Based on this study, suggestions are provided for future research into a psychosocial outcome measurement, including longitudinal evaluations that accommodate changing patient priorities over time; multidimensional evaluations that incorporate physical, personal, and social issues; evaluations that include a measure of the burden of treatment; and evaluations that support a shared decision-making model with the voice clinicians. PMID:16564675

  7. Determinants of early childhood caries (ECC) in a rural Manitoba community: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Robert J; Moffatt, Michael E K

    2005-01-01

    Preschool oral health is often overlooked as an important aspect of childhood health and well-being. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the dental status of 3-year-old children in the community of Carman, Manitoba, Canada; and (2) identify the principal determinants of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in 2 consecutive years. All children and mothers attending a preschool health screening fair were invited to participate. Study procedures included a retrospective interview with parents and dental examination of the child. Statistical analyses included ANOVA, chi-square, and multiple regression. A P value of <.05 denoted significance. A total of 61 children participated (mean age=45.7+/-3.4 months). The prevalence of ECC was 44%, while the mean deft was 2+/-3.3. Increased caries activity and ECC were associated with lower maternal level of education (P<.01). Family size was associated with deft scores (P=.03) while the presence of debris was also associated with ECC (P<.05). ECC prevalence among these 3-year-olds is less than exhibited among other Canadian preschool children. Factors associated with ECC included debris on the primary teeth and low maternal education. Factors most associated with increased caries activity included low maternal education and increased family size. In addition, parents were able to reliably assess their child's dental health status. Larger epidemiological studies of ECC are needed to better assess prevalence and risk factors. Such data may, therefore, assist in identifying those children at greatest risk for ECC. It may also help in the redirection of scarce resources to effective preventive oral health interventions, as these children have an increased caries burden along the continuum of childhood.

  8. Comparison of Subjective Experiences and Effectiveness of First-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Risperidone Long-Acting Injectables in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted.

  9. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Under a Natural Environment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Emily N; Li, Victor C

    2013-07-15

    This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF) and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events.

  10. Differential experiences of Mexican policing by people who inject drugs residing in Tijuana and San Diego.

    PubMed

    Wood, Emily F; Werb, Dan; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Cuevas Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wagner, Karla D

    2017-03-01

    powerlessness. This was less common among San Diego-based participants, who mostly attempted to avoid contact with LEOs in Mexico while engaging in risky injection behavior. Experiences of discrimination and stigma were reported by a larger proportion of PWIDs living in Mexico, suggesting that they may be subject to greater health harms related to policing practices compared with those residing in the USA. Our findings reinforce the importance of efforts to curb abuse and align policing practices with public health goals in both the US and Mexico. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in permeability of the Nojima fault damage zone inferred from repeated water injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kano, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    In 1995, the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake ( M 7.3) ruptured the Nojima fault, Awaji Island, central Japan. To investigate the recovery process of a fault zone after a large earthquake, repeated water injection experiments have been conducted every few years in an 1800-m-long borehole near the Nojima fault since 1997. In addition, the groundwater discharge rate and pressure have been observed in an 800-m borehole. From the resulting data, the macroscopic permeability of the fault fracture zone was estimated to range roughly from 1 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-6 m/s. The macroscopic permeability of the fault fracture zone decreased until 2003, and then, it stabilized or increased slightly through 2006. These changes in permeability indicate that the fault fracture zone stabilized within 8 years after the occurrence of the earthquake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Laser Blow-Off Impurity Injection Experiments at the HSX Stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Likin, K. M.; Talmadge, J. N.; Zhai, K.; Lore, J.

    2011-10-01

    Experiments are under way to measure impurity transport in a quasisymmetric stellarator for the first time. A laser blow-off impurity injection system, which is capable of rapidly depositing a small, controlled quantity of a wide variety of solid impurities into the confinement volume, has been installed and successfully tested. AXUV photodiode arrays equipped with optional soft x-ray filters have also been installed on the machine. The arrays will take time-resolved measurements of the impurity radiation, which will be inverted into radial profile and then interpreted using the transport code, STRAHL and atomic data from ADAS to determine the transport coefficients within the paradigm of a diffusivity and convective velocity. Details of the system and first results will be presented along with PENTA calculations of the neoclassical predicted impurity transport Work supported by US DOE contracts DE-FG02-01ER54615 and DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  13. Transport simulations of the pre-thermal-quench phase in ASDEX Upgrade massive gas injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fable, E.; Pautasso, G.; Lehnen, M.; Dux, R.; Bernert, M.; Mlynek, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-02-01

    The pre-thermal-quench (PTQ) phase of the massive gas injection (MGI) scenario to terminate the tokamak plasma discharge is studied by means of one-dimensional (1D) transport simulations. This phase is characterized by the cold-front penetration in the hot plasma after the gas has been released from the valves, and before the actual thermal quench takes place, with consequent plasma disruption at lower stored energy. The comparison between the simulations and the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) experiments allows to gain insight in the observed dependencies and time scales. Despite the genuine three-dimensional structure of the problem, it is shown that the 1D simulations are already giving experimentally relevant answers, the reason for which will be discussed in detail. Influence of unknown parameters and simplifying assumptions are also discussed.

  14. VUV spectroscopy in impurity injection experiments at KSTAR using prototype ITER VUV spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, C. R.; Hong, J. H.; Song, I.; Jang, J.; Lee, H. Y.; An, Y. H.; Kim, B. S.; Jeon, T. M.; Park, J. S.; Choe, W.; Lee, H. G.; Pak, S.; Cheon, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Biel, W.; Bernascolle, P.; Barnsley, R.

    2017-08-01

    The ITER vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) core survey spectrometer has been designed as a 5-channel spectral system so that the high spectral resolving power of 200-500 could be achieved in the wavelength range of 2.4-160 nm. To verify the design of the ITER VUV core survey spectrometer, a two-channel prototype spectrometer was developed. As a subsequent step of the prototype test, the prototype VUV spectrometer has been operated at KSTAR since the 2012 experimental campaign. From impurity injection experiments in the years 2015 and 2016, strong emission lines, such as Kr xxv 15.8 nm, Kr xxvi 17.9 nm, Ne vii 46.5 nm, Ne vi 40.2 nm, and an array of largely unresolved tungsten lines (14-32 nm) could be measured successfully, showing the typical photon number of 1013-1015 photons/cm2 s.

  15. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  16. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  17. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  18. Implementation and verification of different ECC mitigation designs for BRAMs in flash-based FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Liu, Jie; Su, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Embedded RAM blocks (BRAMs) in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are susceptible to single event effects (SEEs) induced by environmental factors such as cosmic rays, heavy ions, alpha particles and so on. As technology scales, the issue will be more serious. In order to tackle this issue, two different error correcting codes (ECCs), the shortened Hamming codes and shortened BCH codes, are investigated in this paper. The concrete design methods of the codes are presented. Also, the codes are both implemented in flash-based FPGAs. Finally, the synthesis report and simulation results are presented in the paper. Moreover, heavy-ion experiments are performed, and the experimental results indicate that the error cross-section of the device using the shortened Hamming codes can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the device without mitigation, and no errors are discovered in the experiments for the device using the shortened BCH codes. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079045, 11179003 and 11305233)

  19. Object-based inversion of crosswell radar tomography data to monitor vegetable oil injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Jr., John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2004-01-01

    Crosswell radar methods can be used to dynamically image ground-water flow and mass transport associated with tracer tests, hydraulic tests, and natural physical processes, for improved characterization of preferential flow paths and complex aquifer heterogeneity. Unfortunately, because the raypath coverage of the interwell region is limited by the borehole geometry, the tomographic inverse problem is typically underdetermined, and tomograms may contain artifacts such as spurious blurring or streaking that confuse interpretation.We implement object-based inversion (using a constrained, non-linear, least-squares algorithm) to improve results from pixel-based inversion approaches that utilize regularization criteria, such as damping or smoothness. Our approach requires pre- and post-injection travel-time data. Parameterization of the image plane comprises a small number of objects rather than a large number of pixels, resulting in an overdetermined problem that reduces the need for prior information. The nature and geometry of the objects are based on hydrologic insight into aquifer characteristics, the nature of the experiment, and the planned use of the geophysical results.The object-based inversion is demonstrated using synthetic and crosswell radar field data acquired during vegetable-oil injection experiments at a site in Fridley, Minnesota. The region where oil has displaced ground water is discretized as a stack of rectangles of variable horizontal extents. The inversion provides the geometry of the affected region and an estimate of the radar slowness change for each rectangle. Applying petrophysical models to these results and porosity from neutron logs, we estimate the vegetable-oil emulsion saturation in various layers.Using synthetic- and field-data examples, object-based inversion is shown to be an effective strategy for inverting crosswell radar tomography data acquired to monitor the emplacement of vegetable-oil emulsions. A principal advantage of

  20. One, Two, and Three Dimensional Simulations of Laboratory Beam-Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Wong, A. Y.; Cheung, P. Y.

    2000-10-01

    We present the results of three-dimensional fully kinetic simulations of UCLA laboratory experiments,(A. Y. Wong and P. Y. Cheung, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 52, 1222 (1984) which were the first experiments to show Langmuir-wave collapse in a beam-driven plasma. Our massively-parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations model the continuous injection of a fast (v_b=20v_e), cold (Δ vb = Δ v_e), and weak (n_b/n_0=0.005) beam, which is comparable to that used in the laboratory experiments. By comparing the results of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D simulations with one another and with laboratory measurements, we address the role of dimensionality on key phases of the evolution of beam-driven Langmuir turbulence. Of particular interest are the localization of intense Langmuir wave packets and the subsequent deepening of quasineutral density depressions due to the hydrodynamic response of ions to the ponderomotive force of the localized Langmuir waves. A variety of visualization tools will be employed in the analysis of the three-dimensional turbulence.

  1. An analysis of the SCEX 3 ionospheric electron beam injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goerke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The SCEX 3 experiment (Several Compatible EXperiments using a rocket-borne accelerator) was carried to ionospheric altitudes (375 km) by a Black Brant 11 rocket on February 1, 1990. The experiment was launched from Poker Flat Research Range (65.1 degree N, 147.5 degree W) at 1207 UT. The payload split into two parts (hereafter forward and aft payloads) 116 seconds after launch. The aft payload carried two electron accelerators as well as several diagnostic instruments. The forward payload was ejected at an angle of 6 degree with the magnetic field in a northwesterly direction. This payload carried a multiband plasma wave receiver and various particle detectors to make in situ measurements of the Beam Plasma Interaction (BPI) region. Two Throw Away Detectors (TAD's 1 and 2) were also ejected from the aft payload in the east and west directions respectively. TAD 1 also carried a multiband plasma wave receiver. Preceding the launch an auroral arch along the southern boundary of a diffuse auroral patch suddenly brightened, split into two separate arcs and moved to a position north of the rocket's trajectory. SCEX 3 was launched into an active breakup aurora consisting of tall rays and diffuse patches. The purpose of this experiment were (1) to observe injected electrons reflected from the naturally occurring parallel electric field structures which are thought to accelerate the auroral electron, (2) to observe a variety of plasma effects caused by the artificial electron beam and the associated spacecraft charging, and (3) study the natural phenomena associated with auroral activity. This work is a summary of the interesting observations made by the SCEX 3 experiment. These observations include VHF emissions produced by the electron beam via the Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD), Diffuse resonance emissions by the hot plasma region surrounding the electron beam and auroral Z-mode emissions.

  2. Satellite and correlative measurements of stratospheric ozone - Comparison of measurements made by SAGE, ECC balloons, chemiluminescent, and optical rocketsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The validity of ozone-profile data from the satellite sensor SAGE was tested in a series of correlative experiments conducted at five fixed sites between 6 deg S and 65 deg N during 1979-1980. The intercomparisons included data taken with electrochemical ozone (ECC) balloonsondes and chemiluminescent and optical rocketsondes. The average mean difference for 17 separate comparisons between the SAGE and ECC balloonsonde observations over the altitudes 18-28 km was 9.3 percent with a standard deviation of 2.8 percent. Excluding comparisons separated by greater than 500 km reduces the average mean difference to 8.9 percent and the standard deviation to 2.1 percent. The average mean difference between SAGE and three optical rocketsonde observations over the altitudes 25-50 km was 11 percent, and between SAGE and two chemiluminescent rocketsondes over the altitudes 20-60 km it was 13.5 percent. Considering the differences in vertical resolution, experimental errors, and ozone time and space gradients, the agreement between SAGE-derived ozone profiles and these correlative measurements is considered very good. In addition, isopleths of ozone mixing ratio versus latitude and altitude are in good agreement with previously published results.

  3. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper we will detail the progress of the HIT experiment construction, including the following components: preliminary data and interpretation; diagnostic systems; vacuum vessel and pumping system; helicity source and power supplies; toroidal field coil and power supply; data acquisition system; collaboration with general atomics, with a brief summary given on each.

  4. Results from semiscale MOD-2A upper head injection test series. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Shimeck, D.J.; Leonard, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    A series of small break loss-of-coolant (SBLOCA) experiments and associated RELAP5/MOD computer code calculations have been performed by the Semiscale Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate the influence of upper head injection (UHI) on transient response. A UHI system, as designed for pressurized water reactors (PWR's), has an 8.7-MPa accumulator that injects emergency core coolant (ECC) directly into the upper head of the reactor vessel, and loop accumulators nominally pressurized to 2.86 MPa (as opposed to 4.14 MPa in a standard design). Since this configuration was optimized based upon large break LOCA calculations the experiments were requested by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to assist in evaluating system performance for SBLOCA's.

  5. Case definition, aetiology and risk assessment of early childhood caries (ECC): a revisited review.

    PubMed

    Vadiakas, G

    2008-09-01

    To provide a review of the existing literature on early childhood caries (ECC) with particular reference on the nomenclature, case definition, epidemiology, etiology and risk assessment. An electronic search was used to identify and critically review papers that have been published and are pertinent to the above issues, evaluate and compile the reported evidence. The term ECC has been adopted to more accurately describe dental caries that affects primary dentitions, replacing previously used terminology that associated the disease with the nursing habit. Suggested ECC case definition uses caries patterns as defining criteria, however, further refinement to include different clinical expressions of a varying severity is necessary. Significant percentages of preschool child populations are affected by ECC today, with the disease concentrating disproportionately in deprived families. Early colonization by mutans streptococci (MS) is associated with increased ECC development, with bacteria being transmitted in both vertical and horizontal ways. Dietary factors related to sugar consumption predispose to early MS colonization and establishment and increase the risk for ECC development, being part of the causal chain. Inappropriate bottle and breast-feeding behaviors also increase the risk, without showing a direct causal relationship. High risk children belong to ethnic minority groups and to low income families with poor parental behaviors and attitudes. Further high-quality studies are needed to explore the role bacteria other than MS may play in caries initiation and progression, elucidate the interaction of the saliva immune defence system with a potentially defective tooth, and investigate the effect distant behavioral factors have on the causal chain that leads to ECC development.

  6. The experience of initiating injection drug use and its social context: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guise, Andy; Horyniak, Danielle; Melo, Jason; McNeil, Ryan; Werb, Dan

    2017-07-22

    Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature systematically to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. We searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS and SSCI) systematically, along with a manual search, including key journals and subject experts. Peer-reviewed studies were included if they qualitatively explored experiences of or socio-structural contexts for injection drug use initiation. A thematic synthesis approach was used to identify descriptive and analytical themes throughout studies. From 1731 initial results, 41 studies reporting data from 1996 participants were included. We developed eight descriptive themes and two analytical (higher-order) themes. The first analytical theme focused on injecting initiation resulting from a social process enabled and constrained by socio-structural factors: social networks and individual interactions, socialization into drug-using identities and choices enabled and constrained by social context all combine to produce processes of injection initiation. The second analytical theme addressed pathways that explore varying meanings attached to injection initiation and how they link to social context: seeking pleasure, responses to increasing tolerance to drugs, securing belonging and identity and coping with pain and trauma. Qualitative research shows that injection drug use initiation has varying and distinct meanings for individuals involved and is a dynamic process shaped by social and structural factors. Interventions should therefore respond to the socio-structural influences on injecting drug use initiation by seeking to modify the contexts for initiation, rather than solely prioritizing the reduction of individual

  7. Experiments and analysis of drainage displacement processes relevant to carbon dioxide injection.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Saman A; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2012-12-01

    The motivation for this work is a dramatically improved understanding of the fluid mechanics of drainage processes with applications such as CO_{2} storage in saline aquifers and water-alternating-gas injection as an enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper we present in situ distributions of wetting and nonwetting fluids obtained during core-scale two-phase immiscible drainage experiments. The ratio of the viscosity of the resident fluid to that of the invading fluid varies across a range of 0.43 to 150. Saturation distributions observed during dynamic displacement experiments are surprisingly smooth and do not display only one or a few dominant fingers, contrary to the indications of the current literature. The analysis of the saturation distribution using the fractal dimensions of the dynamic three-dimensional saturation distributions suggests that the constitutive relationships for porous media, namely, the relative permeability functions, are history dependent. Accordingly, it is suggested that the nonlinear, unstable flow regime is the regime where efforts to improve physical understanding must be focused.

  8. Design of an Experiment on Wakefield Acceleration on the VEPP-5 Injection Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Burdakov, A.V.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Logatchov, P.V.; Lotov, K.V.; Petrenko, A.V.; Skrinsky, A.N.

    2005-04-15

    Relativistic beams produced by the VEPP-5 injection complex (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences) can be used to generate plasma waves with a longitudinal electric field of 1 GV/m. A part of the electron (or positron) driver bunch is accelerated by this field over a distance of up to 1 m. The main advantage of the proposed design over the previous wakefield acceleration experiments is the beam preparation system capable of compressing bunches to a length of {sigma}{sub z} 0.1 mm in the longitudinal direction and producing an optimal longitudinal profile of the beam density. The main parameters of the planned device are as follows: the electron energy at the entrance to the plasma is 510 MeV, the number of particles in the bunch is 2 x 10{sup 10}, the plasma density is up to 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, the number of accelerated particles is up to 3 x 10{sup 9}, and their energy spread is less than 10%. The physical project of the experiment is presented, and the results of computer simulations of the beam-plasma interaction are described.

  9. In Silico and In Vivo Experiments Reveal M-CSF Injections Accelerate Regeneration Following Muscle Laceration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kyle S; Kegelman, Christopher D; Virgilio, Kelley M; Passipieri, Julianna A; Christ, George J; Blemker, Silvia S; Peirce, Shayn M

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have pharmacologically modulated the muscle milieu in the hopes of promoting muscle regeneration; however, the timing and duration of these interventions are difficult to determine. This study utilized a combination of in silico and in vivo experiments to investigate how inflammation manipulation improves muscle recovery following injury. First, we measured macrophage populations following laceration injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA). Then we calibrated an agent-based model (ABM) of muscle injury to mimic the observed inflammation profiles. The calibrated ABM was used to simulate macrophage and satellite stem cell (SC) dynamics, and suggested that delivering macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) prior to injury would promote SC-mediated injury recovery. Next, we performed an experiment wherein 1 day prior to injury, we injected M-CSF into the rat TA muscle. M-CSF increased the number of macrophages during the first 4 days post-injury. Furthermore, treated muscles experienced a swifter increase in the appearance of PAX7(+) SCs and regenerating muscle fibers. Our study suggests that computational models of muscle injury provide novel insights into cellular dynamics during regeneration, and further, that pharmacologically altering inflammation dynamics prior to injury can accelerate the muscle regeneration process.

  10. A discrete choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injection devices in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shingler, S L; Swinburn, P; Ali, S; Perard, R; Lloyd, A J

    2013-08-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually managed with disease modifying drugs (DMDs), most commonly administered via self-injection. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence that different treatment-related attributes have for MS patients on their choice of MS DMD device. By establishing the relative importance of these characteristics for patients it should be possible to better understand the acceptability of a given device and to optimize the development of future devices. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed on the basis of a review of published literature. Attributes identified for inclusion in the survey were: ease of use; comfort of use; presence of additional functions, needle visibility; practicality and efficacy. Choice sets were presented as pairs of hypothetical treatments based upon a fractional factorial design. One-hundred device-using MS patients completed the survey online. Analysis was conducted using a mixed-logit approach. Analysis of the DCE data revealed that all attributes significantly predicted treatment choice. Efficacy exhibited the largest effect on treatment selection and this provided context for understanding the magnitude of impact for the other attributes. Reducing the discomfort associated with device use and eliminating the necessity for assembly or drug reconstitution were highly valued. The addition of reminder and time-stamping functions, improved needlestick injury prevention, and reduction in device size were secondary concerns but still deemed desirable. Efficacy is of primary importance to MS patients, but characteristics of drug delivery devices can play an important role in treatment decision-making. Not all device characteristics could be included, and results are based upon 100 participants only. Findings suggest there is significant potential value in developing self-injection devices that are not only efficacious but also convenient and comfortable to use. Reducing barriers

  11. Experiences with urine drug testing by police among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence and risks of early childhood caries (ECC) in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Leake, James L

    2010-10-14

    To determine the prevalence and risks of early childhood caries (ECC) among children less than 71 months of age in Toronto, Canada, and to evaluate the association between parental/caregiver depression and ECC. A secondary analysis of data previously collected by the Toronto Public Health as part of the 2003 Toronto Perinatal and Child Health Survey was performed. The 90-item survey was conducted over the telephone to 1,000 families with children from zero years (birth) to six years of age. Parents/caregivers were asked about factors related to the development and health of their children. For this study, only children younger than six years of age (less than 71 months) were included (n=833). The primary outcome of interest was self-reported and measured by the response to the question of whether a physician/dentist had ever told the parent/caregiver his/her child had ECC. The prevalence of ECC was 4.7 percent (37 of 791 children). The child's age, his/her history of dental visits, teeth brushing, the use of fluoridated toothpaste, the parent's/caregiver's depressive tendencies, the language spoken at home, and the household annual income were all significant in the bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression identified four factors associated with ECC: the child's age (being three years of age or older), having at least one parent/caregiver with depression, not speaking English at home, and having an annual household income less than $40,000 in Canadian dollars (CAD). While a child's age, home language, and household income are known risks for ECC, the finding that parental/caregiver depression may be related to ECC is new. Multiple risk factors are involved in the development of early childhood caries. Of particular importance are demographic (e.g., child's age), social (e.g., annual household income), and psychosocial factors (e.g., parental/caregiver depression) that are indirectly linked to ECC. More attention needs to be placed on understanding the role

  13. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  14. Treatment readiness, attitudes toward, and experiences with methadone and buprenorphine maintenance therapy among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experiences with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), higher stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics aimed at improving entry into and

  15. Treatment readiness, attitudes toward, and experiences with methadone and buprenorphine maintenance therapy among people who inject drugs in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experience with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. Conclusion There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics

  16. Ultrasound-guided injection for the biceps brachii tendinitis: results and experience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Ebraheim, Nabil; Lause, Gregory E

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the results of ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid for biceps brachii tendinitis. In this randomized and prospective study, we evaluated 45 patients who were treated by free-hand injection without ultrasound guidance (group A) and 53 patients who were treated by ultrasound-guided injection (group B). The mean age was 47 y (range, 28 to 72). The average follow-up was 33 weeks (range, 24 to 56). The visual analog scale score decreased from 7.1 ± 2.3 before injection to 4.2 ± 3.1 at follow-up in group A and from 6.9 ± 2.6 to 2.1 ± 1.9 in group B (p < 0.05). The Constant-Murley score improved from 31.4 ± 11.6 before injection to 73.5 ± 19.2 at follow-up in group A and from 32.5 ± 14.7 to 85.5 ± 10.3 (p < 0.01). The ultrasound-guided injection therefore demonstrated a statistically significantly greater degree of pain relief. However, the outcome of injection was not satisfactory for the patients who demonstrated severely frayed tendons at arthroscopy. There were no complications related to the injection in both groups. Corticosteroid injection under ultrasound guidance is a safe and well-tolerated procedure with a satisfactory rate of symptom relief in patients with biceps brachii tendinitis.

  17. Neutral Beam Injection System for the C-2W Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Alexander; Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team; BINP Team

    2016-10-01

    C-2U Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment proved substantial reduction in turbulence-driven losses via tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) coupled with electrically biased plasma guns at the plasma ends. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (more than 5 ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without beams. To further improve FRC sustainment and demonstrate the FRC ramp-up, the C-2U experimental device is undergoing a major upgrade. The upgrade, C-2W, will have a new NBI system producing a record total hydrogen beam power of 20 + MW in a 30ms pulse. The NBI system consists of eight positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. Four out of eight NBI injectors have a capability to switch the beam energy during a shot from the initial 15 keV to 40 keV at a constant beam current. This feature allows to increase the beam energy and thereby optimize the beam-plasma coupling during the magnetic field ramp up. This presentation provides an overview of the C-2W NBI system, including the design of the switchable energy injectors, layout of the power supply system, and results of the prototype testing.

  18. Electron beam injection experiments - The beam-plasma discharge at low pressures and magnetic field strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.; Leinbach, H.; Kellogg, P.; Monson, S.; Hallinan, T.; Garriott, O. K.; Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J.; Daly, P.; Baker, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes electron beam injection experiments which clarify observational results obtained in rocket flights. A column of enhanced density plasma, exceeding the density expected from ionization by primary beam electrons, was observed in a large vacuum system at low magnetic fields (1 to 1.5 G) and low ambient pressures (10 to the minus 6 to 10 to the minus 5 torr). The peak luminosity of the discharge was about 10 times that of the beam alone, and the radius increased by a factor of three. In the absence of the discharge, RF emission is observed at 1.1 to 1.2 times the cyclotron frequency, and a strong band of RF noise with upper frequency cutoff at about the cyclotron frequency is observed in the discharge mode, along with higher frequency noise at or near the plasma frequency. The onset of the plasma discharge is critically dependent on beam current. The described results agree with observations obtained at much higher densities and magnetic fields in fusion research studies.

