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Sample records for eccentric planet xo-3b

  1. THERMAL EMISSION AND TIDAL HEATING OF THE HEAVY AND ECCENTRIC PLANET XO-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Machalek, Pavel; Greene, Tom; McCullough, Peter R.; Burrows, Adam; Burke, Christopher J.; Hora, Joseph L.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Deming, Drake L.

    2010-03-01

    We determined the flux ratios of the heavy and eccentric planet XO-3b to its parent star in the four Infrared Array Camera bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope: 0.101% +- 0.004% at 3.6 {mu}m; 0.143% +- 0.006% at 4.5 {mu}m; 0.134% +- 0.049% at 5.8 {mu}m; and 0.150% +- 0.036% at 8.0 {mu}m. The flux ratios are within [-2.2, 0.3, -0.8, and -1.7]sigma of the model of XO-3b with a thermally inverted stratosphere in the 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m channels, respectively. XO-3b has a high illumination from its parent star (F{sub p} {approx} (1.9-4.2) x 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and is thus expected to have a thermal inversion, which we indeed observe. When combined with existing data for other planets, the correlation between the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion and the substellar flux is insufficient to explain why some high insolation planets like TrES-3 do not have stratospheric inversions and some low insolation planets like XO-1b do have inversions. Secondary factors such as sulfur chemistry, atmospheric metallicity, amounts of macroscopic mixing in the stratosphere, or even dynamical weather effects likely play a role. Using the secondary eclipse timing centroids, we determined the orbital eccentricity of XO-3b as e = 0.277 +- 0.009. The model radius-age trajectories for XO-3b imply that at least some amount of tidal heating is required to inflate the radius of XO-3b, and the tidal heating parameter of the planet is constrained to Q{sub p} {approx}< 10{sup 6}.

  2. Constraints on the atmospheric circulation and variability of the eccentric hot Jupiter XO-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-10-20

    We report secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Jupiter XO-3b in the 4.5 μm band taken with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure individual eclipse depths and center of eclipse times for a total of 12 secondary eclipses. We fit these data simultaneously with two transits observed in the same band in order to obtain a global best-fit secondary eclipse depth of 0.1580% ± 0.0036% and a center of eclipse phase of 0.67004 ± 0.00013. We assess the relative magnitude of variations in the dayside brightness of the planet by measuring the size of the residuals during ingress and egress from fitting the combined eclipse light curve with a uniform disk model and place an upper limit of 0.05%. The new secondary eclipse observations extend the total baseline from one and a half years to nearly three years, allowing us to place an upper limit on the periastron precession rate of 2.9 × 10{sup –3} deg day{sup –1}— the tightest constraint to date on the periastron precession rate of a hot Jupiter. We use the new transit observations to calculate improved estimates for the system properties, including an updated orbital ephemeris. We also use the large number of secondary eclipses to obtain the most stringent limits to date on the orbit-to-orbit variability of an eccentric hot Jupiter and demonstrate the consistency of multiple-epoch Spitzer observations.

  3. ECCENTRIC JUPITERS VIA DISK–PLANET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffell, Paul C.; Chiang, Eugene E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu

    2015-10-20

    Numerical hydrodynamics calculations are performed to determine the conditions under which giant planet eccentricities can be excited by parent gas disks. Unlike in other studies, Jupiter-mass planets are found to have their eccentricities amplified—provided their orbits start off as eccentric. We disentangle the web of co-rotation, co-orbital, and external resonances to show that this finite-amplitude instability is consistent with that predicted analytically. Ellipticities can grow until they reach of order of the disk's aspect ratio, beyond which the external Lindblad resonances that excite eccentricity are weakened by the planet's increasingly supersonic epicyclic motion. Forcing the planet to still larger eccentricities causes catastrophic eccentricity damping as the planet collides into gap walls. For standard parameters, the range of eccentricities for instability is modest; the threshold eccentricity for growth (∼0.04) is not much smaller than the final eccentricity to which orbits grow (∼0.07). If this threshold eccentricity can be lowered (perhaps by non-barotropic effects), and if the eccentricity driving documented here survives in 3D, it may robustly explain the low-to-moderate eccentricities ≲0.1 exhibited by many giant planets (including Jupiter and Saturn), especially those without planetary or stellar companions.

  4. On the Eccentricities of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1999-09-01

    Extrasolar planets (ESPs) seem to be divided into two groups: circular orbits very close to their stars, or eccentric orbits at larger distances. The latter may be the result of gravitational scattering of planets that formed in unstable orbits (Weidenschilling and Marzari 1996, Nature 384, 619). For systems of three Jupiter-mass planets, the most common outcome is ejection of one planet, leaving the others in stable orbits with significant eccentricities and mutual inclinations. We have compiled statistics for orbital elements of the survivors. At the time of ejection, the eccentricity of the inner one has a broad distribution with modal value 0.5, ranging from about 0.1 to 0.9; smaller and larger values are rare. In contrast, among observed eccentric ESPs only 2 of 11 have e > 0.5, and none have e > 0.7, although there is no observational bias against detection of planets on eccentric orbits. One possible explanation is a large cross-section for young gas giant planets still in their contraction phase, so that non-collisional encounters yield smaller velocity changes. However, even if the effective radius is twice Jupiter's present value, the eccentricity distribution does not change significantly. The "snapshot" distribution at the time one planet is ejected may be misleading. The orbits of the remaining planets are subject to mutual perturbations. The inner planet's eccentricity may oscillate with large amplitude on timescales of 10(7) - 10(8) y. Peak values bring some periastrons low enough for tides to circularize orbits. For planets with large initial eccentricities, the time-averaged e is lower, yielding better agreement with the observed distribution. Still, some orbits with eccentricities up to 0.9, should be detected in a large enough sample of ESPs. If none are found, their absence would argue against gravitational scattering as a general phenomenon in planetary systems.

  5. DENSITY AND ECCENTRICITY OF KEPLER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-07-20

    We analyze the transit timing variations (TTV) obtained by the Kepler mission for 22 sub-Jovian planet pairs (19 published, 3 new) that lie close to mean motion resonances. We find that the TTV phases for most of these pairs lie close to zero, consistent with an eccentricity distribution that has a very low root-mean-squared value of e {approx} 0.01; but about a quarter of the pairs possess much higher eccentricities, up to e {approx} 0.1-0.4. For the low-eccentricity pairs, we are able to statistically remove the effect of eccentricity to obtain planet masses from TTV data. These masses, together with those measured by radial velocity, yield a best-fit mass-radius relation M {approx} 3 M{sub Circled-Plus }(R/R{sub Circled-Plus }). This corresponds to a constant surface escape velocity of {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. We separate the planets into two distinct groups: ''mid-sized'' (those greater than 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) and 'compact' (those smaller). All mid-sized planets are found to be less dense than water and therefore must contain extensive H/He envelopes that are comparable in mass to that of their cores. We argue that these planets have been significantly sculpted by photoevaporation. Surprisingly, mid-sized planets, a minority among Kepler candidates, are discovered exclusively around stars more massive than 0.8 M{sub Sun }. The compact planets, on the other hand, are often denser than water. Combining our density measurements with those from radial velocity studies, we find that hotter compact planets tend to be denser, with the hottest ones reaching rock density. Moreover, hotter planets tend to be smaller in size. These results can be explained if the compact planets are made of rocky cores overlaid with a small amount of hydrogen, {<=}1% in mass, with water contributing little to their masses or sizes. Photoevaporation has exposed bare rocky cores in cases of the hottest planets. Our conclusion that these planets are likely not water worlds contrasts

  6. Eccentricity from Transit Photometry: Small Planets in Kepler Multi-planet Systems Have Low Eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Solar system planets move on almost circular orbits. In strong contrast, many massive gas giant exoplanets travel on highly elliptical orbits, whereas the shape of the orbits of smaller, more terrestrial, exoplanets remained largely elusive. Knowing the eccentricity distribution in systems of small planets would be important as it holds information about the planet's formation and evolution, and influences its habitability. We make these measurements using photometry from the Kepler satellite and utilizing a method relying on Kepler's second law, which relates the duration of a planetary transit to its orbital eccentricity, if the stellar density is known. Our sample consists of 28 bright stars with precise asteroseismic density measurements. These stars host 74 planets with an average radius of 2.6 R⊕. We find that the eccentricity of planets in Kepler multi-planet systems is low and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with σ = 0.049 ± 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. Our findings are helpful in identifying which planets are habitable because the location of the habitable zone depends on eccentricity, and to determine occurrence rates inferred for these planets because planets on circular orbits are less likely to transit. For measuring eccentricity it is crucial to detect and remove Transit Timing Variations (TTVs), and we present some previously unreported TTVs. Finally transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets and we use our measurements to confirm six new exoplanets.

  7. Atmospheric circulation of eccentric extrasolar giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole Kae

    This dissertation explores the three-dimensional coupling between radiative and dynamical processes in the atmospheres of eccentric extrasolar giant planets GJ436b, HAT-P-2b, and HD80606b. Extrasolar planets on eccentric orbits are subject to time-variable heating and probable non-synchronous rotation, which results in significant variations in global circulation and thermal patterns as a function of orbital phase. Atmospheric simulations for the low eccentricity (e=0.15) Neptune sized planet GJ436b reveal that when Neptune-like atmospheric compositions are assumed day/night temperature contrasts and equatorial jet speeds are significantly increased relative to models that assume a solar-like composition. Comparisons between our theoretical light curves and recent observations support a high metallicity atmosphere with disequilibrium carbon chemistry for GJ436b. The analysis of full-orbit light curve observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns of the HAT-P-2 system reveal swings in the planet's temperature of more than 900 K during its significantly eccentric ( e=0.5) orbit with a four to six hour offset between periapse passage and the peak of the planet's observed flux. Comparisons between our atmospheric model of HAT-P-2b and the observed light curves indicate an increased carbon to oxygen ratio in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere compared to solar values. Atmospheric simulations of the highly eccentric (e=0.9) HD80606b show that flash-heating events completely alter planetary thermal and jet structures and that assumptions about the rotation period of this planet could affect the shape of light curve observations near periapse. Our simulations of HD80606b also show the development an atmospheric shock on the nightside of the planet that is associated with an observable thermal signature in our theoretical light curves. The simulations and observations presented in this dissertation mark an important step in the exploration of atmospheric circulation on the more than 300

  8. EXTRACTING PLANET MASS AND ECCENTRICITY FROM TTV DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram; Xie Jiwei; Wu Yanqin

    2012-12-20

    Most planet pairs in the Kepler data that have measured transit time variations (TTVs) are near first-order mean-motion resonances. We derive analytical formulae for their TTV signals. We separate planet eccentricity into free and forced parts, where the forced part is purely due to the planets' proximity to resonance. This separation yields simple analytical formulae. The phase of the TTV depends sensitively on the presence of free eccentricity: if the free eccentricity vanishes, the TTV will be in phase with the longitude of conjunctions. This effect is easily detectable in current TTV data. The amplitude of the TTV depends on planet mass and free eccentricity, and it determines planet mass uniquely only when the free eccentricity is sufficiently small. We analyze the TTV signals of six short-period Kepler pairs. We find that three of these pairs (Kepler 18, 24, 25) have a TTV phase consistent with zero. The other three (Kepler 23, 28, 32) have small TTV phases, but ones that are distinctly non-zero. We deduce that the free eccentricities of the planets are small, {approx}< 0.01, but not always vanishing. Furthermore, as a consequence of this, we deduce that the true masses of the planets are fairly accurately determined by the TTV amplitudes, within a factor of {approx}< 2. The smallness of the free eccentricities suggests that the planets have experienced substantial dissipation. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed pile-up of Kepler pairs near mean-motion resonances is caused by resonant repulsion. But the fact that some of the planets have non-vanishing free eccentricity suggests that after resonant repulsion occurred there was a subsequent phase in the planets' evolution when their eccentricities were modestly excited, perhaps by interplanetary interactions.

  9. Highly inclined and eccentric massive planets. II. Planet-planet interactions during the disc phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadis, Sotiris; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Bitsch, Bertram; Crida, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Context. Observational evidence indicates that the orbits of extrasolar planets are more various than the circular and coplanar ones of the solar system. Planet-planet interactions during migration in the protoplanetary disc have been invoked to explain the formation of these eccentric and inclined orbits. However, our companion paper (Paper I) on the planet-disc interactions of highly inclined and eccentric massive planets has shown that the damping induced by the disc is significant for a massive planet, leading the planet back to the midplane with its eccentricity possibly increasing over time. Aims: We aim to investigate the influence of the eccentricity and inclination damping due to planet-disc interactions on the final configurations of the systems, generalizing previous studies on the combined action of the gas disc and planet-planet scattering during the disc phase. Methods: Instead of the simplistic K-prescription, our N-body simulations adopt the damping formulae for eccentricity and inclination provided by the hydrodynamical simulations of our companion paper. We follow the orbital evolution of 11 000 numerical experiments of three giant planets in the late stage of the gas disc, exploring different initial configurations, planetary mass ratios and disc masses. Results: The dynamical evolutions of the planetary systems are studied along the simulations, with a particular emphasis on the resonance captures and inclination-growth mechanisms. Most of the systems are found with small inclinations (≤ 10°) at the dispersal of the disc. Even though many systems enter an inclination-type resonance during the migration, the disc usually damps the inclinations on a short timescale. Although the majority of the multiple systems in our simulations are quasi-coplanar, 5% of them end up with high mutual inclinations (≥ 10°). Half of these highly mutually inclined systems result from two- or three-body mean-motion resonance captures, the other half being

  10. Bayesian priors for the eccentricity of transiting planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2014-11-01

    Planets on eccentric orbits have a higher geometric probability of transiting their host star. By application of Bayes' theorem, we reverse this logic to show that the eccentricity distribution of transiting planets is positively biased. Adopting the flexible Beta distribution as the underlying prior for eccentricity, we derive the marginalized transit probability as well as the a priori joint probability distribution of eccentricity and argument of periastron, given that a planet is known to transit. These results allow us to demonstrate that most planet occurrence rate calculations using Kepler data have overestimated the prevalence of planets by ˜10 per cent. Indeed, the true occurrence of planets from transit surveys is fundamentally intractable without a prior assumption for the eccentricity distribution. Further more, we show that previously extracted eccentricity distributions using Kepler data are positively biased. In cases where one wishes to impose an informative eccentricity prior, we provide a recursive algorithm to apply inverse transform sampling of our joint prior probability distribution. Computer code of this algorithm, ECCSAMPLES, is provided to enable the community to sample directly from the prior (availablehere).

  11. Orbital dynamics of multi-planet systems with eccentricity diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-04-01

    Since exoplanets were detected using the radial velocity method, they have revealed a diverse distribution of orbital configurations. Among these are planets in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.5). Most of these systems consist of a single planet but several have been found to also contain a longer period planet in a near-circular orbit. Here we use the latest Keplerian orbital solutions to investigate four known systems which exhibit this extreme eccentricity diversity; HD 37605, HD 74156, HD 163607, and HD 168443. We place limits on the presence of additional planets in these systems based on the radial velocity residuals. We show that the two known planets in each system exchange angular momentum through secular oscillations of their eccentricities. We calculate the amplitude and timescale for these eccentricity oscillations and associated periastron precession. We further demonstrate the effect of mutual orbital inclinations on the amplitude of high-frequency eccentricity oscillations. Finally, we discuss the implications of these oscillations in the context of possible origin scenarios for unequal eccentricities.

  12. Formation of terrestrial planets in eccentric and inclined giant-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadis, Sotiris; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Raymond, Sean

    2016-10-01

    The orbits of extrasolar planets are more various than the circular and coplanar ones of the Solar system. We study the impact of inclined and eccentric massive giant planets on the terrestrial planet formation process. The physical and orbital parameters of the giant planets considered in this study arise from n-body simulations of three giant planets in the late stage of the gas disc, under the combined action of Type II migration and planet-planet scattering. At the dispersal of the gas disc, the two- and three-planet systems interact then with an inner disc of planetesimals and planetary embryos. We discuss the mass and orbital parameters of the terrestrial planets formed by our simulations, as well as their water content. We also investigate how the disc of planetesimals and planetary embryos modifies the eccentric and inclined orbits of the giant planets.

  13. Orbital Eccentricity and the Stability of Planets in the Alpha Centauri System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Planets on initially circular orbits are typically more dynamically stable than planets initially having nonzero eccentricities. However, the presence of a major perturber that forces periodic oscillations of planetary eccentricity can alter this situation. We investigate the dependance of system lifetime on initial eccentricity for planets orbiting one star within the alpha Centauri system. Our results show that initial conditions chosen to minimize free eccentricity can substantially increase stability compared to planets on circular orbits.

  14. Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission’s census of transiting exoplanets has shown that planets between one and four times the radius of Earth with short orbital periods are extremely common. Given their small sizes, the properties of these planets can be difficult or impossible to constrain via radial velocity observations. Mutual gravitational interactions in multi-planet systems induce variations in the arrival times of planets’ transits. These variations can used to probe planets’ masses and eccentricities, which in turn constrain their compositions and formation histories. I will discuss the results of our analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 Kepler planets from 55 multi-planet systems. Bulk densities inferred from TTVs imply that many of these planets are covered in gaseous envelopes ranging from a few percent to ~20% of their total mass. Eccentricities in these systems are small but in a many instances definitively non-zero. These results support theoretical predictions for super-Earth/sub-Neptune planets accreting their envelopes from a depleting proto-planetary disk.

  15. Temporary Capture of Asteroids by an Eccentric Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, A.; Ida, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the probability of temporary capture of asteroids in eccentric orbits by a planet in a circular or eccentric orbit through analytical and numerical calculations. We found that, in the limit of the circular orbit, the capture probability is ∼0.1% of encounters to the planet’s Hill sphere, independent of planetary mass and semimajor axis. In general, temporary capture becomes more difficult as the planet’s eccentricity ({e}{{p}}) increases. We found that the capture probability is almost independent of {e}{{p}} until a critical value ({e}{{p}}{{c}}) that is given by ≃5 times the Hill radius scaled by the planet’s semimajor axis. For {e}{{p}}> {e}{{p}}{{c}}, the probability decreases approximately in proportion to {e}{{p}}-1. The current orbital eccentricity of Mars is several times larger than {e}{{p}}{{c}}. However, since the range of secular change in Martian eccentricity overlaps {e}{{p}}{{c}}, the capture of minor bodies by Mars in the past is not ruled out.

  16. Shedding light on the eccentricity valley: Gap heating and eccentricity excitation of giant planets in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David; Cumming, Andrew; Turner, Neal J.

    2014-02-20

    We show that the first order (non-co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the 'Eccentricity Valley' noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU compared to metal-rich systems. We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius ∼0.1 AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU, lack of gap insolation allows disk interactions to damp eccentricity. Outside such shadowed regions stellar illumination can heat the planetary gaps and drive eccentricity growth for giant planets. We suggest that the self-shadowing does not arise at higher metallicity due to the increased optical depth of the gas interior to the dust sublimation radius.

  17. Nebular gas drag and planetary accretion. II. Planet on an eccentric orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, David M.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    1995-09-01

    We study the trajectories of planetesimals whose orbits decay starward as a result of gas drag and are perturbed by the gravity of a massive planet on an eccentric orbit. Each planetesimal ultimately suffers one of three possible fates: (1) trapping in a mean motion resonance with the planet, (2) accretion by the planet, or (3) passage by the planet and continued orbital decay. At moderate to large planetary eccentricity, numerical 3-body integrations of the motion of a planetesimal in the solar nebula demonstrate that migrating planetesimals can become trapped in the 1/1 resonance. These bodies initially have large libration amplitudes (approaching 2π) which decay down to 0 at the trailing Lagrange point. With some combinations of drag rate and planetary eccentricity, over 15% of the planetesimals which encounter the planet are trapped in the 1/1 resonance. Bodies trapped in the this way could be the precursors of the Trojan asteroids. Migrating planetesimals can be caught in both pure Lindblad and combined Lindblad/corotation resonances exterior to the planet's orbit. Trapping has been found in several j/( j + k) resonances with k's ranging from 1 to 4. As one considers larger planetary eccentricities, corotation resonances become more important than Lindblad resonances, and (for a given drag rate) trapping can occur at higher k's and farther from the planet. At large planetary eccentricities, planetesimals can also be caught in ( j + 1)/ j Lindblad/corotation resonances interior to the planet. Interior trapping, which is dynamically forbidden in the case of a planet on a circular orbit, requires planetary eccentricity to increase both the planetesimal's semimajor axis and its eccentricity near conjunction to counter gas drag. Provided the planetesimal's and planet's apoapses are roughly aligned, and conjunction occurs while both bodies are approaching apoapse, then the planetesimal can become trapped in an interior resonance. The probability of a planetesimal

  18. Habitability of planets on eccentric orbits: Limits of the mean flux approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Leconte, Jeremy; Selsis, Franck

    2016-06-01

    Unlike the Earth, which has a small orbital eccentricity, some exoplanets discovered in the insolation habitable zone (HZ) have high orbital eccentricities (e.g., up to an eccentricity of ~0.97 for HD 20782 b). This raises the question of whether these planets have surface conditions favorable to liquid water. In order to assess the habitability of an eccentric planet, the mean flux approximation is often used. It states that a planet on an eccentric orbit is called habitable if it receives on average a flux compatible with the presence of surface liquid water. However, because the planets experience important insolation variations over one orbit and even spend some time outside the HZ for high eccentricities, the question of their habitability might not be as straightforward. We performed a set of simulations using the global climate model LMDZ to explore the limits of the mean flux approximation when varying the luminosity of the host star and the eccentricity of the planet. We computed the climate of tidally locked ocean covered planets with orbital eccentricity from 0 to 0.9 receiving a mean flux equal to Earth's. These planets are found around stars of luminosity ranging from 1 L⊙ to 10-4L⊙. We use a definition of habitability based on the presence of surface liquid water, and find that most of the planets considered can sustain surface liquid water on the dayside with an ice cap on the nightside. However, for high eccentricity and high luminosity, planets cannot sustain surface liquid water during the whole orbital period. They completely freeze at apoastron and when approaching periastron an ocean appears around the substellar point. We conclude that the higher the eccentricity and the higher the luminosity of the star, the less reliable the mean flux approximation.

  19. THE DISTRIBUTION OF TRANSIT DURATIONS FOR KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR ORBITAL ECCENTRICITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Li Jie; Quintana, Elisa; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Lucas, Philip; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2011-11-01

    Doppler planet searches have discovered that giant planets follow orbits with a wide range of orbital eccentricities, revolutionizing theories of planet formation. The discovery of hundreds of exoplanet candidates by NASA's Kepler mission enables astronomers to characterize the eccentricity distribution of small exoplanets. Measuring the eccentricity of individual planets is only practical in favorable cases that are amenable to complementary techniques (e.g., radial velocities, transit timing variations, occultation photometry). Yet even in the absence of individual eccentricities, it is possible to study the distribution of eccentricities based on the distribution of transit durations (relative to the maximum transit duration for a circular orbit). We analyze the transit duration distribution of Kepler planet candidates. We find that for host stars with T{sub eff} > 5100 K we cannot invert this to infer the eccentricity distribution at this time due to uncertainties and possible systematics in the host star densities. With this limitation in mind, we compare the observed transit duration distribution with models to rule out extreme distributions. If we assume a Rayleigh eccentricity distribution for Kepler planet candidates, then we find best fits with a mean eccentricity of 0.1-0.25 for host stars with T{sub eff} {<=} 5100 K. We compare the transit duration distribution for different subsets of Kepler planet candidates and discuss tentative trends with planetary radius and multiplicity. High-precision spectroscopic follow-up observations for a large sample of host stars will be required to confirm which trends are real and which are the results of systematic errors in stellar radii. Finally, we identify planet candidates that must be eccentric or have a significantly underestimated stellar radius.

  20. Eccentricity Inferences in Multi-planet systems with Transit Timing: Degeneracies and Apsidal Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of multi-transiting systems discovered by the Kepler mission show Transit Timing Variations (TTV). In cases where the TTVs are uniquely attributable to transiting planets, the TTVs enable precise measurements of planetary masses and orbital parameters. Of particular interest are the constraints on eccentricity vectors that can be inferred in systems of low-mass exoplanets.The TTVs in these systems are dominated by a signal caused by near-resonant mean motions. This causes the well-known near-degeneracy between planetary masses and orbital eccentricities. In addition, it causes a degeneracy between the eccentricities of interacting planet pairs.For many systems, the magnitude of individual eccentricities are weakly constrained, yet the data typically provide a tight constraint on the posterior joint distribution for the eccentricity vector components. This permits tight constraints on the relative eccentricity and degree of alignment of interacting planets.For a sample of two and three-planet systems with TTVs, we highlight the effects of these correlations. While the most eccentric orbital solutions for these systems show apsidal alignment, this is often due to the degeneracy that causes correlated constraints on the eccentricity vector components. We compare the likelihood of apsidal alignment for two choices of eccentricity prior: a wide prior using a Rayleigh distribution of scale length 0.1 and a narrower prior with scale length 0.02. In all cases the narrower prior decreased the fraction of samples that exhibited apsidal alignment. However, apsidal alignment persisted in the majority of cases with a narrower eccentricity prior. For a sample of our TTV solutions, we ran simulations of these systems over secular timescales, and decomposed their eccentricity eigenmodes over time, confirming that in most cases, the eccentricities were dominated by parallel eigenmodes which favor apsidal alignment.

  1. Habitability of planets on eccentric orbits: limits of the mean flux approximation??

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Leconte, Jeremy; Selsis, Franck

    2015-07-01

    A few of the planets found in the insolation habitable zone (as defined by Kasting et al. 1993) are on eccentric orbits, such as HD 136118 b (eccentricity of ˜0.3, Wittenmyer et al. 2009). This raises the question of the potential habitability of planets that only spend a fraction of their orbit in the habitable zone. Usually for a planet of semi-major axis a and eccentricity e, the averaged flux over one orbit received by the planet is considered. This averaged flux corresponds to the flux received by a planet on a circular orbit of radius r = a(1-eˆ2)ˆ1/4. If this orbital distance is within the habitable zone, the planet is considered "habitable". However, for a hot star, for which the habitable zone is far from the star, the climate can be degraded when the planet is temporarily outside the habitable zone. The influence of the orbital eccentricity of a planet on its climate has already been studied for Earth-like conditions (same star, same rotation period), with Global Climate Models (GCM) such as in Williams & Pollard 2002 and Linsenmeier et al. 2014. Spiegel 2010 and Dressing et al. 2010 have also studied the effect of eccentricity for more diverse conditions with energy-balanced models. We performed a set of simulations using the Global Climate Model LMDz (Wordsworth et al. 2011, Forget et al. 2013, Leconte et al. 2013). We computed the climate of aqua planets receiving a mean flux equal to Earth's, around stars of luminosity ranging from 1 Lsun to 10-4 Lsun and of orbital eccentricity from 0 to 0.9. We show the limits of the mean flux approximation, depending on the previous parameters and also the thermal inertia of oceans.