  19. Blood Trials: Transfusions, Injections, and Experiments in Africa, 1890–1920

    PubMed Central

    Sunseri, Thaddeus

    2016-01-01

    From about 1880 to 1920, a culture of medical experimentation promoted blood transfusion as a therapy for severe anemia in Europe, which was applied in German East Africa in 1892 for a case of blackwater fever, a complication of malaria afflicting mainly Europeans. This first case of blood transfusion in Africa, in which an African's blood was transfused into a German official, complicates the dominant narrative that blood transfusions in Africa came only after World War I. Medical researchers moreover experimented with blood serum therapies on human and animal subjects in Europe and Africa, injecting blood of different species, “races” and ethnicities into others to demonstrate parasite transmissibility and to discover vaccines for diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness, and yellow fever. While research in German colonies is highlighted here, this was a transnational medical culture that crossed borders and oceans. This research is of interest as a possible early pathway for the epidemic spread of HIV and other zoonoses in Africa and the world, which biomedical researchers have identified as emerging in West-Central Africa sometime around the turn of the twentieth century. PMID:26514397

  20. Blood Trials: Transfusions, Injections, and Experiments in Africa, 1890-1920.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, Thaddeus

    2016-07-01

    From about 1880 to 1920, a culture of medical experimentation promoted blood transfusion as a therapy for severe anemia in Europe, which was applied in German East Africa in 1892 for a case of blackwater fever, a complication of malaria afflicting mainly Europeans. This first case of blood transfusion in Africa, in which an African's blood was transfused into a German official, complicates the dominant narrative that blood transfusions in Africa came only after World War I. Medical researchers moreover experimented with blood serum therapies on human and animal subjects in Europe and Africa, injecting blood of different species, "races" and ethnicities into others to demonstrate parasite transmissibility and to discover vaccines for diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness, and yellow fever. While research in German colonies is highlighted here, this was a transnational medical culture that crossed borders and oceans. This research is of interest as a possible early pathway for the epidemic spread of HIV and other zoonoses in Africa and the world, which biomedical researchers have identified as emerging in West-Central Africa sometime around the turn of the twentieth century. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Laboratory experiments in the argon plasma perturbed by injections of the electronegative gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Cao, Jin-xiang; Liu, Yu; Yu, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Zhong-kai

    2016-07-01

    In this study, laboratory observations of the perturbations of the magnetic field are reported due to the injection of attachment chemicals (CF4, SF6, and CO2) into argon plasmas. Besides the well-known electron density reduction, we also observed magnetic field perturbation in the experiment. The measured induced voltage B ˙ , which is taken as a proxy of the time-changing electromagnetic field, fluctuates in the boundary layer between the ambient plasmas and negative ions plasmas. Perturbations of the magnetic field were investigated by changing the ambient pressure and ratio of attachment chemicals. The measured B ˙ keeps increasing in these lower pressures; but it no longer increases as the ambient pressure higher than a threshold, e.g., for CF4, SF6, and CO2, the transition pressure is 6Pa, 5Pa and 4Pa, respectively. The magnitude of the B ˙ increase with the change of the ratio of release flow until at higher ratios, e.g., 40%. We transformed these time-sampled data into the frequency domain and found coherent modes with fundamental frequencies lying in the lower hybrid range. In addition, these coherent frequencies show a frequency drift with the increase of the contents of the negative ions. These modes were suggested as the magnetic component of electron-ion hybrid mode. This work has an important application in the study of artificially-created ionospheric depletion which is usually generated by releasing of attachment chemicals in the upper atmosphere.

  2. Experiences with Policing among People Who Inject Drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings

  3. Experiences with policing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug testing by police

  4. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration Cell (ECC) sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time assumptions used in calculating residual ozone, and other possible sources of errors are examined. A study of ECC ozone profiles is also presented with an evaluation of sonde measurement of seasonal trends, altitude or peak ozone concentration, and other important ozone parameters. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  5. Effects of solution mass transport on the ECC ozonesonde background current. [Electrochemical Concentration Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Niazy, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the effective mass transport parameter for the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde in order to determine the mass transport rate constant for the ECC as a function of pressure. It is shown that a pressure dependent factor in the background current originates in a convective mass transport parameter. It is determined that for atmospheric pressures greater than 100 mb the mass transport parameter is a constant, while at pressures less than 100 mb it decreases logarithmically with pressure. It is suggested that the background current correction is directly correlated to the mass transport parameter pressure dependence. The presently used background current correction, which is based on the partial pressure of oxygen, is found to lead to an overestimation of the integrated ozone value in the troposphere for the ECC ozonesonde data.

  6. Intraocular pressure following ECCE and IOL implantation in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kooner, K S; Dulaney, D D; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-08-01

    Patients with glaucoma may suffer optic nerve head damage due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after any intraocular procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the IOP data in 82 consecutive patients (103 eyes) with glaucoma after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Nine eyes had previous trabeculectomy and three eyes required combined trabeculectomy with ECCE and PC-IOL. The average follow-up period is 1.5 years (range 0.5 to 6 years). The postoperative IOP rise of 8 mm Hg over baseline or above 23 mm Hg was observed in 45 eyes (49.5%). Two eyes needed argon laser trabeculoplasty and one required trabeculectomy to control postoperative IOP elevation. Most of the patients required the same or lesser number of medications for IOP control after surgery. Results suggest that ECCE with PC-IOL may be a relatively safe procedure in cataract patients with preexisting glaucoma.

  7. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  8. Trap-assisted tunneling hole injection in SiO{sub 2}: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nasyrov, K. A.; Shaimeev, S. S.; Gritsenko, V. A.

    2009-11-15

    The injection of holes from silicon through silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) in a tantalum nitride-aluminum oxide-silicon nitride-silicon oxide-silicon (TANOS) structure has been studied experimentally. Using the high-permittivity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} insulator as a blocking one suppresses the parasitic injection of electrons from the conducting TaN contact. This allows the injection of holes from the substrate into nitride to be studied up to comparatively high electric fields. The experimental data are not described by the standard Fowler-Nordheim law with reasonable physical parameters. At the same time, these data are in good agreement with the model of trap-assisted tunneling hole injection in SiO{sub 2}. The developed theory shows that the traps in a narrow energy band make a major contribution to this process, i.e., this injection is resonant in nature.

  9. Clinical outcomes and costs of cataract surgery performed by planned ECCE and phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Castells, X; Comas, M; Castilla, M; Cots, F; Alarcón, S

    1998-01-01

    To compare clinical outcomes and costs of cataract surgery between patients operated with standard extracapsular extraction (ECCE) and those undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients from the Ophthalmology Department of a teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain) scheduled for cataract surgery, not combined with any other ophthalmic procedure. A retrospective analysis has been performed on a database of 1046 patients undergoing ECCE and phacoemulsification. The outcome measures used were: surgical complications, visual acuity and costs of surgery and of follow-up. Overall rate of all complications and postoperative visual acuity were compared between the two groups, adjusting for age, preoperative visual acuity, medical and ocular comorbidity. 31.9% of the patients (334) underwent phacoemulsification, and 68.1% (712) underwent ECCE. Patients undergoing phacoemulsification presented a frequency of intra- and postoperative complications lower than those undergoing ECCE (odds ratio 0.57, 95%CI 0.37-0.87 and 0.66, 95%CI 0.46-0.96, respectively), specifically for intraoperative iris trauma (3.1% vs 0.3%, p = 0.004), residual posterior capsular opacity (2% vs 0.3%, p = 0.035) and postoperative corneal edema (7.4% vs 3.6%, p = 0.016). Costs of intervention and follow-up were lower for phacoemulsification compared with ECCE (23.9% and 14%, respectively). But global costs were slightly higher for phacoemulsification (4.87%), due to supply costs, which were more than twice those of ECCE. Phacoemulsification, when performed by an experienced surgeon, has better clinical outcomes than planned extracapsular extraction, and costs may be lower since supply costs are expected to decrease as the phacoemulsification technique becomes more widespread.

  10. A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

    2013-07-09

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system.

  11. ECC-based grouping-proof RFID for inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiping; Zhang, Fangguo

    2012-12-01

    Several papers were proposed in which symmetric cryptography was used to design RFID grouping-proof for medication safety in the Journal of Medical Systems. However, if we want to ensure privacy, authentication and protection against the tracking of RFID-tags without losing system scalability, we must design an asymmetric cryptography-based RFID. This paper will propose a new ECC-based grouping-proof for RFID. Our ECC-based grouping-proof reduces the computation of tags and prevents timeout problems from occurring in n-party grouping-proof protocol. Based on asymmetric cryptography, the proposed scheme is practical, secure and efficient for medication applications.

  12. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  13. Thermionic plasma injection for the Lockheed Martin T4 Compact Fusion Reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Jonathon

    2015-11-01

    Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept relies on diamagnetic confinement in a magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp geometry. Plasma injection into cusp field configurations requires careful deliberation. Previous work has shown that axial injection via a plasma gun is capable of achieving high-beta conditions in cusp configurations. We present a pulsed, high power thermionic plasma source and the associated magnetic field topology for plasma injection into the caulked-cusp magnetic field. The resulting plasma fueling and cross-field diffusion is discussed.

  14. Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. ); Williams, T.M. . Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pitch angle scattering by triggered emissions from the Siple Station wave injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harid, V.; Golkowski, M.; Bell, T. F.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Nonlinear amplification of whistler mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere , due to gyroresonance with energetic electrons, also known as the phenomena of VLF triggered emissions, has been investigated extensively with analytical formulations, experimental observations and computer simulations. However, the pitch angle scattering of typical triggered emission waveforms has not been specifically considered. Most authors consider particle scattering either in the presence of a monochromatic constant amplitude wave or a broadband incoherent but time-frequency homogenous emission. Although investigation of these two limiting cases has provided valuable insight into radiation belt dynamics, a large class of waves including triggered emissions and chorus do not fall under either of the two descriptions. The inherent symmetry of a constant amplitude monochromatic wave around the equator results in non-cumulative pitch angle change for a large population of electrons. Wave amplification generated during linear and nonlinear growth result in wave gradients that can have a more significant effect on particle pitch angle and energy. In addition, coherent frequency changing signals are capable of shifting the cyclotron resonance condition and significantly perturbing particle trajectories from their adiabatic motion. The wave-injection experiment at Siple Station, Antarctica was designed to study wave growth and triggering processes in the magnetosphere. Amplified signals from Siple Station often show both wave gradients as well advances in phase and frequency. Using a numerical test-particle simulation, we model the effect of typical Siple Station signals on pitch angle scattering and particle precipitation. Results show that triggered emission type wave forms are more efficient in producing large pitch angle changes in resonant particles.

  16. Analysis of D pellet injection experiments in the W7-AS Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Baylor, L.R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Fiedler, S.; Hirsch, M.; Kuehner, G.; Weller, A.

    1997-07-01

    A centrifugal injector was used to inject deuterium pellets (with 3--5 x 10{sup 19} atoms) at approx. equal 600 m/s into current-less, nearly shear-less plasmas in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. The D pellet was injected horizontally at a location where the non-circular and non-axisymmetric plasma cross section is nearly triangular. Visible-light TV pictures usually showed the pellet as a single ablating mass in the plasma, although the pellet occasionally broke in two or splintered into a cloud of small particles. The density evolution following pellet injection and the effect of pellet injection on energy confinement and fluctuations are discussed.

  17. Recent experience with and future directions of contraceptive implants and injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sanchez, F; Brache, V; Faundes, A

    1993-12-01

    Subdermal implantable contraception has been the most important addition to contraceptive technology in the past 2 decades. The Norplant system is only the first of a new family of long acting methods of high effectiveness, high acceptability, and prompt reversibility. The main advantage of the second generation implant systems, to be available soon, is the reduction in the number of implants, which greatly facilitates insertion and removal. However, great improvement in bleeding control is not to be expected. Large and carefully designed epidemiological studies have contributed to clear the main objections to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as an injectable contraceptive. New progestin-only, long acting injectables are being tested, but significant improvements over existing methods are difficult to foresee, although every alternative is welcome. Monthly combined injectables have been in great demand, at least in China and Latin America, because of better bleeding control. Improved combined monthly injectables, less estrogenic and more progestin dominated, have been developed and are being introduced in several countries and should soon replace the old monthly injectables. Contraceptive implants and injectables have shown to be an important addition to the contraceptive options available to women throughout both the developing and developed world.

  18. Clinical experience with repository corticotropin injection in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing mood changes with intravenous methylprednisolone: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stacey; Woo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The elevated prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well recognized, as are potential neuropsychiatric side effects of treatment with corticosteroids. Both methylprednisolone (MP) and repository corticotropin injection (HP Acthar® gel) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing short-term disability after exacerbations of MS. Although historical data are limited, repository corticotropin injection has not generally been associated with detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. We describe six cases of patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had previously experienced detrimental mood changes with MP treatment. Some of these patients had previous histories of mood disorders or other neuropsychiatric symptoms prior to MS diagnosis. All six patients were subsequently treated with repository corticotropin injection for MS exacerbations and each demonstrated improvements in MS symptoms. This clinical experience suggests that repository corticotropin injection should be considered as an alternative for patients who do not tolerate corticosteroids or have difficulties associated with intravenous medication. Furthermore, the rate of neuropsychiatric side effects observed in these patients was low. These observations support repository corticotropin injection as a viable alternative for the treatment of acute exacerbations of MS, particularly in patients who have a history of neuropsychiatric disorders or symptoms either independently or in response to MP treatment. In reviewing both the published data and our own clinical experience regarding potential neuropsychiatric adverse events with treatment for MS exacerbations, we hope to stimulate further research into the potential efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection among patients with some form of neuropsychiatric complications that must be considered when establishing a treatment plan for MS. PMID:27134674

  19. Bridging education and training in ageing and disability: the European Care Certificate (ECC)

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, James; Gyorki, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There has been significant movement of workers between EU countries seeking work in the social care sector, causing problems for workers and employers who cannot easily evaluate the worth of qualifications gained abroad. The European Care Certificate (ECC) helps workers start work in the social care sector by defining basic knowledge and offering recognition for their learning. Development of product A LEONARDO project involving six countries (BE, UK, AT, DE, RO, PO) established a set of learning outcomes—the BESCLO (Basic European Social Care Learning Outcomes) covering eight key areas of knowledge (not competence). Existing awards and courses become ‘ECC compliant’ by demonstrating coverage of all the BESCLO. Students pass a multi-choice exam to gain the Certificate. There is a developing system of Lead and Delivery Partners spreading the ECC across Europe. Conclusion The BESCLO covers essential knowledge with a common set of values in social care. The ECC fits within existing training courses, is cheap and easy to operate, is at entry level, covers all client groups, can be made available in any language and is equally useful in recruitment, workplace induction training, or more formal college/university courses as an early achievement marker. Website: http://www.eclicence.eu

  20. Zirconia crowns--an esthetic and resistant restorative alternative for ECC affected primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Planells del Pozo, P; Fuks, A B

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses briefly the problem of ECC in very young children and the recommended approaches for prevention and treatment. The esthetic restoration of the maxillary incisors with Zirconia Nu Smile crowns is described. It is also stressed that the luxation injury two months after placement did not damage the appearance nor the stability of the crowns.

  1. Caregiver knowledge and attitudes of preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC).

    PubMed

    Schroth, Robert J; Brothwell, Douglas J; Moffatt, Michael E K

    2007-04-01

    Prevention strategies are integral to improving the oral health for young Aboriginal children. For such to be effective, it is important to understand the social value that parents and caregivers ascribe to primary teeth. The purpose of this paper is to report caregiver knowledge and attitudes toward preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC) from 4 communities in Manitoba. Cross-sectional study, including a retrospective interview with caregivers. Children and their main caregivers served as the sample. Preschoolers underwent a comprehensive dental screening while caregivers completed a questionnaire that explored knowledge and attitudes toward preschool dental health. Caregiver responses were matched with findings from each child's examination. A majority agreed that primary teeth were important, that dental disease could lead to health problems and that a first dental visit should be made by age 1. Caregivers of children with ECC were more likely to believe that caries could not affect a child's health while those who believed primary teeth are important had children with significantly less decay. Most caregivers believed that primary teeth are important and correctly responded to inquiries about knowledge and attitudes toward oral health. Attitudes on the importance of baby teeth and bottle feeding after one year of age, the effect of rotten teeth on childhood health and night-time nursing emerged as variables most associated with the absence/presence of ECC and deft rates. Incorporating such questioning into caries risk assessments may be a useful means to determine a child's risk for ECC.

  2. Early childhood caries (ECC) and neglect in child care: analysis of an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Scorca, A; Santoro, V; De Donno, A; Grattagliano, I; Tafuri, S; Introna, F

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries was identified as the single most common chronic childhood disease; its prevention should be a priority for dentists. With the aim of describing the correlation between early childhood caries (ECC) and the phenomenon of child neglect, a questionnaire which recorded socio-economic and dental service use data was provided to a randomly chosen sample of parents at three pediatric health service centers in Bari (Italy). In order to evaluate the association among risk factors and ECC, contingency tables were created and the value of the Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated, indicating the confidence intervals and chi square values. A student's t-test for independent samples was performed to evaluate the differences between the averages. A value of p≤0.5 was considered to be significant for all tests used. Of the 63 children examined, 61.9% (n=39; 95%CL=49.9- 73.9) presented with ECC, of which 47.6% (n=30; 95%CL=34.9-60.6) were classified as Wyne's Type I; 12.7% (n=8; 95%CL=5.6-23.5) were classified as Type II; and 1.6% (n=1; 95%CL=0-8.5) as Type III. Interestingly, the frequency of Types II and III were shown to be higher in low-income families (chi-square=8.50; p=0.03). Dentists should recognize children's susceptibility to ECC and their exposure to risk factors for neglect, thus facilitating a primary prevention visit.

  3. New mini-extracorporeal circulation system (ECC.O) is a safe technique in coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Mika; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Kaila-Keinänen, Tessa; Kuttila, Kari

    2007-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to cause the systemic inflammatory reaction after cardiac surgery. New coated and closed loop circuit systems may reduce this inflammation response and improve the surgical outcome. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the mini-extracorporeal circulation system (ECC.O) in CABG patients. Forty patients undergoing elective coronary surgery were randomized into two groups, the ECC.O group and the standard CPB group. Routine hemodynamic monitoring and biochemical measurements were registered according to the hospital practice. The clinical outcome of the patients was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the duration of intubation following surgery, the length of intensive care unit-stay or the total hospital stay. The haemoglobin level was significantly higher (p=0.0069) during and after the perfusion in the ECC.O group. The ECC.O system can be safely used in CABG patients and it maintains haemoglobin level better than conventional CPB.

  4. Injecting drug users' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican-U.S. border cities: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cari L; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviours and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico, who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analysed to identify emergent themes. Amongst the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36h for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested five key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: (1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, (2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), (3) police violence, (4) police corruption and (5) perceived changes in policing practices. Findings suggest that some behaviour of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections amongst IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention programme amongst IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers.

  5. INJECTING DRUG USERS’ EXPERIENCES OF POLICING PRACTICES IN TWO MEXICAN-U.S. BORDER CITIES: PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cari L.; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviors and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. Methods In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Results Among the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36 hours for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested 5 key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: 1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, 2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), 3) police violence, 4) police corruption, and 5) perceived changes in policing practices. Conclusion Findings suggest that some behavior of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections among IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention program among IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers. PMID:17997089

  6. Incarceration, addiction and harm reduction: inmates experience injecting drugs in prison.

    PubMed

    Small, Will; Kain, S; Laliberte, Nancy; Schechter, Martin T; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V; Spittal, Patricia M

    2005-01-01

    Within Canadian prisons HIV/AIDS is becoming more common among inmates. While injection drug use in correctional facilities is documented to be a problem, qualitative research into the HIV risks faced by inmates is lacking. The goal of this research was to qualitatively examine HIV risk associated with injecting inside British Columbia prisons. A sample of 26 former male inmates who had recently used drugs within correctional facilities were recruited from a ongoing cohort study of injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada. Data for this study were collected through in-depth interviews conducted in 2001/2002. Analysis of these data involved identifying emergent themes and then exploring these central concepts in further interviews to confirm the accuracy of interpretation. The harms normally associated with drug addiction, and injection drug use are exacerbated in prison. Interpersonal relationships and the possession of exchangeable resources determine access to scarce syringes. The scarcity of syringes has resulted in patterns of sharing amongst large numbers of persons. Continual reuse of scarce syringes poses serious health hazards and bleach distribution is an inadequate solution. The findings of this study emphasize the need for effective harm reduction programs that provide an appropriate response to the problem of injection drug use among inmates.

  7. Pre-clinical results with Clariscan (NC100150 Injection); experience from different disease models.

    PubMed

    Bjørnerud, A; Johansson, L O; Ahlström, H K

    2001-05-01

    A superparamagnetic nanoparticle (NC100150 Injection) was investigated in two different animal models; renal perfusion in pigs and tumour imaging in mice. In the pig model, qualitative first-pass perfusion maps following a bolus injection of NC100150 Injection enabled good visualisation of hypoperfused regions of the renal cortex following partial ligation of the renal artery. High temporal resolution was found to be essential to accurately capture the first passage of the contrast agent through the kidney due to the very rapid blood flow in normal renal cortex. In the tumour model (LS174T cells implanted in nude mice), NC100150 Injection was found to cause a gradual (over 60 min) signal increase on T1-w images in part of the tumours which was attributed to contrast agent leakage from the vascular space to the extravascular space in areas of increased capillary permeability. This observation is consistent with previous reports on the molecular cut-off size for vascular extraction for this tumour cell line. The specific enhancement of tumour tissue suggest potential utility of NC100150 Injection as an angiogenesis marker.

  8. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  9. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  10. Comparison of outcomes following combined ECCE-trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Tous, Horacio M; Nevárez, Juan

    2006-12-01

    To analyze and compare the main outcomes between trabeculectomies combined with extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) versus those with phacoemulsification (Phaco). The authors retrospectively reviewed one surgeon's 357 consecutive cases (475 eyes) of combined cataract extraction, intraocular lens implantation and Mitomycin enhanced trabeculectomy. Patients were divided into two groups, those who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (80 eyes) and those having phacoemulsification (395 eyes). Analysis of postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, postoperative adverse events and additional procedures required, was done. Minimum follow-up was 12 months with an average of 53 months. There was no significant difference (p = 1.000) between the groups in terms of visual acuity improvement rate, 66% (ECCE) versus 59% (Phaco). Postoperatively IOP with both techniques fell significantly (p < 0.0001). Earlier IOP reduction was obtained with Phacoemulsification, but there was no difference by the end of the follow up period (14.4 mmHg ECCE vs. 14.1 mmHg Phaco, p = 1.0000). Postoperative pressure spikes occurred in 6% versus 10% (p = 0.3995) of the eyes. No significant difference (55% ECCE versus 63% Phaco, p = 0.1674) between the two groups in terms of glaucoma medication reduction was found. The total number of postoperative complications (89% versus 68.5%) were significantly higher (p = 0.0001) in the ECCE-group, as well as the total number of eyes which required further interventions (86% versus 64%, p = 0.0001). Both combined surgery techniques are effective and yielded similar long-term results. However phacoemulsification can decrease the post operative complications associated with this surgery.

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of (68)Ga-ECC as a PET Renal Imaging Agent.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Alireza; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Mazidi, Mohammad; Yousefnia, Hassan; Shabani, Gholamali; Ardaneh, Khosro; Geramifar, Parham; Beiki, Davood

    2015-09-01

    Development of a gallium-68-labeled renal tracer can be a good substitute for Tc-99m, a known SPECT tracer. In this study, effort was made to develop (68)Ga-ethylenecysteamine cysteine ((68)Ga-ECC). Ga-ECC was prepared using generator-based (68)GaCl3 and ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC) at optimized conditions. Stability of the complex was checked in human serum followed by partition coefficient determination of the tracer. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting and PET/CT imaging up to 120 min. Ga-ECC was prepared at optimized conditions in 15 min at 90 °C (radiochemical purity ≈97 ± 0.88 % ITLC, >99 % HPLC, specific activity: 210 ± 5 GBq/mM). (68)Ga-ECC was a water-soluble complex based on partition coefficient data (log P; -1.378) and was stable in the presence of human serum for 2 h at 37 °C. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney excretion of the tracer in 10-20 min. The SUVmax ratios of the liver to left kidney were 0.38 and 0.39 for 30 and 90 min, respectively, indicating high kidney uptake. Initial biodistribution results showed significant kidney and urinary excretion of the tracer comparable to that of the homologous (99m)Tc compound. The complex could be a possible PET kidney imaging agent with a fast imaging time.

  12. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  13. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 μM) and ammonium (19 to 625 μM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02–0.28 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  14. Adverse childhood experience effects on opioid use initiation, injection drug use, and overdose among persons with opioid use disorder.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael D; Conti, Micah T; Kenney, Shannon; Anderson, Bradley J; Flori, Jessica N; Risi, Megan M; Bailey, Genie L

    2017-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the development of substance use disorders. With opioid use disorder, a growing concern in the United States, we were interested in examining the relationship between adverse experiences and three landmarks of opioid use: age of opioid initiation, injection drug use, and lifetime overdose. Between May and December 2015, we interviewed consecutive persons seeking inpatient opioid detoxification. Participants were asked about age of opioid initiation, last month injection drug use, and lifetime history of overdose, and completed the ten-item Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Participants (n=457) averaged 32.2 (±8.64) years of age, 71.3% were male, and 82.5% were non-Hispanic White. The mean score on the ACE scale was 3.64 (±2.75). Mean age at time of initiating opioid use was 21.7 (±7.1) years, 68.7% had injected drugs within the past month, and 39.0% had overdosed. After adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity, the ACE score was inversely associated with age of initiating opioid use (b=-0.50, 95% CI -0.70; -0.29, p<.001), and positively associated with recent injection drug use (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02; 1.20, p=0.014) and the likelihood of experiencing an overdose (OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.02; 1.20, p=0.015) in a graded dose response manner. Greater adverse childhood experiences are associated with three landmarks of opioid use risk. ACE screening may be useful in identifying high-risk subsets of opioid-using populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  16. Oklahoma experiences largest earthquake during ongoing regional wastewater injection hazard mitigation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeck, William; Hayes, Gavin; McNamara, Daniel E.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Barnhart, William; Earle, Paul; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    The 3 September 2016, Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake was the largest recorded earthquake in the state of Oklahoma. Seismic and geodetic observations of the Pawnee sequence, including precise hypocenter locations and moment tensor modeling, shows that the Pawnee earthquake occurred on a previously unknown left-lateral strike-slip basement fault that intersects the mapped right-lateral Labette fault zone. The Pawnee earthquake is part of an unprecedented increase in the earthquake rate in Oklahoma that is largely considered the result of the deep injection of waste fluids from oil and gas production. If this is, indeed, the case for the M5.8 Pawnee earthquake, then this would be the largest event to have been induced by fluid injection. Since 2015, Oklahoma has undergone wide-scale mitigation efforts primarily aimed at reducing injection volumes. Thus far in 2016, the rate of M3 and greater earthquakes has decreased as compared to 2015, while the cumulative moment—or energy released from earthquakes—has increased. This highlights the difficulty in earthquake hazard mitigation efforts given the poorly understood long-term diffusive effects of wastewater injection and their connection to seismicity.

  17. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  18. Oklahoma experiences largest earthquake during ongoing regional wastewater injection hazard mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, W. L.; Hayes, G. P.; McNamara, D. E.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Barnhart, W. D.; Earle, P. S.; Benz, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 3 September 2016, Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake was the largest recorded earthquake in the state of Oklahoma. Seismic and geodetic observations of the Pawnee sequence, including precise hypocenter locations and moment tensor modeling, shows that the Pawnee earthquake occurred on a previously unknown left-lateral strike-slip basement fault that intersects the mapped right-lateral Labette fault zone. The Pawnee earthquake is part of an unprecedented increase in the earthquake rate in Oklahoma that is largely considered the result of the deep injection of waste fluids from oil and gas production. If this is, indeed, the case for the M5.8 Pawnee earthquake, then this would be the largest event to have been induced by fluid injection. Since 2015, Oklahoma has undergone wide-scale mitigation efforts primarily aimed at reducing injection volumes. Thus far in 2016, the rate of M3 and greater earthquakes has decreased as compared to 2015, while the cumulative moment—or energy released from earthquakes—has increased. This highlights the difficulty in earthquake hazard mitigation efforts given the poorly understood long-term diffusive effects of wastewater injection and their connection to seismicity.

  19. Effectiveness and safety of CEUS-guided haemostatic injection for blunt splenic trauma: an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Tang, J; Lv, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; An, L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether complications occur after haemostatic agents are injected into blunt splenic injuries. After undergoing ultrasound (US), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examinations, dogs with grade III-IV injury received the minimally invasive therapy. After treatment, CEUS was performed to observe changes in the regions treated. In the immediate group, dogs underwent laparotomy 30 min after treatment to observe the haemostatic effect. In the survival group, animals underwent CEUS and CECT examinations to observe the short-term healing outcome and complications at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after the injection. After undergoing CEUS and CECT examinations, 12 dogs with grade III-IV injury received the minimally invasive therapy. Before injection, CEUS examinations showed anechoic and/or hypoechoic perfusion defects and active bleeding at the injury sites, and CECT showed traumatic lesions as low-density regions without enhancement. After treatment, CEUS demonstrated the disappearance of active bleeding, and hyperechoic spots emerged at the injury sites. Uneven density regions were displayed on CECT. Treated areas were covered by blood clots and glue membrane in the immediate-group animals. Three weeks later, CEUS showed a decrease of hyperechoic spots in the survival group, and the splenic parenchyma enhanced uniformly on CECT. Laparotomy showed that the greater omentum had moved upwards and partly covered the wound in four animals, and the injury sites had completely healed. Histopathological examination showed that fibrous connective tissue covered the splenic capsule and that the haemostatic glue had degraded. No complication occurred, such as delayed splenic haemorrhage, splenic abscesses, splenic pseudoaneurysms, intestinal obstruction or intestinal adhesions. CEUS-guided haemostatic injection is not only effective in stopping active bleeding immediately, but it is also safe in that no

  20. Access to harm reduction and HIV-related treatment services inside Indian prisons: experiences of formerly incarcerated injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Kamei, Ram; Kipgen, Hoineilam; Kh, Jayanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the incarceration experiences of injecting drug users in accessing harm reduction, and HIV-related services inside prisons in India. The authors conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 formerly incarcerated male IDUs and four key informant interviews with a former police official, a drug dealer and service providers. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Participants reported availability of alcohol and injectable or oral drugs such as heroin, dextropropoxyphene, and marijuana inside prisons. Inmates obtained drugs and clean syringes (one syringe bought for 2.5-4 USD) through prison staff, and collected used syringes and needles from the dustbins in prison sickrooms. Needles and syringes were reused and shared. Prisons did not have needle and syringe programmes, detoxification, overdose management or opioid substitution treatment. Drug-using prison inmates faced several challenges in accessing antiretroviral treatment and HIV testing. The authors' findings emphasize the need to protect the health of injection drug-using inmates by introducing harm reduction programmes and removing barriers to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment. This study illustrates, for the first time, the contexts behind high risk injecting drug use behaviours among prison inmates in India. It also highlights the lack of availability of harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes, drug detoxification and opioid substitution treatment inside prisons. Further, it demonstrates the difficulties faced by HIV-positive prison inmates in getting timely and uninterrupted antiretroviral treatment.

  1. Direct visualization of leukocyte/endothelial cell interaction during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in a new animal model.

    PubMed

    Kamler, M; Jakob, H; Lehr, H A; Gebhard, M M; Hagl, S

    1997-05-01

    The clinical complications of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) have been linked to a systemic activation of cellular and humoral components and to a dysregulation of the microcirculatory compartment. Since to date only in vitro methods exist for evaluation, we developed an animal model to study the effects of ECC on the microcirculation. To establish the model, we assessed whether these effects are dependent on the duration of ECC. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used on the dorsal skinfold chamber preparation in chronically instrumented, awake Syrian golden hamsters. ECC was realized using a micro-rollerpump and a silicon tube shunting blood between the carotid artery and the jugular vein. ECC was performed in three groups for various times (2, 10 and 20 min) after application of heparin at 300 IU/kg body wt. In hamsters, the application of high-dose heparin releases endothelial bound superoxide dismutase (SOD), a natural scavenger of oxygen-derived free radicals. Protocol II assigned two groups receiving heparin at different doses of 50 and 2000 IU/kg body wt. ECC for 2 min served as control to exclude effects from hemodilution and resulted in a minimal induction of leukocyte/endothelial cell interaction. Isovolemic ECC for 20 min resulted in an increase in rolling (from 11 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 20%, mean +/- S.D., P < 0.05) and adherent leukocytes (from 19 +/- 16 to 215 +/- 145 cells/mm2, mean +/- S.D., P < 0.05) in postcapillary venules. Microhemodynamic parameters and functional capillary density were not significantly affected. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were stable. Heparin at 2000 IU/kg inhibited post-ECC leukocyte adhesion following ECC, whereas 50 IU/kg showed no protective effects. Leukocyte/endothelial cell interaction, induced by blood contact with synthetic surfaces, was directly visualized in vivo. The number of adherent leukocytes was dependent on the duration of ECC. The application of high-dose heparin followed by release of SOD

  2. Temporal evolution of whistler growth in a cold plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, G.; Palmadesso, P.; Fedder, J.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of whistler mode turbulence and particle participation in a cold plasma release are studied experimentally as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracers Explorer (AMPTE) program. The investigation used a simple time dependent cold plasma density model, and an atypical ambient radiation belt was assumed. It is shown that a cold lithium injection in the AMPTE parameter range can give rise to whistler mode turbulence with significant gain to the wave amplitude in a single pass through a flux tube. Whistler mode growth results in the pitch angle diffusion of energetic electrons, which are in turn precipitated. The rate of power input into the ionosphere from these precipitating electrons is roughly estimated at 2 ergs per sq cm/s. It is found that this value of the precipitated power is large enough to continue producing a visible aurora until the injected plasma in the flux tube is lost or destroyed by magnetospheric convection or other processes.

  3. Analysis of ICRH antenna loading data in TEXTOR obtained during gas injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, I.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.

    2011-12-23

    The possibility of increasing the coupling of ICRH power to plasmas on TEXTOR by gas injection was investigated, for a given voltage applied at the input of an antenna pair. The antenna pair was operated in the conjugated T mode, D(H) heating was used. Modeling of the antenna by transmission line theory shows that load resilience is maintained in a broad range of independent resistance variation for each strap. It is found that the absolute value of the reflection coefficient can be maintained below 0.2 for typical values of resistance measured in plasma shots (2-10 {Omega}/m) in good matching conditions. During gas injection, the loading resistance showed a clear increase with increasing line average electron density measured close to the plasma edge. Evidence of fast wave eigenmodes was also found, as characteristic resonant behavior of loading resistance and antenna self-inductance, due to poor absorption in the plasma caused by high H minority concentration.

  4. Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-12-15

    Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.

  5. Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Henning; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2005-04-01

    Artificial recharge is a technique used increasingly to supplement drinking water supplies. To assess the potential water quality changes that occur during subsurface passage, a comprehensive deep-well injection experiment was carried out for a recharge scheme, where pretreated, aerobic surface water was injected at 300 m depth into an anaerobic aquifer. Water quality parameters were recorded over the 854-days long injection phase. The evolution of the major ion and redox chemistry was analyzed with a three-dimensional reactive multicomponent transport model. It was found that the oxidation of pyrite was the main driverforwater quality changes and that reaction rates depended significantly on the spatially/temporally varying groundwater temperature. With the temperature-dependency of the oxidation reactions incorporated into the model, the simulations give an accurate picture of the temporal and spatial evolution of the hydrochemical changes that occurred during the experiment. To delineate the influence of physical and chemical processes on local concentration changes the results of the reactive transport model simulations were compared with the corresponding results from nonreactive simulations. The study emphasizes the suitability of mechanistic multicomponent reactive transport modeling as an integrative tool for data analysis when physical transport and chemical processes interact.

  6. Ecce Homo: Science and Society Need Anthropological Collections.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Bell, Joshua A; Rick, Torben C

    2016-08-01

    Scientific collections are crucial to understanding the biological and cultural diversity of the Earth. Anthropological collections document the human experience and the interactions between people, ecosystems, and organisms. Unfortunately, anthropological collections are often poorly known by the public and face a variety of threats to their permanent care and conservation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  8. Electron Temperature Evolution During Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the electron temperature (Te) evolution during local helicity injection (LHI) is critical for scaling up this non-solenoidal startup technique to MA-class devices. The first comprehensive Te measurements during LHI reveal centrally-peaked profiles with Te > 100 eV for plasma current Ip > 120 kA, toroidal field 0.15 T, and electron density ne 1019 m-3. Te rises and is sustained from just after magnetic relaxation through the plasma decoupling from edge-localized injectors. Results are presented for two injector edge locations: outboard midplane and inboard divertor. Outboard midplane injection couples LHI with inductive drive from poloidal field ramps and radial compression during inward plasma growth. Comparisons of Te at different LHI-to-inductive drive ratios show some profile flattening for higher LHI drive fraction. The latter, constant-shape discharges were necessarily lower performance, with Ip 50 kA and reduced Te , max. Inboard divertor injection achieves higher Ip using minimal inductive drive and thus isolates effects of LHI drive on Te. Initial results in this configuration show Te rising rapidly at the injector location as the discharge grows, settling to a roughly flat profile 100 eV. Thus far, both scenarios provide relatively stable discharges with moderate ne and high-Te, suitable for coupling to auxiliary current drive. Detailed studies of confinement dynamics and discharge optimization are planned for the near future. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  9. [Experiences with power-injectable port systems: complications, patient satisfaction and clinical benefit].

    PubMed

    Chang, D-H; Kabbasch, C; Bovenschulte, H; Libicher, M; Maintz, D; Bangard, C

    2013-05-01

    Evaluation of complications, patient satisfaction and clinical benefit of port systems with authorization for high pressure injection of contrast agent during CT/MR examinations. Ultrasound-guided insertions of central venous port catheters were performed through the lateral subclavian vein at a university teaching hospital. The radiological information system (HIS/RIS) was used to evaluate technical success and complication rates. Assessment of patient satisfaction and clinical benefit was carried out by a questionnaire during a telephone call 6 months after implantation of the port system. A total of 195 port systems in 193 patients were implanted. The catheter remained in place for a mean duration of 169 days (overall 29,210 catheter days). The technical success rate was 99.5 % and the overall complication rate was 17.4 % (24/138; 0.82 per 1000 catheter days). Follow-up revealed 13 early port explantations (9 %). Most of the patients reported high satisfaction in general (satisfied/very satisfied: 94 %). 34/209 contrast-enhanced CT/MRT scans (16 %) were performed using the port for contrast media injection. There were no complications during or after administration of contrast agent via the port system. The Powerport system is a safe alternative for peripheral i. v. contrast media injection during CT/MR scans, but has been infrequently used. Most patients reported high overall satisfaction with the port system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Impact of CO2 injection protocol on fluid-solid reactivity: high-pressure and temperature microfluidic experiments in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Porter, Mark; Carey, James; Guthrie, George; Viswanathan, Hari

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 has been proposed in the last decades as a technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and mitigate the global climate change. However, some questions such as the impact of the protocol of CO2 injection on the fluid-solid reactivity remain open. In our experiments, two different protocols of injection are compared at the same conditions (8.4 MPa and 45 C, and constant flow rate 0.06 ml/min): i) single phase injection, i.e., CO2-saturated brine; and ii) simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2. For that purpose, we combine a unique high-pressure/temperature microfluidics experimental system, which allows reproducing geological reservoir conditions in geo-material substrates (i.e., limestone, Cisco Formation, Texas, US) and high resolution optical profilometry. Single and multiphase flow through etched fracture networks were optically recorded with a microscope, while processes of dissolution-precipitation in the etched channels were quantified by comparison of the initial and final topology of the limestone micromodels. Changes in hydraulic conductivity were quantified from pressure difference along the micromodel. The simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2, reduced the brine-limestone contact area and also created a highly heterogeneous velocity field (i.e., low velocities regions or stagnation zones, and high velocity regions or preferential paths), reducing rock dissolution and enhancing calcite precipitation. The results illustrate the contrasting effects of single and multiphase flow on chemical reactivity and suggest that multiphase flow by isolating parts of the flow system can enhance CO2 mineralization.

  11. Directional borehole radar tests of an oil injection experiment at the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abraham, Jared D.; Moulton, Craig; Brown, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole radar surveys of an oil injection experiment at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), in Golden Colorado using the prototype U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-developed directional borehole radar system (DBOR). A explanation of the system can be found in Wright and others (2001). The USGS was invited to the CSM to deploy the prototype directional borehole radar system during an oil injection experiment conducted to investigate the applicability of radar to monitoring formation invasion from a horizontal borehole. This work was conducted by a student at the CSM and is summarized in Moita (2001). The purpose of this report is to release the data and to summarize the experiments conducted with the DBOR system. This report contains, (1) a description of the system as deployed in the experiments, (2) a description of the data collected and data parameters used, (3) a simple display of some of the data collected, and (4) a description of the DBOR data files.

  12. Outcome of Dupuytren Contractures After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection: A Single-institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Hwee, Yin Kan; Park, Daniel; Vinas, Marisa; Litts, Christopher; Friedman, David

    2017-08-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection is an alternative to surgery for patients with Dupuytren disease (DD) of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. The success of surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities for DD is reported to vary widely between 25% and 80% (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:1439-1443; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:44e-54e; J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:189-198; J Hand Surg Am. 2011:36:936-942; J Hand Surg Am. 1990;15:755-761; J Hand Surg Br. 1996;21:797-800; J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000;82:90-94; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:802-810; Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:13-17). This study presents the outcomes of patients with DD contractures treated with CCH injections at a single institution. An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted of patients with DD of the hand treated with CCH injections in a single institution from February 2010 to April 2015. All patients received the recommended dose of 0.58 mg of CCH and returned for joint manipulation the following day. Data for follow-up at 7 and 30 days postoperatively and up to 5 years for patients who returned seeking further therapy for recurrent symptoms were reviewed. One hundred thirteen patients with a total of 146 affected joints (72 MCP; 74 PIP) were treated with CCH injections (95 males; 18 females; age, 40-92 y). Successful CCH therapy occurred in 75% of injected joints (109/146 joints; 59 MCP; 50 PIP), as defined by less than 5 degrees of contracture after treatment. Twenty-three percent of treated joints had partial correction (34/146 joints; 13 MCP; 21 PIP), as defined by between 5 and 30 degrees of residual contracture after treatment. Three patients (2%) had a failure of treatment, as defined by unchanged or worsened contracture from pretreatment baseline measurements. Fifteen patients (13%) returned to the clinic seeking additional therapy for recurrent joint contracture symptoms in 17 joints over a span of 1

  13. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  14. ECC study in positron impact ionization in molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campeanu, R. I.; Zohouri Haghian, N.

    2012-12-01

    The electron capture to the continuum phenomenon in positron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen is studied with the distorted wave Born approximation. Our theoretical model produces results which are in better agreement with the experiment than the more elaborate models of [J. Fiol, V.D. Rodriguez, R.O. Barrachina, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 933 (2001)] and [A. Benedek, R.I. Campeanu, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 1589 (2007)] previously employed in this study.

  15. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions.

  16. Nd:YAG laser removal of pupillary membranes developed after ECCE with PC-IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Kozobolis, V P; Pallikaris, I G; Tsambarlakis, I G; Vlachonikolis, I G

    1997-12-01

    To define the frequency of development of pupillary membranes after ECCE with PC-IOL implantation, and to remove the pupillary membranes using the Nd:YAG laser. From 400 patients who had undergone ECCE and were free from local or systemic illness affecting the blood-ocular barrier, 20 eyes developed pupillary membranes Nd:YAG laser was used to remove these pupillary membranes. The frequency of pupillary membranes was found to be 5% (9.8% in pex eyes and 3.3% to the non-pex eyes). Visual acuity improved in 17 eyes by 2 to 5 Snellen lines. No serious complications were observed, endothelium inclusive. Pseudoexfoliation might play a significant role in the development of postoperative pupillary membranes which could be successfully treated with the use of Nd:YAG laser. The safety of the procedure has to be evaluated in relation to the corneal endothelium damage in long-term.

  17. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  18. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries

  19. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child

  20. Lithium pellet injection experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, Darren Thomas

    1996-06-01

    A pellet enhanced performance mode, showing significantly reduced core transport, is regularly obtained after the injection of deeply penetrating lithium pellets into Alcator C-Mod discharges. These transient modes, which typically persist about two energy confinement times, are characterized by a steep pressure gradient (ℓp ℓ a/5) in the inner third of the plasma, indicating the presence of an internal transport barrier. Inside this barrier, particle and energy diffusivities are greatly reduced, with ion thermal diffusivity dropping to near neoclassical values. Meanwhile, the global energy confinement time shows a 30% improvement over ITER89-P L-mode scaling. The addition of ICRF auxiliary heating shortly after the pellet injection leads to high fusion reactivity with neutron rates enhanced by an order of magnitude over L-mode discharges with similar input powers. A diagnostic system for measuring equilibrium current density profiles of tokamak plasmas, employing high speed lithium pellets, is also presented. Because ions are confined to move along field lines, imaging the Li+ emission from the toroidally extended pellet ablation cloud gives the direction of the magnetic field. To convert from temporal to radial measurements, the 3-D trajectory of the pellet is determined using a stereoscopic tracking system. These measurements, along with external magnetic measurements, are used to solve the Grad-Shafranov equation for the magnetic equilibrium of the plasma. This diagnostic is used to determine the current density profile of PEP modes by injection of a second pellet during the period of good confinement. This measurement indicates that a region of reversed magnetic shear exists at the plasma core. This current density profile is consistent with TRANSP calculations for the bootstrap current created by the pressure gradient. MHD stability analysis indicates that these plasmas are near the n = ∞ and the n = 1 marginal stability limits.

  1. [The impact of 2010 international consensus on CPR and ECC science with treatment recommendations on Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2011-04-01

    New guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) were published in October 2010 from International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Changes of these guidelines will have dramatic effects on Japan. Starting with chest compressions first will increase by-stander CPR. Cases of recovery of spontaneous heartbeat could increase as a result. Intensive care and radical treatments for cardiovascular emergency and brain damage after cardiopulmonary arrest would be essential. Education, implementation and teams (EIT) will be the third subject.

  2. Comparison of data on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with previous data for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) in an Italian kindergarten population.

    PubMed

    Ferro, R; Besostri, A; Meneghetti, B; Beghetto, M

    2004-06-01

    This was to assess the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among preschool children attending nursery schools and to compare the results with those of a previous survey where the investigators used the term and diagnosis for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) syndrome. A cross-sectional survey of 1006 children aged 1-6 years was carried out. WHO recommendations for oral health surveys were used for caries diagnosis (non cavitated lesions were excluded). In addition, a comparison was made for prevalence of ECC between immigrant and native born children. Data were compared for ECC in the present survey with BBTD data in a previous study (1994) in the same area with a sample of 401 children aged 4 years. All examinations were by one examiner (Cohen's Kappa=0.96). Of the 1006 children originally selected 52 children aged more than 71 months were excluded according to published ECC definition and diagnostic criteria. The overall sample was 29 children aged <36 months; 271 aged 3 years; 364 aged 4 years and 290 aged 5 years. ECC was diagnosed in 19.7% of the overall sample. The prevalence of ECC (and S-ECC) were respectively by age: <36 months S-ECC=17.2%; at 3 years: 13.28% (6.64%); at 4 years: 18.95% (9.34%); at 5 years: 26.9% (12.75%). In the native born children (916) the ECC was 18.34%, while in immigrants (38) it was 52.63% (p<0.001). In 1994 the prevalence of BBTD syndrome was 11.9% and in the present study 6.5%. The ECC prevalence, as, ECC and severe (S-ECC),increased with age. In immigrant children ECC was 3 times (S-ECC 6 times) more frequent than in native born. Using the BBTD diagnosis the prevalence had dropped from 11.9% in 1994 to 6.5% in the present survey.

  3. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Geng; He, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes' privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC). The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH) and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS) by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes. PMID:24732099

  4. A secure-enhanced data aggregation based on ECC in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Geng; He, Liwen

    2014-04-11

    Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes' privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC). The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH) and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS) by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  5. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  6. Transient changes in shallow groundwater chemistry during the MSU ZERT CO2 injection experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apps, J.A.; Zheng, Lingyun; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kharaka, Y.; Thordsen, J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Food-grade CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer through a perforated pipe placed horizontally 1-2 m below the water table at the Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field site at Bozeman, Montana. The possible impact of elevated CO2 levels on groundwater quality was investigated by analyzing 80 water samples taken before, during, and following CO2 injection. Field determinations and laboratory analyses showed rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of trace element species. The geochemical data were first evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify correlations between aqueous species. The PCA findings were then used in formulating a geochemical model to simulate the processes likely to be responsible for the observed increases in the concentrations of dissolved constituents. Modeling was conducted taking into account aqueous and surface complexation, cation exchange, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Reasonable matches between measured data and model results suggest that: (1) CO2 dissolution in the groundwater causes calcite to dissolve. (2) Observed increases in the concentration of dissolved trace metals result likely from Ca+2-driven ion exchange with clays (smectites) and sorption/desorption reactions likely involving Fe (hydr)oxides. (3) Bicarbonate from CO2 dissolution appears to compete for sorption with anionic species such as HAsO4-2, potentially increasing dissolved As levels in groundwater. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator.

  8. Preferential heating of light ions during an ionospheric AR(+) injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The ARCS 4 sounding rocket was launched northward into high altitude from Poker Flat Research Range on February 23, 1990. The vehicle crossed geomagnetic field lines containing discrete auroral activity. An instrumented subpayload released 100 ev and 200 ev Ar(+) ion beams sequentially, in a direction largely perpendicular to both the local geomagnetic field and the subpayload spin axis. The instrumented main payload was separated along field lines from the beam emitting subpayload by a distance which increased at a steady rate of approx. 2.4 m/s. Three-dimensional mass spectrometric ion observations of ambient H(+) and O(+) ions, obtained onboard the main payload, are presented. Main payload electric field observations in the frequency range 0-16 kHz, are also presented. These observations are presented to demonstrate the operation of transverse ion acceleration, that was differential with respect to ion mass, primarily during 100-ev beam operations. The preferential transverse acceleration of ambient H(+) ions, as compared with ambient O(+) ions during the second, third, fourth, and fifth 100-ev beam operations, is attributed to a resonance at the injected the beam drift velocity among the thermal H(+) ions and plasma waves generated by the injected beam and propagating at the beam drift speed. This work provides experimental support of processes predicted by previously published theory and simulations.

  9. Suppression of Alfvén Modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade with Outboard Beam Injection.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, E D; Belova, E V; Battaglia, D J; Bell, R E; Crocker, N A; Darrow, D S; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Podestà, M; Nstx-U Team

    2017-06-30

    In this Letter we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfvén modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvénic ions consisting of fusion generated α's and beam ions injected for current profile control. We present a qualitative interpretation of these observations using an analytic model of the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron resonance drive responsible for GAE instability which has an important dependence on k_{⊥}ρ_{L}. A quantitative analysis of this data with the hym stability code predicts both the frequencies and instability of the GAE prior to, and suppression of the GAE after the injection of high pitch-angle beam ions.