  2. Eccentricity pumping of a planet on an inclined orbit by a disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terquem, Caroline; Ajmia, Aikel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the eccentricity of a planet on an inclined orbit with respect to a disc can be pumped up to high values by the gravitational potential of the disc, even when the orbit of the planet crosses the disc plane. This process is an extension of the Kozai effect. If the orbit of the planet is well inside the disc inner cavity, the process is formally identical to the classical Kozai effect. If the planet's orbit crosses the disc but most of the disc mass is beyond the orbit, the eccentricity of the planet grows when the initial angle between the orbit and the disc is larger than some critical value which may be significantly smaller than the classical value of 39°. Both the eccentricity and the inclination angle then vary periodically with time. When the period of the oscillations of the eccentricity is smaller than the disc lifetime, the planet may be left on an eccentric orbit as the disc dissipates.

  3. THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT AND PROTO-HOT JUPITERS. I. MEASURING PHOTOMETRIC ECCENTRICITIES OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Johnson, John Asher

    2012-09-10

    Exoplanet orbital eccentricities offer valuable clues about the history of planetary systems. Eccentric, Jupiter-sized planets are particularly interesting: they may link the 'cold' Jupiters beyond the ice line to close-in hot Jupiters, which are unlikely to have formed in situ. To date, eccentricities of individual transiting planets primarily come from radial-velocity measurements. Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting Jupiters spanning a range of periods, but the faintness of the host stars precludes radial-velocity follow-up of most. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method of measuring an individual planet's eccentricity solely from its transit light curve using prior knowledge of its host star's density. We show that eccentric Jupiters are readily identified by their short ingress/egress/total transit durations-part of the 'photoeccentric' light curve signature of a planet's eccentricity-even with long-cadence Kepler photometry and loosely constrained stellar parameters. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploration of parameter posteriors naturally marginalizes over the periapse angle and automatically accounts for the transit probability. To demonstrate, we use three published transit light curves of HD 17156 b to measure an eccentricity of e = 0.71{sup +0.16}{sub -0.09}, in good agreement with the discovery value e = 0.67 {+-} 0.08 based on 33 radial-velocity measurements. We present two additional tests using Kepler data. In each case, the technique proves to be a viable method of measuring exoplanet eccentricities and their confidence intervals. Finally, we argue that this method is the most efficient, effective means of identifying the extremely eccentric, proto-hot Jupiters predicted by Socrates et al.

  4. ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK AND A PLANET IN AN ECCENTRIC ORBIT: APPLICATION OF DYNAMICAL FRICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Ida, Shigeru

    2011-08-10

    We present a new analytic approach to the disk-planet interaction that is especially useful for planets with eccentricity larger than the disk aspect ratio. We make use of the dynamical friction formula to calculate the force exerted on the planet by the disk, and the force is averaged over the period of the planet. The resulting migration and eccentricity damping timescale agree very well with previous works in which the planet eccentricity is moderately larger than the disk aspect ratio. The advantage of this approach is that it is possible to apply this formulation to arbitrary large eccentricity. We have found that the timescale of the orbital evolution depends largely on the adopted disk model in the case of highly eccentric planets. We discuss the possible implication of our results for the theory of planet formation.

  5. Densities and eccentricities of 139 Kepler planets from transit time variations

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-05-20

    We extract densities and eccentricities of 139 sub-Jovian planets by analyzing transit time variations (TTVs) obtained by the Kepler mission through Quarter 12. We partially circumvent the degeneracies that plague TTV inversion with the help of an analytical formula for the TTV. From the observed TTV phases, we find that most of these planets have eccentricities of the order of a few percent. More precisely, the rms eccentricity is 0.018{sub −0.004}{sup +0.005}, and planets smaller than 2.5 R {sub ⊕} are around twice as eccentric as those bigger than 2.5 R {sub ⊕}. We also find a best-fit density-radius relationship ρ ≈ 3 g cm{sup –3} × (R/3 R {sub ⊕}){sup –2.3} for the 56 planets that likely have small eccentricity and hence small statistical correction to their masses. Many planets larger than 2.5 R {sub ⊕} are less dense than water, implying that their radii are largely set by a massive hydrogen atmosphere.

  6. Densities and Eccentricities of 139 Kepler Planets from Transit Time Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-05-01

    We extract densities and eccentricities of 139 sub-Jovian planets by analyzing transit time variations (TTVs) obtained by the Kepler mission through Quarter 12. We partially circumvent the degeneracies that plague TTV inversion with the help of an analytical formula for the TTV. From the observed TTV phases, we find that most of these planets have eccentricities of the order of a few percent. More precisely, the rms eccentricity is 0.018^{+0.005}_{-0.004}, and planets smaller than 2.5 R ⊕ are around twice as eccentric as those bigger than 2.5 R ⊕. We also find a best-fit density-radius relationship ρ ≈ 3 g cm-3 × (R/3 R ⊕)-2.3 for the 56 planets that likely have small eccentricity and hence small statistical correction to their masses. Many planets larger than 2.5 R ⊕ are less dense than water, implying that their radii are largely set by a massive hydrogen atmosphere.

  7. Habitability of planets on eccentric orbits: limits of the mean flux approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Libert, Anne-Sophie; Leconte, Jérémy; Selsis, Franck; Turbet, Martin; Forget, François

    2016-04-01

    A few of the planets found in the insolation habitable zone (region in which a planet with an atmosphere can sustain surface liquid water, Kasting et al. 1993) are on eccentric orbits, such as GJ 667Cc (eccentricity of < 0.3, Anglada-Escude et al. 2012) or HD 16175 b (eccentricity of 0.6, Peek et al. 2009). This raises the question of the potential habitability of planets that only spend a fraction of their orbit in the habitable zone. Usually for a planet of semi-major axis a and eccentricity e, the averaged flux over one orbit received by the planet is considered. This averaged flux corresponds to the flux received by a planet on a circular orbit of radius r = a(1 -e2)1/4. If this orbital distance is within the habitable zone, the planet is said "habitable". However, for a hot star, for which the habitable zone is far from the star, the climate can be degraded when the planet is temporarily outside the habitable zone. We investigate here the limits of validity of the mean flux approximation used to assess the potential habitability of eccentric planets. For this study, we consider ocean planets in synchronized rotation and planets with a rotation period of 24 hr. We investigate the influence of the type of host star and the eccentricity of the orbit on the climate of a planet. We do so by scaling the duration of its orbital period and its apastron and periastron distance to ensure that it receives in average the same incoming flux as Earth's. We performed sets of 3D simulations using the Global Climate Model LMDz (Wordsworth et al. 2011, Forget et al. 2013, Leconte et al. 2013). The atmosphere is composed of N2, CO2 and H2O (gas, liquid, solid) in Earth-like proportions. First, we do not take into account the spectral difference between a low luminosity star and a Sun-like star. Second, the dependence of the albedo of ice and snow on the spectra of the host star is taken into account. This influences the positive ice-albedo feedback and can lead to a different

  8. Transit Timing Variations for Planets near Eccentricity-type Mean Motion Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric

    2016-04-01

    We derive the transit timing variations (TTVs) of two planets near a second-order mean motion resonance (MMR) on nearly circular orbits. We show that the TTVs of each planet are given by sinusoids with a frequency of {{jn}}2-(j-2){n}1, where j≥slant 3 is an integer characterizing the resonance and n2 and n1 are the mean motions of the outer and inner planets, respectively. The amplitude of the TTV depends on the mass of the perturbing planet, relative to the mass of the star, and on both the eccentricities and longitudes of pericenter of each planet. The TTVs of the two planets are approximated anti-correlated, with phases of ϕ and ≈ φ +π , where the phase ϕ also depends on the eccentricities and longitudes of pericenter. Therefore, the TTVs caused by proximity to a second-order MMR do not in general uniquely determine both planet masses, eccentricities, and pericenters. This is completely analogous to the case of TTVs induced by two planets near a first-order MMR. We explore how other TTV signals, such as the short-period synodic TTV or a first-order resonant TTV, in combination with the second-order resonant TTV, can break degeneracies. Finally, we derive approximate formulae for the TTVs of planets near any order eccentricity-type MMR; this shows that the same basic sinusoidal TTV structure holds for all eccentricity-type resonances. Our general formula reduces to previously derived results near first-order MMRs.

  9. The Photoeccentric Effect and Proto-hot Jupiters. I. Measuring Photometric Eccentricities of Individual Transiting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Johnson, John Asher

    2012-09-01

    Exoplanet orbital eccentricities offer valuable clues about the history of planetary systems. Eccentric, Jupiter-sized planets are particularly interesting: they may link the "cold" Jupiters beyond the ice line to close-in hot Jupiters, which are unlikely to have formed in situ. To date, eccentricities of individual transiting planets primarily come from radial-velocity measurements. Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting Jupiters spanning a range of periods, but the faintness of the host stars precludes radial-velocity follow-up of most. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method of measuring an individual planet's eccentricity solely from its transit light curve using prior knowledge of its host star's density. We show that eccentric Jupiters are readily identified by their short ingress/egress/total transit durations—part of the "photoeccentric" light curve signature of a planet's eccentricity—even with long-cadence Kepler photometry and loosely constrained stellar parameters. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo exploration of parameter posteriors naturally marginalizes over the periapse angle and automatically accounts for the transit probability. To demonstrate, we use three published transit light curves of HD 17156 b to measure an eccentricity of e = 0.71+0.16 - 0.09, in good agreement with the discovery value e = 0.67 ± 0.08 based on 33 radial-velocity measurements. We present two additional tests using Kepler data. In each case, the technique proves to be a viable method of measuring exoplanet eccentricities and their confidence intervals. Finally, we argue that this method is the most efficient, effective means of identifying the extremely eccentric, proto-hot Jupiters predicted by Socrates et al.

  10. Limits on stellar companions to exoplanet host stars with eccentric planets

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.; Feng, Ying; Wright, Jason T.; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark E.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-04-20

    Though there are now many hundreds of confirmed exoplanets known, the binarity of exoplanet host stars is not well understood. This is particularly true of host stars that harbor a giant planet in a highly eccentric orbit since these are more likely to have had a dramatic dynamical history that transferred angular momentum to the planet. Here we present observations of four exoplanet host stars that utilize the excellent resolving power of the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument on the Gemini North telescope. Two of the stars are giants and two are dwarfs. Each star is host to a giant planet with an orbital eccentricity >0.5 and whose radial velocity (RV) data contain a trend in the residuals to the Keplerian orbit fit. These observations rule out stellar companions 4-8 mag fainter than the host star at passbands of 692 nm and 880 nm. The resolution and field of view of the instrument result in exclusion radii of 0.''05-1.''4, which excludes stellar companions within several AU of the host star in most cases. We further provide new RVs for the HD 4203 system that confirm that the linear trend previously observed in the residuals is due to an additional planet. These results place dynamical constraints on the source of the planet's eccentricities, place constraints on additional planetary companions, and inform the known distribution of multiplicity amongst exoplanet host stars.

  11. Secretly Eccentric: The Giant Planet and Activity Cycle of GJ 328

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Boss, Alan P.

    2013-09-01

    We announce the discovery of a ~2 Jupiter-mass planet in an eccentric 11 yr orbit around the K7/M0 dwarf GJ 328. Our result is based on 10 years of radial velocity (RV) data from the Hobby-Eberly and Harlan J. Smith telescopes at McDonald Observatory, and from the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea. Our analysis of GJ 328's magnetic activity via the Na I D features reveals a long-period stellar activity cycle, which creates an additional signal in the star's RV curve with amplitude 6-10 m s-1. After correcting for this stellar RV contribution, we see that the orbit of the planet is more eccentric than suggested by the raw RV data. GJ 328b is currently the most massive, longest-period planet discovered around a low-mass dwarf.

  12. SECRETLY ECCENTRIC: THE GIANT PLANET AND ACTIVITY CYCLE OF GJ 328

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Boss, Alan P.

    2013-09-10

    We announce the discovery of a {approx}2 Jupiter-mass planet in an eccentric 11 yr orbit around the K7/M0 dwarf GJ 328. Our result is based on 10 years of radial velocity (RV) data from the Hobby-Eberly and Harlan J. Smith telescopes at McDonald Observatory, and from the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea. Our analysis of GJ 328's magnetic activity via the Na I D features reveals a long-period stellar activity cycle, which creates an additional signal in the star's RV curve with amplitude 6-10 m s{sup -1}. After correcting for this stellar RV contribution, we see that the orbit of the planet is more eccentric than suggested by the raw RV data. GJ 328b is currently the most massive, longest-period planet discovered around a low-mass dwarf.

  13. DYNAMICS AND ECCENTRICITY FORMATION OF PLANETS IN OGLE-06-109L SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Su; Zhao Gang; Zhou Jilin

    2009-11-20

    Recent observation of the microlensing technique reveals two giant planets at 2.3 AU and 4.6 AU around the star OGLE-06-109L. The eccentricity of the outer planet (e{sub c} ) is estimated to be 0.11{sup +0.17}{sub -0.04}, comparable to that of Saturn (0.01-0.09). The similarities between the OGLE-06-109L system and the solar system indicate that they may have passed through similar histories during their formation stage. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and formation of the orbital architecture in the OGLE-06-109L system. For the present two planets with their nominal locations, the secular motions are stable as long as their eccentricities (e{sub b} , e{sub c} ) fulfill e {sup 2} {sub b} + e {sup 2} {sub c} <= 0.3{sup 2}. Earth-size bodies might be formed and are stable in the habitable zone (0.25-0.36 AU) of the system. Three possible scenarios may be accounted for the formation of e{sub b} and e{sub c} : (1) convergent migration of two planets and the 3:1 mean motion resonance (MMR) trapping; (2) planetary scattering; and (3) divergent migration and the 3:1 MMR crossing. As we showed that the probability for the two giant planets in 3:1 MMR is low (approx3%), scenario (1) is less likely. According to models (2) and (3), the final eccentricity of inner planet (e{sub b} ) may oscillate between [0-0.06], comparable to that of Jupiter (0.03-0.06). An inspection of e{sub b} , e{sub c} 's secular motion may be helpful to understand which model is really responsible for the eccentricity formation.

  14. A HIGH-ECCENTRICITY COMPONENT IN THE DOUBLE-PLANET SYSTEM AROUND HD 163607 AND A PLANET AROUND HD 164509

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, Matthew J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Spronck, Julien; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Johnson, John A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Wright, Jason T.; Hou Fengji

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of three new exoplanets from Keck Observatory. HD 163607 is a metal-rich G5IV star with two planets. The inner planet has an observed orbital period of 75.29 {+-} 0.02 days, a semi-amplitude of 51.1 {+-} 1.4 m s{sup -1}, an eccentricity of 0.73 {+-} 0.02, and a derived minimum mass of M{sub P} sin i = 0.77 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Jup}. This is the largest eccentricity of any known planet in a multi-planet system. The argument of periastron passage is 78.7 {+-} 2.{sup 0}0; consequently, the planet's closest approach to its parent star is very near the line of sight, leading to a relatively high transit probability of 8%. The outer planet has an orbital period of 3.60 {+-} 0.02 years, an orbital eccentricity of 0.12 {+-} 0.06, and a semi-amplitude of 40.4 {+-} 1.3 m s{sup -1}. The minimum mass is M{sub P} sin i = 2.29 {+-} 0.16 M{sub Jup}. HD 164509 is a metal-rich G5V star with a planet in an orbital period of 282.4 {+-} 3.8 days and an eccentricity of 0.26 {+-} 0.14. The semi-amplitude of 14.2 {+-} 2.7 m s{sup -1} implies a minimum mass of 0.48 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Jup}. The radial velocities (RVs) of HD 164509 also exhibit a residual linear trend of -5.1 {+-} 0.7 m s{sup -1} year{sup -1}, indicating the presence of an additional longer period companion in the system. Photometric observations demonstrate that HD 163607 and HD 164509 are constant in brightness to submillimagnitude levels on their RV periods. This provides strong support for planetary reflex motion as the cause of the RV variations.

  15. Planet-induced Stellar Pulsations in HAT-P-2's Eccentric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Fuller, Jim; Antoci, Victoria; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Deming, Drake; Shporer, Avi; Batygin, Konstantin; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-02-01

    Extrasolar planets on eccentric short-period orbits provide a laboratory in which to study radiative and tidal interactions between a planet and its host star under extreme forcing conditions. Studying such systems probes how the planet’s atmosphere redistributes the time-varying heat flux from its host and how the host star responds to transient tidal distortion. Here, we report the insights into the planet–star interactions in HAT-P-2's eccentric planetary system gained from the analysis of ∼350 hr of 4.5 μm observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The observations show no sign of orbit-to-orbit variability nor of orbital evolution of the eccentric planetary companion, HAT-P-2 b. The extensive coverage allows us to better differentiate instrumental systematics from the transient heating of HAT-P-2 b’s 4.5 μm photosphere and yields the detection of stellar pulsations with an amplitude of approximately 40 ppm. These pulsation modes correspond to exact harmonics of the planet’s orbital frequency, indicative of a tidal origin. Transient tidal effects can excite pulsation modes in the envelope of a star, but, to date, such pulsations had only been detected in highly eccentric stellar binaries. Current stellar models are unable to reproduce HAT-P-2's pulsations, suggesting that our understanding of the interactions at play in this system is incomplete.

  16. The Dynamics of Orbit-Clearing for Planets on Eccentric Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Danielle; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    The third requirement in the 2006 International Astronomical Union (IAU) definition of a planet is that the object has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. Margot (2015) proposed a metric that quantitatively determines if an object has enough mass to clear an orbital zone of a specific extent within a defined time interval. In this metric, the size of the zone to be cleared is given by CRH, where C is a constant and RH is the Hill Radius. Margot (2015) adopts C=2*31/2 to describe the minimum extent of orbital clearing on the basis of the planet's feeding zone. However, this value of C may only apply for eccentricities up to about 0.3 (Quillen & Faber 2006). Here, we explore the timescales and boundaries of orbital clearing for planets over a range of orbital eccentricities and planet-star mass ratios using the MERCURY integration package (Chambers 1999). The basic setup for the integrations includes a single planet orbiting a star and a uniform distribution of massless particles extending beyond CRH. The system is integrated for at least 106 revolutions and the massless particles are tracked in order to quantify the timescale and extent of the clearing.

  17. Formation of sharp eccentric rings in debris disks with gas but without planets.

    PubMed

    Lyra, W; Kuchner, M

    2013-07-11

    'Debris disks' around young stars (analogues of the Kuiper Belt in our Solar System) show a variety of non-trivial structures attributed to planetary perturbations and used to constrain the properties of those planets. However, these analyses have largely ignored the fact that some debris disks are found to contain small quantities of gas, a component that all such disks should contain at some level. Several debris disks have been measured with a dust-to-gas ratio of about unity, at which the effect of hydrodynamics on the structure of the disk cannot be ignored. Here we report linear and nonlinear modelling that shows that dust-gas interactions can produce some of the key patterns attributed to planets. We find a robust clumping instability that organizes the dust into narrow, eccentric rings, similar to the Fomalhaut debris disk. The conclusion that such disks might contain planets is not necessarily required to explain these systems.

  18. Formation of Sharp Eccentric Rings in Debris Disks with Gas but Without Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyra, W.; Kuchner, M.

    2013-01-01

    'Debris disks' around young stars (analogues of the Kuiper Belt in our Solar System) show a variety of non-trivial structures attributed to planetary perturbations and used to constrain the properties of those planets. However, these analyses have largely ignored the fact that some debris disks are found to contain small quantities of gas, a component that all such disks should contain at some level. Several debris disks have been measured with a dust-to-gas ratio of about unity, at which the effect of hydrodynamics on the structure of the disk cannot be ignored. Here we report linear and nonlinear modelling that shows that dust-gas interactions can produce some of the key patterns attributed to planets. We find a robust clumping instability that organizes the dust into narrow, eccentric rings, similar to the Fomalhaut debris disk. The conclusion that such disks might contain planets is not necessarily required to explain these systems.

  19. A MODEL FOR THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF CIRCULAR AND ECCENTRIC EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric

    2011-01-10

    We present a semi-analytic model atmosphere for close-in exoplanets that captures the essential physics of phase curves: orbital and viewing geometry, advection, and re-radiation. We calibrate the model with the well-characterized transiting planet, HD 189733b, then compute light curves for seven of the most eccentric transiting planets: Gl 436b, HAT-P-2b, HAT-P-11b, HD 17156b, HD 80606b, WASP-17b, and XO-3b. We present phase variations for a variety of different radiative times and wind speeds. In the limit of instant re-radiation, the light-curve morphology is entirely dictated by the planet's eccentricity and argument of pericenter: the light curve maximum leads or trails the eclipse depending on whether the planet is receding from or approaching the star at superior conjunction, respectively. For a planet with non-zero radiative timescales, the phase peak occurs early for super-rotating winds, and late for sub-rotating winds. We find that for a circular orbit, the timing of the phase variation maximum with respect to superior conjunction indicates the direction of the dominant winds, but cannot break the degeneracy between wind speed and radiative time. For circular planets the phase minimum occurs half an orbit away from the phase maximum-despite the fact that the coolest longitudes are always near the dawn terminator-and therefore does not convey any additional information. In general, increasing the advective frequency or the radiative time has the effect of reducing the peak-to-trough amplitude of phase variations, but there are interesting exceptions to these trends. Lastly, eccentric planets with orbital periods significantly longer than their radiative time exhibit 'ringing', whereby the hot spot generated at periastron rotates in and out of view. The existence of ringing makes it possible to directly measure the wind speed (the frequency of the ringing) and the radiative time constant (the damping of the ringing).

  20. Large eccentricity, low mutual inclination: the three-dimensional architecture of a hierarchical system of giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Johnson, John Asher; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Hebb, Leslie; Huber, Daniel; Shporer, Avi; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2014-08-20

    We establish the three-dimensional architecture of the Kepler-419 (previously KOI-1474) system to be eccentric yet with a low mutual inclination. Kepler-419b is a warm Jupiter at semi-major axis a=0.370{sub −0.006}{sup +0.007} AU with a large eccentricity (e = 0.85{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08}) measured via the 'photoeccentric effect'. It exhibits transit timing variations (TTVs) induced by the non-transiting Kepler-419c, which we uniquely constrain to be a moderately eccentric (e = 0.184 ± 0.002), hierarchically separated (a = 1.68 ± 0.03 AU) giant planet (7.3 ± 0.4 M {sub Jup}). We combine 16 quarters of Kepler photometry, radial-velocity (RV) measurements from the HIgh Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck, and improved stellar parameters that we derive from spectroscopy and asteroseismology. From the RVs, we measure the mass of the inner planet to be 2.5 ± 0.3 M {sub Jup} and confirm its photometrically measured eccentricity, refining the value to e = 0.83 ± 0.01. The RV acceleration is consistent with the properties of the outer planet derived from TTVs. We find that despite their sizable eccentricities, the planets are coplanar to within 9{sub −6}{sup +8} degrees, and therefore the inner planet's large eccentricity and close-in orbit are unlikely to be the result of Kozai migration. Moreover, even over many secular cycles, the inner planet's periapse is most likely never small enough for tidal circularization. Finally, we present and measure a transit time and impact parameter from four simultaneous ground-based light curves from 1 m class telescopes, demonstrating the feasibility of ground-based follow-up of Kepler giant planets exhibiting large TTVs.

  1. Orbital stability of coplanar two-planet exosystems with high eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Voyatzis, George

    2016-10-01

    The long-term stability of the evolution of two-planet systems is considered by using the general three body problem (GTBP). Our study is focused on the stability of systems with adjacent orbits when at least one of them is highly eccentric. In these cases, in order for close encounters, which destabilize the planetary systems, to be avoided, phase protection mechanisms should be considered. Additionally, since the GTBP is a non-integrable system, chaos may also cause the destabilization of the system after a long time interval. By computing dynamical maps, based on Fast Lyapunov Indicator, we reveal regions in phase space with stable orbits even for very high eccentricities (e > 0.5). Such regions are present in mean motion resonances (MMRs). We can determine the position of the exact MMR through the computation of families of periodic orbits in a rotating frame. Elliptic periodic orbits are associated with the presence of apsidal corotation resonances (ACRs). When such solutions are stable, they are associated with neighbouring domains of initial conditions that provide long-term stability. We apply our methodology so that the evolution of planetary systems of highly eccentric orbits is assigned to the existence of such stable domains. Particularly, we study the orbital evolution of the extrasolar systems HD 82943, HD 3651, HD 7449, HD 89744 and HD 102272 and discuss the consistency between the orbital elements provided by the observations and the dynamical stability.

  2. Viscoelastic tidal dissipation in giant planets and formation of hot Jupiters through high-eccentricity migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Natalia I.; Lai, Dong

    2014-02-01

    We study the possibility of tidal dissipation in the solid cores of giant planets and its implication for the formation of hot Jupiters through high-eccentricity migration. We present a general framework by which the tidal evolution of planetary systems can be computed for any form of tidal dissipation, characterized by the imaginary part of the complex tidal Love number, Im[{tilde{k}}_2(ω )], as a function of the forcing frequency ω. Using the simplest viscoelastic dissipation model (the Maxwell model) for the rocky core and including the effect of a non-dissipative fluid envelope, we show that with reasonable (but uncertain) physical parameters for the core (size, viscosity and shear modulus), tidal dissipation in the core can accommodate the tidal-Q constraint of the Solar system gas giants and at the same time allows exoplanetary hot Jupiters to form via tidal circularization in the high-e migration scenario. By contrast, the often-used weak friction theory of equilibrium tide would lead to a discrepancy between the Solar system constraint and the amount of dissipation necessary for high-e migration. We also show that tidal heating in the rocky core can lead to modest radius inflation of the planets, particularly when the planets are in the high-eccentricity phase (e ˜ 0.6) during their high-e migration. Finally, as an interesting by-product of our study, we note that for a generic tidal response function Im[{tilde{k}}_2(ω )], it is possible that spin equilibrium (zero torque) can be achieved for multiple spin frequencies (at a given e), and the actual pseudo-synchronized spin rate depends on the evolutionary history of the system.

  3. EFFECTS OF TURBULENCE, ECCENTRICITY DAMPING, AND MIGRATION RATE ON THE CAPTURE OF PLANETS INTO MEAN MOTION RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, Jacob A.; Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    Pairs of migrating extrasolar planets often lock into mean motion resonance as they drift inward. This paper studies the convergent migration of giant planets (driven by a circumstellar disk) and determines the probability that they are captured into mean motion resonance. The probability that such planets enter resonance depends on the type of resonance, the migration rate, the eccentricity damping rate, and the amplitude of the turbulent fluctuations. This problem is studied both through direct integrations of the full three-body problem and via semi-analytic model equations. In general, the probability of resonance decreases with increasing migration rate, and with increasing levels of turbulence, but increases with eccentricity damping. Previous work has shown that the distributions of orbital elements (eccentricity and semimajor axis) for observed extrasolar planets can be reproduced by migration models with multiple planets. However, these results depend on resonance locking, and this study shows that entry into-and maintenance of-mean motion resonance depends sensitively on the migration rate, eccentricity damping, and turbulence.

  4. Thermal Phases of Earth-like Planets: Estimating Thermal Inertia from Eccentricity, Obliquity, and Diurnal Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Voigt, Aiko; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2012-09-01

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3× the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A pole-on observer

  5. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Voigt, Aiko; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2012-09-20

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3 Multiplication-Sign the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A

  6. DETECTION OF A LOW-ECCENTRICITY AND SUPER-MASSIVE PLANET TO THE SUBGIANT HD 38801

    SciTech Connect

    Harakawa, Hiroki; Ida, Shigeru; Hori, Yasunori; Sato, Bun'ei; Fischer, Debra A.; Omiya, Masashi; Johnson, John A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Toyota, Eri

    2010-05-20

    We report the detection of a large mass planet orbiting around the K0 metal-rich subgiant HD38801 (V = 8.26) by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Subaru Telescope and the Keck Telescope. The star has a mass of 1.36 M{sub sun} and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.26. The RV variations are consistent with a circular orbit with a period of 696.0 days and a velocity semiamplitude of 200.0 m s{sup -1}, which yield a minimum mass for the companion of 10.7 M{sub JUP} and a semimajor axis of 1.71 AU. Such super-massive objects with very low eccentricities and periods of hundreds of days are uncommon among the ensemble of known exoplanets.

  7. ORBITAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF THE ECCENTRIC GIANT PLANET HAT-P-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Knutson, Heather A.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Kao, Melodie; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Laughlin, Gregory; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Deming, Drake; Crepp, Justin R.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Fischer, Debra A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present the first secondary eclipse and phase curve observations for the highly eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data sets span an entire orbital period of HAT-P-2b (P = 5.6334729 d), making them the longest continuous phase curve observations obtained to date and the first full-orbit observations of a planet with an eccentricity exceeding 0.2. We present an improved non-parametric method for removing the intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m that robustly maps position-dependent flux variations. We find that the peak in planetary flux occurs at 4.39 {+-} 0.28, 5.84 {+-} 0.39, and 4.68 {+-} 0.37 hr after periapse passage with corresponding maxima in the planet/star flux ratio of 0.1138% {+-} 0.0089%, 0.1162% {+-} 0.0080%, and 0.1888% {+-} 0.0072% in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 {mu}m bands, respectively. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.0996% {+-} 0.0072%, 0.1031% {+-} 0.0061%, 0.071%{sub -0.013%}{sup +0.029,} and 0.1392% {+-} 0.0095% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m bands, respectively, indicate that the planet cools significantly from its peak temperature before we measure the dayside flux during secondary eclipse. We compare our measured secondary eclipse depths to the predictions from a one-dimensional radiative transfer model, which suggests the possible presence of a transient day side inversion in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere near periapse. We also derive improved estimates for the system parameters, including its mass, radius, and orbital ephemeris. Our simultaneous fit to the transit, secondary eclipse, and radial velocity data allows us to determine the eccentricity (e = 0.50910 {+-} 0.00048) and argument of periapse ({omega} = 188. Degree-Sign 09 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 39) of HAT-P-2b's orbit with a greater precision than has been achieved for any other eccentric extrasolar planet. We also find evidence for a long-term linear

  8. Orbital Phase Variations of the Eccentric Giant Planet HAT-P-2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Showman, Adam P.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Laughlin, Gregory; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Crepp, Justin R.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Agol, Eric; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fischer, Debra A.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hartman, Joel D.; Hinkley, Sasha; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John Asher; Kao, Melodie; Langton, Jonathan; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2013-04-01

    We present the first secondary eclipse and phase curve observations for the highly eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 3.6 and 4.5 μm data sets span an entire orbital period of HAT-P-2b (P = 5.6334729 d), making them the longest continuous phase curve observations obtained to date and the first full-orbit observations of a planet with an eccentricity exceeding 0.2. We present an improved non-parametric method for removing the intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm that robustly maps position-dependent flux variations. We find that the peak in planetary flux occurs at 4.39 ± 0.28, 5.84 ± 0.39, and 4.68 ± 0.37 hr after periapse passage with corresponding maxima in the planet/star flux ratio of 0.1138% ± 0.0089%, 0.1162% ± 0.0080%, and 0.1888% ± 0.0072% in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm bands, respectively. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.0996% ± 0.0072%, 0.1031% ± 0.0061%, 0.071%^{+0.029%}_{-0.013%}, and 0.1392% ± 0.0095% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, respectively, indicate that the planet cools significantly from its peak temperature before we measure the dayside flux during secondary eclipse. We compare our measured secondary eclipse depths to the predictions from a one-dimensional radiative transfer model, which suggests the possible presence of a transient day side inversion in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere near periapse. We also derive improved estimates for the system parameters, including its mass, radius, and orbital ephemeris. Our simultaneous fit to the transit, secondary eclipse, and radial velocity data allows us to determine the eccentricity (e = 0.50910 ± 0.00048) and argument of periapse (ω = 188.°09 ± 0.°39) of HAT-P-2b's orbit with a greater precision than has been achieved for any other eccentric extrasolar planet. We also find evidence for a long-term linear trend in the radial velocity data. This trend suggests the presence

  9. Kepler-432 b: a massive planet in a highly eccentric orbit transiting a red giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Lillo-Box, J.; Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.; Barrado, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first disclosure of the planetary nature of Kepler-432 b (aka Kepler object of interest KOI-1299.01). We accurately constrained its mass and eccentricity by high-precision radial velocity measurements obtained with the CAFE spectrograph at the CAHA 2.2-m telescope. By simultaneously fitting these new data and Kepler photometry, we found that Kepler-432 b is a dense transiting exoplanet with a mass of Mp = 4.87 ± 0.48MJup and radius of Rp = 1.120 ± 0.036RJup. The planet revolves every 52.5 d around a K giant star that ascends the red giant branch, and it moves on a highly eccentric orbit with e = 0.535 ± 0.030. By analysing two near-IR high-resolution images, we found that a star is located at 1.1'' from Kepler-432, but it is too faint to cause significant effects on the transit depth. Together with Kepler-56 and Kepler-91, Kepler-432 occupies an almost-desert region of parameter space, which is important for constraining the evolutionary processes of planetary systems. RV data (Table A.1) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/L5

  10. Inner mean-motion resonances with eccentric planets: a possible origin for exozodiacal dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramaz, V.; Ertel, S.; Booth, M.; Cuadra, J.; Simmonds, C.

    2017-02-01

    High levels of dust have been detected in the immediate vicinity of many stars, both young and old. A promising scenario to explain the presence of this short-lived dust is that these analogues to the zodiacal cloud (or exozodis) are refilled in situ through cometary activity and sublimation. As the reservoir of comets is not expected to be replenished, the presence of these exozodis in old systems has yet to be adequately explained. It was recently suggested that mean-motion resonances with exterior planets on moderately eccentric (ep ≳ 0.1) orbits could scatter planetesimals on to cometary orbits with delays of the order of several 100 Myr. Theoretically, this mechanism is also expected to sustain continuous production of active comets once it has started, potentially over Gyr time-scales. We aim here to investigate the ability of this mechanism to generate scattering on to cometary orbits compatible with the production of an exozodi on long time-scales. We combine analytical predictions and complementary numerical N-body simulations to study its characteristics. We show, using order of magnitude estimates, that via this mechanism, low-mass discs comparable to the Kuiper belt could sustain comet scattering at rates compatible with the presence of the exozodis which are detected around Solar-type stars, and on Gyr time-scales. We also find that the levels of dust detected around Vega could be sustained via our proposed mechanism if an eccentric Jupiter-like planet were present exterior to the system's cold debris disc.

  11. The Eccentric Response of Kepler's Circumbinary Planets to Common-Envelope Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Keavin; Veselin B. Kostov, Daniel Tamayo, Ray Jayawardhana, Stephen A. Rinehart

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent Kepler discoveries of circumbinary planets orbiting close binary stars, we explore the fate of the former as the latter evolve off the main sequence. By combining binary stellar evolutionary models and dynamical simulations using numerical integration, we study the orbital evolution of these planets as a result of the common-envelope stages of their host binaries. Half of the Kepler systems experiences at least one common-envelope stage using their default physical parameters. During the common-envelope stage, the binary stars either shrink to very short orbits or coalesce; one system may trigger a double-degenerate supernova explosion. As the common-envelope stage is a complex and still-uncertain process, we test multiple efficiency parameters for each system. Much of the uncertainty in circumbinary systems is believed to be a result of tidal effects, and so we also vary the tides within our simulations. We find that, for common-envelope mass-loss rates of 1 solar mass per year, their planets predominantly remain gravitationally bound to the system at the end of this stage, migrate to larger orbits, and gain significant eccentricity. This orbital expansion can be up to an order of magnitude, and occurs over the course of a single planetary orbit. Some systems retain their planets even in the runaway regime of instantaneous mass loss. For slower mass loss rates of 0.1 solar masses per year, our results indicate an adiabatic orbital expansion for all except Kepler-1647, where this mass loss corresponds to the transition regime. Interestingly, the planets can experience both adiabatic and non-adiabatic orbital expansion if the host binaries experience multiple common-envelope stages (i.e. Kepler-1647); multiplanet circumbinary systems like Kepler-47 can experience both modes simultaneously during the same common-envelope stage. Our results show that, unlike Mercury, a circumbinary planet with the same semi-major axis can survive the common

  12. Measurements of Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from Transit Timing Variations: Analytic and N-body Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-12-01

    Several Kepler planets reside in multi-planet systems where gravitational interactions result in transit timing variations (TTVs) that provide exquisitely sensitive probes of their masses of and orbits. Measuring these planets' masses and orbits constrains their bulk compositions and can provide clues about their formation. However, inverting TTV measurements in order to infer planet properties can be challenging: it involves fitting a nonlinear model with a large number of parameters to noisy data, often with significant degeneracies between parameters. I present results from two complementary approaches to TTV inversion: Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations that use N-body integrations to compute transit times and a simplified analytic model for computing the TTVs of planets near mean motion resonances. The analytic model allows for straightforward interpretations of N-body results and provides an independent estimate of parameter uncertainties that can be compared to MCMC results which may be sensitive to factors such as priors. We have conducted extensive MCMC simulations along with analytic fits to model the TTVs of dozens of Kepler multi-planet systems. We find that the bulk of these sub-Jovian planets have low densities that necessitate significant gaseous envelopes. We also find that the planets' eccentricities are generally small but often definitively non-zero.

  13. The effect of orbital damping during planet migration on the inclination and eccentricity distributions of Neptunian Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yuehua; Zheng, Jiaqing

    2016-06-01

    We explore planetary migration scenarios for the formation of high-inclination Neptunian Trojans (NTs) and how they are affected by the planetary migration of Neptune and Uranus. If Neptune's and Uranus's eccentricity and inclination were damped during planetary migration, then their eccentricities and inclinations were higher prior and during the migration than their current values. Using test particle integrations, we study the stability of primordial NTs, objects that were initially Trojans with Neptune prior to migration. We also study trans-Neptunian objects captured into resonance with Neptune and becoming NTs during planet migration. We find that most primordial NTs were unstable and lost if eccentricity and inclination damping took place during planetary migration. With damping, secular resonances with Neptune can increase a low eccentricity and inclination population of trans-Neptunian objects increasing the probability that they are captured into 1: 1 resonance with Neptune, becoming high-inclination NTs. We suggest that the resonant trapping scenario is a promising and more effective mechanism to explain the origin of NTs, which is particularly effective if Uranus and Neptune experienced eccentricity and inclination damping during planetary migration.

  14. Habitability of Earth-like planets with high obliquity and eccentric orbits: results from a general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenmeier, Manuel; Pascale, Salvatore; Lucarini, Valerio

    2014-05-01

    We explore the implications of seasonal variability for the habitability of idealized Earth-like planets as determined by the two parameters polar obliquity and orbital eccentricity. Commonly, the outer boundary of the habitable zone (HZ) is set by a completely frozen planet, or snowball state. Using a general circulation model coupled to a thermodynamic sea-ice model, we show that seasonal variability can extend this outer limit of the habitable zone (HZ) from 1.03 AU (no seasonal variability) to a maximum of 1.69 AU in our experiments. Moreover, our results show that also the multistability property of planets close to the outer edge of the HZ is influenced by seasonal variability. Cold states extend farest into the HZ for non-oblique planets. On highly oblique planets, cold states can also allow for habitable regions, which highlights the sufficient but not necessary condition of a warm climate state for habitability. Further, the range of distances that allow for two stable climate states decreases with eccentricity, possibly leading to monostability for planets with very large seasonal variations. Sensitivity experiments exploring the role of azimuthal obliquity, surface heat capacity, and maximal sea-ice thickness show the robustness of our results. An uneven distribution of annual mean irradiation among the two hemispheres extends the HZ outwards, whereas a reduction of heat capacity has only a negligible effect on the extent of the HZ. On circular orbits, our results are in good agreement with previous studies that use a one-dimensional energy balance model. Yet large differences on eccentric orbits hint to limitations of these simpler models. To our knowledge, this study provides for the first time a qualitative assessment of the effects of seasonal variability on the habitability of Earth-like planets that is based on a three-dimensional climate model. Differences found in the comparison with previous work underline the importance of using climate models

  15. The Occurrence of Additional Giant Planets Inside the Water-Ice Line in Systems with Hot Jupiters: Evidence Against High-Eccentricity Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. It is widely believed that these planets formed near the water-ice line of the protoplanetary disk, and subsequently migrated into much smaller orbits. Most of the proposed migration mechanisms can be classified either as disk-driven migration, or as excitation of a very high eccentricity followed by tidal circularization. In the latter scenario, the giant planet that is destined to become a hot Jupiter spends billions of years on a highly eccentric orbit, with apastron near the water-ice line. Eventually, tidal dissipation at periastron shrinks and circularizes the orbit. If this is correct, then it should be especially rare for hot Jupiters to be accompanied by another giant planet interior to the water-ice line. Using the current sample of giant planets discovered with the Doppler technique, we find that hot Jupiters with P orb < 10 days are no more or less likely to have exterior Jupiter-mass companions than longer-period giant planets with P orb ≥ 10 days. This result holds for exterior companions both inside and outside of the approximate location of the water-ice line. These results are difficult to reconcile with the high-eccentricity migration scenario for hot Jupiter formation.

  16. CYCLIC TRANSIT PROBABILITIES OF LONG-PERIOD ECCENTRIC PLANETS DUE TO PERIASTRON PRECESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Horner, Jonathan

    2012-09-20

    The observed properties of transiting exoplanets are an exceptionally rich source of information that allows us to understand and characterize their physical properties. Unfortunately, only a relatively small fraction of the known exoplanets discovered using the radial velocity technique are known to transit their host due to the stringent orbital geometry requirements. For each target, the transit probability and predicted transit time can be calculated to great accuracy with refinement of the orbital parameters. However, the transit probability of short period and eccentric orbits can have a reasonable time dependence due to the effects of apsidal and nodal precession, thus altering their transit potential and predicted transit time. Here we investigate the magnitude of these precession effects on transit probabilities and apply this to the known radial velocity exoplanets. We assess the refinement of orbital parameters as a path to measuring these precessions and cyclic transit probabilities.

  17. Eccentricity of small exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Solar system planets move on almost circular orbits. In strong contrast, many massive gas giant exoplanets travel on highly elliptical orbits, whereas the shape of the orbits of smaller, more terrestrial, exoplanets remained largely elusive. This is because the stellar radial velocity caused by these small planets is extremely challenging to measure. Knowing the eccentricity distribution in systems of small planets would be important as it holds information about the planet's formation and evolution. Furthermore the location of the habitable zone depends on eccentricity, and eccentricity also influences occurrence rates inferred for these planets because planets on circular orbits are less likely to transit. We make these eccentricity measurements of small planets using photometry from the Kepler satellite and utilizing a method relying on Kepler's second law, which relates the duration of a planetary transit to its orbital eccentricity, if the stellar density is known.I present a sample of 28 multi-planet systems with precise asteroseismic density measurements, which host 74 planets with an average radius of 2.6 R_earth. We find that the eccentricity of planets in these systems is low and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with sigma = 0.049 +- 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. I further report the first results on the eccentricities of over 50 Kepler single-planet systems, and compare them with the multi-planet systems. I close the talk by showing how transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets, and present six new planets.

  18. HAT-P-16b: A 4 M J Planet Transiting a Bright Star on an Eccentric Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhave, L. A.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Torres, G.; Kovács, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Andersen, J.; Fűrész, G.; Perumpilly, G.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Béky, B.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-16b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 10.8 mag F8 dwarf GSC 2792-01700, with a period P = 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455027.59293 ± 0.00031 (BJD10), and transit duration 0.1276 ± 0.0013 days. The host star has a mass of 1.22 ± 0.04 M sun, radius of 1.24 ± 0.05 R sun, effective temperature 6158 ± 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.17 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 4.193 ± 0.094 M J and radius of 1.289 ± 0.066 R J, yielding a mean density of 2.42 ± 0.35 g cm-3. Comparing these observed characteristics with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-16b is consistent with a 1 Gyr H/He-dominated gas giant planet. HAT-P-16b resides in a sparsely populated region of the mass-radius diagram and has a non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.036 with a significance of 10σ. Based in part on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NASA (N018Hr).

  19. The Photoeccentric Effect and Proto-hot Jupiters. II. KOI-1474.01, a Candidate Eccentric Planet Perturbed by an Unseen Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Crepp, Justin R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2012-12-01

    The exoplanets known as hot Jupiters—Jupiter-sized planets with periods of less than 10 days—likely are relics of dynamical processes that shape all planetary system architectures. Socrates et al. argued that high eccentricity migration (HEM) mechanisms proposed for situating these close-in planets should produce an observable population of highly eccentric proto-hot Jupiters that have not yet tidally circularized. HEM should also create failed-hot Jupiters, with periapses just beyond the influence of fast circularization. Using the technique we previously presented for measuring eccentricities from photometry (the "photoeccentric effect"), we are distilling a collection of eccentric proto- and failed-hot Jupiters from the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Here, we present the first, KOI-1474.01, which has a long orbital period (69.7340 days) and a large eccentricity e = 0.81+0.10 -0.07, skirting the proto-hot Jupiter boundary. Combining Kepler photometry, ground-based spectroscopy, and stellar evolution models, we characterize host KOI-1474 as a rapidly rotating F star. Statistical arguments reveal that the transiting candidate has a low false-positive probability of 3.1%. KOI-1474.01 also exhibits transit-timing variations of the order of an hour. We explore characteristics of the third-body perturber, which is possibly the "smoking-gun" cause of KOI-1474.01's large eccentricity. We use the host star's period, radius, and projected rotational velocity to measure the inclination of the stellar spin. Comparing KOI 1474.01's inclination, we find that its orbit is marginally consistent with being aligned with the stellar spin axis, although a reanalysis is warranted with future additional data. Finally, we discuss how the number and existence of proto-hot Jupiters will not only demonstrate that hot Jupiters migrate via HEM, but also shed light on the typical timescale for the mechanism.

  20. THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT AND PROTO-HOT JUPITERS. II. KOI-1474.01, A CANDIDATE ECCENTRIC PLANET PERTURBED BY AN UNSEEN COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Crepp, Justin R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2012-12-20

    The exoplanets known as hot Jupiters-Jupiter-sized planets with periods of less than 10 days-likely are relics of dynamical processes that shape all planetary system architectures. Socrates et al. argued that high eccentricity migration (HEM) mechanisms proposed for situating these close-in planets should produce an observable population of highly eccentric proto-hot Jupiters that have not yet tidally circularized. HEM should also create failed-hot Jupiters, with periapses just beyond the influence of fast circularization. Using the technique we previously presented for measuring eccentricities from photometry (the ''photoeccentric effect''), we are distilling a collection of eccentric proto- and failed-hot Jupiters from the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Here, we present the first, KOI-1474.01, which has a long orbital period (69.7340 days) and a large eccentricity e 0.81{sup +0.10}{sub -0.07}, skirting the proto-hot Jupiter boundary. Combining Kepler photometry, ground-based spectroscopy, and stellar evolution models, we characterize host KOI-1474 as a rapidly rotating F star. Statistical arguments reveal that the transiting candidate has a low false-positive probability of 3.1%. KOI-1474.01 also exhibits transit-timing variations of the order of an hour. We explore characteristics of the third-body perturber, which is possibly the ''smoking-gun'' cause of KOI-1474.01's large eccentricity. We use the host star's period, radius, and projected rotational velocity to measure the inclination of the stellar spin. Comparing KOI 1474.01's inclination, we find that its orbit is marginally consistent with being aligned with the stellar spin axis, although a reanalysis is warranted with future additional data. Finally, we discuss how the number and existence of proto-hot Jupiters will not only demonstrate that hot Jupiters migrate via HEM, but also shed light on the typical timescale for the mechanism.

  1. Tatooine’s Future: The Eccentric Response of Kepler’s Circumbinary Planets to Common-envelope Evolution of Their Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Moore, Keavin; Tamayo, Daniel; Jayawardhana, Ray; Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2016-12-01

    Inspired by the recent Kepler discoveries of circumbinary planets orbiting nine close binary stars, we explore the fate of the former as the latter evolve off the main sequence. We combine binary star evolution models with dynamical simulations to study the orbital evolution of these planets as their hosts undergo common-envelope (CE) stages, losing in the process a tremendous amount of mass on dynamical timescales. Five of the systems experience at least one Roche-lobe overflow and CE stage (Kepler-1647 experiences three), and the binary stars either shrink to very short orbits or coalesce; two systems trigger a double-degenerate supernova explosion. Kepler’s circumbinary planets predominantly remain gravitationally bound at the end of the CE phase, migrate to larger orbits, and may gain significant eccentricity; their orbital expansion can be more than an order of magnitude and can occur over the course of a single planetary orbit. The orbits these planets can reach are qualitatively consistent with those of the currently known post-CE, eclipse-time variations circumbinary candidates. Our results also show that circumbinary planets can experience both modes of orbital expansion (adiabatic and nonadiabatic) if their host binaries undergo more than one CE stage; multiplanet circumbinary systems like Kepler-47 can experience both modes during the same CE stage. Additionally, unlike Mercury orbiting the Sun, a circumbinary planet with the same semimajor axis can survive the CE evolution of a close binary star with a total mass of 1 {M}⊙ .

  2. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XX. CoRoT-20b: A very high density, high eccentricity transiting giant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleuil, M.; Bonomo, A. S.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Erikson, A.; Bouchy, F.; Havel, M.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J.-M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bordé, P.; Bruntt, H.; Cabrera, J.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Damiani, C.; Deeg, H. J.; Dvorak, R.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Jorda, L.; Léger, A.; Lammer, H.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Ofir, A.; Parviainen, H.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rouan, D.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2012-02-01

    We report the discovery by the CoRoT space mission of a new giant planet, CoRoT-20b. The planet has a mass of 4.24 ± 0.23 MJup and a radius of 0.84 ± 0.04 RJup. With a mean density of 8.87 ± 1.10 g cm-3, it is among the most compact planets known so far. Evolutionary models for the planet suggest a mass of heavy elements of the order of 800 M⊕ if embedded in a central core, requiring a revision either of the planet formation models or both planet evolution and structure models. We note however that smaller amounts of heavy elements are expected by more realistic models in which they are mixed throughout the envelope. The planet orbits a G-type star with an orbital period of 9.24 days and an eccentricity of 0.56.The star's projected rotational velocity is vsini = 4.5 ± 1.0 km s-1, corresponding to a spin period of 11.5 ± 3.1 days if its axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane. In the framework of Darwinian theories and neglecting stellar magnetic breaking, we calculate the tidal evolution of the system and show that CoRoT-20b is presently one of the very few Darwin-stable planets that is evolving toward a triple synchronous state with equality of the orbital, planetary and stellar spin periods. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Programme), Germany, and Spain.

  3. Possible Outcomes of Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration: Hot Jupiters, Close-in Super-Earths, and Counter-orbiting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuxin; Masuda, Kento; Suto, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the formation of close-in planets in near-coplanar eccentric hierarchical triple systems via the secular interaction between an inner planet and an outer perturber (Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration; CHEM). We generalize the previous work on the analytical condition for successful CHEM for point masses interacting only through gravity by taking into account the finite mass effect of the inner planet. We find that efficient CHEM requires that the systems should have m1 ≪ m0 and m1 ≪ m2. In addition to the gravity for point masses, we examine the importance of the short-range forces, and provide an analytical estimate of the migration timescale. We perform a series of numerical simulations in CHEM for systems consisting of a Sun-like central star, giant gas inner planet, and planetary outer perturber, including the short-range forces and stellar and planetary dissipative tides. We find that most of such systems end up with a tidal disruption; a small fraction of the systems produce prograde hot Jupiters (HJs), but no retrograde HJ. In addition, we extend CHEM to super-Earth mass range, and show that the formation of close-in super-Earths in prograde orbits is also possible. Finally, we carry out CHEM simulation for the observed hierarchical triple and counter-orbiting HJ systems. We find that CHEM can explain a part of the former systems, but it is generally very difficult to reproduce counter-orbiting HJ systems.

  4. Precise radial velocities of giant stars. IX. HD 59686 Ab: a massive circumstellar planet orbiting a giant star in a 13.6 au eccentric binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Mauricio; Reffert, Sabine; Trifonov, Trifon; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Mitchell, David S.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Buenzli, Esther; Zimmerman, Neil; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Skemer, Andy; Defrère, Denis; Lee, Man Hoi; Fischer, Debra A.; Hinz, Philip M.

    2016-10-01

    Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Échelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries. Aims: We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar and stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616). Methods: We obtained high-precision RV measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. To distinguish between RV variations that are due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots, we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to characterize the system in more detail, we obtained high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope. Results: We report the probable discovery of a giant planet with a mass of mp sin i = 6.92-0.24+0.18 MJup orbiting at ap = 1.0860-0.0007+0.0006 au from the giant star HD 59686 A. In addition to the planetary signal, we discovered an eccentric (eB = 0.729-0.003+0.004) binary companion with a mass of mB sin i = 0.5296-0.0008+0.0011 M⊙ orbiting at a close separation from the giant primary with a semi-major axis of aB = 13.56-0.14+0.18 au. Conclusions: The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second-generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime need to be seriously considered to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet. Based on observations collected at the Lick Observatory, University of California.Based on observations collected at the

  5. Migrating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Hansen, B.; Holman, M.; Tremaine, S.

    1998-01-01

    A planet orbiting in a disk of planetesimals can experience an instability in which it migrates to smaller orbital radii. Resonant interactions between the planet and planetesimals remove angular momentum from the planetesimals, increasing their eccentricities. Subsequently, the planetesimals either collide with or are ejected by the planet, reducing the semimajor axis of the planet. If the surface density of planetesimals exceeds a critical value, corresponding to 0.03 solar masses of gas inside the orbit of Jupiter, the planet will migrate inward a large distance. This instability may explain the presence of Jupiter-mass objects in small orbits around nearby stars.