  10. Suppression of Alfvén Modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade with Outboard Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Belova, E. V.; Battaglia, D. J.; Bell, R. E.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podestà, M.; NSTX-U Team

    2017-06-01

    In this Letter we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfvén modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvénic ions consisting of fusion generated α 's and beam ions injected for current profile control. We present a qualitative interpretation of these observations using an analytic model of the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron resonance drive responsible for GAE instability which has an important dependence on k⊥ρL . A quantitative analysis of this data with the hym stability code predicts both the frequencies and instability of the GAE prior to, and suppression of the GAE after the injection of high pitch-angle beam ions.

  11. New Electron Temperature Measurements During Local Helicity Injection and H-mode Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Extrapolation of non-solenoidal startup via local helicity injection (LHI) to larger devices depends critically on confinement during the injection process. To begin quantifying confinement regimes, the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Pegasus ST was upgraded to include 12 radial positions and high temperature (0.1 Experiments are underway to verify these unexpectedly high electron temperatures. If verified, these temperatures may reflect the dominance of high-energy electrons via fueling with LHI current streams with average energy ~1 keV. Further investigations will explore the dependence of the inferred electron distribution on fueling source, density, and electron injection potential. The upgraded Thomson scattering diagnostic will also be applied to Ohmic H-mode plasmas in Pegasus. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Kaplan, Karyn; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Suwannawong, Paisan; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-10-20

    Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions.

  13. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  14. Preliminary experience with precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid in brain arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Koçer, Naci; Hanımoğlu, Hakan; Batur, Şebnem; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Kızılkılıç, Osman; Sanus, Zihni; Öz, Büge; Işlak, Civan; Kaynar, Mehmet Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in microcatheter design and emergence of new embolic agents offer better results in endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) (Microvention) is a newly introduced dimethyl sulfoxide-based embolic agent for endovascular use. Herein, we present three patients who underwent endovascular treatment of brain AVMs with PHIL, followed by surgical resection. Endovascular features and same-day surgical handling of the new embolic agent PHIL are presented along with histopathologic changes in the acute stage in brain AVMs are presented, and its major differences from Onyx. In our series, PHIL had moderate inflammatory reaction in the acute stage without any associated angionecrosis that is different than Onyx which cause mild inflammatory reaction with angionecrosis. Smallest vessel containing PHIL was 2.9 μm compared to 5 μm with Onyx, which suggests better penetration. PMID:26782157

  15. Experience from a long-term carcinogenicity study with intraperitoneal injection of biosoluble synthetic mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Hans G; Bernstein, David M; Attia, Mahmoud; Richard, Jacques; De Reydellet, Aymon

    2002-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential in the intraperitoneal cavity of three newly developed biosoluble insulation glass wool fibers (M, P, and V) and one newly developed biosoluble insulation stone wool fiber (O) was investigated and compared to that of a previously developed soluble glass fiber (B). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the three glass wool fibers ranged from 450 to 1037 ng/cm(2) x h and was 523 ng/cm(2) x h for the stone wool fiber. The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the B fiber was 580 ng/cm(2) x h. Groups of female Wistar rats (strain Crl: Wi BR) were exposed by repeated injections to doses of 0.5, 2, and 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers, which corresponds to between 41 mg to 724 mg fiber injected. In addition, 2 groups of crocidolite were used as positive controls at doses of 0.1 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(9) WHO fibers (0.5 and 5 mg). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of crocidolite is estimated to be approximately 1 ng/cm(2) x h. The protocol of the study and the size distribution of the test samples conformed to the European Commission Protocol EUR 18748 EN, and the study was executed under Good Laboratory Practice conditions. Two of the new insulation wools, fibers M and 0, showed no statistically significant tumorigenic response even at the very high dose of 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers injected. Fibers P and V showed a small tumorigenic response in the ip cavity similar in magnitude to the B fiber, which has been declared in the German fiber regulations as a noncarcinogenic fiber. The response to the soluble insulation fibers was notably different from that of the known carcinogen crocidolite, which produced 53% tumors at a comparatively low dose of 0.1 x 10(9) WHO fibers. The incidence of mesothelioma was found to be highly correlated to the incidence of intra-abdominal nodules and masses at different sites. The incidence of abdominal nodules and masses was highly correlated to the number of animals with ascites. The incidence of chronic peritonitis with fibrotic

  16. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  17. [Experience of using injectable formulation of buprenorphine for the detoxification treatment of heroin dependence patients].

    PubMed

    Aso, Katsuro

    2009-06-01

    Forty-four heroin dependence patients took detoxification treatment in Fukko-kai Tarumi Hospital from October 1998 to April 2008 (total of 80 admissions). Injectable formulation of buprenorphine (0.2 mg) was used intramuscularly to relieve withdrawal symptoms from October 2002. In the initial phase, small dosage of buprenorphine (0.4 mg per day) was dispensed but obvious effects were not confirmed. Therefore, the dosage was increased to 0.6 mg (3 ampoules), possibly more for 27 patients (total of 53 admissions) from October 2005. While treatment was interrupted by various reasons in 6 patients (total of 10 admissions), the rest completed detoxification. Dosage of buprenorphine given to the patients varied from 0.6 mg (3 ampoules) to 1.6 mg (8 ampoules) per day, and only 4 patients required over 1.0 mg. While duration of administration ranged from 5 days to 15 days, it was between 7 days and 10 days in over the half cases. When sufficient amount of buprenorphine was administered, severity and duration of heroin withdrawal symptoms was distinctly reduced. Since the introduction of heroin detoxification with buprenorphine, number of patients who request the treatment voluntarily increased including those who relapsed, but the length of hospital stay was shortened. One patient rejected buprenorphine injection for unknown reason and one patient left the hospital because of insufficient effect due to insufficient amount of buprenorphine dose, serious adverse effect was not observed. Detoxification treatment with buprenorphine cannot ensure sustained abstinence but can motivate heroin-using patients to receive treatment and strive for abstinence.

  18. Asymptotic analysis soot model and experiment for a directed injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Pei, Pucheng; Xiong, Qinghui; Lu, Yong

    2012-09-01

    The existing soot models are either too complex and can not be applied to the internal combustion engine, or too simple to make calculation errors. Exploring the soot model becomes the pursuit of the goal of many researchers within the error range in the current computer speed. On the basis of the latest experimental results, TP (temperature phases) model is presented as a new soot model to carry out optimization calculation for a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature and excess air factor are the most important two parameters in this model. When zone temperature T<1 500 K and excess air factor Φ>0.6, only the soot precursors—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) is created and there is no soot emission. When zone temperature T ⩾ 1 500 K and excess air factor Φ<0.6, PAHs and soot source terms (particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, coagulation) are calculated. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimizing. KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed for the results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP models. The experimental results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and computational fluid dynamics can be a tool to calculate for a high-pressure common rail directed injection diesel engine. The TP model result is closer than the use of the original KIVA-3V results of soot model accuracy by about 50% and TP model gives a new method for engine researchers.

  19. Laboratory simulations of the Viking Labeled Release experiment - Kinetics following second nutrient injection and the nature of the gaseous end product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Injection of (C-14)-labeled nutrient onto Mars soil produced an evolution of C-14 gas in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment. However, a second injection of nutrient seven days later was followed by an abrupt diminution of the amount of radioactive gas in the test cell. Simulation experiments performed in the LR Test Standards Module (TSM) have yielded a plausible explanation for this diminution. Radioactive carbon gases were injected into the TSM test cell in the presence and absence of two Mars analog soils. After equilibration, water was injected and its effect observed. The results indicate that the flight data following second nutrient injection can be explained on a physico-chemical basis involving a carbon dioxide/water/soil equilibrium in the test cell. The results also suggest that the gaseous end product of the Labeled Release reaction on Mars is more likely carbon dioxide than carbon monoxide.

  20. Laboratory simulations of the Viking Labeled Release experiment - Kinetics following second nutrient injection and the nature of the gaseous end product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Injection of (C-14)-labeled nutrient onto Mars soil produced an evolution of C-14 gas in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment. However, a second injection of nutrient seven days later was followed by an abrupt diminution of the amount of radioactive gas in the test cell. Simulation experiments performed in the LR Test Standards Module (TSM) have yielded a plausible explanation for this diminution. Radioactive carbon gases were injected into the TSM test cell in the presence and absence of two Mars analog soils. After equilibration, water was injected and its effect observed. The results indicate that the flight data following second nutrient injection can be explained on a physico-chemical basis involving a carbon dioxide/water/soil equilibrium in the test cell. The results also suggest that the gaseous end product of the Labeled Release reaction on Mars is more likely carbon dioxide than carbon monoxide.

  1. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lore, Jeremy D.; Reinke, M. L.; LaBombard, Brian; Lipschultz, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2014-09-30

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ~50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modelling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Finally, toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  2. Effect of observer experience in the differentiation between benign and malignant liver tumors after ultrasound contrast agent injection.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Alaimo, Valerio; Baratella, Elisa; Pizzolato, Riccardo; Cester, Giacomo; Medeot, Alessandro; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the observer level of experience on the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) for differentiation between benign and malignant liver tumors. From a computerized search, we retrospectively identified 286 biopsy-proven liver tumors (105 hepatocellular carcinomas, 48 metastases, 7 intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 33 liver hemangiomas, and 93 nonhemangiomatous benign lesions) in 235 patients (140 male and 95 female; mean age +/- SD, 56 +/- 11 years) who underwent CEUS after sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection. The digital cine clips recorded during the arterial (10-35 seconds from injection), portal (50-120 seconds), and late (130-300 seconds) phases were analyzed by 6 independent observers without experience (group 1, observers 1-3) or with 2 to 10 years of experience in CEUS (group 2, observers 4-6). Specific training in the diagnostic and interpretative criteria was provided to the inexperienced observers. Each observer used a 5-point scale to grade diagnostic confidence: 1, definitely benign; 2, probably benign; 3, indeterminate; 4, probably malignant; or 5, definitely malignant on the basis of the enhancement pattern during the arterial phase and enhancement degree during the portal and late phases compared with the liver (hypoenhancement indicating malignant and isoenhancement to hyperenhancement indicating benign). The analysis of observer diagnostic confidence revealed higher intragroup (kappa = 0.63-0.83) than intergroup (kappa = 0.47-0.63) observer agreement. The experienced observers showed higher diagnostic performance in malignancy diagnosis than did inexperienced observers (overall accuracy: group 1, 63.3%-72.8%; group 2, 75.9%-93.1%; P < .05, chi(2) test). The diagnostic performance of CEUS in liver tumor characterization was dependant on the observer's level of experience.

  3. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  4. Preferential heating of light ions during an ionospheric Ar(+) injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, C. J.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Chesney, S.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Argon Release for Controlled Studies (ARCS) 4 sounding rocket was launched northward into high altitude from Poker Flat Research Range on February 23, 1990. The vehicle crossed geomagnetic field lines containing discrete auroral activity. An instrumented subpayload released 100-eV and 200-eV Ar(+) ion beams sequentially, in a direction largely perpendicular to both the local geomagnetic field and the subpayload spin axis. The instrumented main payload was separated along field lines from the beam emitting subpayload by a distance which increased at a steady rate of approximately 2.4 m/s. Three dimensional mass spectrometric ion observations of ambient H(+) and O(+) ions, obtained on board the main payload, are presented. Main payload electric field observations in the frequency range 0-16 kHz, are also presented. These observations are presented to demonstrate the operation of transverse ion acceleration, which was differential with respect to ion mass, primarily during 100-eV beam operations. The preferential transverse acceleration of ambient H(+) ions, as compared with ambient O(+) ions, during the second, third, fourth, and fifth 100-eV beam operations, is attributed to a resonance among the injected Ar(+) ions, beam-generated lower hybrid waves, and H(+) ions in the tail of the ambient thermal distribution. This work provides experimental support of processes predicted by previously published theory and simulations.

  5. Preferential heating of light ions during an ionospheric Ar(+) injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, C.J.; Chandler, M.O.; Moore, T.E.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Kintner, P.M.; Chesney, S.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The Argon Release for Controlled Studies (ARCS) 4 sounding rocket was launched northward into high altitude from Poker Flat Research Range on February 23, 1990. The vehicle crossed geomagnetic field lines containing discrete auroral activity. An instrumented subpayload released 100-eV and 200-eV Ar(+) ion beams sequentially, in a direction largely perpendicular to both the local geomagnetic field and the subpayload spin axis. The instrumented main payload was separated along field lines from the beam emitting subpayload by a distance which increased at a steady rate of approximately 2.4 m/s. Three dimensional mass spectrometric ion observations of ambient H(+) and O(+) ions, obtained on board the main payload, are presented. Main payload electric field observations in the frequency range 0-16 kHz, are also presented. These observations are presented to demonstrate the operation of transverse ion acceleration, which was differential with respect to ion mass, primarily during 100-eV beam operations. The preferential transverse acceleration of ambient H(+) ions, as compared with ambient O(+) ions, during the second, third, fourth, and fifth 100-eV beam operations, is attributed to a resonance among the injected Ar(+) ions, beam-generated lower hybrid waves, and H(+) ions in the tail of the ambient thermal distribution. This work provides experimental support of processes predicted by previously published theory and simulations.

  6. Eight-Year Experience With Botulinum Toxin Type-A Injections for the Treatment of Nonneurogenic Overactive Bladder: Are Repeated Injections Worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Kim, Shannon Hk; Habashy, David; Pathan, Sana; Tse, Vincent; Collins, Ruth; Chan, Lewis

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections for patients with drug-refractory nonneurogenic overactive bladder (NNOAB) and explore factors predictive of outcome. Data were collected from all patients receiving repeated BTX-A injections for drug-refractory NNOAB between 2004 and 2012. Trigone-sparing injections were administered under sedation with antibiotic prophylaxis. Patient characteristics including age, sex, preoperative urodynamics, injection number, BTX-A dose, complications, and patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) scores were collected. Correlations between patient factors and outcomes were assessed by using Pearson's chi-square tests. Fifty-two patients with a mean age of 67.4 years (range, 26-93 years) received 140 BTX-A injections in total; 33 (64%), 15 (29%), and 4 patients (7%) received 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 8 injections, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 49 months (range, 9-101 months). Nine patients developed urinary tract infection; additionally, 3 patients experienced transient urinary retention. Median PGI-I score was 2 out of 7 (interquartile range [IQR], 2). For 46 patients, the PGI-I score remained stable with the administration of each injection. Pearson chi-square tests revealed that male patients or reduced bladder compliance was associated with a higher (worse) PGI-I score. Median PGI-I scores for men and women were 3 (IQR, 1) and 2 (IQR, 1), respectively; additionally, median PGI-I scores for those with normal bladder compliance and those with reduced bladder compliance were 2 (IQR, 2) and 4.5 (IQR, 1), respectively. Median PGI-I scores and complication rates were the same in the older patient (≥70 years) and younger (<70 years) patient cohorts. Efficacy is maintained with repeated BTX-A injections. Patients including the elderly show a good degree of tolerability with a low complication rate. Male patients or reduced bladder compliance is associated with poorer outcomes.

  7. Results from the CDX-U Lithium Wall and NSTX Lithium Pallet Injection and Evaporation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Majeski, R; Kugel, H; Bell, M; Bell, R; Beiersdorfer, P; Bush, C; Doerner, R; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Sabbagh, S; Souskhanovskii, V; Spaleta, J; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Zakharov, L

    2006-10-05

    CDX-U has been operated with the vacuum vessel wall and limiter surfaces nearly completely coated with lithium, producing dramatic improvements to plasma performance. Discharges achieved global energy confinement times up to 6 ms, exceeding previous CDX-U results by a factor of 5, and ITER98P(y,1) scaling by 2-3. Lithium wall coatings up to 1000 {angstrom} thick were applied between discharges by electron-beam-induced evaporation of a lithium-filled limiter and vapor deposition from a resistively heated oven. The e-beam power was modest (1.6 kW) but it produced up to 60 MW/m2 power density in a 0.3 cm{sup 2} spot; the duration was up to 300 s. Convective transport of heat away from the beam spot was so effective that the entire lithium inventory (140 g) was heated to evaporation (400-500 C) and there was no observable hot spot on the lithium surface within the beam footprint. These results are promising for use of lithium plasma-facing components in reactor scale devices. Lithium coating has also been applied to NSTX carbon plasma-facing surfaces, to control the density rise during long-duration H-modes for non-inductive current sustainment. First, lithium pellets were injected into sequences of Ohmically heated helium plasmas in both center stack limiter (CSL) and lower single-null divertor (LSND) configurations to deposit a total of 25-30 mg of lithium on the respective plasma contact areas. In both cases, the first subsequent L mode, deuterium discharge with NBI showed a reduction in the volume-average density by a factor {approx}3 compared to similar discharges before the lithium coating. Recently, a lithium evaporator was installed aimed toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Twelve depositions, ranging from about 10 mg to 5 g of lithium, were performed. The effects on LSND L-mode, double-null divertor (DND) H-mode, and DND reversed-shear plasmas were variable but, immediately after coating, there were decreases in the density and

  8. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  9. Clinical outcomes for Early Childhood Caries (ECC): the influence of health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Chase, I; Berkowitz, R J; Proskin, H M; Weinstein, P; Billings, R

    2004-06-01

    To assess the relationship between clinical outcomes for children treated for ECC and health locus of control. The study cohort consisted of 79 children (42 males, 37 females) treated for ECC; age range was 2.3-7.3 years (mean 4.2 years) at the time of entry into the study. A questionnaire [developed by DeVellis et al., 1993] was administered to each child's parent(s) on the day of dental surgery. This questionnaire examined the expectation that healthcare outcomes in children are influenced by one of the following loci of control: Professional, Parent, Child, Media, Fate and Divine. The cohort was evaluated for new caries lesions at 6 months post dental surgery. Relapse was defined as the presence of new smooth surface caries lesions. For each locus, the scores for the Relapse versus Non-relapse groups (returning patients) and the scores for the returning versus non-returning patients were compared using t-tests. 57 children (72%) returned for follow-up and 21 of these 57 (37%) relapsed. No statistically significant difference for Relapse versus Non-relapse groups was indicated with respect to the scores for any locus parameter (p values ranged from 0.35 to 0.95). Returning parents (N=57) versus non- returning parents (N=22) exhibited statistically significant differences with respect to the Parent, Divine and Fate loci. Returning parents exhibited higher scores on the Parent locus (p=0.0392) and lower scores on the Fate (p=0.0024) and Divine (p=0.0031) loci. 1). The relapse rate (37%) was high and rapid for children treated for ECC; 2). no meaningful difference existed between the Relapse versus Non-relapse groups with respect to each health locus of control parameter; 3). parents who returned for follow-up care appeared to have an internal health locus of control while those who did not return had an external locus.

  10. Impact of di-ethylhexylphthalate exposure on metabolic programming in P19 ECC-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Schaedlich, Kristina; Schmidt, Juliane-Susanne; Kwong, Wing Yee; Sinclair, Kevin D; Kurz, Randy; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Fischer, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most common plasticizer in plastic devices of everyday use. It is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and primarily known to impair male gonadal development and fertility. Studies concerning the long-term effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on certain diseases [The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease paradigm (DOHaD) hypothesis] are scarce although it is proven that DEHP crosses the placenta. Rising environmental pollution during the last centuries coincides with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have investigated the effects of an early embryonic DEHP exposure at different developmental stages on cardiomyogenesis. We used an in-vitro model, the murine P19 embryonic carcinoma cell line (P19 ECC), mimicking early embryonic stages up to differentiated beating cardiomyocytes. P19 ECC were exposed to DEHP (5, 50, 100 µg ml(-1)) at the undifferentiated stage for 5 days and subsequently differentiated to beating cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the expression of metabolic (Pparg1, Fabp4 and Glut4), cardiac (Myh6, Gja1) and methylation (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a) marker genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), beating rate and the differentiation velocity of the cells. The methylation status of Pparg1, Ppara and Glut4 was investigated by pyrosequencing. DEHP significantly altered the expression of all investigated genes. The beating rate and differentiation velocity were accelerated. Exposure to DEHP led to small but statistically significant increases in methylation of specific CpGs within Ppara and Pparg1, which otherwise were generally hypomethylated, but methylation of Glut4 was unaltered. Early DEHP exposure of P19 ECC alters the expression of genes associated with cellular metabolism and the functional features of cardiomyocytes.

  11. 'Tough love': The experiences of midwives giving women sterile water injections for the relief of back pain in labour.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nigel; Kildea, Sue; Stapleton, Helen

    2017-10-01

    To explore midwives' experiences of administering sterile water injections (SWI) to labouring women as analgesia for back pain in labour. A qualitative study, which generated data through semi-structured focus group interviews with midwives. Data were analysed thematically. Two metropolitan maternity units in Queensland, Australia. Eleven midwives who had administered SWI for back pain in labour in a randomised controlled trial. Three major themes were identified including: i. SWI, is it an intervention?; ii. Tough love, causing pain to relieve pain; iii. The analgesic effect of SWI and impact on midwifery practice. Whilst acknowledging the potential benefits of SWI as an analgesic the midwives in this study described a dilemma between inflicting pain to relieve pain and the challenges encountered in their discussions with women when offering SWI. Midwives also faced conflict when women requested SWI in the face of institutional resistance to its use. The procedural pain associated with SWI may discourage some midwives from offering women the procedure, providing women with accurate information regarding the intensity and the brevity of the injection pain and the expected degree of analgesic would assist in discussion about SWI with women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Injection of CO2-saturated water through a siliceous sandstone plug from the Hontomin test site (Spain): experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Canal, J; Delgado, J; Falcón, I; Yang, Q; Juncosa, R; Barrientos, V

    2013-01-02

    Massive chemical reactions are not expected when injecting CO(2) in siliceous sandstone reservoirs, but their performance can be challenged by small-scale reactions and other processes affecting their transport properties. We have conducted a core flooding test with a quartzarenite plug of Lower Cretaceous age representative of the secondary reservoir of the Hontomín test site. The sample, confined at high pressure, was successively injected with DIW and CO(2)-saturated DIW for 49 days while monitoring geophysical, chemical, and hydrodynamic parameters. The plug experienced little change, without evidence of secondary carbonation. However, permeability increased by a factor of 4 (0.022-0.085 mD), and the V(P)/V(S) ratio, whose change is related with microcracking, rose from ~1.68 to ~1.8. Porosity also increased (7.33-8.1%) from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Fluid/rock reactions were modeled with PHREEQC-2, and they are dominated by the dissolution of Mg-calcite. Mass balances show that ~4% of the initial carbonate was consumed. The results suggest that mineral dissolution and microcracking may have acted in a synergistic way at the beginning of the acidic flooding. However, dissolution processes concentrated in pore throats can better explain the permeability enhancement observed over longer periods of time.

  13. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  14. The course of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy following ECCE with posterior chamber IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Raniel, Y; Teichner, Y; Friedman, Z

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study on the effect of ECCE + IOL implantation on the course of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in 59 eyes showed that in one to three years following surgery, progression of DR, including the development of newly formed one, occurred in 28.8% of the eyes. This was more marked in patient with IDDM (IDDM-46%, NIDDM-24%) as well as in eyes with pre-operative BDR (pre-operative BDR-62.5%, no pre-operative BDR-16.3%). Final visual acuity was better in eyes without pre-operative DR as well as in eyes that did not show progression of the retinopathy.

  15. Microorganisms found in secondary cataract material of ECCE patients, a study with SEM and TEM.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, W L; Los, L I; Worst, J G

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic bacteria and yeast cells were found in approximately 70% of the cases, all of them in eyes without intra-ocular inflammation. Probably these bacteria have been transferred from the conjunctiva during IOL.-implantation and were encapsulated without starting an inflammation.

  16. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS).

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2015-12-01

    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  17. [Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber IOL implantation in the very elderly].

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Zhang, Y Z

    1992-07-01

    A study of the operations of ECCE with posterior chamber IOL implantation in 30 eyes of 25 patients aged 75-86 years showed that the average postoperative corrected visual acuity was 18/20, the average corrective spherical lens power was -0.70D and those of cylindrical power 1.18D(AR) and 1.33D(WR). There was no difference in operative complications between these very old and general elderly patients. However, since the health state was often compromised in the very old, to ensure uneventful operations, the ophthalmic surgeon should solicit advice from geriatricians, in addition to his own meticulous perioperative and postoperative care.

  18. Clinical outcomes for Early Childhood Caries (ECC): the influence of salivary mutans streptococci levels.

    PubMed

    Chase, I; Berkowitz, R J; Mundorff-Shrestha, S A; Proskin, H M; Weinstein, P; Billings, R

    2004-09-01

    To assess the relationship between clinical outcomes for children treated for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and salivary mutans streptococci (MS) levels. The study cohort consisted of 79 children (42 males, 37 females) treated for ECC, aged from 2.3 to 7.3 years at time of entry. Whole non-stimulated saliva samples were obtained from each subject prior to dental surgery and at 6 mths post dental surgery, by saturating a cotton swab in the saliva pooled in the floor of the mouth. Samples were placed into PBS on ice and processed within 2 hours. Samples were sonicated, serially diluted and plated onto MSB and SBA agar plates, then incubated 48 hours anaerobically; SBA plates were incubated an additional 24 hours aerobically. The MS level in each sample was expressed as a percentage of the total cultivable flora. The cohort was evaluated for new caries lesions at 6 months post dental surgery. Relapse was defined as the presence of new smooth surface caries lesions. Comparisons between Relapse (R) and Non-Relapse (NR) groups with respect to mutans streptococci levels were performed using Wilcoxon tests. Within group comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. 57 children (72%) returned for the 6 months examination and 21 of these subjects (37%) relapsed. No statistically significant difference in median salivary MS levels existed between the R (0.20%) and NR (0.033%) groups at baseline (p=0.647) or at 6 months post dental surgery (R=0.03%; NR=0.01%; p=0.273). A statistically significant difference between baseline and 6 months post dental surgery was noted in the median salivary MS level within the R group (p=0.0007) and within the NR group (P<0.0001). The relapse rate (37%) was high and rapid for children treated for ECC. Dental surgery resulted in a statistically significant reduction in salivary MS reservoirs for children treated for ECC. However, this did not translate into acceptable clinical outcomes.

  19. Electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer (ECC-LbL) assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Akada, Misaho; Liao, Meiyong; Sang, Liwen; Hill, Jonathan P; Krishnan, Venkata; Ma, Yuguang; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2011-05-18

    Electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer (ECC-LbL) assembly is introduced as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This method allows us to covalently immobilize functional units (e.g., porphyrin, fullerene, and fluorene) into thin films having desired thicknesses and designable sequences for both homo- and heteroassemblies while ensuring efficient layer-to-layer electronic interactions. Films were prepared using a conventional electrochemical setup by a simple and inexpensive process from which various layering sequences can be obtained, and the photovoltaic functions of a prototype p/n heterojunction device were demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. The street/treatment barrier: treatment experiences of Puerto Rican injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Porter, J

    1999-12-01

    This study describes, through ethnographic interviews, the treatment experiences of Puerto Rican long-term heroin users who are at extremely high risk for HIV infection and the barriers they perceive to drug treatment. On the basis of this information we suggest policy recommendations for increasing drug treatment access for Puerto Rican long-term injectors of heroin. It is critical that Puerto Rican populations access drug treatment facilities given their risk factors for HIV infection and the high rate of poverty in Puerto Rican communities that exacerbates drug use.

  1. Post-manufacturing, 17-times acceptable raw bit error rate enhancement, dynamic codeword transition ECC scheme for highly reliable solid-state drives, SSDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Fukuda, Mayumi; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Esumi, Atsushi; Ito, Mitsuyoshi; Li, Kai; Takeuchi, Ken

    2011-04-01

    A dynamic codeword transition ECC scheme is proposed for highly reliable solid-state drives, SSDs. By monitoring the error number or the write/erase cycles, the ECC codeword dynamically increases from 512 Byte (+parity) to 1 KByte, 2 KByte, 4 KByte…32 KByte. The proposed ECC with a larger codeword decreases the failure rate after ECC. As a result, the acceptable raw bit error rate, BER, before ECC is enhanced. Assuming a NAND Flash memory which requires 8-bit correction in 512 Byte codeword ECC, a 17-times higher acceptable raw BER than the conventional fixed 512 Byte codeword ECC is realized for the mobile phone application without an interleaving. For the MP3 player, digital-still camera and high-speed memory card applications with a dual channel interleaving, 15-times higher acceptable raw BER is achieved. Finally, for the SSD application with 8 channel interleaving, 13-times higher acceptable raw BER is realized. Because the ratio of the user data to the parity bits is the same in each ECC codeword, no additional memory area is required. Note that the reliability of SSD is improved after the manufacturing without cost penalty. Compared with the conventional ECC with the fixed large 32 KByte codeword, the proposed scheme achieves a lower power consumption by introducing the "best-effort" type operation. In the proposed scheme, during the most of the lifetime of SSD, a weak ECC with a shorter codeword such as 512 Byte (+parity), 1 KByte and 2 KByte is used and 98% lower power consumption is realized. At the life-end of SSD, a strong ECC with a 32 KByte codeword is used and the highly reliable operation is achieved. The random read performance is also discussed. The random read performance is estimated by the latency. The latency is below 1.5 ms for ECC codeword up to 32 KByte. This latency is below the average latency of 15,000 rpm HDD, 2 ms.

  2. MREIT experiments with 200μA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and Harmonic BZ

    PubMed Central

    Arpinar, V E; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E; Muftuler, L T

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as the IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100μA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10 to 400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200μA total injected current and we tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul in 1998 with Tikhonov regularization and the Harmonic BZ proposed by Oh et al in 2003. The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200μA and 5mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200μA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7μA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5mA total injected current results in 367μA in imaging slice. Total acquisition time for 200μA and 5mA experiments were about one

  3. MREIT experiments with 200 µA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and harmonic BZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpinar, V. E.; Hamamura, M. J.; Degirmenci, E.; Muftuler, L. T.

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10-400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215-25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic BZ proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875-8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total acquisition time

  4. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  5. Experiments on opposed lateral jets injected into swirling crossflow. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurry, C. B.; Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to obtain the time-mean and turbulent quantities of opposed lateral jets in a low speed, nonreacting flowfield. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of R = v sub J/u sub 0 = 4 was used throughout the experiments, with swirl vane angles of d = 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 deg used with the crossflow. Flow visualization techniques used were neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and multispark photography in order to obtain the gross flowfield characteristics. Measurements of time-mean and turbulent quantities were obtained utilizing a six-orientation single hot-wire technique. For the nonswirling case, the jets were found not to penetrate past the test-section centerline, in contrast to the single lateral jet with the same jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio. In the swirling cases, the crossflow remains in a narrow region near the wall of the test section. The opposed jets are swept from their vertical courses into spiral trajectories close to the confining walls. Extensive results are presented in r-x plane plots.

  6. Cement/caprock fracture healing experiments to assess the integrity of CO2 injection wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; Walsh, S. D.; Ruddle, D. G.; Carroll, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has been speculated that fractures along wellbore cement/caprock interfaces may provide a path for release of carbon from both long-term sequestration-sites and CO2-based enhanced oil recovery operations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential for fracture growth and healing in the wellbore environment, and its impact on wellbore permeability. A series of flow-through experiments was conducted, in which sample cores containing a planar fracture between impermeable caprock (compacted quartz, from 13,927' depth in Kern County) and cement (Portland G cured by ATSM standards) were reacted with brine containing variable amounts of carbonic acid (pCO2 between 0 and 3 MPa). The initial fracture geometry was controlled by grinding the caprock and cement pieces flat, and then bead blasting topography into the cement surfaces. Runs lasted 4-8 days with cores and brine maintained at constant temperature (60 °C). Constant confining pressure (24.8 MPa) was applied to cores, while brine was flowed with constant rates (0.05-0.10 mL/min) and pore pressure (12.4 MPa). Geomechanical and geochemical responses of the fractures were monitored by in situ measurements of differential pressure, and by periodically sampling output brine to analyze compositional changes. In every experiment the total permeability of samples cores decreased substantially. For runs using brine with pCO2 = 3 MPa, sample permeability continually decreased by over a factor of 200. Sample permeability also decreased by a factor of 50 having stabilized after ~3 days in a run using brine without CO2 (pCO2 = 0 MPa). These reductions in permeability appear to be the result of chemically-induced changes to the mechanical properties of the cement surface. Prior to reaction, the cement-caprock samples had high strength and elastic response to changes in stress during loading. After the experiments, the samples were weaker, and showed inelastic response to changes in stress during unloading. All cement

  7. Demonstration of Tokamak ohmic flux saving by transient coaxial helicity injection in the national spherical torus experiment.

    PubMed

    Raman, R; Mueller, D; Nelson, B A; Jarboe, T R; Gerhardt, S; Kugel, H W; Leblanc, B; Maingi, R; Menard, J; Ono, M; Paul, S; Roquemore, L; Sabbagh, S; Soukhanovskii, V

    2010-03-05

    Transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) started discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have attained peak currents up to 300 kA and when coupled to induction, it has produced up to 200 kA additional current over inductive-only operation. CHI in NSTX has shown to be energetically quite efficient, producing a plasma current of about 10 A/J of capacitor bank energy. In addition, for the first time, the CHI-produced toroidal current that couples to induction continues to increase with the energy supplied by the CHI power supply at otherwise similar values of the injector flux, indicating the potential for substantial current generation capability by CHI in NSTX and in future toroidal devices.

  8. Pesticide transport in an aerobic aquifer with variable pH—Modeling of a field scale injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Højberg, Anker Lajer; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2005-07-01

    Three-dimensional reactive transport simulations were undertaken to study the sorption and degradation dynamics of three herbicides in a shallow aerobic aquifer with spatially variable pH during a 216 days injection experiment. Sorption of two phenoxy acids [(±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid] (MCPP) and [(±)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid] (dichlorprop) was found to be negligible. Degradation of the phenoxy acids was rapid after an initial lag phase. Degradation of the phenoxy acids could only be reproduced satisfactorily by growth-linked microbial degradation. The model fit to the field data was slightly improved if degradation was assumed to be influenced by the local pH that was observed to increase with depth (˜4.5-5.7). In the observed pH-range the nitroaromatic herbicide [2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol] (DNOC) was partly dissociated (p Ka = 4.31) and present in both the neutral and ionized form. The model simulations demonstrated that most of the observed spatial variation in sorption of DNOC could be explained by assuming that only the neutral form of DNOC was subject to sorption. A varying flow field was observed during the injection experiment and the model simulations documented that this most likely resulted in different migration paths for DNOC and the non-sorbing solutes. The model simulations indicated that degradation of DNOC was an important process. The degradation rate of DNOC remained constant over time and was simulated adequately by first-order kinetics. Again, the model fit to field observation was slightly improved if local pH was assumed to influence the degradation rate. Only the maximum utilization rate was estimated from the field data, while the remaining degradation parameters where successfully transferred from the laboratory study.

  9. The resolution of reservoir dynamics with noise based technologies: A case study from the 2006 Basel injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, Gregor; Husen, Stephan; Obermann, Anne; Planes, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Larose, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We explore the applicability of noise-based monitoring and imaging techniques in the context of the 2006 Basel stimulation experiment using data from five borehole velocimeters and five surface accelerometers located around the injection site. We observe a significant perturbation of medium properties associated with the reservoir stimulation. The transient perturbation, with a duration of 20-30 days, reaches its maximum about 15 days after shut in, when microseismic activity has ceased; it is thus associated with aseismic deformation. Inverting relative velocity change and decorrelation observations using techniques developed and applied on laboratory and local to regional seismological scales, we can image the associated deformation pattern. We discuss limits of the the frequency- and lapse-time dependent resolution and suggestions for improvements considering the 3-D network geometry together with wave propagation models. The depth sensitivity of the analyzed wave field indicates resolution of perturbation in the shallow parts of the sedimentary layer above the stimulated deep volume located in the crystalline base layer. The deformation pattern is similar to InSAR/satellite observations associated with CO2 sequestration experiments, and indicates the transfer of deformation beyond scales associated with the instantaneously stimulated volume. Our detection and localization of delayed induced shallow aseismic transient deformation indicates that monitoring the evolution of reservoir properties using the ambient seismic field provides observables that complement information obtained with standard microseismic approaches. The results constitute a significant advance for the resolution of reservoir dynamics; the technology has the potential to provide critical constraints in related geotechnical situations associated with fluid injection, fracking, (nuclear) waste management, and carbon capture and storage.

  10. The AGS new fast extraction system for the g-2 experiment and RHIC injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS requires a new fast extraction beam (NewFEB) system for the muon g-2 experiment and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The proposed NewFEB system will consist of a new fast multi-pulsing kicker placed at straight section G10 and an ejector septum magnet at H10, together will local orbit bumps generated by powering backleg windings on the AGS main magnets. The new system is capable of performing single bunch multiple extraction as often as every 8 ms up to 12 times per AGS cycle, in addition to the standard single turn fast extraction. The conceptual design of the NewFEB system will be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The External-Injection experiment at the SPARC_LAB facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Andrea R.; Bacci, Alberto; Belleveglia, Marco; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cianchi, Alessandro; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Gallo, Alessandro; Gatti, Giancarlo; Maroli, Cesare; Mostacci, Andrea; Petrillo, Vittoria; Serafini, Luca; Tomassini, Paolo; Vaccarezza, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    At the SPARC_LAB facility of INFN-LNF we are installing a transport lines for ultra-short electron bunches and another for ultra-intense laser pulses, generated by the SPARC photo-injector and by the FLAME laser in a synchronized fashion at the tens of fs level, to co-propagate inside a hydrogen filled glass capillary, in order to perform acceleration of the electron bunch by a plasma wave driven by the laser pulse. The main aim of this experiment is to demonstrate that a high brightness electron beam can be accelerated by a plasma wave without any significant degradation of its quality. Motivations of the technical choices are made and expected performances are reported.

  12. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan-do-check-act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety.

  13. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192

  14. Groundwater geochemistry in field injection and lab incubation experiments simulating CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers in Newark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Goldberg, D.; Stute, M.; Matter, J. M.; Takahashi, T.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Umemoto, K.; Seltzer, A. M.; Goddard, J.; Clauson, K.; Zakharova, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Newark Basin region has been identified as a potential site for geologic carbon sequestration, given the high energy production in the New York metropolitan area. Its feasibility for carbon storage has been studied at various locations. Public and private wells tap into various aquifer formations in the basin, making it very important to understand the potential risks to drinking groundwater resources associated with CO2 sequestration activities. Geochemical modeling of aquifer water chemistry in response to a CO2 leak has been conducted for field injection and lab incubation experiments to estimate the mineral dissolution and trace metal release, and to develop criteria for water quality monitoring and risk assessment in support of EPA drinking water regulations. A field injection of 827 gallons of 1 atm CO2 saturated aquifer water was conducted in a fracture zone at 1200 ft depth in a sand and clay aquifer in the Newark Basin, followed by three-week incubation and then continuous pumping back. The decrease of pH from 8.2 to 6.1, increase of Ca, Mg and Si concentrations, decrease of sulfate and Mo concentrations, and the release of trace elements, including Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba and U were observed in the aquifer. Lab incubation experiments using rock samples and aquifer water from Newark Basin showed lower pH, higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, K and Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Rb, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb, U, and lower concentrations of S, P, Mo, Sb in CO2 treated experiments than in N2 treated control experiments under both abiotic and biotic conditions. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC indicates silicate and carbonate dissolution, and the desorption/adsorption of trace elements due to pH and redox change. Rapid and simultaneous change of pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate/silicate dissolution, and trace metal release in aquifer water could be used as indicators of possible CO2 leaking from geological sequestration sites. Under leakage scenarios

  15. Intrathecal Injections in Children With Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Nusinersen Clinical Trial Experience.

    PubMed

    Haché, Manon; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Sethna, Navil; Farrow-Gillespie, Alan; Khandji, Alexander; Xia, Shuting; Bishop, Kathie M

    2016-06-01

    Nusinersen (ISIS-SMNRx or ISIS 396443) is an antisense oligonucleotide drug administered intrathecally to treat spinal muscular atrophy. We summarize lumbar puncture experience in children with spinal muscular atrophy during a phase 1 open-label study of nusinersen and its extension. During the studies, 73 lumbar punctures were performed in 28 patients 2 to 14 years of age with type 2/3 spinal muscular atrophy. No complications occurred in 50 (68%) lumbar punctures; in 23 (32%) procedures, adverse events were attributed to lumbar puncture. Most common adverse events were headache (n = 9), back pain (n = 9), and post-lumbar puncture syndrome (n = 8). In a subgroup analysis, adverse events were more frequent in older children, children with type 3 spinal muscular atrophy, and with a 21- or 22-gauge needle compared to a 24-gauge needle or smaller. Lumbar punctures were successfully performed in children with spinal muscular atrophy; lumbar puncture-related adverse event frequency was similar to that previously reported in children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies The Effect of Nitrate Injection in Oil Reservoirs - Experience with Nitrate Injection in the Halfdan Oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jan; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    This chapter deals with the use of nitrate injection for reservoir souring mitigation in an oilfield with seawater injection in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Nitrate impacts on the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and biofilm redox potential (Larsen et al., 2007), as a result of which corrosion due to SRB activity will be reduced, souring inhibited and previously formed sulphide removed (Larsen, 2002). One important aspect is that the microbiological reduction of nitrate provides approximately three times more energy to SRB than the reduction of sulphate. Therefore, when both nitrate and sulphate are present, nitrate becomes the preferred electron acceptor and SRB capable of growing on nitrate will dominate. Nitrate provides a competitive advantage to nitrate-utilising bacteria (indicated by the general acronym NUB) during competition for available carbon sources as the NUB are capable of much faster growth than SRB.

  17. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-11-06

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes.

  18. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  19. [Comparison of corneal endothelial cells after ECCE and phacoemulsification of the lens].

    PubMed

    Trnavec, B; Cuvala, J; Cernák, A; Vodrázková, E

    1997-08-01

    The authors evaluate the finding on the corneal endothelium before and after operation of cataract. For examination of the endothelium they used a specular microscope SP 1.000 of Topcon Co. The group comprised 64 eyes of 64 patients. The patients were divided at random into two groups. The first group comprised 26 patients, where ECCE was performed. The second group comprised 38 patients and the opaque lens was removed by phacoemulsification. The mean age in the first group was 69.3 years and in the second group 70.7 years. The same viscoelastic material (methylcellulose) was used and the same synthetic lens from PMMA material was implanted into the capsule. The endothelium was examined one day after operation and on the 7th to 10th day after operation. The following parameters were evaluated: density of the endothelial cells in the centre, mean cell size, polymegethism, coefficient of variation, pleomorphism. In the group of patients who had ECCE the loss of endothelial cells was 18.53%, in the group with phacoemulsification of the nucleus the loss was 16.43%. This difference is not statistically significant. After operation in both groups enlargement of the minimal, maximal as well as mean cell size was observed, the coefficient of variation increased while the grade of cell hexagonality decreased. However these differences in endothelial cells were not statistically significant. After operation of cataract not only endothelial cells are lost but also significant changes in cell morphology occur.

  20. Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC): rationale, design, and population characteristics.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    The Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study-Existing Cohorts Combine (JALS-ECC) is a pooled study based on individual participant data from existing prospective cohort studies in Japan. Its purpose was to consider associations between risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, as well as differences between subgroups, defined by age, gender or geographical region, which could not be detected in the smaller samples. Individual records for 66,691 participants in 21 cohort studies were pooled, accounting for a total of 575,628 person-years. From this data, there were 409 deaths attributed to stroke and 169 deaths attributed to coronary heart disease (CHD). Total stroke and CHD events were 1,478 and 178, respectively. Of the 1,424 total stroke events with a reported stroke subtype, 975 were classified as ischemic, 267 as hemorrhagic, and 178 as subarachnoid hemorrhage. The JALS-ECC collected data from existing cohort studies covering a diverse Japanese population, which has provided information about the effects of modifiable factors on the risks of the CVD. Such information should provide a reliable basis for establishing prevention strategies.

  1. [Correction of the complicated pectus excavatum with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) support].

    PubMed

    Hernández, S; Fernández, A; Ramírez, M; López, S; De la Torre, C A; Miguel, M; Bret, M; Aroca, A; Olivares, P; Tovar, J A

    2011-01-01

    The most serious complication in surgery of the pectus excavatum is the possible cardiac perforation. After its resolution, it is very likely that the relapse of the excavatum will be more severe due to the intense retrosternal fibrosis generated, involving cardiac structures and fixing them to the sternum. Reintervention requires modifications of the usual techniques and special monitoring due to the increased risk of cardiac and large vessel lesions. We present the case of 2 patients with severe pectus excavatum with a previous attempt for correction with cardiac perforation. Case 1. A 16 year old male with Haller index 9.9, diagnosed of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and operated on in neonatal period of cardiac disease, with previous attempt for correction using the Ravitch technique that relapsed and cardiac perforation during it. Case 2. An 11 year old girl, with background of diaphragmatic hernia and cardiac perforation on introducing the Nuss bar at 5 years of age, with Haller index 5.5. Both were operated on under ECC with the collaboration of the Cardiac Surgery Service and cardiac adherences were released after median sternotomy. After it, the Nuss bar was introduced and then sternal closure was performed with reinforced steel wires with titanium plates in the anterior and posterior part. The backgrounds of the cardiac approach complicate the intervention for the correction of the pectus excavatum, with a high risk of cardiac trauma. Counting on the support of the cardiac surgery and the ECC, we achieve an adequate control and prediction of the complications

  2. Where to Now for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Graduates? A Study of the Experiences of Irish BA ECCE Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Mary; Pope, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    International definitions of early childhood locate the field with the care and education of children between birth and six years. In Ireland, this definition applies to both pre-school and the infant classes of primary school. While primary school teachers in Ireland must hold a Bachelor of Education degree, there is no minimum training…

  3. Where to Now for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Graduates? A Study of the Experiences of Irish BA ECCE Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Mary; Pope, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    International definitions of early childhood locate the field with the care and education of children between birth and six years. In Ireland, this definition applies to both pre-school and the infant classes of primary school. While primary school teachers in Ireland must hold a Bachelor of Education degree, there is no minimum training…

  4. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    DOE PAGES

    Lore, Jeremy D.; Reinke, M. L.; LaBombard, Brian; ...

    2014-09-30

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ~50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modelling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outermore » strike point. Finally, toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.« less

  5. Impact of saturation on dispersion and mixing in porous media: Photobleaching pulse injection experiments and shear-enhanced mixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of solute dispersion and mixing in unsaturated flows is analyzed from photobleaching experiments in two-dimensional porous micromodels. This technique allows producing pulse line (delta-Dirac) injections of a conservative tracer by bleaching a finite volume of fluorescent without disturbing the flow field. The temporal evolution of the concentration field and the spatial distribution of the air and water phases can be monitored at pore scale. We study the dispersion and mixing of a line of tracer under different water saturations. While dispersion in saturated porous media follows an approximately Fickian scaling, a shift to ballistic scaling is observed as soon as saturation is lowered. Hence, at the time scale of observation, dispersion in our unsaturated flows is dominated by the ballistic separation of tracer blobs within the water phase, between trapped clusters and preferential flow paths. While diffusion plays a minor role in the longitudinal dispersion during the time scale of the experiments, its interplay with fluid deformation is apparent in the dynamics of mixing. The scalar dissipation rates show an initial stretching regime, during which mixing is enhanced by fluid deformation, followed by a dissipation regime, during which diffusion overcomes compression induced by stretching. The transition between these two regimes occurs at the mixing time, when concentration gradients are maximum. We propose a predictive analytical model, based on shear-enhanced diffusion, that captures the dynamics of mixing from basic unsaturated porous media parameters, suggesting that this type of model may be a useful framework at larger scales.

  6. Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-SI) Spheromak Experiment with the NIMROD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Cihan

    A comparative study of 3-D pressureless resistive (single-fluid) magnetohydrodynamic (rMHD) and 3-D pressureless two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (2fl-MHD) models of the Helicity Injected Torus experiment (HIT-SI) is presented. HIT-SI is a spheromak current-drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate that steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) is a viable method for driving and sustaining a magnetized plasma for the eventual purpose of electricity production with magnetic fusion power. The experiment has achieved sustainment of nearly 100 kA of plasma current for ˜1~ms. Fusion power plants are expected to sustain a burning plasma for many minutes to hours with more than 10~MA of plasma current. The purpose of project is to determine the validity of the single-fluid and two-fluid MHD models of HIT-SI. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth to the diameter of the injectors and resistive skin depth predicates the importance of two-fluid effects. The simulations are run with NIMROD (non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics code with rotation-open discussion), an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. A constant and uniform plasma density and temperature are assumed. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification and formation time

  7. Intra-arterial injection of 131I-labeled Lipiodol for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a 7 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Lintia-Gaultier, Alina; Perret, Christophe; Ansquer, Catherine; Eugène, Thomas; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Frampas, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Internal irradiation with iodine-131 (I)-labeled Lipiodol is one of the currently available forms of palliative therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite a cumulative experience of more than 10 years with this treatment, only a few studies have reported on its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of intra-arterial I-labeled Lipiodol injection for treatment against advanced HCC. Fifty patients (47 men and three women; mean age 64 years) given an intra-arterial injection of I-Lipiodol (5 ml of 2.2 GBq Lipiodol labeled with I; number of mean sessions per patient, 1.3; range 1-4) were retrospectively compared with 36 patients (31 men and five women; mean age 64 years) who were given only medical support. Portal vein thrombosis was present in 86 and 100% of patients, respectively. Efficacy was determined on the basis of overall survival as the endpoint using the Kaplan-Meier method. Tumor response was evaluated with computed tomography according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. For patients treated with I-Lipiodol, median survival was 32 weeks, compared with 8 weeks for the untreated group (P=0.007). Survival at 6 months and at 1 and 2 years was 65, 35, and 22%, respectively, for patients treated with I-Lipiodol compared with 28, 8, and 0% for the untreated group. At 1 month, more than 80% of patients were responders (complete response, partial response, and stable disease) on the basis of the RECIST and EASL criteria, and at 6 months 39% were responders. No radiotoxic effect was observed, especially with respect to interstitial pneumonia. No significant difference was observed between survival and α-fetoprotein levels, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer clinical score, and portal vein thrombosis. Intra-arterial injection of I-Lipiodol is safe and provides significant survival benefit in terms of

  8. Transmission experiment of elastic waves with short wavelengths through a highly porous sand soil during water injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, M.; Kawakata, H.; Hirano, S.; Doi, I.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-12-01

    Transmitted waves at high frequencies attenuate strongly through highly porous media such as shallow ground, although the waves enable us to investigate physical properties of the media with high-spatial resolutions. Nakayama et al. (2015, AGU) tried to investigate the spatio-temporal variations in physical properties of a highly porous sand soil during water injection in laboratory. Accelerometers installed in the sand soil received only the signals of no higher than 0.5 kHz, although they used rectangular waveforms as input signals. The wavelength corresponding to 0.5 kHz is about 400 mm because the measured wave velocity is about 200 m/s. The wavelength is comparable to the path lengths of the transmitted waves, so that it cannot be discussed how the temporal variations in physical properties depend on the paths. In this study, we try to transmit waves with wavelengths much shorter than a sand soil and path lengths through a highly porous sand soil. We make a sand soil (750 mm long, 300 mm wide, and 300 mm high) with porosity about 40%. We install a shaker as a wave source at a deep part in the sand soil. In addition, we install accelerometers, pore pressure gauges, and electrodes at different depths. We inject tap water into the sand soil from the bottom, and record transmitted waves together with pore pressure and electrode voltage until the sand soil becomes saturated. Note that we adopt sweep signals (0.1-10 kHz) as the source so that the shaker can generate high frequency waves more strongly than rectangular signals. Accelerometers receive the signals at least up to 5 kHz during the experiment (Figure 1). The wavelength corresponding to 5 kHz is about 40 mm. In conclusion, we succeed in detecting transmitted waves propagating through the highly porous sand soil whose path lengths are about ten times their wave lengths. Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Takayoshi Kishida for supporting the experiment. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP

  9. Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, François; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clenet, Antoine; Derrien, Solène; Doerenbecher, Alexis; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Fontaine, Alain; Hache, Emeric; Jambert, Corinne; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurised balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport lightweight scientific payloads at isopycnic level and offer a quasi-Lagrangian sampling of the lower atmosphere over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks).