  6. ECCENTRICITY EVOLUTION THROUGH ACCRETION OF PROTOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Nagasawa, Makiko; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp

    2015-09-10

    Most super-Earths detected by the radial velocity (RV) method have significantly smaller eccentricities than the eccentricities corresponding to velocity dispersion equal to their surface escape velocity (“escape eccentricities”). If orbital instability followed by giant impacts among protoplanets that have migrated from outer regions is considered, it is usually considered that eccentricities of the merged bodies become comparable to those of orbital crossing bodies, which are excited up to their escape eccentricities by close scattering. However, the eccentricity evolution in the in situ accretion model has not been studied in detail. Here, we investigate the eccentricity evolution through N-body simulations. We have found that the merged planets tend to have much smaller eccentricities than escape eccentricities due to very efficient collision damping. If the protoplanet orbits are initially well separated and their eccentricities are securely increased, an inner protoplanet collides at its apocenter with an outer protoplanet at its pericenter. The eccentricity of the merged body is the smallest for such configurations. Orbital inclinations are also damped by this mechanism and planets tend to share a same orbital plane, which is consistent with Kepler data. Such efficient collision damping is not found when we start calculations from densely packed orbits of the protoplanets. If the protoplanets are initially in the mean-motion resonances, which corresponds to well separated orbits, the in situ accretion model well reproduces the features of eccentricities and inclinations of multiple super-Earths/Earth systems discovered by RV and Kepler surveys.

  7. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  8. Origin of Prometheus Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Longaretti, P.

    2006-12-01

    A number of Saturn's small satellites, from Atlas to the coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus, move on orbits just outside the main rings of the planet. These satellites undergo extremely rapid resonant interaction with the rings and outward motion, strongly suggesting that they originated in Saturn's A ring. However, their eccentricities, of the order of 1/1000 are several orders of magnitude larger than what could be expected if the small satellites formed in the ring. This paper represents a first step to providing an explanation for this phenomenon, by focusing on the dynamical processes that have affected the eccentricity of Prometheus. The explanation invokes past resonances with the coorbital satellites combined with chaos due to overlapping of these resonances.

  9. FOREVER ALONE? TESTING SINGLE ECCENTRIC PLANETARY SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D.; Wang Songhu; Zhou Jilin; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.

    2013-09-15

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  10. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST-Kepler analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-11

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity [Formula: see text]) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination [Formula: see text]) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits ([Formula: see text]). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with [Formula: see text] 0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular [Formula: see text] and coplanar [Formula: see text] degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [[Formula: see text](1-2)[Formula: see text

  11. PUMPING THE ECCENTRICITY OF EXOPLANETS BY TIDAL EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.; Boue, Gwenaeel; Laskar, Jacques

    2012-01-10

    Planets close to their host stars are believed to undergo significant tidal interactions, leading to a progressive damping of the orbital eccentricity. Here we show that when the orbit of the planet is excited by an outer companion, tidal effects combined with gravitational interactions may give rise to a secular increasing drift on the eccentricity. As long as this secular drift counterbalances the damping effect, the eccentricity can increase to high values. This mechanism may explain why some of the moderate close-in exoplanets are observed with substantial eccentricity values.

  12. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  13. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  14. COMPLETENESS OF IMAGING SURVEYS FOR ECCENTRIC EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.

    2013-03-20

    The detection of exoplanets through direct imaging has produced numerous new positive identifications in recent years. The technique is biased toward planets at wide separations due to the difficulty in removing the stellar signature at small angular separations. Planets in eccentric orbits will thus move in and out of the detectable region around a star as a function of time. Here we use the known diversity of orbital eccentricities to determine the range of orbits that may lie beneath the detection threshold of current surveys. We quantify the percentage of the orbit that yields a detectable signature as a function of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination and estimate the fraction of planets which likely remain hidden by the flux of the host star.

  15. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXII. TWO NEW MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Salter, G. S.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Tuomi, Mikko; Zhang, Z.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Vogt, S. S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-07-10

    We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005 {+-} 427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3 M{sub Jup}. HD 142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 {+-} 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3 {+-} 1.3 days and m sin i = 0.73 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Jup}. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

  16. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-06

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.

  17. Finding Spring on Planet X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  18. Pervasive orbital eccentricities dictate the habitability of extrasolar earths.

    PubMed

    Kita, Ryosuke; Rasio, Frederic; Takeda, Genya

    2010-09-01

    The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet in a stellar binary system is well understood, the effect of a binary perturbation on a more realistic system containing additional gas-giant planets has been very little studied. Here, we provide analytic criteria confirmed by a large ensemble of numerical integrations that identify the initial orbital parameters leading to eccentric orbits. We show that an extrasolar earth is likely to experience a broad range of orbital evolution dictated by the location of a gas-giant planet, which necessitates more focused studies on the effect of eccentricity on the potential for life.

  19. Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2004-06-01

    Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth--mass planets remain undetectable, but space--based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade. The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter--mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth--mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun--like stars commonly harbor earth--sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non--circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter--like planets may reside at 5--10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sun--like star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4--10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward. To date, 10 multiple--planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are ``hierarchical'', consisting

  20. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST–Kepler analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e¯≈0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i¯≈3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits (e¯≈0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e¯≈ 0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular (e¯=0.04−0.04+0.03) and coplanar (i¯=1.4−1.1+0.8 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [e¯≈(1–2)×i¯] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all. PMID:27671635

  1. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST-Kepler analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e¯≈0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i¯≈3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits (e¯≈0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e¯≈0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular (e¯=0.04-0.04+0.03) and coplanar (i¯=1.4-1.1+0.8 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [×i¯] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all.

  2. TTVFaster: First order eccentricity transit timing variations (TTVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    TTVFaster implements analytic formulae for transit time variations (TTVs) that are accurate to first order in the planet-star mass ratios and in the orbital eccentricities; the implementations are available in several languages, including IDL, Julia, Python and C. These formulae compare well with more computationally expensive N-body integrations in the low-eccentricity, low mass-ratio regime when applied to simulated and to actual multi-transiting Kepler planet systems.

  3. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: Multiplicity relation and the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity−multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index –1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  4. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  5. The Role of Tides in Known Multi-Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet system, upsilon Andromedae, was discovered in 1999. The number of stars known to possess more than one planet has been growing rapidly since then. The dynamical interactions among such planets can be quite strong. These interactions can excite the orbital eccentricities of planets, even planets orbiting very close to their stars. Stellar tides can damp the eccentricities of such close-in planets, removing dynamical energy from the system and ultimately affecting the motions of all of the planets. These and other effects of tides in extrasolar multi-planet systems will be discussed.

  6. The Search for Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael E.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    We use an extensive suite of numerical simulations to constrain the mass and orbit of Planet Nine, and we use these constraints to begin the search for this newly proposed planet in new and in archival data. Here, we compare our simulations to the observed population of aligned eccentric high semimajor axis Kuiper belt objects and determine which simulation parameters are statistically compatible with the observations. We find that only a narrow range of orbital elements can reproduce the observations. In particular, the combination of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and mass of Planet Nine strongly dictates the semimajor axis range of the orbital confinement of the distant eccentric Kuiper belt objects. Allowed orbits, which confine Kuiper belt objects with semimajor axis beyond 380 AU, have perihelia roughly between 150 and 350 AU, semimajor axes between 380 and 980 AU, and masses between 5 and 20 Earth masses. Orbitally confined objects also generally have orbital planes similar to that of the planet, suggesting that the planet is inclined approximately 30 degrees to the ecliptic. We compare the allowed orbital positions and estimated brightness of Planet Nine to previous and ongoing surveys which would be sensitive to the planet's detection and use these surveys to rule out approximately two-thirds of the planet's orbit. Planet Nine is likely near aphelion with an approximate brightness of 22planet.

  7. Insolation on exoplanets with eccentricity and obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of insolation on an extrasolar planet has profound implications for its climate and habitability. A planet’s insolation regime depends on its orbital eccentricity, the obliquity of its spin axis, its rotation rate, and its longitude of vernal equinox. For example, although a planet receives the same time-averaged insolation at both poles, the peak insolation at its poles can differ by a factor up to 27, depending on its eccentricity and equinox. This is of particular interest for planets with polar icecaps (or lakes and seas), like Mercury, Earth, and Mars (or Titan). The nearly 600 exoplanets now with known eccentricities span a wide range of eccentricity from essentially zero up to near unity; but their obliquities are still unknown, and also may range widely. Including both non-zero eccentricity and obliquity together vastly broadens the variety of global insolation patterns on extrasolar planets. This applies especially to planets in synchronous rotation, or in other spin-orbit resonances (like Mercury), which can exhibit quite complicated and unusual insolation patterns. For example, regions of eternal daylight and endless night occur only on synchronous exoplanets, whose rotation periods equal their orbital periods; but the peak and time-averaged insolation can vary by factors of at least 32 and 88, respectively, over a planet with a rotation period of half its orbital period, an eccentricity of 0.20, and an obliquity of 60°. Patterns of both mean and peak insolation display various symmetries with respect to latitude and longitude on the planet’s surface. Most of these are relatively simple and easily understood; for example, a resonant planet whose orbital period is half of an odd multiple of its rotation period (as in Mercury’s 3/2 resonance) experiences identical insolation patterns at longitudes 180° apart. However, such half-odd resonances also exhibit a totally unexpected symmetry of the time-averaged insolation with respect to the

  8. HABITABLE CLIMATES: THE INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Spiegel, David S.; Scharf, Caleb A.; Menou, Kristen; Raymond, Sean N. E-mail: dsp@astro.princeton.ed E-mail: caleb@astro.columbia.ed

    2010-10-01

    In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen 'snowball' state poses a threat to the habitability of planets with the capacity to host water-based life. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. For an exoplanet, these parameters may be strikingly different from the values observed for Earth. Since, for a constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1 - e {sup 2}){sup -1/2}, one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis (for fixed atmospheric composition) to scale as (1 - e {sup 2}){sup -1/4}. We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity 0.5, for instance, our EBM suggests that the greatest habitable semimajor axis can vary by more than 0.8 AU (78%) depending on obliquity, with higher obliquity worlds generally more stable against snowball transitions. One might also expect that the long winter at an eccentric planet's apoastron would render it more susceptible to global freezing. Our models suggest that this is not a significant risk for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars, as considered here, since such planets are buffered by the thermal inertia provided by oceans covering at least 10% of their surface. Since planets on eccentric orbits spend much of their year particularly far from the star, such worlds might turnout to be especially good targets for direct observations with missions such as TPF-Darwin. Nevertheless, the extreme temperature variations achieved on highly eccentric exo-Earths raise questions about the adaptability of life to marginally or transiently

  9. Insolation patterns on eccentric exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found that synchronously-rotating Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars should exhibit an "eyeball" climate pattern, with a pupil of open ocean facing the parent star, and ice everywhere else. Recent work on eccentric exoplanets by Wang et al. (Wang, Y., Tian, F., Hu, Y. [2014b] Astrophys. J. 791, L12) has extended this conclusion to the 2:1 spin-orbit resonance as well, where the planet rotates twice during one orbital period. However, Wang et al. also found that the 3:2 and 5:2 half-odd resonances produce a zonally-striped climate pattern with polar icecaps instead. Unfortunately, they used incorrect insolation functions for the 3:2 and 5:2 resonances whose long-term time averages are essentially independent of longitude. This paper presents the correct insolation patterns for eccentric exoplanets with negligible obliquities in the 0:1, 1:2, 1:1, 3:2, 2:1, 5:2, 3:1, 7:2, and 4:1 spin-orbit resonances. I confirm that the mean insolation is distributed in an eyeball pattern for integer resonances; but for half-odd resonances, the mean insolation takes a "double-eyeball" pattern, identical over the "eastern" and "western" hemispheres. Presuming that liquids, ices, clouds, albedo, and thermal emission are similarly distributed, this has significant implications for the observation and interpretation of potentially habitable exoplanets. Finally, whether a striped ball, eyeball, or double-eyeball pattern emerges, the possibility exists that long-term build-up of ice (or liquid) away from the hot spots may alter the planet's inertia tensor and quadrupole moments enough to re-orient the planet, ultimately changing the distribution of liquid and ice.

  10. The Mass-Radius-Eccentricity Distribution of Near-Resonant Transiting Exoplanet Pairs Detected by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabram, Megan; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the mass-radius-eccentricity distribution of transiting planets near first-order mean motion resonances using Transit Timing Variation (TTV) observations from NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler's precise measurements of transit times (Mazeh et al. 2014; Rowe et al. 2015) constrain the planet-star mass ratio, eccentricity and pericenter directions for hundreds of planets. Strongly-interacting planetary systems allow TTVs to provide precise measurements of masses and orbital eccentricities separately (e.g., Kepler-36, Carter et al. 2012). In addition to these precisely characterized planetary systems, there are several systems harboring at least two planets near a mean motion resonance (MMR) for which TTVs provide a joint constraint on planet masses, eccentricities and pericenter directions (Hadden et al. 2015). Unfortunately, a near degeneracy between these parameters leads to a posterior probability density with highly correlated uncertainties. Nevertheless, the population encodes valuable information about the distribution of planet masses, orbital eccentricities and the planet mass-radius relationship. We characterize the distribution of masses and eccentricities for near-resonant transiting planets by combining a hierarchical Bayesian model with an analytic model for the TTV signatures of near-resonant planet pairs (Lithwick & Wu 2012). By developing a rigorous statistical framework for analyzing the TTV signatures of a population of planetary systems, we significantly improve upon previous analyses. For example, our analysis includes transit timing measurements of near-resonant transiting planet pairs regardless of whether there is a significant detection of TTVs, thereby avoiding biases due to only including TTV detections.

  11. Eccentricities & Resonances among Planetary Systems Identified by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric B.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-05-01

    NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 1200 transiting planet candidates, including 170 sets of transiting planet candidates with a common host stars. First, we compare the distribution of transit durations for single and multiple planet candidate systems to investigate the potential differences in the eccentricity distributions between these populations. Second, we compare the frequency of pairs of planets (or planet candidates in the case of Kepler) in or near mean-motion resonances based on Kepler and Doppler planet searches. This comparison helps to address a long-standing question regarding the frequency of small planets in mean-motion resonances that are difficult to identify from Doppler data alone. Finally, we compare the frequency of pairs of planet candidates in or near mean-motion resonances with the frequency of transit timing variations in systems with a single or widely separated planet candidates.

  12. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2015-12-01

    Recent exoplanet observations are revealing the eccentricity and inclination distributions of exoplanets. Most of observed super-Earths have small eccentricities ~ 0.01 - 0.1 and small inclinations ~ 0.03 rad (e.g., Fabrycky et al., 2014). These distributions are results of their formation processes. N-body simulations have been used to investigate accretion of close-in super-Earths (e.g., Hansen & Murray 2012, Ogihara et al. 2015). Hansen & Murray (2013) showed that the averaged eccentricity of close-in super-Earths formed through giant impacts in gas-free and no planetesimal environment is around 0.1. In the giant impact stage, the eccentricities and inclinations are pumped up by gravitational scattering and damped by collisions. Matsumoto et al. (2015) found that the eccentricity damping rate by a collision depends on the eccentricity and inclination and thus affects the eccentricity and inclination of planets. We investigate the effect of initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on eccentricities and inclinations of planets. We perform N-body simulations with systematically changing initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets independently. We find that the eccentricities and inclinations of planets barely depend on the initial eccentricities of protoplanets although the collision timescale is changed. This means that initial eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through scattering and collisions. On the other hand, the initial inclinations of protoplanets affect the inclination of planets since they are not relaxed during the giant impact stage. Since the collisional timescale increases with inclinations, protoplanets with high inclinations tend to interact longer until they collide with each other. As a result, planets get large eccentricities, and the number of planets becomes small. The observed eccentricities and inclinations of super-Earths can be reproduced by giant impacts of protoplanets with inclinations ~ 10-3 -10

  13. Dynamical constraints on outer planets in super-Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Matthew J.; Wyatt, Mark C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers secular interactions within multi-planet systems. In particular, we consider dynamical evolution of known planetary systems resulting from an additional hypothetical planet on an eccentric orbit. We start with an analytical study of a general two-planet system, showing that a planet on an elliptical orbit transfers all of its eccentricity to an initially circular planet if the two planets have comparable orbital angular momenta. Application to the single super-Earth system HD 38858 shows that an additional hypothetical planet below current radial velocity (RV) constraints with M sini = 3-10 M⊕, semi-major axis 1-10 au and eccentricity 0.2-0.8 is unlikely to be present from the eccentricity that would be excited in the known planet (albeit cyclically). However, additional planets in proximity to the known planet could stabilize the system against secular perturbations from outer planets. Moreover, these additional planets can have an M sini below RV sensitivity and still affect their neighbours. For example, application to the two super-Earth system 61 Vir shows that an additional hypothetical planet cannot excite high eccentricities in the known planets, unless its mass and orbit lie in a restricted area of parameter space. Inner planets in HD 38858 below RV sensitivity would also modify conclusions above about excluded parameter space. This suggests that it may be possible to infer the presence of additional stabilizing planets in systems with an eccentric outer planet and an inner planet on an otherwise suspiciously circular orbit. This reinforces the point that the full complement of planets in a system is needed to assess its dynamical state.

  14. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-08

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

  15. Scattering outcomes of close-in planets: Constraints on planet migration

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovich, Cristobal; Rafikov, Roman; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-05-10

    Many exoplanets in close-in orbits are observed to have relatively high eccentricities and large stellar obliquities. We explore the possibility that these result from planet-planet scattering by studying the dynamical outcomes from a large number of orbit integrations in systems with two and three gas-giant planets in close-in orbits (0.05 AU < a < 0.15 AU). We find that at these orbital separations, unstable systems starting with low eccentricities and mutual inclinations (e ≲ 0.1, i ≲ 0.1) generally lead to planet-planet collisions in which the collision product is a planet on a low-eccentricity, low-inclination orbit. This result is inconsistent with the observations. We conclude that eccentricity and inclination excitation from planet-planet scattering must precede migration of planets into short-period orbits. This result constrains theories of planet migration: the semi-major axis must shrink by 1-2 orders of magnitude without damping the eccentricity and inclination.

  16. A TIME-DEPENDENT RADIATIVE MODEL FOR THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE ECCENTRIC EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Iro, N.; Deming, L. D. E-mail: leo.d.deming@nasa.go

    2010-03-20

    We present a time-dependent radiative model for the atmosphere of extrasolar planets that takes into account the eccentricity of their orbit. In addition to the modulation of stellar irradiation by the varying planet-star distance, the pseudo-synchronous rotation of the planets may play a significant role. We include both of these time-dependent effects when modeling the planetary thermal structure. We investigate the thermal structure and spectral characteristics for time-dependent stellar heating for two highly eccentric planets. Finally, we discuss observational aspects for those planets suitable for Spitzer measurements and investigate the role of the rotation rate.

  17. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-03-10

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity

  18. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  19. HOW ECCENTRIC ORBITAL SOLUTIONS CAN HIDE PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN 2:1 RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Chambers, John E.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes E-mail: mercedes@dtm.ciw.ed

    2010-01-20

    The Doppler technique measures the reflex radial motion of a star induced by the presence of companions and is the most successful method to detect exoplanets. If several planets are present, their signals will appear combined in the radial motion of the star, leading to potential misinterpretations of the data. Specifically, two planets in 2:1 resonant orbits can mimic the signal of a single planet in an eccentric orbit. We quantify the implications of this statistical degeneracy for a representative sample of the reported single exoplanets with available data sets, finding that (1) around 35% of the published eccentric one-planet solutions are statistically indistinguishable from planetary systems in 2:1 orbital resonance, (2) another 40% cannot be statistically distinguished from a circular orbital solution, and (3) planets with masses comparable to Earth could be hidden in known orbital solutions of eccentric super-Earths and Neptune mass planets.

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  1. GIANT PLANETS ORBITING METAL-RICH STARS SHOW SIGNATURES OF PLANET-PLANET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2013-04-20

    Gas giants orbiting interior to the ice line are thought to have been displaced from their formation locations by processes that remain debated. Here we uncover several new metallicity trends, which together may indicate that two competing mechanisms deliver close-in giant planets: gentle disk migration, operating in environments with a range of metallicities, and violent planet-planet gravitational interactions, primarily triggered in metal-rich systems in which multiple giant planets can form. First, we show with 99.1% confidence that giant planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU orbiting metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < 0) are confined to lower eccentricities than those orbiting metal-rich stars. Second, we show with 93.3% confidence that eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization primarily orbit metal-rich stars. Finally, we show that only metal-rich stars host a pile-up of hot Jupiters, helping account for the lack of such a pile-up in the overall Kepler sample. Migration caused by stellar perturbers (e.g., stellar Kozai) is unlikely to account for the trends. These trends further motivate follow-up theoretical work addressing which hot Jupiter migration theories can also produce the observed population of eccentric giant planets between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  2. The fate of scattered planets

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-12-01

    As gas giant planets evolve, they may scatter other planets far from their original orbits to produce hot Jupiters or rogue planets that are not gravitationally bound to any star. Here, we consider planets cast out to large orbital distances on eccentric, bound orbits through a gaseous disk. With simple numerical models, we show that super-Earths can interact with the gas through dynamical friction to settle in the remote outer regions of a planetary system. Outcomes depend on planet mass, the initial scattered orbit, and the evolution of the time-dependent disk. Efficient orbital damping by dynamical friction requires planets at least as massive as the Earth. More massive, longer-lived disks damp eccentricities more efficiently than less massive, short-lived ones. Transition disks with an expanding inner cavity can circularize orbits at larger distances than disks that experience a global (homologous) decay in surface density. Thus, orbits of remote planets may reveal the evolutionary history of their primordial gas disks. A remote planet with an orbital distance ∼100 AU from the Sun is plausible and might explain correlations in the orbital parameters of several distant trans-Neptunian objects.

  3. Constraining Planetary Migration Mechanisms with Highly Eccentric Hot Jupiter Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Johnson, J. A.; Murray-Clay, R.; Morton, T.; Crepp, J. R.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Howard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Hot Jupiters --- Jupiter-mass planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars --- are unlikely to have formed in situ and thus serve as evidence for the prevalence of planetary migration. However, it is debated whether the typical hot Jupiter migrated smoothly inward through the protoplanetary disk or was perturbed onto an eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrank and circularized during close passages to the star. In the latter class of model, the perturber may be a stellar or planetary companion, which causes the Jupiter to undergo a temporary epoch with high eccentricity (e> 0.9). Socrates and et al. (2012) predicted that these super-eccentric hot Jupiter progenitors should be readily discoverable through the transit method by the Kepler Mission. However, eccentricities of individual transiting planets primarily come from Doppler measurements, which are unfortunately precluded by the faintness of most Kepler targets. To solve this problem, we developed a Bayesian method (the “photoeccentric effect”) for measuring an individual planet's eccentricity solely from its Kepler light curve, allowing for a tight measurement of large eccentricities. We applied this new approach to the Kepler giant planet candidates and identified KOI-1474.01 as an eccentric planet (e = 0.81+0.10/-0.07) with an average orbital period of 69.7340 days, varying by approximately 1 hour due to perturbations by a massive outer companion, which is possibly the culprit responsible for KOI-1474.01’s highly eccentric orbit. KOI-1474.01 is likely a failed hot Jupiter, too far from its host star to be tidally transformed into a hot Jupiter. We found a significant lack of super-eccentric proto-hot Jupiters compared to the number expected, allowing us to place a strong upper limit on the fraction of hot Jupiters created by stellar binaries. Our results are consistent with disks or planetary companions being the primary channel for hot Jupiter creation. Supported by

  4. Climate of an Earth-Like World with Changing Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Having a giant planet like Jupiter next door can really wreak havoc on your orbit! A new study examines what such a bad neighbor might mean for the long-term climate of an Earth-like planet.Influence of a Bad NeighborThe presence of a Jupiter-like giant planet in a nearby orbit can significantly affect how terrestrial planets evolve dynamically, causing elements like the planets orbital eccentricities and axial tilts to change over time. Earth is saved this inconvenience Jupiter isnt close enough to significantly influence us, and our large moon stabilizes our orbit against Jupiters tugs.Top panels: Authors simulationoutcomes for Case1, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.283 over 6500 years. Bottom panels: Outcomes for Case 2, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.066 over 4500 years. The highereccentricities reached in Case 1 causes the climate parameters to vary more widely. Click for a better look! [Way Georgakarakos 2017]Mars, on the other hand, isnt as lucky: its possible that Jupiters gravitational pull causes Marss axial tilt, for instance, to evolve through a range as large as 0 to 60 degrees on timescales of millions of years! Marss orbital eccentricity is similarly thought to vary due to Jupiters influence, and both of these factors play a major role in determining Marss climate.As exoplanet missions discover more planets many of which are Earth-like we must carefully consider which among these are most likely to be capable of sustaining life. If having a nearby neighbor like a Jupiter can tug an Earth-like world into an orbit with varying eccentricity, how does this affect the planets climate? Will the planet remain temperate? Or will it develop a runaway heating or cooling effect as it orbits, rendering it uninhabitable?Oceans and OrbitsTo examine these questions, two scientists have built the first ever 3D global climate model simulations of an Earth-like world using a fully coupled ocean (necessary for understanding

  5. The origin of the eccentricity of the hot Jupiter in CI Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, G. P.; Booth, R. A.; Clarke, C. J.; Teyssandier, J.; Facchini, S.; Mustill, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Following the recent discovery of the first radial velocity planet in a star still possessing a protoplanetary disc (CI Tau), we examine the origin of the planet's eccentricity (e ˜0.3). We show through long time-scale (105 orbits) simulations that the planetary eccentricity can be pumped by the disc, even when its local surface density is well below the threshold previously derived from short time-scale integrations. We show that the disc may be able to excite the planet's orbital eccentricity in <1 Myr for the system parameters of CI Tau. We also perform two-planet scattering experiments and show that alternatively the observed planet may plausibly have acquired its eccentricity through dynamical scattering of a migrating lower mass planet, which has either been ejected from the system or swallowed by the central star. In the latter case the present location and eccentricity of the observed planet can be recovered if it was previously stalled within the disc's magnetospheric cavity.

  6. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ECCENTRIC HOUSE, INTERIOR, NOTE DOUBLE OVER MOUNTED ECCENTRICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST, ECCENTRIC HOUSE, INTERIOR, NOTE DOUBLE OVER MOUNTED ECCENTRICS WITH ATTACHED ROD LINES ON GEAR ASSEMBLY. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  7. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Daniel; Davies, Melvyn B.; Johansen, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces these scatterings may also cause habitable planets in interior orbits to become ejected, destroyed, or be transported out of the habitable zone. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Equal-mass planetary systems are far more destructive than systems with giant planets of unequal masses. We also establish a link with observation; we find that giant planets with present-day eccentricities higher than 0.4 almost never have a habitable interior planet. For a giant planet with a present-day eccentricity of 0.2 and semimajor axis of 5 au orbiting a Sun-like star, 50 per cent of the orbits in the habitable zone are resilient to the instability. As semimajor axis increases and eccentricity decreases, a higher fraction of habitable planets survive and remain habitable. However, if the habitable planet has rocky siblings, there is a significant risk of rocky planet collisions that would sterilize the planet.