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are widely used under small sounding balloons. However, their autonomy is limited to a few hours owing to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation. An adaptation of the ECC sonde has been developed specifically for long-duration BLPB flights. Compared to conventional ECC sondes, the main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences (with possible remote control during the flight). To increase the ozonesonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min). The rest of the time, the sonde pump is turned off. Results of preliminary ground-based tests are first presented. In particular, the sonde was able to provide correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV-absorption ozone analyser every 15 min for 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched over the western Mediterranean during three summer field campaigns of the ChArMEx project (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr): TRAQA in 2012, and ADRIMED and SAFMED in 2013. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 h and covered more than 1000 km. Satisfactory data were obtained when compared to independent ozone measurements close in space and time. The quasi-Lagrangian measurements allowed a first look at ozone diurnal evolution in the marine boundary layer as well as in the lower free troposphere. During some flight segments, there was indication of photochemical ozone production in the marine boundary layer or even

  10. Escharotic Treatment for ECC-positive CIN3 in Childbearing Years: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Windstar, Kimberly; Dunlap, Corina; Zwickey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    A persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of a high-risk type is necessary for cervical cancer to develop. The severity of the diagnosis, together with colposcopy findings, determines the standard for treatment, and ablative or excisional options may be recommended. Escharotic treatment, together with an oral, anticarcinogenic HPV protocol and a vaginal-suppository protocol, is an alternative treatment, especially for those women of childbearing age who are concerned about the possibility of obstetrical complications associated with the use of loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP). The aim of the current case study was to observe the effect of an ablative escharotic treatment for a woman with severe dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). A 28-y-old female visited the National College of Natural Medicine clinic to obtain suggestions for alternative treatments following a satisfactory colposcopy and a biopsy revealing a high-risk HPV effect, severe dysplasia CIN3, and a positive endocervical curettage (ECC). She refused the recommended standard of care, a LEEP, because of concerns about the potential for future obstetrical complications. As an alternative, she elected to receive an escharotic treatment at a frequency of 2 treatments/wk for 5 wk. In addition to the escharotic treatment, she followed an oral protocol consisting of vitamins and botanical medicine for 1 y and she completed a 12-wk regime of vaginal suppositories following the escharotic. The authors followed her for 2 y. The woman’s Papanicolaou (Pap) test at the 6-mo follow-up revealed negative cervical cytology for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and her follow-up ECC was negative. Liquid-based Pap results were normal, and HPV testing was negative at her 1-y follow-up. Her Pap continued to remain normal at her 2-y follow-up. For women with high-grade cervical neoplasias and positive ECCs, with satisfactory colposcopies, escharotic treatment, accompanied by oral

  11. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  12. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-17

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  13. Cost-minimization analysis of capsulotomy after ECCE and IOL implantation.

    PubMed

    Lertsumitkul, S; La Nauze, J

    1996-06-01

    An economic evaluation of capsulotomy for posterior capsular opacification after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was carried out using a cost minimization model. This model demonstrates the use of cost comparison to aid the decision making process. A flow-chart of capsulotomy mode, with associated complications, is illustrated. Costs of complications are calculated using assigned probability for each tree. Overall comparative costs are displayed graphically Further, the model is presented using a computer-assisted spreadsheet with an added calculation program. Variables can therefore be adjusted with instantaneous outcomes visually displayed. We present several examples with different sets of variables and find that, in most instances, YAG capsulotomy is a more economical option than surgical capsulotomy. This finding is a relevant finding in planning for eye health programs, particularly in developing countries. We suggest that the model be modified using local parameters in order to provide optimal benefits in similar health programs.

  14. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  15. On the Quality of ECC Ozonesondes Data: Improvements of the Ground Based Data for Satellites Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubi, R.; Levrat, G.; Romanens, G.; Deshler, T.; Kivi, R.; Davis, J.; Schmidlin, F.; Johnson, B.

    2010-12-01

    The ozonesondes networks play an important role in the validation of the satellites instruments because of their high altitude resolution from the ground up to the mid-stratosphere and the very long term record starting in the late 70-ies. However, there is a lack of homogeneity of the ECC ozonesondes data from the various stations around the world. Progresses have been made over the last 10 years to identify the major source of biases affecting the ozonesondes profiles (see [1] and [2]), in particular regarding the sensing solution composition, the back-ground current and the sonde provider. To illustrate these effects on real data comparison and to test first order correction procedures, SCIAMACHY ozone columns are compared to three different processings of the Nairobi and Payerne aerological stations data.

  16. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  17. ECC-RT-PCR: a new method to determine the viability and infectivity of Giardia cysts.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Sbai, Basel; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Khalid Ijaz, M

    2012-05-01

    Giardia sp is a major cause of diarrheal illness worldwide, and millions of people are infected each year. Rapid methods to determine the infectivity and virulence of isolates are critical for the development of intervention strategies to control the transmission of Giardia sp cysts, which occurs through contaminated surfaces, food, and water. However, determining the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Giardia sp cysts using molecular methods is a technical challenge because of the lack of a cell culture model. This study was designed to evaluate mRNA expression in trophozoites and to assess trophozoite attachment to cell monolayer and changes in transcellular resistance as an indicator of Giardia sp viability and infectivity. Heat shock mRNA in Giardia cysts and variant-specific protein (VSP) mRNA in trophozoites were quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). C2bb (Caco-2) cells were grown on transwell chambers to study the attachment of trophozoites, changes in transcellular resistance, and expression of VSP in trophozoites. The results of these molecular and cell culture studies indicate a direct linear correlation between the viability and infectivity of fresh stocks of Giardia sp cysts. The attachment of trophozoites to cell monolayer, expression of VSP, and change in the transcellular resistance was directly correlated with their infectivity in neonatal mice. PCR was successfully combined with the electrophysiological analysis of cell culture (ECC-RT-PCR) post-trophozoite attachment. This study shows that the ECC-RT-PCR, a new integrated cell culture assay, can be used as a rapid and cost-effective tool for assessing the viability and infectivity of environmental isolates of Giardia sp cysts. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC)--review of literature published 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Twetman, S

    2008-03-01

    This was to examine the literature published during the last decade and review the effectiveness of methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). A critical review of papers. A broad search of the PubMed database was conducted from 1998 through September 2007, using "early childhood caries", "baby bottle tooth decay", "nursing caries", "infant caries", "caries prevention" and "oral health education" as index terms. Relevant papers published in English between 1998 and 2007 were identified after a review of their abstracts. Papers were selected if they reported a prospective controlled design with preventive or non-invasive intervention directed to children under the age of 3 years. A defined endpoint measure of cavitated or non-cavitated clinical caries, expressed as incidence or prevalence, was required. The targeted publications were critically assessed by the author concerning design, methodology and performance. The initial search revealed 66 papers of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. The results reinforced the role of fluoride toothpaste as the most cost-effective home-care measure and semi-annual fluoride varnish applications as the best professional method for infants at risk. The evidence concerning the preventive effect of antibacterial agents, primary-primary prevention and dental health education were inconclusive but the included studies supported the importance of early start, outreach activities and motivational interviewing as key factors to overcome cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Although there is a body of evidence for the use of fluoride in preventing ECC, further high-quality studies are needed to further establish the best way to maintain oral health in infants.

  19. Simultaneous algae-polluted water treatment and electricity generation using a biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Chao; Han, Xiaoyu; Ambuchi, John J; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Feng, Yujie

    2017-10-15

    How to utilize electrocoagulation (EC) technology for algae-polluted water treatment in an energy-efficient manner remains a critical challenge for its widespread application. Herein, a novel biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC) with sacrificial iron anode and nitrifying biocathode was developed. Under different solution conductivities (2.33±0.25mScm(-1) and 4.94±0.55mScm(-1)), the bio-ECC achieved almost complete removal of algae cells. The maximum power densities of 8.41 and 11.33Wm(-3) at corresponding current densities of 48.03Am(-3) and 66.26Am(-3) were obtained, with the positive energy balance of 4.52 and 7.44Wm(-3). In addition, the bio-ECC exhibited excellent NH4(+)-N removal performance with the nitrogen removal rates of 7.28mgL(-1)h(-1) and 6.77mgL(-1)h(-1) in cathode chamber, indicating the superiority of bio-ECC in NH4(+)-N removal. Pyrosequencing revealed that nitrifiers including Nitrospira, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosomonas were enriched in biocathode. The removal mechanisms of algae in anode chamber were also explored by AFM and SEM-EDX tests. These results provide a proof-of-concept study of transferring energy-intensive EC process into an energy-neutral process with high-efficiency algae removal and electricity recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge and Practice into ECCE: A Comparison of Programs in The Gambia, Senegal and Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudee, Alicia Ranck

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Development (ECD) has emerged as a theme in international and African dialogue on education in recent years. UNESCO's Division of Basic Education Early Childhood promotes an integrated approach to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) policy development and review. The study examines how this is implemented in three West…

  1. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of the carotid arteries with high-flow injection from the aortic arch. Preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Pozzi Mucelli, F; Calgaro, A; Bruni, S; Bottaro, L; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2005-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography (3DRA) is a new technique based on a rotational angiographic acquisition able to display arterial vessels in a 3D rendering mode. The system was mainly developed for neuroradiological evaluations but preliminary extracranial experiences have also been reported. The aim of our work was to compare the results of three-dimensional angiography of the carotid arteries done with high-flow injection of contrast medium from the aortic arch with the results of selective angiography. Twenty patients underwent digital angiography of the supra-aortic vessels in order to quantify a stenosis of the carotid bifurcations previously detected at Doppler Ultrasound. Examinations were performed with the Philips Integris Allura system provided with the rotational angiography (RA) tool connected to a workstation for three-dimensional reconstruction able to display vessels in a 3D fashion (Volume Rendering, Gradient Rendering, Shaded Surface Display), automatically remove bone structures (cervical spine, calcified plaque, etc.) and perform an automatic analysis of the vessel diameter and surface area at the point of major stenosis and in the disease-free vessel segments above and below. The carotid evaluation was done either with selective catheterization and the two standard AP and LL projections and with RA after contrast medium injection from the aortic arch followed by 3D reconstruction. The comparison of the selective angiography and three-dimensional images was possible in 37 out of 40 carotid bifurcations (3 internal carotid arteries were occluded) and a good diagnostic quality was obtained in 35 out of 37 cases with an high correlation in the degree of stenosis. In 2/37 cases with calcified plaques the degree of stenosis was effectively demonstrated only after electronic subtraction of the calcified component of the plaque. The technique we propose proved to be feasible in all cases with a good correlation in the quantification of the

  2. Two types of squalor: findings from a factor analysis of the Environmental Cleanliness and Clutter Scale (ECCS).

    PubMed

    Snowdon, John; Halliday, Graeme; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-07-01

    Most people who collect and hoard, and then have difficulty discarding items, do not live in squalor, even though accumulation of hoarded items can make cleaning very difficult. Commonly, people living in squalor accumulate garbage, but relatively few fulfill proposed criteria for "hoarding disorder." We examined the overlap between hoarding and squalor among people referred because of unacceptable living conditions. Ongoing collection of data by a Squalor Project team, including ratings on the Environmental Cleanliness and Clutter Scale (ECCS), allowed (1) description of characteristics of cases and (2) examination of ratings of uncleanliness, and of the effect of accumulation of items or material on access within dwellings. Principal component analysis was used to examine latent variables underlying the ECCS. The mean age of the referred occupants (108 male, 95 female) was 61.9 years. The mean ECCS score in 186 rated cases was 18.5. Factor analysis of ECCS data showed a two-factor solution as the most plausible. Factor 1, comprising seven squalor items, accounted for 33.7% of the variance. Factor 2 comprised reduced accessibility and accumulation of items of little value (variance 17.6%). Accumulation of garbage loaded equally on the two factors. High levels of squalor and/or accumulation were recorded in 105 (56%) of the 186 dwellings. One-third scored high on accumulation/hoarding, while 38% scored high on squalor; 15% scored high on both squalor and accumulation. A quarter of those scoring high on squalor scored low on hoarding/accumulation. The ECCS is useful when describing whether referred cases show high levels of squalor, hoarding, or both.

  3. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  4. ECC-1 cells: a well-differentiated steroid-responsive endometrial cell line with characteristics of luminal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mo, Bilan; Vendrov, Aleksandr E; Palomino, Wilder A; DuPont, Barbara R; Apparao, K B C; Lessey, Bruce A

    2006-09-01

    Endometrial cancer cell lines have provided a valuable model to study endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Since the first development of HEC1B over 35 yr ago, many different cell lines have been isolated and described. One valuable cell line that maintains hormone responsiveness and unique stability over time is the ECC-1 cell line, developed originally by the late P.G. Satyaswaroop. In this study, we investigated some of the properties of these cells and present their salient characteristics. Like Ishikawa cells, ECC-1 cells maintain both estrogen receptors (ESR1 [ER alpha] and ESR2 [ER beta]), progesterone receptors (PR A and B; PGRs), and androgen receptors (ARs), along with the p160 steroid receptor coactivators NCOA1 (formerly SRC1), NCOA2 (formerly TIF2), and NCOA3 (formerly AIB1). The karyotype of these cells is abnormal, with multiple structural rearrangements in all cells analyzed. Unlike Ishikawa cells that express glandular epithelial antigens, ECC-1 cells maintain a luminal phenotype, with expression of KRT13 (cytokeratin 13) and KRT18 (cytokeratin 18). Apparent differences in the regulation of ESR2 also were evident in ECC-1 cells compared to Ishikawa cells. Like other endometrial cell lines, ECC-1 cells express the steroid receptor coactivators and exhibit epidermal growth factor-stimulated expression of known luminal proteins thought to be involved in implantation, including the hyaluronate receptor CD44 and SPP1 (formerly osteopontin) and CD55 (decay-accelerating factor). These characteristics appear to be stable and persistent over multiple cell passages, making this well-differentiated cell line an excellent choice to study endocrine and paracrine regulation of endometrial epithelium in vitro.

  5. Brain hyperperfusion during cardiac operations. Cerebral blood flow measured in man by intra-arterial injection of xenon 133: evidence suggestive of intraoperative microembolism

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, L.; Hjelms, E.; Lindeburgh, T.

    1983-08-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 in 29 patients during cardiac operations. Marked changes occurred in all patients. A normal and significant correlation with temperature and plasma pCO/sub 2/ (p less than 0.01) support the reliability of the method. Mean CBF measured between sternotomy and the onset of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) was 38 ml/100 gm . min. The first minute of ECC was associated with a decrease in CBF in nine of 12 patients (p less than 0.02). During steady-state hypothermic ECC (temperature 29 degrees C), CBF increased unexpectedly to 64 ml/100 gm . min (p less than 0.01). Following rewarming steady-state normothermic ECC, mean CBF decreased to 42 ml/100 gm . min with signs of impairment of cerebral autoregulation. Ten and 20 minutes after termination of ECC, mean CBF was 40 and 41 ml/100 gm . min, respectively. Arterial PCO2 was found to be important in regulating CBF. The cerebral autoregulation maintained CBF down to arterial pressures of around 55 mm Hg. Below this level, CBF was significantly correlated with perfusion pressure (p less than 0.01). Multiple small emboli with a hyperemic border zone could cause a brain hyperperfusion, as seen in our patients during bypass. Measurements of CBF during ECC hold promise as a guide toward safer cardiac operations.

  6. CO2 spray mini-injector for digital subtraction angiography versus PC-controlled injection system: experiments in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Rode, T; Alzen, G; Günther, R W; Pott, H

    1993-01-01

    A personal computer (PC)-controlled CO2 injector (consisting of a pneumatic unit, electric/electronic system, and calculator) and a spray mini-injector (consisting of a CO2 spray can and a dosage chamber) were used in 10 dogs to determine their efficacy regarding imaging quality and ease of handling. CO2 was injected into the abdominal aorta, renal artery, and femoral artery. The vessel diameter was determined on each CO2 arteriogram and compared with that determined on a reference arteriogram obtained using an iodinated contrast agent. The filling ratio (CO2/iodine) was calculated for each set of injection parameters. Both injection systems provided good visualization (filling ratio > 0.9) of large and small arteries within a range of injection parameters. In terms of practicality, the spray mini-injector is more appealing, because it is easier to handle and does not require any preparation.

  7. "We don't need services. We have no problems": exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services.

    PubMed

    Krug, Anita; Hildebrand, Mikaela; Sun, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs often begin their drug use and injecting practices in adolescence, yet there are limited data available on the HIV epidemic and the responses for this population. The comprehensive package of interventions for the prevention, treatment and care of HIV infection among people who inject drugs first laid out in 2009 (revised in 2012) by World Health Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, does not consider the unique needs of adolescent and young people. In order to better understand the values and preferences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services and support, we undertook a series of community consultations with young people with experience of injecting drugs during adolescence. Community consultations (4-14 persons) were held in 14 countries. Participants were recruited using a combined criterion and maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were analyzed using collaborative qualitative data analysis. Frequency analysis of themes was conducted. Nineteen community consultations were organized with a total of 132 participants. All participants had experienced injecting drugs before the age of 18. They had the following age distribution: 18-20 (37%), 21-25 (48%) and 26-30 (15%). Of the participants, 73.5% were male while 25.7% were female, with one transgender participant. Barriers to accessing the comprehensive package included: lack of information and knowledge of services, age restrictions on services, belief that services were not needed, fear of law enforcement, fear of stigma, lack of concern, high cost, lack of outreach, lack of knowledge of HCV/TB and lack of youth friendly services. The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic approaches. Findings suggest that harm reduction and

  8. “We don't need services. We have no problems”: exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Anita; Hildebrand, Mikaela; Sun, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs often begin their drug use and injecting practices in adolescence, yet there are limited data available on the HIV epidemic and the responses for this population. The comprehensive package of interventions for the prevention, treatment and care of HIV infection among people who inject drugs first laid out in 2009 (revised in 2012) by World Health Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, does not consider the unique needs of adolescent and young people. In order to better understand the values and preferences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services and support, we undertook a series of community consultations with young people with experience of injecting drugs during adolescence. Methods Community consultations (4–14 persons) were held in 14 countries. Participants were recruited using a combined criterion and maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were analyzed using collaborative qualitative data analysis. Frequency analysis of themes was conducted. Results Nineteen community consultations were organized with a total of 132 participants. All participants had experienced injecting drugs before the age of 18. They had the following age distribution: 18–20 (37%), 21–25 (48%) and 26–30 (15%). Of the participants, 73.5% were male while 25.7% were female, with one transgender participant. Barriers to accessing the comprehensive package included: lack of information and knowledge of services, age restrictions on services, belief that services were not needed, fear of law enforcement, fear of stigma, lack of concern, high cost, lack of outreach, lack of knowledge of HCV/TB and lack of youth friendly services. Conclusions The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic

  9. Long acting injectable versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial intervention for heroin dependence: A quasi-experiment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Adam C.; Comer, Sandra D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Bisaga, Adam; Carpenter, Kenneth; Raby, Wilfrid M.; Yu, Elmer; O’Brien, Charles P.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of early clinical outcomes between injectable, sustained release, depot naltrexone formulation versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy. Method Early retention and urine results were compared between patients participating in two concurrently run randomized clinical trials of oral (N = 69) and long acting injectable naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial therapy (N = 42). Retention in treatment and opiate use in the first 8-weeks post-detoxification were compared. Results Long acting injectable naltrexone produced significantly better outcome than oral naltrexone on days retained in treatment and one measure of opiate use; other measures were not significantly different, but differences were in the same direction. In subanalyses, there were interaction effects between baseline heroin severity and type of treatment. In subanalyses, heroin users with more severe baseline use showed better retention in oral naltrexone maintenance combined with intensive psychotherapy (Behavior Naltrexone Therapy) as compared to retention of severe users treated with long acting naltrexone injections combined with standard cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy; less severe heroin users evidenced better outcomes when treated with long acting injectable naltrexone. Conclusions This quasi-experimental analysis provides tentative indications of superior outcomes for heroin dependent patients treated with long acting injectable naltrexone compared to oral naltrexone. The finding that heroin users with more severe baseline use achieved better outcomes with oral naltrexone is most probably attributable to the intensive nature of the psychosocial treatments provided, and points to the opportunity for continued research in augmenting injectable naltrexone with psychosocial strategies to further improve outcome especially in more severe users. The results should be considered exploratory given the quasi-experimental nature of the

  10. Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, M V; Reis, F M C V; Campos, A C; Guimarães, F S

    2014-03-01

    The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response. Although its mechanism remains unclear, CBD can facilitate 5HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission when injected into several brain structures. This study was aimed at verifying if intra-PL CBD could also induce anxiolytic-like effect in a conceptually distinct animal model, the elevated plus maze (EPM). We also verified if CBD effects in the EPM and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) depend on 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience. CBD induced opposite effects in the CFC and EPM, being anxiolytic and anxiogenic, respectively. Both responses were prevented by WAY100,635, a 5HT1A receptor antagonist. In animals that had been previously (24h) submitted to a stressful event (2h-restraint) CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect in the EPM. This anxiolytic response was abolished by previous injection of metyrapone, a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker. Moreover, restraint stress increased 5HT1A receptors expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, an effect that was attenuated by injection of metyrapone before the restraint procedure. Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience.

  11. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner. PMID:21711896

  12. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-04-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  13. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-04-27

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  14. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  15. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  16. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  17. Isolation and identification of Clostridium spp. from infections associated with the injection of drugs: experiences of a microbiological investigation team.

    PubMed

    Brazier, J S; Duerden, B I; Hall, V; Salmon, J E; Hood, J; Brett, M M; McLauchlin, J; George, R C

    2002-11-01

    Pathogenic species of the genus Clostridium may contaminate the materials used in the injection of drugs and under the right conditions may cause serious or life-threatening disease. C. novyi type A was implicated in an outbreak of severe infection with high mortality in injecting drug users who injected heroin extravascularly. The isolation of such highly oxygen-sensitive clostridia from clinical material may require adherence to enhanced methods and, once isolated, commercially available anaerobe identification kits alone may not give an accurate identification. Additional phenotypic tests that are useful in recognising the main pathogenic species are described. Differentiation of C. novyi type A from C. botulinum type C in reference laboratories was based on 16S rDNA sequence data and specific neutralisation of cytopathic effects in tissue culture.

  18. Comparison of Long Term Tropospheric Ozone Trends Measured by Lidar and ECC Ozonesondes from 1991 to 2010 in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, G.; Gaudel, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2016-06-01

    ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) ozonesondes and UV DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) measurements have been carried out simultaneously at OHP (Observatoire de Haute Provence, 44°N, 6.7°E, 690 m) since 1991. A unique long-term trend assessment by two different instruments operated routinely at the same location is possible. Air mass trajectories have been calculated for all the ozone observations available at OHP. The bias between the seasonal mean calculated with lidar and ECC ozone vertical profiles for 4 timeperiods of 5 years is 0.6 ppbv in the free troposphere (4-8 km). Larger differences (> 10 ppbv) are explained by the need for clear sky conditions during lidar observations. The measurements of both instruments have been combined to decrease the impact of short-term atmospheric variability on the trend estimate.

  19. Estimated net value and uncertainty for automating ECCS switchover at PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, B.; Brideau, J.; Comes, L.; Darby, J.; Guttmann, H.; Sciacca, F.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.; Zigler, G.

    1996-02-01

    Question for resolution of Generic Safety Issue No. 24 is whether or not PWRs that currently rely on a manual system for ECCS switchover to recirculation should be required to install an automatic system. Risk estimates are obtained by reevaluating the contributions to core damage frequencies (CDFs) associated with failures of manual and semiautomatic switchover at a representative PWR. This study considers each separate instruction of the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs), the mechanism for each control, and the relation of each control to its neighbors. Important contributions to CDF include human errors that result in completely coupled failure of both trains and failure to enter the required EOP. It is found that changeover to a semiautomatic system is not justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis: going from a manual to a semiautomatic system reduces the CDF by 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per reactor-year, but the probability that the net cost of the modification being less than $1, 000 per person-rem is about 20% without license renewal. Scoping analyses, using optimist assumptions, were performed for a changeover to a semiautomatic system with automatic actuation and to a fully automatic system; in these cases the probability of a net cost being less than $1,000/person-rem is about 50% without license renewal and over 95% with license renewal.

  20. Ageing and COPD affect different domains of nutritional status: the ECCE study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Spatafora, M; Paglino, G; Pedone, C; Corsonello, A; Scichilone, N; Antonelli-Incalzi, R; Bellia, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.

  1. Robust ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for Telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zhu, Shaohui

    2015-05-01

    To protect the transmission of the sensitive medical data, a secure and efficient authenticated key agreement scheme should be deployed when the healthcare delivery session is established via Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) over the unsecure public network. Recently, Islam and Khan proposed an authenticated key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptography for TMIS. They claimed that their proposed scheme is provably secure against various attacks in random oracle model and enjoys some good properties such as user anonymity. In this paper, however, we point out that any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity. Consequently, their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack and off-line password guessing attack. Moreover, if the malicious patient performs the same time of the registration as other users, she can further launch the impersonation attack, man-in-the-middle attack, modification attack, replay attack, and strong replay attack successfully. To eliminate these weaknesses, we propose an improved ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can resist various attacks and enables the patient to enjoy the remote healthcare services with privacy protection. Through the performance evaluation, we show that the proposed scheme achieves a desired balance between security and performance in comparisons with other related schemes.