  8. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  9. Transit Timing Variations for Eccentric and Inclined Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David

    2009-08-01

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Nontransiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interactions with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Inferring the orbital elements and mass of the nontransiting planets from TTVs, however, is more challenging than for other planet detection schemes. It is a difficult inverse problem. Here, we extended the new inversion method proposed by Nesvorný & Morbidelli to eccentric transiting planets and inclined orbits. We found that the TTV signal can be significantly amplified for hierarchical planetary systems with substantial orbital inclinations and/or for an eccentric transiting planet with anti-aligned orbit of the planetary companion. Thus, a fortuitous orbital setup of an exoplanetary system may significantly enhance our chances of TTV detection. We also showed that the detailed shape of the TTV signal is sensitive to the orbital inclination of the nontransiting planetary companion. The TTV detection method may thus provide important constraints on the orbital inclination of exoplanets and be used to test theories of planetary formation and evolution.

  10. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR ECCENTRIC AND INCLINED EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2009-08-20

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Nontransiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interactions with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Inferring the orbital elements and mass of the nontransiting planets from TTVs, however, is more challenging than for other planet detection schemes. It is a difficult inverse problem. Here, we extended the new inversion method proposed by Nesvorny and Morbidelli to eccentric transiting planets and inclined orbits. We found that the TTV signal can be significantly amplified for hierarchical planetary systems with substantial orbital inclinations and/or for an eccentric transiting planet with anti-aligned orbit of the planetary companion. Thus, a fortuitous orbital setup of an exoplanetary system may significantly enhance our chances of TTV detection. We also showed that the detailed shape of the TTV signal is sensitive to the orbital inclination of the nontransiting planetary companion. The TTV detection method may thus provide important constraints on the orbital inclination of exoplanets and be used to test theories of planetary formation and evolution.

  11. THE EFFECT OF PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING ON THE SURVIVAL OF EXOMOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yanxiang; Zhou Jilin; Xie Jiwei; Wu Xiaomei E-mail: yxgong@nju.edu.cn

    2013-05-20

    Compared to the giant planets in the solar system, exoplanets have many remarkable properties, such as the prevalence of giant planets on eccentric orbits and the presence of hot Jupiters. Planet-planet scattering (PPS) between giant planets is a possible mechanism to interpret the above and other observed properties. If the observed giant planet architectures are indeed outcomes of PPS, such a drastic dynamical process must affect their primordial moon systems. In this Letter, we discuss the effect of PPS on the survival of exoplanets' regular moons. From an observational viewpoint, some preliminary conclusions are drawn from the simulations. (1) PPS is a destructive process to the moon systems; single planets on eccentric orbits are not ideal moon-search targets. (2) If hot Jupiters formed through PPS, their original moons have little chance of survival. (3) Planets in multiple systems with small eccentricities are more likely to hold their primordial moons. (4) Compared with lower-mass planets, massive planets in multiple systems may not be the preferred moon-search targets if the system underwent a PPS history.

  12. SECULAR ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Matsumura, Soko E-mail: soko@astro.umd.edu

    2013-11-20

    Recent observations have shown that at least some close-in exoplanets maintain eccentric orbits despite tidal circularization timescales that are typically much shorter than stellar ages. We explore gravitational interactions with a more distant planetary companion as a possible cause of these unexpected non-zero eccentricities. For simplicity, we focus on the evolution of a planar two-planet system subject to slow eccentricity damping and provide an intuitive interpretation of the resulting long-term orbital evolution. We show that dissipation shifts the two normal eigenmode frequencies and eccentricity ratios of the standard secular theory slightly, and we confirm that each mode decays at its own rate. Tidal damping of the eccentricities drives orbits to transition relatively quickly between periods of pericenter circulation and libration, and the planetary system settles into a locked state in which the pericenters are nearly aligned or nearly anti-aligned. Once in the locked state, the eccentricities of the two orbits decrease very slowly because of tides rather than at the much more rapid single-planet rate, and thus eccentric orbits, even for close-in planets, can often survive much longer than the age of the system. Assuming that an observed close-in planet on an elliptical orbit is apsidally locked to a more distant, and perhaps unseen companion, we provide a constraint on the mass, semi-major axis, and eccentricity of the companion. We find that the observed two-planet system HAT-P-13 might be in just such an apsidally locked state, with parameters that obey our constraint reasonably well. We also survey close-in single planets, some with and some without an indication of an outer companion. None of the dozen systems that we investigate provides compelling evidence for unseen companions. Instead, we suspect that (1) orbits are in fact circular, (2) tidal damping rates are much slower than we have assumed, or (3) a recent event has excited these

  13. Evidence for Reflected Light from the Most Eccentric Exoplanet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Henry, Gregory W.; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Wright, Jason T.; Ciardi, David R.; Fischer, Debra A.; Butler, R. Paul; Tinney, C. G.; Carter, Brad D.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Bailey, Jeremy; O'Toole, Simon J.

    2016-04-01

    Planets in highly eccentric orbits form a class of objects not seen within our solar system. The most extreme case known among these objects is the planet orbiting HD 20782, with an orbital period of 597 days and an eccentricity of 0.96. Here we present new data and analysis for this system as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey. We obtained CHIRON spectra to perform an independent estimation of the fundamental stellar parameters. New radial velocities from Anglo-Australian Telescope and PARAS observations during periastron passage greatly improve our knowledge of the eccentric nature of the orbit. The combined analysis of our Keplerian orbital and Hipparcos astrometry show that the inclination of the planetary orbit is \\gt 1\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fdg;22, ruling out stellar masses for the companion. Our long-term robotic photometry show that the star is extremely stable over long timescales. Photometric monitoring of the star during predicted transit and periastron times using Microvariability and Oscillations of STars rule out a transit of the planet and reveal evidence of phase variations during periastron. These possible photometric phase variations may be caused by reflected light from the planet’s atmosphere and the dramatic change in star-planet separation surrounding the periastron passage.

  14. Diffusion of eccentric microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Pulak K; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2016-02-21

    We model the two-dimensional diffusive dynamics of an eccentric artificial microswimmer in a highly viscous medium. We assume that the swimmer's propulsion results from an effective force applied to a center distinct from its center of mass, both centers resting on a body's axis parallel to its average self-propulsion velocity. Moreover, we allow for angular fluctuations of the velocity about the body's axis. We prove, both analytically and numerically, that the ensuing active diffusion of the swimmer is suppressed to an extent that strongly depends on the model parameters. In particular, the active diffusion constant undergoes a transition from a quadratic to a linear dependence on the self-propulsion speed, with practical consequences on the interpretation of the experimental data. Finally, we extend our model to describe the diffusion of chiral eccentric swimmers.

  15. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  16. Kepler-108: A Mutually Inclined Giant Planet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Sean M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of well studied giant-planet systems, including the solar system, are nearly coplanar, which implies dissipation within a primordial gas disk. However, intrinsic instability may lead to planet–planet scattering, which often produces non-coplanar, eccentric orbits. Planet scattering theories have been developed to explain observed high-eccentricity systems and also hot Jupiters; thus far their predictions for mutual inclination (I) have barely been tested. Here we characterize a highly mutually inclined (I={24}-8+11°), moderately eccentric (e≳ 0.1) giant planet system: Kepler-108. This system consists of two approximately Saturn-mass planets with periods of approximately 49 and 190 days around a star with a wide (∼300 au) binary companion in an orbital configuration inconsistent with a purely disk migration origin.

  17. Constraining Planetary Migration Mechanisms in Systems of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher

    2014-01-01

    It was once widely believed that planets formed peacefully in situ in their proto-planetary disks and subsequently remain in place. Instead, growing evidence suggests that many giant planets undergo dynamical rearrangement that results in planets migrating inward in the disk, far from their birthplaces. However, it remains debated whether this migration is caused by smooth planet-disk interactions or violent multi-body interactions. Both classes of model can produce Jupiter-mass planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars, also known as hot Jupiters. In the latter class of model, another planet or star in the system perturbs the Jupiter onto a highly eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrinks and circularizes during close passages to the star. We assess the prevalence of smooth vs. violent migration through two studies. First, motivated by the predictions of Socrates et al. (2012), we search for super-eccentric hot Jupiter progenitors by using the ``photoeccentric effect'' to measure the eccentricities of Kepler giant planet candidates from their transit light curves. We find a significant lack of super- eccentric proto-hot Jupiters compared to the number expected, allowing us to place an upper limit on the fraction of hot Jupiters created by stellar binaries. Second, if both planet-disk and multi-body interactions commonly cause giant planet migration, physical properties of the proto-planetary environment may determine which is triggered. We identify three trends in which giant planets orbiting metal rich stars show signatures of planet-planet interactions: (1) gas giants orbiting within 1 AU of metal-rich stars have a range of eccentricities, whereas those orbiting metal- poor stars are restricted to lower eccentricities; (2) metal-rich stars host most eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization; and (3) the pile-up of short-period giant planets, missing in the Kepler sample, is a feature of metal-rich stars and is

  18. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  19. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  20. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  1. Dynamics of tidally captured planets in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trani, A. A.; Mapelli, M.; Spera, M.; Bressan, A.

    Recent observations suggest ongoing planet formation in the innermost parsec of our Galaxy. The super-massive black hole (SMBH) might strip planets or planetary embryos from their parent star, bringing them close enough to be tidally disrupted. We investigate the chance of planet tidal captures by running three-body encounters of SMBH-star-planet systems with a high-accuracy regularized code. We show that tidally captured planets have orbits close to those of their parent star. We conclude that the final periapsis distance of the captured planet from the SMBH will be much larger than ˜{}200 AU, unless its parent star was already on a highly eccentric orbit.

  2. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  3. THE STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF PLANET ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Scott

    2015-07-10

    The final “giant-impact” phase of terrestrial planet formation is believed to begin with a large number of planetary “embryos” on nearly circular, coplanar orbits. Mutual gravitational interactions gradually excite their eccentricities until their orbits cross and they collide and merge; through this process the number of surviving bodies declines until the system contains a small number of planets on well-separated, stable orbits. In this paper we explore a simple statistical model for the orbit distribution of planets formed by this process, based on the sheared-sheet approximation and the ansatz that the planets explore uniformly all of the stable region of phase space. The model provides analytic predictions for the distribution of eccentricities and semimajor axis differences, correlations between orbital elements of nearby planets, and the complete N-planet distribution function, in terms of a single parameter, the “dynamical temperature,” that is determined by the planetary masses. The predicted properties are generally consistent with N-body simulations of the giant-impact phase and with the distribution of semimajor axis differences in the Kepler catalog of extrasolar planets. A similar model may apply to the orbits of giant planets if these orbits are determined mainly by dynamical evolution after the planets have formed and the gas disk has disappeared.

  4. DETERMINATION OF THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF TRANSITING PLANETS IN MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Gregory

    2009-10-10

    Tidal dissipation within a short-period transiting extrasolar planet perturbed by a companion object can drive orbital evolution of the system to a so-called tidal fixed point, in which the apses of the transiting planet and its perturber are aligned, and variations in orbital eccentricities vanish. Significant contribution to the apsidal precession rate is made by gravitational quadrupole fields, created by the transiting planets tidal and rotational distortions. The fixed-point orbital eccentricity of the inner planet is therefore a strong function of its interior structure. We illustrate these ideas in the specific context of the recently discovered HAT-P-13 exoplanetary system, and show that one can already glean important insights into the physical properties of the inner transiting planet. We present structural models of the planet, which indicate that its observed radius can be maintained for a one-parameter sequence of models that properly vary core mass and tidal energy dissipation in the interior. We use an octupole-order secular theory of the orbital dynamics to derive the dependence of the inner planet's eccentricity, e{sub b} , on its tidal Love number, k {sub 2b}. We find that the currently measured eccentricity, e{sub b} = 0.021 +- 0.009, implies 0.116 < k {sub 2b} < 0.425, 0 M {sub +} < M {sub core} < 120 M {sub +}, and 10, 000 < Q{sub b} < 300, 000. Improved measurement of the eccentricity will soon allow for far tighter limits to be placed on all of these quantities, and will provide an unprecedented probe into the interior structure of an extrasolar planet.

  5. The Influence of Eccentricity Cycles on Exoplanet Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, N. J. K.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Abbot, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    In our search for habitable exoplanets, it is important to understand how planetary habitability is influenced by orbital configurations that differ from those of the terrestrial planets in our Solar system. In particular, observational surveys have revealed the prevalence of planetary systems around binary stars. Within these systems, the gravitational influence of a companion star can induce libration in the eccentricity of the planet's orbit (referred to as Kozai Cycles) on timescales as short as thousands of years. The resulting fluctuations in stellar flux at the top of the atmosphere can potentially induce dramatic variations in surface temperatures, with direct implications for the planet's habitability prospects. We investigate this research problem using two steps. First, we utilize the MERCURY N-body integrator in order to calculate the eccentricity of a hypothetical Earth-analogue under the gravitational influence of a stellar companion. Second, we run a coupled Global Climate Model (GCM) at various stages of a cycle provided by the MERCURY runs in order to examine if the increase in insolation renders the planet uninhabitable. This work will allow us to better understand how Kozai cycles influence the boundaries of a planet's habitable zone.

  6. P-type Planet–Planet Scattering: Kepler Close Binary Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    A hydrodynamical simulation shows that a circumbinary planet will migrate inward to the edge of the disk cavity. If multiple planets form in a circumbinary disk, successive migration will lead to planet–planet scattering (PPS). PPS of Kepler-like circumbinary planets is discussed in this paper. The aim of this paper is to answer how PPS affects the formation of these planets. We find that a close binary has a significant influence on the scattering process. If PPS occurs near the unstable boundary of a binary, about 10% of the systems can be completely destroyed after PPS. In more than 90% of the systems, there is only one planet left. Unlike the eccentricity distribution produced by PPS in a single star system, the surviving planets generally have low eccentricities if PPS take place near the location of the currently found circumbinary planets. In addition, the ejected planets are generally the innermost of two initial planets. The above results depend on the initial positions of the two planets. If the initial positions of the planets are moved away from the binary, the evolution tends toward statistics similar to those around single stars. In this process, the competition between the planet–planet force and the planet-binary force makes the eccentricity distribution of surviving planets diverse. These new features of P-type PPS will deepen our understanding of the formation of these circumbinary planets.

  7. Flow of Planets, Not Weak Tidal Evolution, Produces the Short-Period Planet Distribution with More Planets than Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    The most unexpected planet finding is arguably the number of those with shorter periods than theorists had expected, because most such close planets had been expected to migrate into the star in shorter timescales than the ages of the stars. Subsequent effort has been made to show how tidal dissipation in stars due to planets could be weaker than expected, but we show how the occurrence distribution of differently-sized planets is more consistent with the explanation that these planets have more recently arrived as a flow of inwardly migrating planets, with giant planets more likely to be found while gradually going through a short period stage. This continual ``flow'' of new planets arriving from further out is presumably supplied by the flow likely responsible for the short period pileup of giant planets (Socrates+ 2011). We have previously shown that the shortest period region of the exoplanet occurrence distribution has a fall-off shaped by inward tidal migration due to stellar tides, that is, tides on the star caused by the planets (Taylor 2011, 2012). The power index of the fall-off of giant and intermediate radius planet candidates found from Kepler data (Howard+ 2011) is close to the index of 13/3 which is expected for planets in circular orbits undergoing tidal migration. However, there is a discrepancy of the strength of the tidal migration determined using fits to the giant and medium planets distributions. This discrepancy is best resolved by the explanation that more giant than medium radii planets migrate through these short period orbits. We also present a correlation between higher eccentricity of planetary orbits with higher Fe/H of host stars, which could be explained by high eccentricity planets being associated with recent episodes of other planets into stars. By the time these planets migrate to become hot Jupiters, the pollution may be mixed into the star. The clearing of other planets by migrating hot giant planets may result in hot Jupiters

  8. Planetary Migration and Eccentricity and Inclination Resonances in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Thommes, E. W.

    2007-07-01

    The differential migration of two planets due to planet-disk interaction can result in capture into the 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances. Both the sequence of 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances that the system is driven through by continued migration and the possibility of a subsequent capture into the 4:2 inclination-type resonances are sensitive to the migration rate within the range expected for type II migration due to planet-disk interaction. If the migration rate is fast, the resonant pair can evolve into a family of 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances different from those found by Lee (2004). This new family has outer orbital eccentricity e2 > 0.4-0.5, asymmetric librations of both eccentricity-type mean-motion resonance variables, and orbits that intersect if they are exactly coplanar. Although this family exists for an inner-to-outer planet mass ratio m1/m2 > 0.2, it is possible to evolve into this family by fast migration only for m1/m2 > 2. Thommes & Lissauer (2003) have found that a capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances is possible only for m1/m2 < 2. We show that this capture is also possible for m1/m2 > 2 if the migration rate is slower than that adopted by Thommes & Lissauer. There is significant theoretical uncertainty in both the sign and the magnitude of the net effect of planet-disk interaction on the orbital eccentricity of a planet. If the eccentricity is damped on a timescale equal to or shorter than the migration timescale, the eccentricities may not be able to reach the values needed to enter either the new 2:1 eccentricity resonances or the inclination resonances. Thus the discovery of extrasolar planetary systems with certain combinations of mass ratio and 2:1 resonance geometry would place a constraint on the strength of eccentricity damping during migration, as well as on the rate of migration itself.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2013-04-10

    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.

  10. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-04-07

    A class of extrasolar giant planets--the so-called 'hot Jupiters' (ref. 1)--orbit within 0.05 au of their primary stars (1 au is the Sun-Earth distance). These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b (refs 3, 4) is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero orbital eccentricity (approximately 0.03; refs 6, 7), maintained by interaction with a hypothetical second planet. Here we report detection of infrared (24 microm) radiation from HD 209458b, by observing the decrement in flux during secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the star. The planet's 24-microm flux is 55 +/- 10 microJy (1sigma), with a brightness temperature of 1,130 +/- 150 K, confirming the predicted heating by stellar irradiation. The secondary eclipse occurs at the midpoint between transits of the planet in front of the star (to within +/- 7 min, 1sigma), which means that a dynamically significant orbital eccentricity is unlikely.

  11. Solar Obliquity Induced by Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    The six-degree obliquity of the sun suggests that either an asymmetry was present in the solar system's formation environment, or an external torque has misaligned the angular momentum vectors of the sun and the planets. However, the exact origin of this obliquity remains an open question. Batygin and Brown (2016) have recently shown that the physical alignment of distant Kuiper Belt orbits can be explained by a m9 = 10-20 mEarth planet on a distant, eccentric, and inclined orbit, with an approximate perihelion distance of q9 ˜ 250 AU. Using an analytic model for secular interactions between Planet Nine and the remaining giant planets, here we show that a planet with similar parameters can naturally generate the observed obliquity as well as the specific pole position of the sun's spin axis. Thus, Planet Nine offers a testable explanation for the otherwise mysterious spin-orbit misalignment of the solar system.

  12. Solar Obliquity Induced by Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-11-01

    The six-degree obliquity of the Sun suggests that either an asymmetry was present in the solar system’s formation environment, or an external torque has misaligned the angular momentum vectors of the Sun and the planets. However, the exact origin of this obliquity remains an open question. Batygin & Brown have recently shown that the physical alignment of distant Kuiper Belt orbits can be explained by a 5{--}20 {m}\\oplus planet on a distant, eccentric, and inclined orbit, with an approximate perihelion distance of ˜250 au. Using an analytic model for secular interactions between Planet Nine and the remaining giant planets, here, we show that a planet with similar parameters can naturally generate the observed obliquity as well as the specific pole position of the Sun’s spin axis, from a nearly aligned initial state. Thus, Planet Nine offers a testable explanation for the otherwise mysterious spin-orbit misalignment of the solar system.

  13. ON THE TRANSIT POTENTIAL OF THE PLANET ORBITING IOTA DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Reffert, Sabine; Schwab, Christian; Bergmann, Christoph; Henry, Gregory W.; Fischer, Debra; Clubb, Kelsey I.

    2010-09-10

    Most of the known transiting exoplanets are in short-period orbits, largely due to the bias inherent in detecting planets through the transit technique. However, the eccentricity distribution of the known radial velocity planets results in many of those planets having a non-negligible transit probability. One such case is the massive planet orbiting the giant star iota Draconis, a situation where both the orientation of the planet's eccentric orbit and the size of the host star inflate the transit probability to a much higher value than for a typical hot Jupiter. Here we present a revised fit of the radial velocity data with new measurements and a photometric analysis of the stellar variability. We provide a revised transit probability, an improved transit ephemeris, and discuss the prospects for observing a transit of this planet from both ground and space.

  14. The Transit Ingress and the Tilted Orbit of the Extraordinarily Eccentric Exoplanet HD 80606b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Starkey, Donn; Ford, Eric B.; Colon, Knicole D.; Reyes, Francisco; Nortmann, Lisa; Dreizler, Stefan; Odewahn, Stephen; Welsh, William F.; Kadakia, Shimonee; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lockhart, Matthew; Crossfield, Ian J.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Carter, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    We reported the first detection of the transit ingress, revealing the transit duration to be 11.64 plus or minus 0.25 hr and allowing more robust determinations of the system parameters. Keck spectra obtained at midtransit exhibited an anomalous blueshift, giving definitive evidence that the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis are misaligned. Thus, the orbit of this planet is not only highly eccentric but is also tilted away from the equatorial plane of its parent star. A large tilt had been predicted, based on the idea that the planet's eccentric orbit was caused by the Kozai mechanism.

  15. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  16. Tidal Evolution of Multiple Planet Systems Around Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.

    2012-10-01

    The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. We study the tidal evolution of planets around BDs using a standard tidal model and test the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both star and planet, and their tidal dissipation factor. We find that the most important parameter is the initial orbital distance with respect to the corotation distance. We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than about 0.1 and are repelled from the star. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their inward tidal evolution is slower than the BD's spin evolution, although most initially close-in planets fall onto the BD. Next we studied multiple planet systems with a N-body code altered to include tidal forces. We present a few interesting case studies for systems of planets orbiting BDs. In one example, a close-in planet pushes a more distant planet outward while locked in resonance. In another example, rapid outward tidal migration destabilizes a system of three planets. In another case, the combination of eccentricity forcing from an outer planet and dissipation within the inner planet drives the inner planet into the BD despite being exterior to the corotation radius. We thank the CNRS’s PNP program for funding.

  17. TOWARD A DETERMINISTIC MODEL OF PLANETARY FORMATION. VII. ECCENTRICITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAS GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, S.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2013-09-20

    The ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems reveal that planet formation encompasses many complex and competing processes. In this series of papers, we develop and upgrade a population synthesis model as a tool to identify the dominant physical effects and to calibrate the range of physical conditions. Recent planet searches have led to the discovery of many multiple-planet systems. Any theoretical models of their origins must take into account dynamical interactions between emerging protoplanets. Here, we introduce a prescription to approximate the close encounters between multiple planets. We apply this method to simulate the growth, migration, and dynamical interaction of planetary systems. Our models show that in relatively massive disks, several gas giants and rocky/icy planets emerge, migrate, and undergo dynamical instability. Secular perturbation between planets leads to orbital crossings, eccentricity excitation, and planetary ejection. In disks with modest masses, two or less gas giants form with multiple super-Earths. Orbital stability in these systems is generally maintained and they retain the kinematic structure after gas in their natal disks is depleted. These results reproduce the observed planetary mass-eccentricity and semimajor axis-eccentricity correlations. They also suggest that emerging gas giants can scatter residual cores to the outer disk regions. Subsequent in situ gas accretion onto these cores can lead to the formation of distant (∼> 30 AU) gas giants with nearly circular orbits.

  18. No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. NO PSEUDOSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS AND MOONS Valeri V. Makarov and Michael Efroimsky US Naval...January 21 ABSTRACT We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin–orbit resonance...development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin–orbit resonances. Key words: celestial

  19. Growth of planets from planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets is reviewed in the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. The rate of (proto)planetary growth is determined by the size and mass of the protoplanet, the surface density of planetesimals, and the distribution of planetesimal velocities relative to the protoplanet. Planetesimal velocities are modified by mutual gravitational interactions and collisions, which convert energy present in the ordered relative motions of orbiting particles (Keplerian shear) into random motions and tend to reduce the velocities of the largest bodies in the swarm relative to those of smaller bodies, as well as by gas drag, which damps eccentricities and inclinations.

  20. Growth of planets from planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Stewart, Glen R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the formation of terrestrial planets and the cores of Jovian planets within the framework of the planetesimal hypothesis, wherein planets are assumed to grow via the pairwise accumulation of small solid bodies. The rate of (proto)planetary growth is determined by the size and mass of the protoplanet, the surface density of planetesimals, and the distribution of planetesimal velocities relative to the protoplanet. Planetesimal velocities are modified by mutual gravitational interactions and collisions, which convert energy present in the ordered relative motions of orbiting particles into random motions and tend to reduce the velocities of the largest bodies in the swarm relative to those of smaller bodies, as well as by gas drag, which damps eccentricities and inclinations. The evolution of planetesimal size distribution is determined by the gravitationally enhanced collision cross section, which favors collisions between planetesimals with smaller velocities.

  1. Planetary Migration and Eccentricity and Inclination Resonances in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Thommes, E. W.

    2004-11-01

    The differential migration of two planets due to planet-disk interaction can result in capture into the 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances. Both the sequence of 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances that the system is driven through by continued migration and the possibility of a subsequent capture into the 4:2 inclination-type resonances are sensitive to the migration rate within the range expected for type II migration due to planet-disk interaction. If the migration rate is fast, the resonant pair can evolve into a family of 2:1 eccentricity-type resonances different from those found by Lee (2004). This new family has outer orbital eccentricity e2 ⪆ 0.4--0.5, asymmetric librations of both eccentricity-type mean-motion resonance variables, and orbits that intersect if they are exactly coplanar. Although this family exists for an inner-to-outer planet mass ratio m1}/m{2 ⪆ 0.2, it is possible to evolve into this family by fast migration only for m1}/m{2 ⪆ 2. Thommes & Lissauer (2003) have found that a capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances is possible only for m1}/m{2 ⪉ 2. We show that this capture is also possible for m1}/m{2 ⪆ 2 if the migration rate is slightly slower than that adopted by Thommes & Lissauer. There is significant theoretical uncertainty in both the sign and the magnitude of the net effect of planet-disk interaction on the orbital eccentricity of a planet. If the eccentricity is damped on a timescale equal to or shorter than the migration timescale, e2 may not be able to reach the values needed to enter either the new 2:1 eccentricity resonances or the inclination resonances for m1}/m{2 ⪆ 2. Thus, if future observations were to reveal such a combination of mass ratio and resonant configuration, it would place a constraint on the strength of eccentricity damping during migration, as well as on the rate of the migration itself.

  2. Planetary Migration and Eccentricity and Inclination Resonances in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Thommes, Edward W.

    2009-09-01

    The differential migration of two planets due to planet-disk interaction can result in capture into the 2:1 eccentricity-type mean-motion resonances. Both the sequence of 2:1 eccentricity resonances that the system is driven through by continued migration and the possibility of a subsequent capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances are sensitive to the migration rate within the range expected for type II migration due to planet-disk interaction. If the migration rate is fast, the resonant pair can evolve into a family of 2:1 eccentricity resonances different from those found by Lee. This new family has outer orbital eccentricity e 2 gsim 0.4-0.5, asymmetric librations of both eccentricity resonance variables, and orbits that intersect if they are exactly coplanar. Although this family exists for an inner-to-outer planet mass ratio m 1/m 2 gsim 0.2, it is possible to evolve into this family by fast migration only for m 1/m 2 gsim 2. Thommes and Lissauer have found that a capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances is possible only for m 1/m 2 lsim 2. We show that this capture is also possible for m 1/m 2 gsim 2 if the migration rate is slightly slower than that adopted by Thommes and Lissauer. There is significant theoretical uncertainty in both the sign and the magnitude of the net effect of planet-disk interaction on the orbital eccentricity of a planet. If the eccentricity is damped on a timescale comparable to or shorter than the migration timescale, e 2 may not be able to reach the values needed to enter either the new 2:1 eccentricity resonances or the 4:2 inclination resonances. Thus, if future observations of extrasolar planetary systems were to reveal certain combinations of mass ratio and resonant configuration, they would place a constraint on the strength of eccentricity damping during migration, as well as on the rate of the migration itself.

  3. Tidal evolution of planets around brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, E.; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. Aims: In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. This has important implications for the tidal evolution of planets around BDs. Methods: We used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of a large ensemble of planet-BD systems. We tested the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both the BD and planet, and the tidal dissipation factors. Results: We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than ~0.1 are repelled from the BD. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their inward tidal evolution is slower than the BD's spin evolution, but most initially close-in planets fall onto the BD. Conclusions: We find that the most important parameter for the tidal evolution is the initial orbital distance with respect to the corotation distance. Some planets can survive in the habitable zone for Gyr timescales, although in many cases the habitable zone moves inward past the planet's orbit in just tens to hundreds of Myr. Surviving planets can have orbital periods of less than 10 days (as small as 10 h), so they could be observable by transit.

  4. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Unevenly Irradiated Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory

    2008-02-01

    We employ a two-dimensional, grid-based hydrodynamic model to simulate upper atmospheric dynamics on extrasolar giant planets. The hydrodynamic equations of motion are integrated on a rotating, irradiated sphere using a pseudospectral algorithm. We use a two-frequency, two-stream approximation of radiative transfer to model the temperature forcing. This model is well suited to simulate the dynamics of the atmospheres of planets with high orbital eccentricity, which are subject to widely varying irradiation conditions. We identify six such planets, with eccentricities between e = 0.28 and e = 0.93 and semimajor axes from a = 0.0508 AU to a = 0.432 AU, as particularly interesting. For each, we determine the temperature profile and resulting infrared light curves in the 8 μm Spitzer band. Especially notable are the results for HD 80606b, which has the largest eccentricity (e = 0.9321) of any known planet, and HAT-P-2b, which transits its parent star, so that its physical properties are well constrained. Despite the varied orbital parameters, the atmospheric dynamics of these planets display a number of interesting common properties. In all cases, the atmospheric response is primarily driven by the intense irradiation at periastron. The resulting expansion of heated air produces high-velocity turbulent flow, including long-lived circumpolar vortices. In addition, a superrotating acoustic front develops on some planets; the strength of this disturbance depends on both the eccentricity and the temperature gradient from uneven heating. The specifics of the resulting infrared light curves depend strongly on the orbital geometry. We show, however, that the variations on HD 80606b and HAT-P-2b should be readily detectable at 4.5 and 8 μm using Spitzer. These two objects present the most attractive observational targets of all known high-e exoplanets.

  5. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  6. Extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

    2000-11-07

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems.

  7. Can Eccentric Debris Disks Be Long-lived? A First Numerical Investigation and Application to Zeta(exp 2) Reticuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Thebault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Milli, J.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, William C.; Eiroa, C.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Imaging of debris disks has found evidence for both eccentric and offset disks. One hypothesis is that they provide evidence for massive perturbers, for example, planets or binary companions, which sculpt the observed structures. One such disk was recently observed in the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory around Zeta2 Reticuli. In contrast with previously reported systems, the disk is significantly eccentric, and the system is several Gyr old. Aims. We aim to investigate the long-term evolution of eccentric structures in debris disks caused by a perturber on an eccentric orbit around the star. We hypothesise that the observed eccentric disk around Zeta2 Reticuli might be evidence of such a scenario. If so, we are able to constrain the mass and orbit of a potential perturber, either a giant planet or a binary companion. Methods. Analytical techniques were used to predict the effects of a perturber on a debris disk. Numerical N-body simulations were used to verify these results and further investigate the observable structures that may be produced by eccentric perturbers. The long-term evolution of the disk geometry was examined, with particular application to the Zeta2 Reticuli system. In addition, synthetic images of the disk were produced for direct comparison with Herschel observations. Results. We show that an eccentric companion can produce both the observed offsets and eccentric disks. These effects are not immediate, and we characterise the timescale required for the disk to develop to an eccentric state (and any spirals to vanish). For Zeta2 Reticuli, we derive limits on the mass and orbit of the companion required to produce the observations. Synthetic images show that the pattern observed around Zeta2 Reticuli can be produced by an eccentric disk seen close to edge-on, and allow us to bring additional constraints on the disk parameters of our model (disk flux and extent). Conclusions. We conclude that eccentric planets or stellar companions

  8. EFFECTS OF DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT PLANETS ON SURVIVAL OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Soko; Ida, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Makiko

    2013-04-20

    The orbital distributions of currently observed extrasolar giant planets allow marginally stable orbits for hypothetical, terrestrial planets. In this paper, we propose that many of these systems may not have additional planets on these ''stable'' orbits, since past dynamical instability among giant planets could have removed them. We numerically investigate the effects of early evolution of multiple giant planets on the orbital stability of the inner, sub-Neptune-like planets which are modeled as test particles, and determine their dynamically unstable region. Previous studies have shown that the majority of such test particles are ejected out of the system as a result of close encounters with giant planets. Here, we show that secular perturbations from giant planets can remove test particles at least down to 10 times smaller than their minimum pericenter distance. Our results indicate that, unless the dynamical instability among giant planets is either absent or quiet like planet-planet collisions, most test particles down to {approx}0.1 AU within the orbits of giant planets at a few AU may be gone. In fact, out of {approx}30% of survived test particles, about three quarters belong to the planet-planet collision cases. We find a good agreement between our numerical results and the secular theory, and present a semi-analytical formula which estimates the dynamically unstable region of the test particles just from the evolution of giant planets. Finally, our numerical results agree well with the observations, and also predict the existence of hot rocky planets in eccentric giant planet systems.

  9. ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF PLANET FORMATION IN CLOSE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2015-02-01

    To date, several exoplanets have been discovered orbiting stars with close binary companions (a ≲ 30 AU). The fact that planets can form in these dynamically challenging environments implies that planet formation must be a robust process. The initial protoplanetary disks in these systems from which planets must form should be tidally truncated to radii of a few AU, which indicates that the efficiency of planet formation must be high. Here, we examine the truncation of circumstellar protoplanetary disks in close binary systems, studying how the likelihood of planet formation is affected over a range of disk parameters. If the semimajor axis of the binary is too small or its eccentricity is too high, the disk will have too little mass for planet formation to occur. However, we find that the stars in the binary systems known to have planets should have once hosted circumstellar disks that were capable of supporting planet formation despite their truncation. We present a way to characterize the feasibility of planet formation based on binary orbital parameters such as stellar mass, companion mass, eccentricity, and semimajor axis. Using this measure, we can quantify the robustness of planet formation in close binaries and better understand the overall efficiency of planet formation in general.

  10. An Analytic Theory for the Orbits of Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Gene C. K.; Lee, Man Hoi

    2013-02-01

    Three transiting circumbinary planets (Kepler-16 b, Kepler-34 b, and Kepler-35 b) have recently been discovered from photometric data taken by the Kepler spacecraft. Their orbits are significantly non-Keplerian because of the large secondary-to-primary mass ratio and orbital eccentricity of the binaries, as well as the proximity of the planets to the binaries. We present an analytic theory, with the planet treated as a test particle, which shows that the planetary motion can be represented by the superposition of the circular motion of a guiding center, the forced oscillations due to the non-axisymmetric components of the binary's potential, the epicyclic motion, and the vertical motion. In this analytic theory, the periapse and ascending node of the planet precess at nearly equal rates in opposite directions. The largest forced oscillation term corresponds to a forced eccentricity (which is an explicit function of the parameters of the binary and of the guiding center radius of the planet), and the amplitude of the epicyclic motion (which is a free parameter of the theory) is the free eccentricity. Comparisons with direct numerical orbit integrations show that this analytic theory gives an accurate description of the planetary motion for all three Kepler systems. We find that all three Kepler circumbinary planets have nonzero free eccentricities.

  11. AN ANALYTIC THEORY FOR THE ORBITS OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Gene C. K.; Lee, Man Hoi

    2013-02-15

    Three transiting circumbinary planets (Kepler-16 b, Kepler-34 b, and Kepler-35 b) have recently been discovered from photometric data taken by the Kepler spacecraft. Their orbits are significantly non-Keplerian because of the large secondary-to-primary mass ratio and orbital eccentricity of the binaries, as well as the proximity of the planets to the binaries. We present an analytic theory, with the planet treated as a test particle, which shows that the planetary motion can be represented by the superposition of the circular motion of a guiding center, the forced oscillations due to the non-axisymmetric components of the binary's potential, the epicyclic motion, and the vertical motion. In this analytic theory, the periapse and ascending node of the planet precess at nearly equal rates in opposite directions. The largest forced oscillation term corresponds to a forced eccentricity (which is an explicit function of the parameters of the binary and of the guiding center radius of the planet), and the amplitude of the epicyclic motion (which is a free parameter of the theory) is the free eccentricity. Comparisons with direct numerical orbit integrations show that this analytic theory gives an accurate description of the planetary motion for all three Kepler systems. We find that all three Kepler circumbinary planets have nonzero free eccentricities.

  12. Correlations between Compositions and Orbits Established by the Giant Impact Era of Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-05-01

    The giant impact phase of terrestrial planet formation establishes connections between super-Earths’ orbital properties (semimajor axis spacings, eccentricities, mutual inclinations) and interior compositions (the presence or absence of gaseous envelopes). Using N-body simulations and analytic arguments, we show that spacings derive not only from eccentricities, but also from inclinations. Flatter systems attain tighter spacings, a consequence of an eccentricity equilibrium between gravitational scatterings, which increase eccentricities, and mergers, which damp them. Dynamical friction by residual disk gas plays a critical role in regulating mergers and in damping inclinations and eccentricities. Systems with moderate gas damping and high solid surface density spawn gas-enveloped super-Earths with tight spacings, small eccentricities, and small inclinations. Systems in which super-Earths coagulate without as much ambient gas, in disks with low solid surface density, produce rocky planets with wider spacings, larger eccentricities, and larger mutual inclinations. A combination of both populations can reproduce the observed distributions of spacings, period ratios, transiting planet multiplicities, and transit duration ratios exhibited by Kepler super-Earths. The two populations, both formed in situ, also help to explain observed trends of eccentricity versus planet size, and bulk density versus method of mass measurement (radial velocities versus transit timing variations). Simplifications made in this study—including the limited time span of the simulations, and the approximate treatments of gas dynamical friction and gas depletion history—should be improved on in future work to enable a detailed quantitative comparison to the observations.

  13. Orbital and physical properties of planets and their hosts: new insights on planet formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Mortier, A.; Mordasini, C.; Delgado Mena, E.; Sousa, S. G.; Correia, A. C. M.; Israelian, G.; Oshagh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: We explore the relations between physical and orbital properties of planets and properties of their host stars to identify the main observable signatures of the formation and evolution processes of planetary systems. Methods: We used a large sample of FGK dwarf planet-hosting stars with stellar parameters derived in a homogeneous way from the SWEET-Cat database to study the relation between stellar metallicity and position of planets in the period-mass diagram. We then used all the radial-velocity-detected planets orbiting FGK stars to explore the role of planet-disk and planet-planet interaction on the evolution of orbital properties of planets with masses above 1 MJup. Results: Using a large sample of FGK dwarf hosts we show that planets orbiting metal-poor stars have longer periods than those in metal-rich systems. This trend is valid for masses at least from ≈10 M⊕ to ≈4 MJup. Earth-like planets orbiting metal-rich stars always show shorter periods (fewer than 20 days) than those orbiting metal-poor stars. However, in the short-period regime there are a similar number of planets orbiting metal-poor stars. We also found statistically significant evidence that very high mass giants (with a mass higher than 4 MJup) have on average more eccentric orbits than giant planets with lower mass. Finally, we show that the eccentricity of planets with masses higher than 4 MJup tends to be lower for planets with shorter periods. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the planets in the P - MP diagram are evolving differently because of a mechanism that operates over a wide range of planetary masses. This mechanism is stronger or weaker, depending on the metallicity of the respective system. One possibility is that planets in metal-poor disks form farther out from their central star and/or they form later and do not have time to migrate as far as the planets in metal-rich systems. The trends and dependencies obtained for very high mass planetary systems suggest

  14. An Update on Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Whats the news coming from the research world on the search for Planet Nine? Read on for an update from a few of the latest studies.Artists illustration of Planet Nine, a hypothesized Neptune-sized planet orbiting in the distant reaches of our solar system. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]What is Planet Nine?In January of this year, Caltech researchers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown presented evidence of a distant ninth planet in our solar system. They predicted this planet to be of a mass and volume consistent with a super-Earth, orbiting on a highly eccentric pathwith a period of tens of thousands of years.Since Batygin and Browns prediction, scientists have been hunting for further signs of Planet Nine. Though we havent yet discovered an object matching its description, we have come up with new strategies for finding it, we set some constraints on where it might be, and we made some interesting theoretical predictions about its properties.Visualizations of the resonant orbits of the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects, depicted in a frame rotating with the mean angular velocity of Planet Nine. Planet Nines position is on the right (with the trace of possible eccentric orbits e=0.17 and e=0.4 indicated in red). [Malhotra et al 2016]Here are some of the newest constraints on Planet Nine from studies published just within the past two weeks.Resonant OrbitsRenu Malhotra (University of Arizonas Lunar and Planetary Laboratory) and collaborators present further evidence of the shaping of solar system orbits by the hypothetical Planet Nine. The authors point out that the four longest-period Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. Could it be that these outer KBOs have become locked into resonant orbits with a distant, massive body?The authors find that a distant planet orbiting with a period of ~17,117 years and a semimajor axis ~665 AU would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. If this is correct, it

  15. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  16. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412

  17. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  18. NEPTUNE'S WILD DAYS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE ECCENTRICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth

    2012-05-01

    Neptune's dynamical history shaped the current orbits of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), leaving clues to the planet's orbital evolution. In the 'classical' region, a population of dynamically 'hot' high-inclination KBOs overlies a flat 'cold' population with distinct physical properties. Simulations of qualitatively different histories for Neptune, including smooth migration on a circular orbit or scattering by other planets to a high eccentricity, have not simultaneously produced both populations. We explore a general Kuiper Belt assembly model that forms hot classical KBOs interior to Neptune and delivers them to the classical region, where the cold population forms in situ. First, we present evidence that the cold population is confined to eccentricities well below the limit dictated by long-term survival. Therefore, Neptune must deliver hot KBOs into the long-term survival region without excessively exciting the eccentricities of the cold population. Imposing this constraint, we explore the parameter space of Neptune's eccentricity and eccentricity damping, migration, and apsidal precession. We rule out much of parameter space, except where Neptune is scattered to a moderately eccentric orbit (e > 0.15) and subsequently migrates a distance {Delta}a{sub N} = 1-6 AU. Neptune's moderate eccentricity must either damp quickly or be accompanied by fast apsidal precession. We find that Neptune's high eccentricity alone does not generate a chaotic sea in the classical region. Chaos can result from Neptune's interactions with Uranus, exciting the cold KBOs and placing additional constraints. Finally, we discuss how to interpret our constraints in the context of the full, complex dynamical history of the solar system.

  19. Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca

    About half of observed exoplanets are estimated to be in binary systems. Understanding planet formation and evolution in binaries is therefore essential for explaining observed exoplanet properties. Recently, we discovered that a highly misaligned circumstellar disk in a binary system can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations of the disk inclination and eccentricity. These oscillations likely have a significant impact on the formation and orbital evolution of planets in binary star systems. Planet formation by core accretion cannot operate during KL oscillations of the disk. First, we propose to consider the process of disk mass transfer between the binary members. Secondly, we will investigate the possibility of planet formation by disk fragmentation. Disk self gravity can weaken or suppress the oscillations during the early disk evolution when the disk mass is relatively high for a narrow range of parameters. Thirdly, we will investigate the evolution of a planet whose orbit is initially aligned with respect to the disk, but misaligned with respect to the orbit of the binary. We will study how these processes relate to observations of star-spin and planet orbit misalignment and to observations of planets that appear to be undergoing KL oscillations. Finally, we will analyze the evolution of misaligned multi-planet systems. This theoretical work will involve a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. The aim of this research is to shed some light on the formation of planets in binary star systems and to contribute to NASA's goal of understanding of the origins of exoplanetary systems.

  20. Preliminary Planet Population Statistics With Kepler Q1-Q16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Mullally, Fergal; Christiansen, Jessie; Huber, Daniel; Coughlin, Jeffrey; Thompson, Susan E.; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Batalha, Natalie M.

    2014-06-01

    We present preliminary extrasolar planet population statistics from analysis of the Kepler Q1-Q16 planet candidate sample. The analysis takes advantage of the recent work on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet candidate sample, extensive Monte-Carlo transit signal injection and recovery tests of the Kepler Pipeline, and updates to the stellar parameters provided by the Kepler Stellar Working Group. We also explore the sensitivity of the results to alternative inputs by considering a machine learning generated planet sample, systematics in the stellar sample properties, orbital eccentricity, and false positive rates.

  1. Titan's Eccentricity Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, L.; Jacobson, R.; Ducci, M.; Stevenson, D. J.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S.; Racioppa, P.; Rappaport, N. J.; Tortora, P.

    2011-12-01

    The large eccentricity (e=0.03) of Titan's orbit causes significant variations in the tidal field from Saturn and induces periodic stresses in the satellite body at the orbital period (about 16 days). Peak-to-peak variations of the tidal field (from pericenter to apocenter) are about 18% (6e). If Titan hosts a liquid layer (such as an internal ocean), the gravity field would exhibit significant periodic variations. The response of the body to fast variations of the external, perturbing field is controlled by the Love numbers, defined for each spherical harmonic as the ratio between the perturbed and perturbing potential. For Titan the largest effect is by far on the quadrupole field, and the corresponding Love number is indicated by k2 (assumed to be identical for all degree 2 harmonics). Models of Titan's interior generally envisage a core made up of silicates, surrounded by a layer of high pressure ice, possibly a liquid water or water-ammonia ocean, and an ice-I outer shell, with variations associated with the dehydration state of the core or the presence of mixed rock-ice layers. Previous analysis of Titan's tidal response [1] shows that k2 depends crucially on the presence or absence of an internal ocean. k2 was found to vary from about 0.03 for a purely rocky interior to 0.48 for a rigid rocky core surrounded by an ocean and a thin (20 km) ice shell. A large k2 entails changes in the satellite's quadrupole coefficients by a few percent, enough to be detected by accurate range rate measurements of the Cassini spacecraft. So far, of the many Cassini's flybys of Titan, six were used for gravity measurements. During gravity flybys the spacecraft is tracked from the antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network using microwave links at X- and Ka-band frequencies. A state-of-the-art instrumentation enables range rate measurements accurate to 10-50 micron/s at integration times of 60 s. The first four flybys provided the static gravity field and the moment of inertia factor

  2. On the Orbit of the Circumbinary Planet Kepler-16b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Leung, C. K.

    2012-05-01

    The orbit of the circumbinary planet Kepler-16b is significantly non-Keplerian because of the large secondary-to-primary mass ratio (0.29) and orbital eccentricity (0.15) of the binary, as well as the proximity of the planet to the binary (orbital period ratio 5.6). We present an analytic theory which models the motion of the planet (treated as a test particle) by the superposition of the circular motion of a guiding center, the forced oscillations due to the non-axisymmetric components of the binary's potential, the epicyclic motion, and the vertical motion. In this analytic theory, the periapse and ascending node of the planet precess at nearly equal rates in opposite directions, and the largest forced oscillation term corresponds to a forced eccentricity of 0.035. The nodal precession period (42 years) found in direct numerical orbit integration is in excellent agreement with the analytic theory, while the periapse precession period (49 years) and forced eccentricity (0.038) are slightly larger than the analytic values. The comparison with direct numerical orbit integration also shows that the planet's orbit has a nonzero epicyclic (or free) eccentricity of 0.027. This work is supported in part by Hong Kong RGC grant HKU 7034/09P.

  3. Planet Nine From Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    All known Kuiper belt objects with orbital periods longer than 4,000 years have orbits that are clustered in physical space. Statistically, the chances of such alignment being coincidental are smaller than a hundredth of a percent. In this talk, we show that the observed clustering of Kuiper belt orbits can be explained by a distant, eccentric, Neptune-like planet, whose orbit lies in approximately the same plane as those of the distant Kuiper belt objects, but whose perihelion is 180° away from the perihelia of the minor bodies. In addition to accounting for the observed grouping of orbital trajectories, the existence of such a planet naturally explains the presence of high-perihelion Sedna-like objects, as well as the known collection of high semi-major axis objects with inclinations between 60° and 150°.

  4. Outer Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Did you know that through NASA’s various satellite missions we have learned more about these planetary bodies in recent years than we knew collectively since we started to study our planets? Throu...

  5. SECULAR BEHAVIOR OF EXOPLANETS: SELF-CONSISTENCY AND COMPARISONS WITH THE PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING HYPOTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, Miles; Barnes, Rory; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Raymond, Sean N.; Greenberg, Richard; Gorelick, Noel

    2013-09-15

    If mutual gravitational scattering among exoplanets occurs, then it may produce unique orbital properties. For example, two-planet systems that lie near the boundary between circulation and libration of their periapses could result if planet-planet scattering ejected a former third planet quickly, leaving one planet on an eccentric orbit and the other on a circular orbit. We first improve upon previous work that examined the apsidal behavior of known multiplanet systems by doubling the sample size and including observational uncertainties. This analysis recovers previous results that demonstrated that many systems lay on the apsidal boundary between libration and circulation. We then performed over 12,000 three-dimensional N-body simulations of hypothetical three-body systems that are unstable, but stabilize to two-body systems after an ejection. Using these synthetic two-planet systems, we test the planet-planet scattering hypothesis by comparing their apsidal behavior, over a range of viewing angles, to that of the observed systems and find that they are statistically consistent regardless of the multiplicity of the observed systems. Finally, we combine our results with previous studies to show that, from the sampled cases, the most likely planetary mass function prior to planet-planet scattering follows a power law with index -1.1. We find that this pre-scattering mass function predicts a mutual inclination frequency distribution that follows an exponential function with an index between -0.06 and -0.1.

  6. Impact of planet-planet scattering on the formation and survival of debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.

    2014-10-01

    Planet-planet scattering is a major dynamical mechanism able to significantly alter the architecture of a planetary system. In addition to that, it may also affect the formation and retention of a debris disc by the system. A violent chaotic evolution of the planets can easily clear leftover planetesimal belts preventing the ignition of a substantial collisional cascade that can give origin to a debris disc. On the other end, a mild evolution with limited steps in eccentricity and semimajor axis can trigger the formation of a debris disc by stirring an initially quiet planetesimal belt. The variety of possible effects that planet-planet scattering can have on the formation of debris discs is analysed and the statistical probability of the different outcomes is evaluated. This leads to the prediction that systems which underwent an episode of chaotic evolution might have a lower probability of harbouring a debris disc.

  7. BIRTH LOCATIONS OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Silsbee, Kedron; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2015-07-20

    The Kepler mission has discovered about a dozen circumbinary planetary systems, all containing planets on ∼1 AU orbits. We place bounds on the locations in the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, where these planets could have formed through collisional agglomeration starting from small (kilometer-sized or less) planetesimals. We first present a model of secular planetesimal dynamics that accounts for the (1) perturbation due to the eccentric precessing binary, as well as the (2) gravity and (3) gas drag from a precessing eccentric disk. Their simultaneous action leads to rich dynamics, with (multiple) secular resonances emerging in the disk. We derive analytic results for size-dependent planetesimal eccentricity and demonstrate the key role of the disk gravity for circumbinary dynamics. We then combine these results with a simple model for collisional outcomes and find that in systems like Kepler-16, planetesimal growth starting with 10–100 m planetesimals is possible outside a few AU. The exact location exterior to which this happens is sensitive to disk eccentricity, density, and precession rate, as well as to the size of the first generation of planetesimals. Strong perturbations from the binary in the inner part of the disk, combined with a secular resonance at a few AU, inhibit the growth of kilometer-sized planetesimals within 2–4 AU of the binary. In situ planetesimal growth in the Kepler circumbinary systems is possible only starting from large initial planetesimals (few-kilometer-sized even assuming favorable disk properties, i.e., low surface density)

  8. Kepler-16: a transiting circumbinary planet.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Laurance R; Carter, Joshua A; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Slawson, Robert W; Howell, Steve B; Winn, Joshua N; Orosz, Jerome A; Prša, Andrej; Welsh, William F; Quinn, Samuel N; Latham, David; Torres, Guillermo; Buchhave, Lars A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Fortney, Jonathan J; Shporer, Avi; Ford, Eric B; Lissauer, Jack J; Ragozzine, Darin; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Jenkins, Jon M; Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Middour, Christopher K; Hall, Jennifer R; McCauliff, Sean; Fanelli, Michael N; Quintana, Elisa V; Holman, Matthew J; Caldwell, Douglas A; Still, Martin; Stefanik, Robert P; Brown, Warren R; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Tang, Sumin; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Short, Donald R; Steffen, Jason H; Sasselov, Dimitar; Dunham, Edward W; Cochran, William D; Boss, Alan; Haas, Michael R; Buzasi, Derek; Fischer, Debra

    2011-09-16

    We report the detection of a planet whose orbit surrounds a pair of low-mass stars. Data from the Kepler spacecraft reveal transits of the planet across both stars, in addition to the mutual eclipses of the stars, giving precise constraints on the absolute dimensions of all three bodies. The planet is comparable to Saturn in mass and size and is on a nearly circular 229-day orbit around its two parent stars. The eclipsing stars are 20 and 69% as massive as the Sun and have an eccentric 41-day orbit. The motions of all three bodies are confined to within 0.5° of a single plane, suggesting that the planet formed within a circumbinary disk.