  2. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  3. Dynamic investigation of nutrient consumption and injection strategy in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) by means of large-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiyong; Zhu, Weiyao; Sun, Gangzheng; Blanckaert, Koen

    2015-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) depends on the in situ microbial activity to release trapped oil in reservoirs. In practice, undesired consumption is a universal phenomenon but cannot be observed effectively in small-scale physical simulations due to the scale effect. The present paper investigates the dynamics of oil recovery, biomass and nutrient consumption in a series of flooding experiments in a dedicated large-scale sand-pack column. First, control experiments of nutrient transportation with and without microbial consumption were conducted, which characterized the nutrient loss during transportation. Then, a standard microbial flooding experiment was performed recovering additional oil (4.9 % Original Oil in Place, OOIP), during which microbial activity mostly occurred upstream, where oil saturation declined earlier and steeper than downstream in the column. Subsequently, more oil remained downstream due to nutrient shortage. Finally, further research was conducted to enhance the ultimate recovery by optimizing the injection strategy. An extra 3.5 % OOIP was recovered when the nutrients were injected in the middle of the column, and another additional 11.9 % OOIP were recovered by altering the timing of nutrient injection.

  4. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  5. Laboratory experiments simulating poroelastic stress changes associated with depletion and injection in low-porosity sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Zoback, Mark D.

    2017-04-01

    We characterized the poroelastic deformation of six cores from three formations associated with the Bakken play in the Williston Basin (the Lodgepole, Middle Bakken, and Three Forks formations). All are low-porosity, low-permeability formations, but vary considerably in clay, kerogen, and carbonate content. The experimental program simulated reservoir stress changes associated with depletion and injection via cycling both the confining pressure (Pc) and pore pressure (Pp). We measured volumetric strain, derived the corresponding bulk modulus, and calculated the Biot coefficient (α). We found α, which generally ranges between 0.3 and 0.9, to vary systematically with Pc and Pp for each of the specimens tested. The effect of pore pressure on α is much larger at low simple effective stress (σ = Pc-Pp) during depletion than injection. The α decreases with σ for all pore pressures. For the same Pc and Pp, the Biot coefficient is consistently higher during injection than during depletion. Given the observed variations of α with Pc and Pp, the modeling of reservoir stress changes using a constant α could be problematic as poroelastic stress changes during depletion and injection are not likely to follow the same path. Scanning electron microscope examination of microstructures suggests that the variations of the bulk modulus and the Biot coefficient can be attributed to the abundance of compliant components (pores, microcracks, clays, and organic matter) and how they are distributed throughout the rock matrix.

  6. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  7. Preventing Sciatic Nerve Injury due to Intramuscular Injection: Ten-Year Single-Center Experience and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Sirma; Geyik, Murat; Yigiter, Remzi; Kuzudisli, Samiye; Saglam, Sadullah; Elci, Mehmet Ali; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injury is the most frequent and serious complication of intramuscular gluteal injection. This study aims to highlight the incidence and causes of this continuing problem and to discuss the relevant literature. < p < MATERIAL and METHODS: A total of 217 subjects who were diagnosed with sciatic nerve injury in our neurophysiology laboratory between 2003 and 2013 were examined. Sensory and motor transmission studies and needle electromyography were performed by conventional methods in the two lower legs and the results were compared between each leg. Of the subjects who experienced a sciatic injury secondary to intramuscular injection, 59 (27.2%) were female and 158 (72.8%) were male. In all subjects, the dorsogluteal site of the buttocks was selected for intramuscular injection. Sciatica occurred on the right side in 91 subjects, on the left side in 125, and bilaterally in one. The peroneal nerve was more affected than the tibial nerve. The most used agents were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. According to follow-up electromyography findings of 103 subjects, significant sequelae remained in 2/3 of cases. The occurrence of sciatic neuropathy after gluteal injection causing permanent sequelae and leading to medicolegal problems is relatively rare. We suggest a double quadrant drawing technique in each gluteal region. We also draw attention to this issue with postgraduate and in-service training programs of medical staff, and providing continuity in education can reduce this serious complication.

  8. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometry for controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Csaba; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C.; Michel, P.; Schroeder, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.

    2006-10-01

    A method for controlled injection of electrons into a plasma wakefield relying on colliding laser pulses [1] has been proposed a decade ago to produce high quality relativistic electron beams with energy spread below 1% and normalized emittances < 1 micron from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). The original idea uses three pulses in which one pulse excites the plasma wake and a trailing laser pulse collides with a counterpropagating one to form a beat pattern that boosts background electrons to catch the plasma wave. Another, two-beam off-axis injection method [2] with crossing angles varying from 180 to 90 degrees avoids having optical elements on the path of the electron beam and has been studied at the LOASIS facility of LBNL as a viable method for laser triggered injection. It allows low dark current operation with controllable final beam energy and low energy spread. Here, we report on progress of electron optical injection via the two-beam non-collinear colliding pulse scheme using multi-terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser beams (45 fs, 100s of mJ) focused onto a Hydrogen gas plume. Experimental results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. *This work is supported by DoE under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. [1] E. Esarey, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett 79, 2682 (1997) [2] G. Fubiani, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016402 (2004)

  9. Comparison of results and complications following combined ECCE-trabeculectomy versus small-incision-trabeculectomy and posterior chamber lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Wedrich, A; Menapace, R; Hirsch, U; Papapanos, P; Derbolav, A; Ries, E

    To compare the efficacy and complication rate of two standard cataract extraction techniques with different incision lengths when combined with trabeculectomy. 54 eyes after combined ECCE, posterior chamber lens implantation and trabeculectomy (ECCE-group) are compared with 49 eyes following phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy and implantation of a folded flexible posterior chamber lens (small-incision group). Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Glaucoma control was achieved in all eyes of both groups. There was a tendency towards a higher number of patients without therapy in the small-incision group (82% versus 65%, p = 0.07). Final mean IOP (14.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg versus 15.5 +/- 2.7 mmHg, p = 0.02) and mean therapy index (0.2 +/- 0.5 versus 0.4 +/- 0.6, p = 0.03) were significantly lower in the small-incision group. Postoperative complications such as severe fibrin effusion (41% versus 18%, p = 0.018), early postoperative IOP rises > 25 mmHg (18% versus 2%, p = 0.009), filtering bleb scarring (63% versus 8%, p < 0.0001) and the total number of complications (87% versus 63%, p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the ECCE-group. With the decrease of the incision size necessary for the cataract extraction a reduction of postoperative complications and better functional results are achieved in combined cataract/glaucoma surgery.

  10. Numerical investigation on lithium transport in the edge plasma of EAST real-time- Li-injection experiments in the frame of BOUT + +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N. M.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Sun, Z.; Wang, L.; Hu, J. S.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Experimental observations on applications of Lithium (Li) have indicated that Li could benefit plasma performance. But all these call for further investigation on lithium transport. A simple model has been developed by reducing Braginskii's equations with assumed quasi-neutral condition for transport of Li species in the edge plasma in the EAST experiments of real-time Li aerosol injection and implemented in the frame of BOUT + + . The simulation results show that Li atoms propagate inwards continuously during the Li injection, and the propagating depth of Li atoms depends on both the local plasma conditions along its path and the Li injection velocity. It is also found that Li ions accumulate rapidly in the edge, and only a small fraction of Li species can transport cross the magnetic field into the core. In the poloidal direction, Li ions drift swiftly downwards along the field lines, and transport much faster at the high field side than at the low field side. The strong interaction between background plasma and Li ions plays a critical role in determining the edge plasma profile. It is found that real-time Li injection raises the plasma density in the pedestal region and reduces the plasma temperature, just as has been observed experimentally National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China No. 2013GB107003, National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 11575039.

  11. Gemcitabine adsorbed onto carbon particles increases drug concentrations at the injection site and in the regional lymph nodes in an animal experiment and a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Mao, X; Wang, J; Luo, F; Wang, Z

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether gemcitabine, adsorbed onto activated carbon particles (GEM-AC), increased the concentration of gemcitabine at the injection site and in the regional lymph nodes in an experimental animal model and a clinical study. The adsorption isotherm for GEM-AC was defined, and the concentration and distribution of gemcitabine in rats (n = 50) and in patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 8) was investigated. Drug concentrations in plasma, tumour samples, lymph nodes and at the injection site were measured after GEM-AC or gemcitabine solution (GEM-Sol) were subcutaneously injected into the left hind foot pad in rats, or into pancreatic tumours in patients. These experiments showed that GEM-AC was selectively delivered to the regional lymph nodes and the injection site, from which it slowly released greater amounts of gemcitabine to maintain the free concentration of gemcitabine at a relatively high level for a long period of time. The administration of GEM-AC might enhance the anticancer effects of gemcitabine.

  12. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  13. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  14. Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children.

    PubMed

    Bagherian, A; Nematollahi, H; Afshari, J T; Moheghi, N

    2008-03-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The etiology of ECC is multifactorial and both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic variations in the hosts may contribute to changes in the risk for dental caries. Genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have recently been suggested as a predisposing factor. The aim of this study was to look for an association between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 with ECC for developing new strategies for the diagnosis as well as the prevention of the disease. In this study, we extracted the genomic DNAs from whole blood samples of 44 patients with ECC and 35 caries-free children by the salting-out method. We amplified the genomic DNA by PCR-SSP and then HLA-typing was performed for all alleles. The results revealed a significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in the patient group (P=0.019). The odds ratio for this allele was detected to be 10. The frequency of HLA-DQB1 alleles was not significantly different between the two groups. The above results suggest that HLA-DRB1*04 is associated with the susceptibility to ECC. Thus HLA-DRB1*04 detection as a molecular marker for early diagnosis of ECC may be recommended.

  15. [Stability of liensinine injection].

    PubMed

    Hu, X M; Zhou, B H; Luo, S D

    1993-06-01

    The stability of liensinine injection was studied by accelarating test with classical isothermal method. Results of the study showed that the decomposition of the injection was found to be a first-order reaction. The activation energy was 75030 J.mol-1. The shelf life at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C was predicted to be about 15 months and 3 months respectively. This experiment provides a reference for the storage of the injection.

  16. Possibility of Aggravation of Tissue Sclerosis after Injection of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Near the Forming Cicatrix in the Experiment.

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Morozov, V V; Anikeev, A A; Figurenko, N F; Maslov, R V; Matveeva, V A; Chastikina, G A; Maiborodina, V I

    2017-08-01

    The peculiarities of tissue sclerosis after injection of autologous bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells transfected with GFP gene and stained with Vybrant CM-Dil cell membrane dye were studied by light microscopy with luminescence. The surgical intervention consisting in ligation of the great vein was followed by tissue sclerotic transformation caused by direct damage and chronic inflammation caused by the presence of slowly resorbed ligature. Injection of stromal cells after this intervention led to formation of more extensive scar. This can attest to the possibility of stromal cells differentiation into connective tissue cells, fibroblasts, and stimulation of proliferation and collagen synthesis by host fibroblasts. A decrease in the volume of dense fibrous connective tissue due to scar reorganization at latter terms cannot not excluded.

  17. Intratumor photosensitizer injection for photodynamic therapy: Pre-clinical experience with methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2016-03-01

    Intravenous administration of some photosensitizers, including the FDA-approved Photofrin, results in significant systemic photosensitivity and a 2-3-day drug-light interval. Direct intratumor injection of photosensitizer could potentially eliminate these negative aspects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), while requiring a lower photosensitizer dose to achieve comparable drug concentration in the target tissue. We performed PDT using intratumor injection of 3 photosensitizers, methylene blue (MB), Pc 4, and Photofrin, in mouse tumor models. After a 0-15 minute drug-light interval, illumination was delivered by appropriate diode lasers. For animals receiving MB or Pc 4, surface illumination was delivered using a microlens-terminated fiber. For animals receiving Photofrin, interstitial illumination was delivered by a 1 cm diffuser. In animals receiving MB or Pc 4, tumor dimensions were measured daily post-PDT, with a cure being defined as no palpable tumor 90 days post-treatment. For Photofrin, animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-PDT and tumors were excised, with samples HE stained to assess PDT-induced necrosis. 55% of tumors were cured with MB-PDT, and significant tumor growth delay (p=0.002) was observed for Pc 4. For Photofrin PDT, the mean necrosis radius was 3.4+/-0.8 mm, compared to 2.9+/-1.3 mm for systemic administration, which was not a significant difference (p=0.58). Intratumoral injection of the photosensitizers methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin is feasible, and results in appreciable tumor response. Further investigation is necessary to optimize treatment protocols and assess the systemic photosensitivity induced by intratumor injection.

  18. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the care of sports injuries: our experience with ultrasound-guided injection

    PubMed Central

    Bernuzzi, Gino; Petraglia, Federica; Pedrini, Martina Francesca; De Filippo, Massimo; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Costantino, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma is being used more frequently to promote healing of muscle injuries. The growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma accelerate physiological healing processes and the use of these factors is simple and minimally invasive. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma in muscle strains and the absence of side effects. Materials and methods Fifty-three recreational athletes were enrolled in the study. The patients were recruited from the Emergency Room in the University Hospital at Parma according to a pre-defined protocol. Every patient was assessed by ultrasound imaging to evaluate the extent and degree of muscle injuries. Only grade II lesions were treated with three ultrasound-guided injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma every 7 days. Platelet concentrate was produced according to standard methods, with a 10% variability in platelet count. The platelet gel for clinical use was obtained by adding thrombin to the concentrates under standardised conditions. Outcomes assessed were: pain reduction, muscle function recovery and return to sports activity, ultrasound-imaging tissue healing, relapses, local infections, and any side effect during the treatment. Results In all cases muscle lesions healed fully on ultrasound-imaging, the pain disappeared, and muscle function recovery was documented with a return to sports activity. A single patient had a relapse 1 year after treatment. Discussion Platelet-rich plasma injected into the injury site is one of the most important factors rendering the treatment effective. To maximise its efficacy the preliminary ultrasound must be done accurately to localise the lesion and guide the needle into the corresponding lesion. According to the current results, which document full muscle recovery and no relapse except for one case, platelet-rich plasma ultrasound-guided injection represents a valid mini-invasive treatment for

  19. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering - an in vivo experiment in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Bolei; Ma, Qin; Chen, Fulin; Wu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-based injectable tissue engineering is limited by weak mechanical properties and a rapid fibrinolytic rate. We proposed a new strategy, a cell bricks-stabilized PRP injectable system, to engineer and regenerate cartilage with stable morphology and structure in vivo. Chondrocytes from the auricular cartilage of rabbits were isolated and cultured to form cell bricks (fragmented cell sheet) or cell expansions. Fifteen nude mice were divided evenly (n = 5) into cells-PRP (C-P), cell bricks-PRP (CB-P) and cell bricks-cells-PRP (CB-C-P) groups. Cells, cell bricks or a cell bricks/cells mixture were suspended in PRP and were injected subcutaneously in animals. After 8 weeks, all the constructs were replaced by white resilient tissue; however, specimens from the CB-P and CB-C-P groups were well maintained in shape, while the C-P group appeared distorted, with a compressed outline. Histologically, all groups presented lacuna-like structures, glycosaminoglycan-enriched matrices and positive immunostaining of collagen type II. Different from the uniform structure presented in CB-C-P samples, CB-P presented interrupted, island-like chondrogenesis and contracted structure; fibrous interruption was shown in the C-P group. The highest percentage of matrix was presented in CB-C-P samples. Collagen and sGAG quantification confirmed that the CB-C-P constructs had statistically higher amounts than the C-P and CB-P groups; statistical differences were also found among the groups in terms of biomechanical properties and gene expression. We concluded that cell bricks-enriched PRP gel sufficiently enhanced the morphological stability of the constructs, maintained chondrocyte phenotypes and favoured chondrogenesis in vivo, which suggests that such an injectable, completely biological system is a suitable cell carrier for cell-based cartilage repair.

  20. Experiences of patients undergoing repeated intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jessica; Vukicevic, Meri; Koklanis, Konstandina; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Rees, Gwyneth

    2017-01-09

    Current therapy to slow disease progression in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) entails regular intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, often indefinitely. Little is known about the burden imposed on patients by this repetitive treatment schedule and how this can be best managed. The aim of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of repeated intravitreal injections on patients with neovascular AMD. Forty patients (16 males, 24 females) with neovascular AMD undergoing anti-VEGF treatment were recruited using purposive sampling from a private ophthalmology practice and public hospital in Melbourne. Patients were surveyed using the Macular Disease Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (MacTSQ; Bradley, Health Psychology Research Unit, Surrey, England) and underwent semi-structured, one-on-one interviews. Interview topics were: treatment burden and satisfaction; tolerability; barriers to adherence; treatment motivation; and patient education. Interviews were audio recorded and thematic analysis performed using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia). Patients recognised the importance of treatment to preserve eyesight, yet experienced significant psychosocial and practical burden from the treatment schedule. Important issues included treatment-related anxiety, financial considerations and transport burden placed on relatives or carers. Many patients were restricted to sedentary activities post-injection owing to treatment side effects. Patients prioritised treatment, often sacrificing family, travel and social commitments owing to a fear of losing eyesight if treatment was not received. Whilst anti-VEGF injections represent the current mainstay of treatment for neovascular AMD, the ongoing treatment protocol imposes significant burden on patients. An understanding of the factors that contribute to the burden of treatment may help inform strategies to lessen its impact and assist

  1. U.S. Drug Use and Migration experiences of Mexican Female Sex Workers who are injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Rangel, María Gudelia; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe U.S.-based drug/sex behaviors and correlates of lifetime U.S. drug use by Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs). Methods Between 2008–2010, 315 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results Twenty-seven percent (n=85) of FSW-IDUs were U.S. migrants; of these, 46% (n=39) were deportees. One-half of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs consumed illicit drugs in the U.S., and two-thirds of these injected drugs in the U.S. Among U.S. injectors, over 75% ever received or shared used injection equipment. The majority (92%) of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs never obtained U.S. drug treatment services. HIV prevalence was 4% among U.S.-migrant and 5% among non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs; 100% of U.S.-migrant and 75% of non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs were unaware of their HIV status. Conclusions Binational coordination to improve access to substance use treatment and HIV testing services in Mexico and the U.S. among marginalized binational migrants may be critical to containing HIV transmission. PMID:23698687

  2. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Marklin, G.; Victor, B.; Akcay, C.; Jarboe, T.

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-β Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  3. Performance Analyses of ECCS and Containment Systems for the 4500 MW ESBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Y.K.; Shiralkar, B.S.; Marquino, W.

    2006-07-01

    GE latest evolution of the Boiling Water Reactor, the ESBWR, is an advanced, 4500 MWth nuclear power plant design, submitted to the NRC for design certification in 2005. This paper presents the key results of performance analyses of ESBWR ECCS and containment systems. The ESBWR is designed to take full advantage of passive features to improve the plant performance and economics. The key features are the use of natural circulation during normal operation and passive safety systems for decay heat removal and inventory control. The use of natural circulation results in relatively taller reactor vessel and more in-vessel coolant inventory. Consequently, the water level always covers the core following an accident, assuring no fuel heatup. The use of passive systems results in simpler safety systems. The peak containment pressure and margin to the design value basically depend on the containment volumes and the water inventories. Additionally, these passive systems impose no significant challenge to the operator. Performance analyses for the 4500 MWth ESBWR were made for a spectrum of LOCA events. These calculations accounted for uncertainties and biases in the computer models and used conservative initial conditions and plant parameters. Results of these performance analyses show that: (1) core remains covered with large margin and there is no core heatup in the ESBWR for any break size, (2) the long-term containment pressure increases gradually with time, in the order of hours, and the peak pressure is below the design value with large margin, and (3) the margins depend on the containment volumes and water inventories. (authors)

  4. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users’ (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. Methods We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users’ experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Results Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants’ perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Conclusions Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy

  5. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform.

    PubMed

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2010-11-01

    In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users' (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users' experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants' perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy should be systematically evaluated. Copyright

  6. Whole-body MR angiography: first experiences with the new TimCT technology with single contrast injection.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Nagy N N; Bohrt, Kevin; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Schulz, Boris; Tawfik, Ahmed M; Siebenhandel, Petra; Bodelle, Boris; Eichler, Katrin; Moritz, Anton; Vogl, Thomas J; Zangos, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    To assess image quality, presence of artifacts, arterial stenosis, and interobserver agreement of Tim-CT in assessment of the arterial system using contrast-enhanced whole-body-MRA (CE-Wb-MRA) with a single contrast-medium injection in patients with arteriosclerosis. The retrospective study included 18 patients (mean age, 68 years). A total of 468 arteries were evaluated. CE-Wb-MRA was performed using Tim-CT technology on a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI after injecting a single dose of Vasovist. Evaluations were independently performed by two radiologists. The arterial system was divided into seven anatomic locations. Each radiologist assessed the image quality, degree of artifacts, and arterial stenosis in different locations. All Wb-MRA examinations were technically successful. Image quality: 28.42% arteries were excellent, 29.17% were good, 22.54% were satisfactory, 9.40% were poor, and 5.13% of insufficient quality. Occurrence of artifacts: 37.25% were free of artifacts, 49.44% minimal artifacts not affecting diagnosis, and 13.31% strong artifacts not permitting a diagnosis. A total of 60.00% arteries showed no stenosis, 8.76% were ≤50% stenotic, 5.17% were 51-75% stenotic, 4.38% were 76-99%, and 8.54% total occlusion. The interobserver agreement was good for supra-aortic, pelvic, and upper and lower leg regions. CE-Wb-MRA using the TimCT technology and with a single contrast injection is a feasible tool for whole-body MRA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Experiment on synchronization of semiconductor lasers by common injection of constant-amplitude random-phase light.

    PubMed

    Aida, Hiroki; Arahata, Masaya; Okumura, Haruka; Koizumi, Hayato; Uchida, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Davis, Peter

    2012-05-21

    We experimentally and numerically observe the synchronization between two semiconductor lasers induced by common optical injection with constant-amplitude and random-phase modulation in configurations with and without optical feedback. Large cross correlation (~0.9) between the intensity oscillations of the two response lasers can be achieved although the correlation between the drive laser and either one of the two response lasers is very small (~0.2). High quality synchronization is achieved in the presence of optical feedback in response lasers with matched feedback phase offset. We investigate the dependence of synchronization on parameter values over wide parameter ranges.

  8. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  9. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  10. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  11. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  12. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  13. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  14. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  15. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  16. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  17. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  18. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  19. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  20. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  1. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  2. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  4. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  5. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  6. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  9. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  10. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  11. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  12. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  13. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  14. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  15. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  16. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  17. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  18. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  19. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  20. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  1. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  2. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  3. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  4. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  5. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  6. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  7. Use of Candida antigen injections for the treatment of verruca vulgaris: A two-year mayo clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Griffin, John R; Newman, Catherine C

    2016-08-01

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are one of the most common problems encountered in dermatology and may present a difficult treatment dilemma, as no particular therapy has demonstrated complete efficacy. Intralesional injection of purified Candida antigen has produced impressive treatment results in small prospective and retrospective studies and is thought to produce its effect through stimulation of a cell-mediated immune response. We report a retrospective study of adult and pediatric patients treated with Candida antigen therapy in clinical practice. Of the 100 patients treated, 80% responded to therapy: 39% demonstrated a complete response and 41% demonstrated a partial response. In addition, 6 out of 7 immunocompromised patients who were treated demonstrated a partial or complete response. Injections were generally well-tolerated and adverse events were minimal and short-lived. Our data indicate that intralesional Candida antigen therapy for cutaneous warts is an efficacious option in a clinical practice setting. The treatment may also be effective in immunosuppressed patients with cutaneous warts. Our results add to the literature one of the largest retrospective series reported to date and treatment outcomes are similar to previously reported studies evaluating this therapeutic modality.

  8. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area where the medication was injected brown skin discoloration numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs sweating changes in taste Some side effects can be serious. If you experience these symptoms ...

  10. Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6 – 36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6–36 months old children and their caretakers. Methods Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997) and the DDE index (FDI 1992). Results The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95), 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 – 6.34) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95). Conclusion Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6–36 months, including health care workers’ information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda. PMID:22834770

  11. Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6-36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Masumo, Ray; Bardsen, Asgeir; Mashoto, Kijakazi; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2012-07-26

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that has remained unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify possible socio-behavioral correlates of ECC focusing 6-36 months old children and their caretakers. Cross sectional studies were conducted in a high fluoride rural area, Manyara, Tanzania and a low fluoride urban area, Kampala, Uganda. Totals of 1221 and 816 child - caretaker pairs attending health care facilities for growth monitoring were recruited in Manyara and Kampala, respectively. All caretakers completed face to face interviews at the health care facility. Children underwent oral clinical examination whereby ECC and Enamel hypoplasia were recorded using the dmft (WHO 1997) and the DDE index (FDI 1992). The prevalence of ECC was 3.7% in Manyara and 17.6% in Kampala. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, received oral health information from health worker was the strongest determinant of ECC in Manyara, adjusted OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.09 - 0.93. In Kampala, visible plaque, high sugar intake and presence of enamel hypoplasia associated with ECC, adjusted ORs 2.8 (95% CI 1.61- 4.95), 3.0 (95% CI 1.39 - 6.34) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.36 - 3.95). Oral health education aimed at caretakers of 6-36 months, including health care workers' information regarding the detrimental consequences for oral health of frequent sugar consumption and poor oral hygiene is important for prevention of ECC in Tanzania and Uganda.