  9. Patterns In Debris Disks: No Planets Required?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks like those around Fomalhaut and Beta Pictoris show striking dust patterns often attributed to hidden exoplanets. These patterns have been crucial for constraining the masses and orbits of these planets. But adding a bit of gas to our models of debris disks--too little gas to detect--seems to alter this interpretation. Small amounts of gas lead to new dynamical instabilities that may mimic the narrow eccentric rings and other structures planets would create in a gas-free disk. Can we still use dust patterns to find hidden exoplanets?

  10. First Evaluation of the Rate of Planet Migration Into Stars, Plus Many Newly-Found Correlations Between Metallicity and Planet Orbit Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    We give the first presentation of the relationship between the rate of planet migration into stars and the strength of tidal dissipation in the star. We also present several new correlations between metallicity and planet orbit parameters. We found that iron-rich systems have planet orbits with higher eccentricities. We find profoundly different patterns in the orbital distributions of iron rich and iron poor systems, with different peaks and gaps. The orbital distribution of planets of single stars versus stars with stellar companions are different as well. We show that ongoing planet migration can significantly shape the occurrence distribution. We agree that higher initial iron abundance led to more crowded planet formation leading to more giant planet scattering, resulting in a correlation between eccentric planet orbits and stellar iron abundance (Dawson et al.). In order to fully explain these detailed patterns, we hypothesize that the iron abundance in stars is further increased by scattering sending planets into the star. The rate of planet migration will be seen as a parameter essential to understanding planet migration process, as well as understanding the strength of tidal dissipation. It will also be essential to understand how planet migration and the metallicity-dependent distribution of planets are related.

  11. Selection functions in doppler planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, S. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Jones, H. R. A.; Butler, R. P.; Marcy, G. W.; Carter, B.; Bailey, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of Anglo-Australian Planet Search data to the orbital parameters of extrasolar planets. To do so, we have developed new tools for the automatic analysis of large-scale simulations of Doppler velocity planet search data. One of these tools is the two-dimensional Keplerian Lomb-Scargle (LS) periodogram that enables the straightforward detection of exoplanets with high eccentricities (something the standard LS periodogram routinely fails to do). We used this technique to redetermine the orbital parameters of HD20782b, with one of the highest known exoplanet eccentricities (e = 0.97 +/- 0.01). We also derive a set of detection criteria that do not depend on the distribution functions of fitted Keplerian orbital parameters (which we show are non-Gaussian with pronounced, extended wings). Using these tools, we examine the selection functions in orbital period, eccentricity and planet mass of Anglo-Australian Planet Search data for three planets with large-scale Monte Carlo like simulations. We find that the detectability of exoplanets declines at high eccentricities. However, we also find that exoplanet detectability is a strong function of epoch-to-epoch data quality, number of observations and period sampling. This strongly suggests that simple parametrizations of the detectability of exoplanets based on `whole-of-survey' metrics may not be accurate. We have derived empirical relationships between the uncertainty estimates for orbital parameters that are derived from least-squares Keplerian fits to our simulations and the true 99 per cent limits for the errors in those parameters, which are larger than equivalent Gaussian limits by the factors of 5-10. We quantify the rate at which false positives are made by our detection criteria, and find that they do not significantly affect our final conclusions. And finally, we find that there is a bias against measuring near-zero eccentricities, which becomes more significant

  12. Planets migrating into stars: Rates and Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    New measurements of the occurrence distribution of planets (POD) make it possible to make the first determination of the rate of planet migration into stars as a function of the strength of stellar tidal dissipation. We show how the period at which there is falloff in the POD due to planets migrating into the star can be used to calculate this rate. We show that it does not take extremely weak tidal dissipation for this rate to be low enough to be supplied by a reasonable number of planets being scattered into the lowest period region. The presence of the shortest period giant planets can be better explained by the ongoing migration of giant planets into stars. The presence of giant planets in period on the order of a day and less had prompted some to conclude that tidal dissipation in stars must necessarily be much weaker for planet mass than for binary star mass companions. However, a flow of less than one planet per thousand stars per gigayear could explain their presence without requiring as much of a difference in tidal dissipation strength in stars for planetary than for stellar mass companions. We show several new analytical expressions describing the rate of evolution of the falloff in the POD, as well as the rate of planet. The question of how strong is the tidal dissipation (the quality factor 'Q') for planet-mass companions may be answered within a few years by a measurable time shift in the transit period. We show that the distribution of remaining planet lifetimes indicates a mass-dependence of the stellar tidal dissipation. The possibility of regular merger of planets with stars has led us to find several correlations of iron abundance in stars with planet parameters, starting with the iron-eccentricity correlation (Taylor 2012, Dawson & Murray-Clay 2013). These correlations change in the presence of a stellar companion. We show that the distribution of planets of iron-rich planets is significantly different from the distribution of iron poor stars in

  13. Scenarios of giant planet formation and evolution and their impact on the formation of habitable terrestrial planets.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-04-28

    In our Solar System, there is a clear divide between the terrestrial and giant planets. These two categories of planets formed and evolved separately, almost in isolation from each other. This was possible because Jupiter avoided migrating into the inner Solar System, most probably due to the presence of Saturn, and never acquired a large-eccentricity orbit, even during the phase of orbital instability that the giant planets most likely experienced. Thus, the Earth formed on a time scale of several tens of millions of years, by collision of Moon- to Mars-mass planetary embryos, in a gas-free and volatile-depleted environment. We do not expect, however, that this clear cleavage between the giant and terrestrial planets is generic. In many extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date, the giant planets migrated into the vicinity of the parent star and/or acquired eccentric orbits. In this way, the evolution and destiny of the giant and terrestrial planets become intimately linked. This paper discusses several evolutionary patterns for the giant planets, with an emphasis on the consequences for the formation and survival of habitable terrestrial planets. The conclusion is that we should not expect Earth-like planets to be typical in terms of physical and orbital properties and accretion history. Most habitable worlds are probably different, exotic worlds.

  14. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  15. Long-term motion of resonant satellites with arbitrary eccentricity and inclination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P. E.; Diehl, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A first-order, semi-analytical method for the long-term motion of resonant satellites is introduced. The method provides long-term solutions, valid for nearly all eccentricities and inclinations, and for all commensurability ratios. The method allows the inclusion of all zonal and tesseral harmonics of a nonspherical planet. We present here an application of the method to a synchronous satellite including J2 and J22 harmonics. Global, long-term solutions for this problem are given for arbitrary values of eccentricity, argument of perigee and inclination.

  16. CLIMATE PATTERNS OF HABITABLE EXOPLANETS IN ECCENTRIC ORBITS AROUND M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuwei; Hu, Yongyun; Tian, Feng

    2014-08-10

    Previous studies show that synchronous rotating habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs should have an ''eyeball'' climate pattern—a limited region of open water on the day side and ice on the rest of the planet. However, exoplanets with nonzero eccentricities could have spin-orbit resonance states different from the synchronous rotation state. Here, we show that a striped-ball climate pattern, with a global belt of open water at low and middle latitudes and ice over both polar regions, should be common on habitable exoplanets in eccentric orbits around M dwarfs. We further show that these different climate patterns can be observed by future exoplanet detection missions.

  17. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  18. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  19. The Equilibrium Temperature of Planets in Elliptical Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Abel; Rivera-Valentín, Edgard G.

    2017-03-01

    There exists a positive correlation between orbital eccentricity and the average stellar flux that planets receive from their parent star. Often, though, it is assumed that the average equilibrium temperature would correspondingly increase with eccentricity. Here, we test this assumption by calculating and comparing analytic solutions for both the spatial and temporal averages of orbital distance, stellar flux, and equilibrium temperature. Our solutions show that the average equilibrium temperature of a planet, with a constant albedo, slowly decreases with eccentricity until converging to a value 90% that of a circular orbit. This might be the case for many types of planets (e.g., hot Jupiters); however, the actual equilibrium and surface temperature of planets also depend on orbital variations of albedo and greenhouse. Our results also have implications in understanding the climate, habitability, and the occurrence of potential Earth-like planets. For instance, it helps explain why the limits of the habitable zone for planets in highly elliptical orbits are wider than expected from the mean flux approximation, as shown by climate models.

  20. CHONDRULE FORMATION IN BOW SHOCKS AROUND ECCENTRIC PLANETARY EMBRYOS

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Melissa A.; Desch, Steven J.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Boley, Aaron C.

    2012-06-10

    Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas and Pourmand have established that large ({approx}3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules-millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites-were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rates are consistent with the formation of the dominant, porphyritic texture of most chondrules, assuming a modest enhancement above the likely solar nebula average value of chondrule densities (by a factor of 10), attributable to settling of chondrule precursors to the midplane of the disk or turbulent concentration. We calculate the rate at which a planetary embryo's eccentricity is damped and conclude that a single planetary embryo scattered into an eccentric orbit can, over {approx}10{sup 5} years, produce {approx}10{sup 24} g of chondrules. In principle, a small number (1-10) of eccentric planetary embryos can melt the observed mass of chondrules in a manner consistent with all known constraints.

  1. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  2. Extrasolar planets around intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, A. P.

    2008-08-01

    One of the earliest hints for extrasolar planets came with the discovery almost 15 years ago of low amplitude, long period radial velocity (RV) variations in several K giant stars, β Gem, α Tau (Aldebaran) and α Boo. Since then it has been confirmed that for β Gem (stellar mass =1.7 Modot) these RV variations are due to a planetary companion. Aldebaran is another K giant star showing long-lived (>26 years) and coherent RV variations. These are most likely due to a planetary companion having a mass of 9 MJup using an estimated mass of 2.5 Modot for the star. Giant stars like α Tau and β Gem offer us the possibility of studying the process of planet formation around stars more massive than the sun. The main sequence stars with masses >1.2 Modot are ill-suited for RV surveys as there are few spectral lines for measuring the RV and these are often broadened by high rates of stellar rotation. Currently over 20 intermediate mass giant stars are known to host extrasolar planets. This sample is sufficiently large that we can begin to look at the overall properties of planets around intermediate mass stars. These suggest that more massive stars may have more massive planets that the orbital eccentricities for their extrasolar planets show the wide range of eccentricities seen for main sequence, solar mass stars, and that unlike for main sequence stars there seems to be no preference for metal rich intermediate mass stars to host extrasolar planets.

  3. Terrestrial Planet Growth in Circumbinary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the accuulation of terrestrial from circumbinary disks surrounding pairs of stars with masses of either 0.5 solar masses each or 0.8 and 0.2 solar masses and orbital separations of 0.05 AU to 0.4 AU by performing numerical simulations of the late stages of planetary growth. Initial disks contain about 2.6 Earth masses of lunar to Mars-sized bodies orbiting within 2 AU of the center of mass of the system, plus giant planets with masses and orbits analogous to those of Jupiter and Saturn. We also performed simulations using analogous disks orbiting single 1 solar mass stars. The dynamics of planetary growth is quite chaotic because the gravitational perturbations resulting from close approaches greatly amplify differences in orbits. Thus, several simulations of each configuration were run with very slightly different initial conditions to enable us to distinguish systematic effects resulting from differences in the binary orbit (or differences of the initial orbits of the bodies within the disk) from pseudo-random variability in outcomes resulting from chaos. Most runs simulated 200 million years of evolution. At least one terrestrial planet remained at the end of each run; one simulation produced 6 terrestrial planets in a configuration that appears to be quite stable. The systems that formed around stars with binary apastron separations of less than 0.2 AU contained on average slightly more planets than those that formed around single stars, with the outermost planet typically orbiting at a greater distance from the system barycenter. Greater stellar separations tended to result in fewer planets, with the inner planet orbiting farther from the stars. More eccentric binaries have a more pronounced effect for the same apastron distance. The statistical distribution of final systems is not sensitive to moderate differences in the initial eccentricities of the bodies in the disk.

  4. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J. E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov

    2015-01-10

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  5. Rapid heating of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Gregory; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan; Kasen, Daniel; Vogt, Steve; Butler, Paul; Rivera, Eugenio; Meschiari, Stefano

    2009-01-29

    Near-infrared observations of more than a dozen 'hot-Jupiter' extrasolar planets have now been reported. These planets display a wide diversity of properties, yet all are believed to have had their spin periods tidally spin-synchronized with their orbital periods, resulting in permanent star-facing hemispheres and surface flow patterns that are most likely in equilibrium. Planets in significantly eccentric orbits can enable direct measurements of global heating that are largely independent of the details of the hydrodynamic flow. Here we report 8-microm photometric observations of the planet HD 80606b during a 30-hour interval bracketing the periastron passage of its extremely eccentric 111.4-day orbit. As the planet received its strongest irradiation (828 times larger than the flux received at apastron) its maximum 8-microm brightness temperature increased from approximately 800 K to approximately 1,500 K over a six-hour period. We also detected a secondary eclipse for the planet, which implies an orbital inclination of i approximately 90 degrees , fixes the planetary mass at four times the mass of Jupiter, and constrains the planet's tidal luminosity. Our measurement of the global heating rate indicates that the radiative time constant at the planet's 8-microm photosphere is approximately 4.5 h, in comparison with 3-5 days in Earth's stratosphere.

  6. The Observed Orbital Properties of Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoz, Smadar; Perets, Hagai B.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2010-08-01

    Many binary minor planets (BMPs; both binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects) are known to exist in the solar system. The currently observed orbital and physical properties of BMPs hold essential information and clues about their origin, their evolution, and the conditions under which they evolved. Here, we study the orbital properties of BMPs with currently known mutual orbits. We find that BMPs are typically highly inclined relative to their orbit around the Sun, with a distribution consistent with an isotropic distribution. BMPs not affected by tidal forces are found to have high eccentricities with non-thermal eccentricity distribution peaking at intermediate eccentricities (typically 0.4-0.6). The high inclinations and eccentricities of the BMPs suggest that BMPs evolved in a dense collisional environment, in which gravitational encounters in addition to tidal and secular Kozai effects played an important role in their orbital evolution.

  7. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  8. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Close Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets around close binary stars, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. The sum of the masses of the two stars is one solar mass, and the initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and in the Alpha Centauri wide binary star system. Giant planets &are included in the simulations, as they are in most simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation in our Solar System. When the stars travel on a circular orbit with semimajor axis of up to 0.1 AU about their mutual center of mass, the planetary embryos grow into a system of terrestrial planets that is statistically identical to those formed about single stars, but a larger semimajor axis and/or a significantly eccentric binary orbit can lead to significantly more dynamically hot terrestrial planet systems.

  9. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  10. HOW LOW CAN YOU GO? THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT FOR PLANETS OF VARIOUS SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.; Johnson, John Asher; Dawson, Rebekah I.

    2015-01-20

    It is well-known that the light curve of a transiting planet contains information about the planet's orbital period and size relative to the host star. More recently, it has been demonstrated that a tight constraint on an individual planet's eccentricity can sometimes be derived from the light curve via the ''photoeccentric effect'', the effect of a planet's eccentricity on the shape and duration of its light curve. This has only been studied for large planets and high signal-to-noise scenarios, raising the question of how well it can be measured for smaller planets or low signal-to-noise cases. We explore the limits of the photoeccentric effect over a wide range of planet parameters. The method hinges upon measuring g directly from the light curve, where g is the ratio of the planet's speed (projected on the plane of the sky) during transit to the speed expected for a circular orbit. We find that when the signal-to-noise in the measurement of g is <10, the ability to measure eccentricity with the photoeccentric effect decreases. We develop a ''rule of thumb'' that for per-point relative photometric uncertainties σ = (10{sup –3}, 10{sup –4}, 10{sup –5}), the critical values of the planet-star radius ratio are R{sub p} /R {sub *} ≈ (0.1, 0.05, 0.03) for Kepler-like 30 minute integration times. We demonstrate how to predict the best-case uncertainty in eccentricity that can be found with the photoeccentric effect for any light curve. This clears the path to study eccentricities of individual planets of various sizes in the Kepler sample and future transit surveys.

  11. Dynamics of binary and planetary-system interaction with disks - Eccentricity changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atrymowicz, Pawel

    1992-01-01

    Protostellar and protoplanetary systems, as well as merging galactic nuclei, often interact tidally and resonantly with the astrophysical disks via gravity. Underlying our understanding of the formation processes of stars, planets, and some galaxies is a dynamical theory of such interactions. Its main goals are to determine the geometry of the binary-disk system and, through the torque calculations, the rate of change of orbital elements of the components. We present some recent developments in this field concentrating on eccentricity driving mechanisms in protoplanetary and protobinary systems. In those two types of systems the result of the interaction is opposite. A small body embedded in a disk suffers a decrease of orbital eccentricity, whereas newly formed binary stars surrounded by protostellar disks may undergo a significant orbital evolution increasing their eccentricities.

  12. A Planet Found by Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    of the stars pulses.Delayed PulsesMurphy and collaborators examined the pulsation period of the star KIC 7917485 over four years of Kepler data. They found that the stars pulsations, which have a predictable periodic timing, are delayed slightly in their arrival time. But the delays themselves show periodicity indicating that these delays are caused by the orbit of another body whose small gravitational tug modulates the stars pulses.The time delays of KIC 7917485spulsations show a periodic oscillation, indicating the presence of an orbiting companion. [Murphy et al. 2016]By modeling the stars light curve, the authors were able to determine that its companion is roughly 12 Jupiter masses, has an orbital eccentricity of ~0.15, and orbits once every ~840 days. This period suggests the planets location is consistent with its hosts habitable zone, making this the first planet that has been found near the habitable zone for a main-sequence A star.This successful discovery despite the planet not having been detected via transits, direct imaging, or other techniques suggests that looking for modulation in the pulses of hot, variable stars may be an excellent new way to find planets orbiting them.CitationSimon J. Murphy et al 2016 ApJ 827 L17. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/827/1/L17

  13. PLANETS ON THE EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2014-05-20

    Hot Jupiters formed through circularization of high-eccentricity orbits should be found at orbital separations a exceeding twice that of their Roche limit a {sub R}. Nevertheless, about a dozen giant planets have now been found well within this limit (a {sub R} < a < 2 a {sub R}), with one coming as close as 1.2 a {sub R}. In this Letter, we show that orbital decay (starting beyond 2 a {sub R}) driven by tidal dissipation in the star can naturally explain these objects. For a few systems (WASP-4 and 19), this explanation requires the linear reduction in convective tidal dissipation proposed originally by Zahn and verified by recent numerical simulations, but rules out the quadratic prescription proposed by Goldreich and Nicholson. Additionally, we find that WASP-19-like systems could potentially provide direct empirical constraints on tidal dissipation, as we could soon be able to measure their orbital decay through high precision transit timing measurements.

  14. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    There exists strong circumstantial evidence from their eccentric orbits that most of the known extra-solar planetary systems are the survivors of violent dynamical instabilities. Here we explore the effect of giant planet instabilities on the formation and survival of terrestrial planets. We numerically simulate the evolution of planetary systems around Sun-like stars that include three components: (i) an inner disk of planetesimals and planetary embryos; (ii) three giant planets at Jupiter-Saturn distances; and (iii) an outer disk of planetesimals comparable to estimates of the primitive Kuiper belt. We calculate the dust production and spectral energy distribution of each system by assuming that each planetesimal particle represents an ensemble of smaller bodies in collisional equilibrium. Our main result is a strong correlation between the evolution of the inner and outer parts of planetary systems, i.e. between the presence of terrestrial planets and debris disks. Strong giant planet instabilities - that produce very eccentric surviving planets - destroy all rocky material in the system, including fully-formed terrestrial planets if the instabilities occur late, and also destroy the icy planetesimal population. Stable or weakly unstable systems allow terrestrial planets to accrete in their inner regions and significant dust to be produced in their outer regions, detectable at mid-infrared wavelengths as debris disks. Stars older than ~100 Myr with bright cold dust emission (in particular at λ ~ 70 μm) signpost dynamically calm environments that were conducive to efficient terrestrial accretion. Such emission is present around ~16% of billion-year old Solar-type stars. Our simulations yield numerous secondary results: 1) the typical eccentricities of as-yet undetected terrestrial planets are ~0.1 but there exists a novel class of terrestrial planet system whose single planet undergoes large amplitude oscillations in orbital eccentricity and inclination; 2) by

  15. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  16. MIGRATION RATES OF PLANETS DUE TO SCATTERING OF PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Ormel, C. W.; Ida, S.; Tanaka, H. E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2012-10-20

    Planets migrate due to the recoil they experience from scattering solid (planetesimal) bodies. To first order, the torques exerted by the interior and exterior disks will cancel, analogous to the cancellation of the torques from the gravitational interaction with the gas (Type-I migration). Assuming the dispersion-dominated regime and power laws characterized by indices {alpha} and {beta} for the surface density and eccentricity profiles, we calculate the net torque on the planet. We consider both distant encounters and close (orbit-crossing) encounters. We find that the close and distant encounter torques have opposite signs with respect to {alpha} and {beta}; and that the torque is especially sensitive to the eccentricity gradient {beta}. Compared to Type-I migration due to excitation of density waves, the planetesimal-driven migration rate is generally lower due to the lower surface density of solids in gas-rich disk, although this may be partially or fully offset when their eccentricity and inclinaton are small. Allowing for the feedback of the planet on the planetesimal disk through viscous stirring, we find that under certain conditions a self-regulated migration scenario emerges, in which the planet migrates at a steady pace that approaches the rate corresponding to the one-sided torque. If the ratio of the local disk mass in planetesimals to planet mass is low, however, migration will stall. We quantify the boundaries separating the three accretion regimes.

  17. Planet 9 From Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    At the outskirts of the solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune, lies an expansive field of icy debris known as the Kuiper belt. The orbits of the individual asteroid-like bodies within the Kuiper belt trace out highly elongated elliptical paths, and require hundreds to thousands of years to complete a single revolution around the Sun. Although the majority of the Kuiper belt's dynamical structure can be understood within the framework of the known eight-planet solar system, bodies with orbital periods longer than about 4,000 years exhibit a peculiar orbital alignment that eludes explanation. What sculpts this alignment and how is it preserved? In this talk, I will argue that the observed clustering of Kuiper belt orbits can be maintained by a distant, eccentric, Neptune-like planet, whose orbit lies in approximately the same plane as those of the distant Kuiper belt objects, but is anti-aligned with respect to those of the small bodies. In addition to accounting for the observed grouping of orbits, the existence of such a planet naturally explains other, seemingly unrelated dynamical features of the solar system.

  18. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (beta = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass <=1 M{sub J} and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of beta = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a {approx} 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  19. Long-term orbital stability of exosolar planetary systems with highly eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Voyatzis, George

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, many extrasolar planetary systems possessing at least one planet on a highly eccentric orbit have been discovered. In this work, we study the possible long-term stability of such systems. We consider the general three body problem as our model. Highly eccentric orbits are out of the Hill stability regions. However, mean motion resonances can provide phase protection and orbits with long-term stability exist. We construct maps of dynamical stability based on the computation of chaotic indicators and we figure out regions in phase space, where the long-term stability is guaranteed. We focus on regions where at least one planet is highly eccentric and attempt to associate them with the existence of stable periodic orbits. The values of the orbital elements, which are derived from observational data, are often given with very large deviations. Generally, phase space regions of high eccentricities are narrow and thus, our dynamical analysis may restrict considerably the valid domain of the system's location.

  20. Dynamics of Tidally Captured Planets in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trani, Alessandro A.; Mapelli, Michela; Spera, Mario; Bressan, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations suggest ongoing planet formation in the innermost parsec of the Galactic center. The supermassive black hole (SMBH) might strip planets or planetary embryos from their parent star, bringing them close enough to be tidally disrupted. Photoevaporation by the ultraviolet field of young stars, combined with ongoing tidal disruption, could enhance the near-infrared luminosity of such starless planets, making their detection possible even with current facilities. In this paper, we investigate the chance of planet tidal captures by means of high-accuracy N-body simulations exploiting Mikkola's algorithmic regularization. We consider both planets lying in the clockwise (CW) disk and planets initially bound to the S-stars. We show that tidally captured planets remain on orbits close to those of their parent star. Moreover, the semimajor axis of the planetary orbit can be predicted by simple analytic assumptions in the case of prograde orbits. We find that starless planets that were initially bound to CW disk stars have mild eccentricities and tend to remain in the CW disk. However, we speculate that angular momentum diffusion and scattering by other young stars in the CW disk might bring starless planets into orbits with low angular momentum. In contrast, planets initially bound to S-stars are captured by the SMBH on highly eccentric orbits, matching the orbital properties of the clouds G1 and G2. Our predictions apply not only to planets but also to low-mass stars initially bound to the S-stars and tidally captured by the SMBH.

  1. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  2. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION DURING THE MIGRATION AND RESONANCE CROSSINGS OF THE GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Ito, Takashi

    2013-08-10

    The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets in the planetesimal disk. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migration. In total, 68 high-resolution simulation runs using 2000 disk planetesimals were performed, which was a significant improvement on previously published results. Even when the effects of the 1:2 MMR crossing and planet migration were included in the system, Venus and Earth analogs (considering both orbits and masses) successfully formed in several runs. In addition, we found that the orbits of planetesimals beyond a {approx} 1.5-2 AU were dynamically depleted by the strengthened sweeping secular resonances associated with Jupiter's and Saturn's more eccentric orbits (relative to the present day) during planet migration. However, this depletion did not prevent the formation of massive Mars analogs (planets with more than 1.5 times Mars's mass). Although late MMR crossings (at t > 30 Myr) could remove such planets, Mars-like small mass planets survived on overly excited orbits (high e and/or i), or were completely lost in these systems. We conclude that the orbital migration and crossing of the mutual 1:2 MMR of Jupiter and Saturn are unlikely to provide suitable orbital conditions for the formation of solar system terrestrial planets. This suggests that to explain Mars's small mass and the absence of other planets between Mars and Jupiter, the outer asteroid belt must have suffered a severe depletion due to interactions with Jupiter/Saturn, or by an alternative mechanism (e.g., rogue super-Earths)

  3. The Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    What happens to Tattooine-like planets that are instead in unstable orbits around their binary star system? A new study examines whether such planets will crash into a host star, get ejected from the system, or become captured into orbit around one of their hosts.Orbit Around a DuoAt this point we have unambiguously detected multiple circumbinary planets, raising questions about these planets formation and evolution. Current models suggest that it is unlikely that circumbinary planets would be able to form in the perturbed environment close their host stars. Instead, its thought that the planets formed at a distance and then migrated inwards.One danger such planets face when migrating is encountering ranges of radii where their orbits become unstable. Two scientists at the University of Chicago, Adam Sutherland and Daniel Fabrycky, have studied what happens when circumbinary planets migrate into such a region and develop unstable orbits.Producing Rogue PlanetsTime for planets to either be ejected or collide with one of the two stars, as a function of the planets starting distance (in AU) from the binary barycenter. Colors represent different planetary eccentricities. [Sutherland Fabrycky 2016]Sutherland and Fabrycky used N-body simulations to determine the fates of planets orbiting around a star system consisting of two stars a primary like our Sun and a secondary roughly a tenth of its size that are separated by 1 AU.The authors find that the most common fate for a circumbinary planet with an unstable orbit is ejection from the system; over 80% of unstable planets were ejected. This has interesting implications: if the formation of circumbinary planets is common, this mechanism could be filling the Milky Way with a population of free-floating, rogue planets that no longer are associated with their host star.The next most common outcome for unstable planets is collision with one of their host stars (most often the secondary), resulting inaccretion of the planet

  4. Distribution and Origin of Hot Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauge, Cristian

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Close-in (or Hot) planets, usually defined as those having semimajor axes a < 0.1 AU (or orbital periods P < 10 days), are the easiest to detect, both with radial velocity (RV) surveys and transits. More than 300 members are currently known, and a much larger number of candidates has been proposed from transits. Since it is believed that these bodies cannot have been formed in-situ, they constitute an interesting population from which to derive information about orbital migration and dynamical evolution of planetary systems in general. In this talk we review some recent results on the dynamical characteristics of close-in planets, including the existence of both resonant and near-resonant configurations, planet multiplicity, eccentricity distribution and inclinations with respect to the stellar equator. We discuss how disk-induced migration, planet-planet scattering and tidal effects may help us explain several of these dynamical traits, although others are still poorly understood. Finally, we analyze the similarities and differences found in small (Earth to Neptune) and large (Jovian) size planets, and how these may reflect different evolutionary histories.