  12. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  13. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  14. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  15. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  16. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  17. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques; Zhang, Hongbin; Epiney, Aaron Simon; Tu, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is finalizing a rulemaking change that would revise the requirements in 10 CFR 50.46. In the proposed new rulemaking, designated as 10 CFR 50.46c, the NRC proposes a fuel performance-based equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) criterion as a function of cladding hydrogen content before the accident (pre-transient) in order to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee costs as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a project, as part of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), to develop analytical capabilities to support the industry in the transition to the new rule. This project is called the Industry Application 1 (IA1) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of LWRS. The general idea behind the initiative is the development of an Integrated Evaluation Model (IEM). The motivation is to develop a multiphysics framework to analyze how uncertainties are propagated across the stream of physical disciplines and data involved, as well as how risks are evaluated in a LOCA safety analysis as regulated under 10 CFR 50.46c. This IEM is called LOTUS which stands for LOCA Toolkit for US, and it represents the LWRS Program’s response to the proposed new rule making. The focus of this report is to complete an R&D plan to describe the demonstration of the LOCA/ECCS RISMC Industry Application # 1 using the advanced RISMC Toolkit and methodologies. This report includes the description and development plan for a RISMC LOCA tool that fully couples advanced MOOSE tools already in development in order to characterize and optimize

  18. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001) at 1 year. The incidence of caries in the control group was higher than that of the test group (P = 0.02). The rate of awareness of oral health knowledge (P = 0.01) and the practice of good diet habits (P = 0.02) by parents in the test group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that the comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  19. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements for glaucoma detection: GDx ECC versus spectral-domain OCT.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Francesca; Benatti, Eleonora; Esempio, Giulia; Rulli, Eliana; Miglior, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    To assess the ability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained using GDx-enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue), and that of ganglion cell complex (GCC) scan available on RTVue, to detect glaucoma. One randomly selected eye of 205 subjects (70 normal, 65 ocular hypertension, and 70 glaucoma) underwent a complete clinical and instrumental examination. RTVue spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to assess RNFL thickness and GCC parameters, GDx ECC to assess RNFL thickness. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and sensitivity of the RNFL and GCC parameters were calculated at a fixed specificity of 95%, and the diagnostic abilities of the RNFL values obtained using the 2 instruments were compared. We also compared the results obtained in the normal, ocular hypertensive, and glaucomatous subjects. Best GDx RNFL parameter was nerve fiber indicator (NFI) (AUC 0.99, sensitivity 96%); the best RTVue parameters were average (AUC 0.98, sensitivity 90%), inferior-temporal (AUC 0.97, sensitivity 89%), and superior-temporal RNFL thickness (AUC 0.96, sensitivity 87%). There were no significant differences between the 2 devices (P>0.05). Best GCC parameters were focal loss volume (AUC 0.98, sensitivity 91%) and global loss volume (AUC 0.96, sensitivity 87%). GDx ECC and RTVue show a very good diagnostic ability to detect glaucoma. Most of the RNFL parameters had high AUCs and sensitivities. The diagnostic validity of GCC was comparable with that of the RNFL parameters, and they may be very useful in detecting RNFL damage.

  20. Feeding practice among 6-36 months old in Tanzania and Uganda: reliability and relationship with early childhood caries, ECC.

    PubMed

    Masumo, Ray; Bardsen, Asgeir; Mashoto, Kijakazi; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2013-09-01

    To assess the reproducibility of caregivers' responses to dietary recall from birth and 24-h dietary recall with respect to infants' intake of sugared snacks and to assess whether those assessment methods provide comparable results for groups of infants. Re-test reliability and clinical covariates of time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding were also examined. It was hypothesized that time to first exposure/termination would vary according to socio-demographic profile and ECC. Interviews and clinical oral examinations were carried out in Kampala and Manyara, including 1221 and 816 child-caregiver pairs. Reproducibility was assessed using Cohen's kappa and Intra Class Correlation Coefficient, ICC. Adjusted Cox regression was used to model time to first exposure of sugared snacks and time to termination of breastfeeding. Cohen's kappa for intake of sugar items ranged from 0.40-1.0, with no differences observed between average intakes at test-re-test. Mean sugar score based on 24-h recall increased significantly by increasing quartiles of the sugar score based on recall from birth. Cox regression revealed that the odds ratio, OR, for early exposure to various sugared snacks and the ORs for early termination of breastfeeding were significantly smaller in infants with than without ECC. Fair-to-good reproducibility was established. Infant's sugar consumption emerge as early as 6 months of age. Survival of any breastfeeding and non-exposure to sugared snacks was most prolonged among infants with ECC. This has implications for interventions needed to improve feeding habits of infants and toddlers.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

  3. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) through parental toothbrushing training and fluoride varnish application: a 24-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Emily Ming; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung; Wong, May Chun Mei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual applications of 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC. Study was conducted in Hong Kong where water is optimally fluoridated. Children aged 8-23 months were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: Gp 1 - control, one-off oral health education talk to parents; Gp 2 - oral health education talk and parental toothbrushing training, reinforced every 6 months; Gp 3 - semi-annual application of fluoride varnish onto child's teeth in addition to the intervention provided to Gp 2. Clinical examinations of the children and interviews were conducted at baseline and after 24 months to assess the children's dental caries status and toothbrushing behaviour. Out of the 450 child-parent dyads recruited at baseline, 415 (92%) remained after 24 months. At baseline, 2% of the children had non-cavitated enamel caries lesions and the mean dmft score was 0.03 ± 0.24. Most of the children did not have daily parental toothbrushing (65-73%) and self toothbrushing (86-90%). At 24-month follow-up, including both non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions, the incidences of ECC in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 11.9%, 11.8%, and 17.5%, respectively (p>0.05); and the mean new dmft scores in Gp 1 to Gp 3 were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively (p>0.05). Proportions of parents who practiced parental toothbrushing twice daily were 62.7%, 60.4%, and 65.7% in Gp 1 to Gp 3, respectively (p>0.05). In a water fluoridated area, hands-on training in parental toothbrushing, with or without semi-annual application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish may not have additional effect on preventing ECC in young children with low risk of dental caries compared to provision of oral health education to parents. In a water fluoridated area, provision of individual oral health education to parents may be sufficient for preventing ECC in young children below age 3. Supplemental training in parental

  4. Effects of intra-infralimbic prefrontal cortex injections of cannabidiol in the modulation of emotional behaviors in rats: contribution of 5HT₁A receptors and stressful experiences.

    PubMed

    Marinho, A L Z; Vila-Verde, C; Fogaça, M V; Guimarães, F S

    2015-06-01

    The infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) regions of the prefrontal cortex are involved in behavioral responses observed during defensive reactions. Intra-PL or IL injections of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, result in opposite behavioral effects in the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm. The intra-PL effects of CBD are mediated by 5HT1A receptors and depend on previous stressful experiences but the mechanisms and effects of intra-IL CBD injected are unknown. To this aim the present work verified the effects of intra-IL administration of CBD on two animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and CFC. We also investigated if these effects were mediated by 5HT1A receptors and depended on previous stressful experience. Male Wistar rats received bilateral microinjections of vehicle, WAY100635 (5HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.37 nmol) and/or CBD (15, 30 or 60 nmol) before being submitted to the behavioral tests. Intra-IL CBD induced anxiolytic and anxiogenic in the EPM and CFC, respectively. To verify if these effects are influenced by the previous stressful experience (footshocks) in the CFC model, we tested the animals in the EPM 24h after a 2-h restraint period. The anxiolytic-like effect of CBD in the EPM disappeared when the animals were previously stressed. Both responses, i.e., anxiolytic and anxiogenic, were prevented by WAY100635, indicating that they involve local 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission. Together these results indicate that CBD effects in the IL depend on the nature of the animal model, being influenced by previous stressful experiences and mediated by facilitation of 5HT1A receptors-mediated neurotransmission.

  5. An Experiment to Test Geophysical Methods For Monitoring Fluid Re-Injection at the Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Bowles-Martinez, E.; Feucht, D. W.; Ryan, J.; Caldwell, T. G.; Bannister, S. C.; Bertrand, T.; Bennie, S.; Bourguignon, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is supporting US students to participate in GNS Science’s geothermal research program supported by the New Zealand Government. The NSF international program aims to quick-start a new generation of geothermal-oriented US geophysics students who will be poised to be active participants and leaders in US geothermal energy development. This year’s project evaluated joint passive seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) field measurements to determine three-dimensional (3-D) reservoir characteristics during fluid withdrawal and re-injection. A preliminary test of the ability to achieve repeatable MT data in high noise locations was carried out in the Wairakei geothermal field using a 14-site base-line MT survey and repeat occupations at four sites. Different data processing schemes identified MT frequency bands where impedance phase tensor data were most sensitive to known variables such as daily solar source variations, wind, and drilling operations. Other frequency bands were identified where good MT repeatability will allow further tests. A streamlined method was developed for visualizing 3-D earthquake focal mechanisms resulting from production changes in geothermal reservoirs. The computer program allows spatial sorting of seismic events and thus subsurface fracture identification.

  6. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality.

  7. No immunogenicity of IPS cells in syngeneic host studied by in vivo injection and 3D scaffold experiments.

    PubMed

    Thanasegaran, Suganya; Cheng, Zhao; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs) open the great possibility to employ patient's own tissue to the previously incurable diseases. However these cells can be used in cell therapy only if they are not rejected when transplanted back into the syngeneic host. We found that the injection of iPSCs derived from different ages of mice into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice produced teratoma and was not rejected. Then we cultured iPSCs and myeloid differentiated iPSCs in three-dimensional porous scaffold and transplanted to C57BL/6 mice and BALB/C mice. After transplantation, we could observe the cell density inside the scaffold increased rapidly in syngeneic mice compared to the allogeneic mice indicating the favorable conditions supporting the growth of iPSCs in vivo. Unlike the allogeneic counterpart, we could not observe few infiltrating T cells inside the scaffold of syngeneic mice. These results contribute to the optimistic view of iPSCs for regenerative medicine in near future.

  8. A qualitative study of experiences with and perceptions regarding long-acting injectable antipsychotics: Part I-patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srividya; Banks, Nicola; Roy, Marc-André; Tibbo, Phil; Williams, Richard; Manchanda, Rahul; Chue, Pierre; Malla, Ashok

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Malgré le problème largement reconnu de la mauvaise observance des antipsychotiques (AP), les injectables à action prolongée (IAP) qui pourraient améliorer l’observance sont sous-utilisés au Canada. Les attitudes à l’égard des IAP chez les patients et les psychiatres peuvent contribuer à cette sous-utilisation. Notre objectif était d’enquêter sur les perceptions et les attitudes des patients à l’égard des IAP au Canada. Méthode : Des groupes de discussion ont été formés de 34 patients ayant reçu un diagnostic de psychose du spectre de la schizophrénie dans 4 provinces canadiennes. Les groupes de discussion portaient sur les expériences avec les AP IAP et les attitudes à leur égard. Les séances ont fait l’objet d’un enregistrement sonore et ont été transcrites textuellement, et ces transcriptions ont été codées à l’aide d’une combinaison de méthodes déductives et inductives. Résultats : Quatre thèmes se sont dégagés : conscience et connaissance des IAP; perceptions des IAP; considérations concernant le coût et la commodité; et les questions liées au contexte coercitif dans lequel les IAP sont souvent prescrits. Neuf patients n’avaient jamais entendu parler des IAP, et d’autres ont déclaré ne pas avoir compris lorsqu’on a discuté avec eux des IAP. Les patients avaient habituellement entendu parler des IAP dans un contexte soit de coercition, soit de non-observance des médicaments. Les patients avaient des perceptions positives et négatives à l’égard des IAP. Les perceptions positives étaient axées sur la prévention de la rechute et l’effort réduit pour maintenir l’observance, et les perceptions négatives portaient sur les coûts financiers et la complication des rendez-vous pour recevoir les injections. Conclusion : Afin d’accroître l’utilisation des IAP, il faut aborder certaines questions, notamment l’insuffisance de l’information donnée aux patients, l

  9. Low mortality but increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in people who inject drugs: Experience from a Swedish referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Thalme, Anders; Weiland, Ola

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis in people who inject drugs (PWID). The management of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID can be problematic. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to assess the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of S aureus endocarditis (SAE) in PWID in Stockholm, Sweden.The Department of Infectious Diseases at the Karolinska University Hospital serves as a regional referral center for drug users with severe infections. Patients with active intravenous drug use treated for SAE at the department between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrospectively identified. Clinical and microbiological data were obtained from medical records and the diagnosis verified according to the modified Duke criteria.In total, 120 SAE episodes related to intravenous drug use were identified. Its incidence in Stockholm was 0.76/100,000 adult person-years for the entire period, increasing from 0.52/100,000 person-years in 2004 to 2008 to 0.99 in 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.02). The SAE incidence among PWID specifically was 249 (range 153-649) /100,000 person-years. Forty-two (35%) episodes were left-sided, and multiple valves were involved in 26 (22%). Cardiac valve surgery was performed in 10 (8%) episodes, all left-sided. The in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 2.5% (3 deaths) and 8.0% (9 deaths), respectively.We noted a high and increasing incidence over time of SAE related to intravenous drug use in Stockholm. The increased incidence partly reflects a rising number of PWID during the study period. The low mortality noted, despite a substantial proportion with left-sided endocarditis, probably in part reflects the quality of care obtained at a large and specialized referral center for drug users with severe infections.

  10. Validation of single-fluid and two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic models of the helicity injected torus spheromak experiment with the NIMROD code

    SciTech Connect

    Akcay, Cihan; Victor, Brian S.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Kim, Charlson C.

    2013-08-15

    We present a comparison study of 3-D pressureless resistive MHD (rMHD) and 3-D presureless two-fluid MHD models of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI). HIT-SI is a current drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth d{sub i} to the resistive skin depth predicates the importance of the Hall term for HIT-SI. The simulations are run with NIMROD, an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. The modeled plasma density and temperature are assumed uniform and constant. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification (I{sub tor}/I{sub inj}) and formation time τ{sub f} demonstrated by HIT-SI with similar internal magnetic fields. rMHD underestimates (I{sub tor}/I{sub inj}) and exhibits much a longer τ{sub f}. Biorthogonal decomposition (BD), a powerful mathematical tool for reducing large data sets, is employed to quantify how well the simulations reproduce the measured surface magnetic fields without resorting to a probe-by-probe comparison. BD shows that 2fl-MHD captures the dominant surface magnetic structures and the temporal behavior of these features better than rMHD.

  11. Validation of single-fluid and two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic models of the helicity injected torus spheromak experiment with the NIMROD code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Cihan; Kim, Charlson C.; Victor, Brian S.; Jarboe, Thomas R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a comparison study of 3-D pressureless resistive MHD (rMHD) and 3-D presureless two-fluid MHD models of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI). HIT-SI is a current drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth di to the resistive skin depth predicates the importance of the Hall term for HIT-SI. The simulations are run with NIMROD, an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. The modeled plasma density and temperature are assumed uniform and constant. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification Itor/Iinj and formation time τf demonstrated by HIT-SI with similar internal magnetic fields. rMHD underestimates Itor/Iinj and exhibits much a longer τf. Biorthogonal decomposition (BD), a powerful mathematical tool for reducing large data sets, is employed to quantify how well the simulations reproduce the measured surface magnetic fields without resorting to a probe-by-probe comparison. BD shows that 2fl-MHD captures the dominant surface magnetic structures and the temporal behavior of these features better than rMHD.

  12. Preliminary Results from Downhole Osmotic Samplers in a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. T.; Clark, J. F.; Neira, N. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of hydrothermal circulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from a borehole observatory (CORK) installed in this hole and similar CORKs in three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. This array of holes is located on 3.5 My old seafloor, as an array oriented subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps. In addition to pumps at seafloor wellheads, downhole sampling pumps were installed in the perforated casing in the upper ocean crust. These downhole samplers were intended to produce a high-resolution continuous record of tracer concentrations, including records from the first year after tracer injection in Holes 1362A and 1362B. In contrast, wellhead samplers were not installed on these CORKs holes until 2011, and wellhead records from all CORKs have a record gap of up to one year, because of a delayed expedition in 2012. The downhole samples were recovered with the submersible Alvin in August 2014. SF6 concentrations in downhole samples recovered in 2014 are generally consistent with data obtained from wellhead samples. Of particular interest are the results from Hole 1362B, where a seafloor valve was opened and closed during various recovery expeditions. High resolution tracer curves produced from the 1362B downhole samples confirm that these operations produced an SF6 breakthrough curve corresponding to a classic push-pull test used to evaluate contaminant field locations in terrestrial setting. Complete analyses of downhole samples from these CORKs are expected to produce high-resolution breakthrough curves that will allow more precise analysis and modeling of hydrothermal flow in the study area.

  13. Effect of sucrose concentration on sucrose-dependent adhesion and glucosyltransferase expression of S. mutans in children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-09-09

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%-20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a "turning point" and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  14. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC. PMID:25207825

  15. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of the RTVue Fourier-domain OCT and the GDx-VCC/ECC polarimeter to detect glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Garas, Anita; Vargha, Péter; Holló, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    To compare sensitivity and specificity of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements made using RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable (GDx-VCC) or enhanced compensation (GDx-ECC). One eye of each of 177 consecutive patients was imaged. Healthy (n=50) and ocular hypertensive (n = 28) eyes were defined as structurally undamaged, preperimetric (n=33) and perimetric (n=66) glaucoma eyes as diseased. For average RNFLT, sensitivity was higher (χ(2) test, p=0.002) with RTVue-OCT (65.7%) than with GDx-VCC (49.5%). For superior and inferior RNFLT, sensitivity was similar with all methods. For the different nerve fiber bundle parameters, sensitivity of RTVue-OCT (64.6% to 84.8%) was consistently up to 35% higher (p<0.001) than that of GDx-VCC/ECC (28.3% to 72.7%). Specificity ranged from 84.6% to 98.7% with RTVue-OCT, 92.3% to 100% with GDx-VCC, and 94.9% to 100% with GDx-ECC, with no significant difference between the methods except for one nerve fiber bundle parameter, for which RTVue-OCT was less specific than either GDx method (p ≤ 0.004). Diagnostic accuracy of the GDx-VCC/ECC nerve fiber indicator (NFI) and RTVue-OCT average RNFLT were similar. Of the detected glaucoma cases, 87.7% were identified both by GDx-VCC/ECC NFI and average RNFLT of RTVue-OCT. In this clinical setting, all methods were similarly highly specific, but for localized RNFLT damage RTVue-OCT was statistically and clinically significantly more sensitive than GDx-VCC and GDx-ECC. Most detected glaucoma cases were identified with all 3 methods.

  16. Does the additional use of heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits (ECC) optimize the effect of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) in pediatric perfusion?

    PubMed

    Harig, F; Meier, C; Hakami, L; Strasser, R; Bretzger, J; Münch, F; Vestweber-Wilmes, E; Singer, H; Weyand, M; Cesnjevar, R

    2006-04-01

    Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on the coagulation system and the capillary leak after pediatric cardiac surgery using extracorporeal circulation (ECC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the additional use of heparin-coated circuits is a useful option for improving biocompatibility. We randomized 28 children, using heparin-coated ECC circuits in group A (n = 14) and an uncoated equivalent set in group B (n = 14). After congenital heart surgery, MUF was performed post ECC in a standardized fashion. Blood samples were analyzed preoperatively, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, and 48 h after ECC by flow cytometric analysis (FACSort) using surface antigens CD62/CD41b (platelets) and CD45/CD14 (monocytes). No significant difference was found with respect to mean age (20.6 months vs. 21.6 months), mean body weight (9.2 kg vs. 8.4 kg), mean ultrafiltration rate (9.1 ml/kg vs. 11.4 ml/kg), chest tube drainage, blood products, ICU stay, and 30-d survival. The percentage of CD62/CD41-positive platelets in group A (vs. B) increased up to 118 % at 60 min vs. 130 % ( P < 0.05) and declined to 98 % at 48 h postop. vs. 99 % (n. s.). The percentage of CD45/CD14-positive monocytes in group A (vs. B) increased up to 158 % at 60 min vs. 155 % (n. s.) and declined to 122 % (A) at 48 h postop. vs. 61 % (B) ( P > 0.05). Heparin coating of ECC in addition to MUF leads to a lower platelet activation. Monocyte surface markers CD45 and CD14 indicated a marked activation during ECC in both groups but additional heparin coating showed a better postoperative regeneration of monocyte markers in the late course indicating a beneficial additive effect.

  17. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  18. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  19. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  20. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  1. Experience with side effects among users of injectables, the IUD, and oral contraceptive pills in four urban areas of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Speizer, Ilene; Rodriguez, Francisco; Calix, Javier

    2009-06-01

    Contraceptive side effects are often the most commonly reported reason for method discontinuation, particularly of modern methods. We use data from eight focus groups and 800 exit interviews to examine women's experiences with contraceptive side effects in four urban areas of Honduras. Ease of treatment and differences in motivation to avoid pregnancy are suggested explanations for why side effects cause some women to continue and others to discontinue. Although side effects are a common reason for discontinuation in this population, less than half of the surveyed women were informed about potential side effects by a health worker on the day of the interview.

  2. MREIT experiments with 200 µA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and harmonic B(Z).

    PubMed

    Arpinar, V E; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E; Muftuler, L T

    2012-07-07

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10-400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215-25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic B(Z) proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875-8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total

  3. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  4. A qualitative study of experiences with and perceptions regarding long-acting injectable antipsychotics: part II-physician perspectives.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srividya; Banks, Nicola; Roy, Marc-André; Tibbo, Phil; Williams, Richard; Manchanda, Rahul; Chue, Pierre; Malla, Ashok

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Dans de nombreux pays, dont le Canada, seule une petite proportion de personnes souffrant de troubles psychotiques reçoit des antipsychotiques (AP) injectables à action prolongée (IAP), malgré leur efficacité démontrée et leurs avantages possibles d’améliorer les taux d’observance. Les attitudes des médecins à l’égard des IAP peuvent influencer leurs pratiques de prescription et subséquemment contribuer à la sous-utilisation des IAP. Ici, nous faisons le compte rendu d’une étude qualitative des perceptions et des attitudes à l’égard des IAP chez les médecins du Canada. Méthode : Des groupes de discussion ont été formés de 24 psychiatres dans 4 provinces canadiennes. Les groupes de discussion portaient sur les expériences avec les AP IAP et les attitudes à leur égard. Les séances ont fait l’objet d’un enregistrement sonore et ont été transcrites textuellement, et ces transcriptions ont été codées à l’aide d’une procédure hybride de méthodes déductives et inductives. Un questionnaire abrégé a été administré avant le groupe de discussion. Résultats : Les questionnaires précédant le groupe de discussion ont indiqué que les psychiatres de notre étude prescrivaient la formule orale des AP la plupart du temps, et qu’ils avaient une expérience limitée des IAP. Les groupes de discussion ont dégagé 4 principaux thèmes : une expérience et des connaissances limitées des IAP; les attitudes à l’égard des IAP (croyances que les patients ont des perceptions négatives à l’égard des IAP, préjugés personnels contre les aiguilles, et consensus à propos de certains avantages des IAP); les pratiques de prescription des IAP (généralement vus comme une option de derniers recours pour les patients ayant des antécédents de non-observance); et les obstacles pratiques (par exemple, coût, entreposage, et dotation en personnel) à l’utilisation des IAP. Conclusion : Plusieurs facteurs peuvent

  5. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume, Grindsted, Denmark: 2. Deduction of anaerobic (methanogenic, sulfate-, and Fe (III)-reducing) redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-JøRgen; Bjerg, Poul L.; Ludvigsen, Liselotte; Rügge, Kirsten; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1999-04-01

    Redox conditions may be environmental factors which affect the fate of the xenobiotic organic compounds. Therefore the redox conditions were characterized in an anaerobic, leachate-contaminated aquifer 15-60 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark, where an field injection experiment was carried out. Furthermore, the stability of the redox conditions spatially and over time were investigated, and different approaches to deduce the redox conditions were evaluated. The redox conditions were evaluated in a set of 20 sediment and groundwater samples taken from locations adjacent to the sediment samples. Samples were investigated with respect to groundwater chemistry, including hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and sediment geochemistry, and bioassays were performed. The groundwater chemistry, including redox sensitive species for a large number of samples, varied over time during the experimental period of 924 days owing to variations in the leachate from the landfill. However, no indication of change in the redox environment resulting from the field injection experiment or natural variation was observed in the individual sampling points. The methane, Fe(II), hydrogen, and VFA groundwater chemistry parameters strongly indicated a Fe(III)-reducing environment. This was further supported by the bioassays, although methane production and sulfate-reduction were also observed in a few samples close to the landfill. On the basis of the calculated carbon conversion, Fe(III) was the dominant electron acceptor in the region of the aquifer, which was investigated. Because of the complexity of a landfill leachate plume, several redox processes may occur simultaneously, and an array of methods must be applied for redox characterization in such multicomponent systems.

  6. High-Intensity Radiated Field Fault-Injection Experiment for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Amy M.; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    Safety-critical distributed flight control systems require robustness in the presence of faults. In general, these systems consist of a number of input/output (I/O) and computation nodes interacting through a fault-tolerant data communication system. The communication system transfers sensor data and control commands and can handle most faults under typical operating conditions. However, the performance of the closed-loop system can be adversely affected as a result of operating in harsh environments. In particular, High-Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) environments have the potential to cause random fault manifestations in individual avionic components and to generate simultaneous system-wide communication faults that overwhelm existing fault management mechanisms. This paper presents the design of an experiment conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's HIRF Laboratory to statistically characterize the faults that a HIRF environment can trigger on a single node of a distributed flight control system.

  7. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  8. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  9. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  10. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  11. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  12. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  13. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  14. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  15. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  16. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  17. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  18. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  19. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  20. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  1. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  2. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  3. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  4. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  5. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  6. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  7. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  8. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  9. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  10. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  11. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  12. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  13. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  14. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  15. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  16. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  17. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  18. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  19. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  20. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...