  5. Milankovitch cycles of terrestrial planets in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-12-01

    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N-Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular time-scales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P- and S-type binary systems, respectively. In the first case, Earth-like planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycles (of order 1000 yr) in eccentricity, obliquity and precession, inducing temperature oscillations of similar periods (modulated by other planets in the system). These secular temperature variations have amplitudes similar to those induced on the much shorter time-scale of the binary period. In the Alpha Centauri system, the influence of the secondary produces eccentricity variations on 15 000 yr time-scales. This produces climate oscillations of similar strength to the variation on the orbital time-scale of the binary. Phase drifts between eccentricity and obliquity oscillations creates further cycles that are of order 100 000 yr in duration, which are further modulated by neighbouring planets.

  6. Sharp Eccentric Rings in Planetless Hydrodynamical Models of Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyra, W.; Kuchner, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanets are often associated with disks of dust and debris, analogs of the Kuiper Belt in our solar system. These "debris disks" show a variety of non-trivial structures attributed to planetary perturbations and utilized to constrain the properties of the planets. However, analyses of these systems have largely ignored the fact that, increasingly, debris disks are found to contain small quantities of gas, a component all debris disks should contain at some level. Several debris disks have been measured with a dust-to-gas ratio around unity where the effect of hydrodynamics on the structure of the disk cannot be ignored. Here we report that dust-gas interactions can produce some of the key patterns seen in debris disks that were previously attributed to planets. Through linear and nonlinear modeling of the hydrodynamical problem, we find that a robust clumping instability exists in this configuration, organizing the dust into narrow, eccentric rings, similar to the Fomalhaut debris disk. The hypothesis that these disks might contain planets, though thrilling, is not necessarily required to explain these systems.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF ECCENTRIC HOT NEPTUNE GJ436b

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Lodders, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    GJ436b is a unique member of the transiting extrasolar planet population being one of the smallest and least irradiated and possessing an eccentric orbit. Because of its size, mass, and density, GJ436b could plausibly have an atmospheric metallicity similar to Neptune (20-60 times solar abundances), which makes it an ideal target to study the effects of atmospheric metallicity on dynamics and radiative transfer in an extrasolar planetary atmosphere. We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models that include realistic non-gray radiative transfer for 1, 3, 10, 30, and 50 times solar atmospheric metallicity cases of GJ436b. Low metallicity models (1 and 3 times solar) show little day/night temperature variation and strong high-latitude jets. In contrast, higher metallicity models (30 and 50 times solar) exhibit day/night temperature variations and a strong equatorial jet. Spectra and light curves produced from these simulations show strong orbital phase dependencies in the 50 times solar case and negligible variations with orbital phase in the 1 times solar case. Comparisons between the predicted planet/star flux ratio from these models and current secondary eclipse measurements support a high metallicity atmosphere (30-50 times solar abundances) with disequilibrium carbon chemistry at play for GJ436b. Regardless of the actual atmospheric composition of GJ436b, our models serve to illuminate how metallicity influences the atmospheric circulation for a broad range of warm extrasolar planets.

  8. Optimization of Planet Finder Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinukoff, E.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate radial velocity observing strategies to be considered for future planethunting surveys with the Automated Planet Finder, a new 2.4-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Observing strategies can be optimized to mitigate stellar noise, which can mask and imitate the weak Doppler signals of low-mass planets. We estimate and compare sensitivities of 5 different observing strategies to planets around G2-M2 dwarfs, constructing RV noise models for each stellar spectral type, accounting for acoustic, granulation, and magnetic activity modes. The strategies differ in exposure time, nightly and monthly cadence, and number of years. Synthetic RV time-series are produced by injecting a planet signal onto the stellar noise, sampled according to each observing strategy. For each star and each observing strategy, thousands of planet injection recovery trials are conducted to determine the detection efficiency as a function of orbital period, minimum mass, and eccentricity. We find that 4-year observing strategies of 10 nights per month are sensitive to planets ~25-40% lower in mass than the corresponding 1 year strategies of 30 nights per month. Three 5-minute exposures spaced evenly throughout each night provide a 10% gain in sensitivity over the corresponding single 15-minute exposure strategies. All strategies are sensitive to planets of lowest mass around the modeled K7 dwarf. This study indicates that APF surveys adopting the 4-year strategies should detect Earth-mass planets on < 10-day orbits around quiet late-K dwarfs as well as > 1.6 Earth-mass planets in their habitable zones.

  9. Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Scott J; Bromley, Benjamin C

    2004-12-02

    The Kuiper belt extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 au to an abrupt outer edge about 50 au from the Sun. Beyond the edge is a sparse population of objects with large orbital eccentricities. Neptune shapes the dynamics of most Kuiper belt objects, but the recently discovered planet 2003 VB12 (Sedna) has an eccentric orbit with a perihelion distance of 70 au, far beyond Neptune's gravitational influence. Although influences from passing stars could have created the Kuiper belt's outer edge and could have scattered objects into large, eccentric orbits, no model currently explains the properties of Sedna. Here we show that a passing star probably scattered Sedna from the Kuiper belt into its observed orbit. The likelihood that a planet at 60-80 au can be scattered into Sedna's orbit is about 50 per cent; this estimate depends critically on the geometry of the fly-by. Even more interesting is the approximately 10 per cent chance that Sedna was captured from the outer disk of the passing star. Most captures have very high inclination orbits; detection of such objects would confirm the presence of extrasolar planets in our own Solar System.

  10. Eccentric Exercise: Physiological Characteristics and Acute Responses.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-04-01

    An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin. Accordingly, neural strategies controlling eccentric contractions also differ with a greater, and possibly distinct, cortical activation observed despite an apparently lower activation at the level of the motor unit. The characteristics of eccentric contractions are associated with several acute physiological responses to eccentrically-emphasised exercise. Differences in neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal and anabolic signalling responses during, and following, an eccentric exercise bout have frequently been observed in comparison to concentric exercise. Subsequently, the high levels of muscular strain with such exercise can induce muscle damage which is rarely observed with other contraction types. The net result of these eccentric contraction characteristics and responses appears to be a novel adaptive signal within the neuromuscular system.

  11. New planetary systems from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Tuomi, M.; Díaz, M.; Cordero, J. P.; Aguayo, A.; Pantoja, B.; Arriagada, P.; Mahu, R.; Brahm, R.; Rojo, P.; Soto, M. G.; Ivanyuk, O.; Becerra Yoma, N.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Ruiz, M. T.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Barnes, J. R.; Murgas, F.; Pinfield, D. J.; Jones, M. I.; López-Morales, M.; Shectman, S.; Butler, R. P.; Minniti, D.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of eight new giant planets, and updated orbits for four known planets, orbiting dwarf and subgiant stars using the CORALIE, HARPS, and MIKE instruments as part of the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search. The planets have masses in the range 1.1-5.4 MJ's, orbital periods from 40 to 2900 d, and eccentricities from 0.0 to 0.6. They include a double-planet system orbiting the most massive star in our sample (HD147873), two eccentric giant planets (HD128356b and HD154672b), and a rare 14 Herculis analogue (HD224538b). We highlight some population correlations from the sample of radial velocity detected planets orbiting nearby stars, including the mass function exponential distribution, confirmation of the growing body of evidence that low-mass planets tend to be found orbiting more metal-poor stars than giant planets, and a possible period-metallicity correlation for planets with masses >0.1 MJ, based on a metallicity difference of 0.16 dex between the population of planets with orbital periods less than 100 d and those with orbital periods greater than 100 d.

  12. The formation efficiency of close-in planets via Lidov-Kozai migration: analytic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong; Liu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Lidov-Kozai oscillations of planets in stellar binaries, combined with tidal dissipation, can lead to the formation of hot Jupiters (HJs) or tidal disruption of planets. Recent population synthesis studies have found that the fraction of systems resulting in HJs ({F}_HJ) depends strongly on the planet mass, host stellar type and tidal dissipation strength, while the total migration fraction {F}_mig ={F}_HJ+{F}_dis (including both HJ formation and tidal disruption) exhibits much weaker dependence. We present an analytical method for calculating {F}_HJ and {F}_mig in the Lidov-Kozai migration scenario. The key ingredient of our method is to determine the critical initial planet-binary inclination angle that drives the planet to reach sufficiently large eccentricity for efficient tidal dissipation or disruption. This calculation includes the effects of the octupole potential and short-range forces on the planet. Our analytical method reproduces the planet migration/disruption fractions obtained from population synthesis, and can be easily implemented for various planet and stellar/companion types, and for different distributions of initial planetary semimajor axes, binary separations and eccentricities. We extend our calculations to planets in the super-Earth mass range and discuss the conditions for such planets to survive Lidov-Kozai migration and form close-in rocky planets.

  13. Modelling the dynamics of a hypothetical Planet X by way of gravitational N-body simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Michael; Hughes, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a novel activity to model the dynamics of a Jupiter-mass, trans-Neptunian planet of a highly eccentric orbit. Despite a history rooted in modern astronomy, ‘Planet X’, a hypothesised hidden planet lurking in our outer Solar System, has often been touted by conspiracy theorists as the cause of past mass extinction events on Earth, as well as other modern-day doomsday scenarios. Frequently dismissed as pseudoscience by astronomers, these stories continue to draw the attention of the public by provoking mass media coverage. Targeted at junior undergraduate levels, this activity allows students to debunk some of the myths surrounding Planet X by using simulation software to demonstrate that such a large-mass planet with extreme eccentricity would be unable to enter our Solar System unnoticed, let alone maintain a stable orbit.

  14. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  15. HD 285507b: An eccentric hot Jupiter in the hyades open cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel J.; Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Torres, Guillermo; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael C.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fűrész, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of the first hot Jupiter in the Hyades open cluster. HD 285507b orbits a V = 10.47 K4.5V dwarf (M {sub *} = 0.734 M {sub ☉}; R {sub *} = 0.656 R {sub ☉}) in a slightly eccentric (e=0.086{sub −0.019}{sup +0.018}) orbit with a period of 6.0881{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0019} days. The induced stellar radial velocity corresponds to a minimum companion mass of M {sub P}sin i = 0.917 ± 0.033 M {sub Jup}. Line bisector spans and stellar activity measures show no correlation with orbital phase, and the radial velocity amplitude is independent of wavelength, supporting the conclusion that the variations are caused by a planetary companion. Follow-up photometry indicates with high confidence that the planet does not transit. HD 285507b joins a small but growing list of planets in open clusters, and its existence lends support to a planet formation scenario in which a high stellar space density does not inhibit giant planet formation and migration. We calculate the circularization timescale for HD 285507b to be larger than the age of the Hyades, which may indicate that this planet's non-zero eccentricity is the result of migration via interactions with a third body. We also demonstrate a significant difference between the eccentricity distributions of hot Jupiters that have had time to tidally circularize and those that have not, which we interpret as evidence against Type II migration in the final stages of hot Jupiter formation. Finally, the dependence of the circularization timescale on the planetary tidal quality factor, Q {sub P}, allows us to constrain the average value for hot Jupiters to be logQ{sub P}=6.14{sub −0.25}{sup +0.41}.

  16. A Planet Orbiting 47 Ursae Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1996-06-01

    The G0 V star 47 UMa exhibits very low amplitude radial velocity variations having a period of 2.98 yr, a velocity amplitude of K = 45.5 m s-1, and small eccentricity. The residuals scatter by 11 m s-1 from a Keplerian fit to the 34 velocity measurements obtained during 8 yr. The minimum mass of the unseen companion is M2 sin i = 2.39 MJ, and for likely orbital inclinations of 30 deg--90 deg, its mass is less than 4.8 MJ. This mass resides in a regime associated with extrasolar giant planets (Burrows and coworkers). Unlike the planet candidates 70 Vir B and 51 Peg B, this companion has an orbital radius (2.1 AU) and eccentricity (e = 0.03) reminiscent of giant planets in our solar system. Its effective temperature will be at least 180 K due simply to absorbed stellar radiation, and probably slightly higher due to intrinsic heating from gravitational contraction (Guillot and coworkers). For 47 UMa B to be, instead, an orbiting brown dwarf of mass M > 40 MJ, the inclination would have to be i < 3.dg4, which occurs for only 0.18% of randomly oriented orbits. In any case, this companion is separated from the primary star by ~0."2, which portends follow-up work by astrometric and direct IR techniques.

  17. Minor planets and comets in libration about the 2:1 resonance with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, F. A.; Marsden, B. G.; Williams, J. G.; Bardwell, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    We examine the orbits of minor planets in a search for objects librating about the 2:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Some 30 candidates are found among the Palomar-Leiden Survey and other unnumbered minor planets. Although almost all the orbits are very uncertain, there does seem to be an indication that librators of low orbital eccentricity do exist, contrary to the hypothesis by Giffen. We also tabulate data describing 12 comets that are temporarily librating about the 2:1 resonance. Finally, we present a discussion of what are apparently 'apocentric' librations. This type of libration, of which we find seven representatives among the numbered minor planets, can occur only for sufficiently small eccentricity. For such bodies, the role of Jupiter's eccentricity is vital; it is associated with a continuing alternation between apocentric libration and an oscillation of the line of apsides.

  18. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  19. Finding Planet Nine: a Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-06-01

    Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet located well beyond Pluto that has been proposed in an attempt to explain the observed clustering in physical space of the perihelia of six extreme trans-Neptunian objects or ETNOs. The predicted approximate values of its orbital elements include a semimajor axis of 700 au, an eccentricity of 0.6, an inclination of 30°, and an argument of perihelion of 150°. Searching for this putative planet is already under way. Here, we use a Monte Carlo approach to create a synthetic population of Planet Nine orbits and study its visibility statistically in terms of various parameters and focusing on the aphelion configuration. Our analysis shows that, if Planet Nine exists and is at aphelion, it might be found projected against one out of the four specific areas in the sky. Each area is linked to a particular value of the longitude of the ascending node and two of them are compatible with an apsidal anti-alignment scenario. In addition and after studying the current statistics of ETNOs, a cautionary note on the robustness of the perihelia clustering is presented.

  20. Kepler-79's low density planets

    SciTech Connect

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-10

    Kepler-79 (KOI-152) has four planetary candidates ranging in size from 3.5 to 7 times the size of the Earth, in a compact configuration with orbital periods near a 1:2:4:6 chain of commensurability, from 13.5 to 81.1 days. All four planets exhibit transit timing variations with periods that are consistent with the distance of each planet to resonance with its neighbors. We perform a dynamical analysis of the system based on transit timing measurements over 1282 days of Kepler photometry. Stellar parameters are obtained using a combination of spectral classification and the stellar density constraints provided by light curve analysis and orbital eccentricity solutions from our dynamical study. Our models provide tight bounds on the masses of all four transiting bodies, demonstrating that they are planets and that they orbit the same star. All four of Kepler-79's transiting planets have low densities given their sizes, which is consistent with other studies of compact multiplanet transiting systems. The largest of the four, Kepler-79 d (KOI-152.01), has the lowest bulk density yet determined among sub-Saturn mass planets.

  1. On the dynamical habitability of Trojan planets in exoplanetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, R.; Funk, B.; Bazsó, Á.; Eggl, S.

    2017-03-01

    Besides the hierarchical configurations exoplanets have been observed in so far, Earth-analogs can theoretically exist in co-orbital motion with giant planets. Those so-called Trojan planets share the same orbit as their Jovian hosts, trailing or leading by approximately 60 degrees in mean anomaly. If a giant planet was situated in the habitable zone (HZ) of an exoplanetary system coorbital terrestrial worlds could in principle also be habitable provided their orbits are "tame enough". In this paper, we study the dynamical properties of Earth-like Trojan planets in their host stars' respective HZs. We investigate the orbital stability of possible Trojan planets near the Lagrangian equilibrium points L_4 and L_5 for several candidate systems. Our numerical simulations have been carried out using the planar three-body problem, in case the extrasolar system contains only one known planet and the n-body problem with more than one planet in the system. We study the stability region around the equilibrium points and counted the number of stable orbits concentrating on the dependencies between the semimajor axis, the eccentricity and the argument of perihelion of the Trojan planet. We found that of the investigated 14 systems 6 support stable Trojan planets in the system's HZ, namely HD 5891, HD 28185, WASP-41, HD 11755, HD 221287 and HD 13908.

  2. INTERACTION OF A GIANT PLANET IN AN INCLINED ORBIT WITH A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Marzari, F.; Nelson, Andrew F. E-mail: andy.nelson@lanl.go

    2009-11-10

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a Jovian-mass planet injected into an orbit highly inclined with respect to its nesting gaseous disk. Planet-planet scattering induced by convergent planetary migration and mean motion resonances may push a planet into such an out-of-plane configuration with inclinations as large as 20{sup 0}-30{sup 0}. In this scenario, the tidal interaction of the planet with the disk is more complex and, in addition to the usual Lindblad and corotation resonances, it also involves inclination resonances responsible for bending waves. We have performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the disk and of its interactions with the planet with a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. A main result is that the initial large eccentricity and inclination of the planetary orbit are rapidly damped on a timescale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr, almost independently of the initial semimajor axis and eccentricity of the planet. The disk is warped in response to the planet perturbations and it precesses. Inward migration also occurs when the planet is inclined, and it has a drift rate that is intermediate between type I and type II migration. The planet is not able to open a gap until its inclination becomes lower than approx10{sup 0}, when it also begins to accrete a significant amount of mass from the disk.

  3. PREDICTING A THIRD PLANET IN THE KEPLER-47 CIRCUMBINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinse, Tobias C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Kostov, Veselin B.; Goździewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-20

    We have studied the possibility that a third circumbinary planet in the Kepler-47 planetary system is the source of the single unexplained transiting event reported during the discovery of these planets. We applied the MEGNO technique to identify regions in the phase space where a third planet can maintain quasi-periodic orbits, and assessed the long-term stability of the three-planet system by integrating the entire five bodies (binary + planets) for 10 Myr. We identified several stable regions between the two known planets as well as a region beyond the orbit of Kepler-47c where the orbit of the third planet could be stable. To constrain the orbit of this planet, we used the measured duration of the unexplained transit event (∼4.15 hr) and compared that with the transit duration of the third planet in an ensemble of stable orbits. To remove the degeneracy among the orbits with similar transit durations, we considered the planet to be in a circular orbit and calculated its period analytically. The latter places an upper limit of 424 days on the orbital period of the third planet. Our analysis suggests that if the unexplained transit event detected during the discovery of the Kepler-47 circumbinary system is due to a planetary object, this planet will be in a low eccentricity orbit with a semi-major axis smaller than 1.24 AU. Further constraining of the mass and orbital elements of this planet requires a re-analysis of the entire currently available data, including those obtained post-announcement of the discovery of this system. We present details of our methodology and discuss the implication of the results.

  4. WASP-17b: AN ULTRA-LOW DENSITY PLANET IN A PROBABLE RETROGRADE ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Smalley, B.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Gillon, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Hebb, L.; Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B.; Horne, K.; Parley, N. R.; West, R. G.; Lister, T. A.; Pollacco, D.

    2010-01-20

    We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense planet currently known. It is 1.6 Saturn masses, but 1.5-2 Jupiter radii, giving a density of 6%-14% that of Jupiter. WASP-17b is in a 3.7 day orbit around a sub-solar metallicity, V = 11.6, F6 star. Preliminary detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect suggests that WASP-17b is in a retrograde orbit (lambda approx -150{sup 0}), indicative of a violent history involving planet-planet or star-planet scattering. WASP-17b's bloated radius could be due to tidal heating resulting from recent or ongoing tidal circularization of an eccentric orbit, such as the highly eccentric orbits that typically result from scattering interactions. It will thus be important to determine more precisely the current orbital eccentricity by further high-precision radial velocity measurements or by timing the secondary eclipse, both to reduce the uncertainty on the planet's radius and to test tidal-heating models. Owing to its low surface gravity, WASP-17b's atmosphere has the largest scale height of any known planet, making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy.

  5. Gravitational scattering as a possible origin for giant planets at small stellar distances.

    PubMed

    Weidenschilling, S J; Marzari, F

    The recent discoveries of massive planetary companions orbiting several solar-type stars pose a conundrum. Conventional models for the formation of giant planets (such as Jupiter and Saturn) place such objects at distances of several astronomical units from the parent star, whereas all but one of the new objects are on orbits well inside 1 AU; these planets must therefore have originated at larger distances and subsequently migrated inwards. One suggested migration mechanism invokes tidal interactions between the planet and the evolving circumstellar disk. Such a mechanism results in planets with small, essentially circular orbits, which appears to be the case for many of the new planets. But two of the objects have substantial orbital eccentricities, which are difficult to reconcile with a tidal-linkage model. Here we describe an alternative model for planetary migration that can account for these large orbital eccentricities. If a system of three or more giant planets form about a star, their orbits may become unstable as they gain mass by accreting gas from the circumstellar disk; subsequent gravitational encounters among these planets can eject one from the system while placing the others into highly eccentric orbits both closer and farther from the star.

  6. Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-02-18

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection.

  7. Conjugate natural convection between horizontal eccentric cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Davood; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-03-01

    This study involved the numerical investigation of conjugate natural convection between two horizontal eccentric cylinders. Both cylinders were considered to be isothermal with only the inner cylinder having a finite wall thickness. The momentum and energy equations were discretized using finite volume method and solved by employing SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results were presented for various solid-fluid conductivity ratios ( KR) and various values of eccentricities in different thickness of inner cylinder wall and also for different angular positions of inner cylinder. From the results, it was observed that in an eccentric case, and for KR < 10, an increase in thickness of inner cylinder wall resulted in a decrease in the average equivalent conductivity coefficient (overline{{K_{eq} }}); however, a KR > 10 value caused an increase in overline{{K_{eq} }}. It was also concluded that in any angular position of inner cylinder, the value of overline{{K_{eq} }} increased with increase in the eccentricity.

  8. Measuring the masses, radii and orbital eccentricities of sub-Neptunes with transit timing variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-05-01

    Outside our solar system, there is a small sample of planets with known masses and radii, mostly hot jupiters whose radii are known from transit depths, and whose masses are determined from radial velocity spectroscopy (RV). In the absence of mass determinations via RV observations, transit timing variations (TTVs) offer a chance to probe perturbations between planets that pass close to one another or are near resonance, and hence dynamical fits to observed transit times can measure planetary masses and orbital parameters. Such modeling can probe planetary masses at longer orbital periods than RV targets, although not without some challenges. For example, in modeling pairwise planetary perturbations near first order mean motion resonances, a degeneracy between eccentricity and mass exists that limits the accuracy of mass determinations. Nevertheless, in several compact multiplanet systems, fitting complex TTV signals can break the degeneracy, permitting useful mass constraints, and precise measures of small but non-zero eccentricity.The precision in measuring the radius of a transiting planet rests on the uncertainty in the stellar radius, which is typically ~10% for targets with spectral follow-up. With dynamical fits, however, solutions for the orbital parameters including the eccentricity vectors can, alongside the transit light curves, tightly constrain the stellar density and radius. Alongside spectroscopic data, our dynamical fits to TTVs reduced the stellar and hence planetary radius uncertainties at Kepler-11 and Kepler-79 to just 2%, permitting useful planetary density determinations. In the case of Kepler-79, planetary bulk densities are remarkably low given the planetary masses. Indeed, several multiplanet systems characterized by TTV show much lower planetary densities than typical RV determinations in the same mass range. While this reflects the detection biases of both techniques, it also represents a growing sample of characterized systems of

  9. Habitability of Earth-like Planet Disturbed by a Third Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cássia Domingos, Rita; Almeida Prado, A. B.; Winter, O.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In this work, we investigate the habitability of “Earth-like” exoplanets disturbed by a giant planet. The assumptions used here are the same ones of the restricted elliptic three-body problem, which means that there is a central main body, a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit and a third body with a negligible mass both around this main body. First, we consider a habitable zone of 0.9 to 1.37 AU. Then, we numerically simulate the whole system taking into account a distribution of massless particles. This study is made considering a range of different values for semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination of the disturbing body. In particular, the so-called critical angle of the third-body disturbing, which is a value for the inclination such that any near-circular orbit with inclination below this remains near circular, is discussed for Earth-like planets into habitable zone. The results obtained show that orbits of a habitable Earth-like planet is still possible if the disturbing body has low inclination and/or eccentricity. This means that the planet would be located within the habitable zone. However, high eccentricity and/or inclination for disturbing body imply that Earth-like planet orbit changes to a highly eccentric orbit with pericenter and/or apocenter distances outside the habitable zone on short time-scales.

  10. Terrestrial planet formation surrounding close binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-11-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around both components of some young close binary star systems. Additionally, it has been shown that if planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. Herein, we numerically simulate the late stages of terrestrial planet growth in circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations 0.05 AU⩽a⩽0.4 AU and binary eccentricities 0⩽e⩽0.8. In each simulation, the sum of the masses of the two stars is 1 M, and giant planets are included. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet formation within our Solar System by Chambers [Chambers, J.E., 2001. Icarus 152, 205-224], and around each individual component of the α Centauri AB binary star system by Quintana et al. [Quintana, E.V., Lissauer, J.J., Chambers, J.E., Duncan, M.J., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, 982-996]. Multiple simulations are performed for each binary star system under study, and our results are statistically compared to a set of planet formation simulations in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system that begin with essentially the same initial disk of protoplanets. The planetary systems formed around binaries with apastron distances Q≡a(1+e)≲0.2 AU are very similar to those around single stars, whereas those with larger maximum separations tend to be sparcer, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. We also provide formulae that can be used to scale results of planetary accretion simulations to various systems with different total stellar mass, disk sizes, and planetesimal masses and densities.

  11. Constraining the primordial orbits of the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Walsh, K. J.; Nesvorný, D.

    2013-08-01

    late giant planet migration scenario that initially had five giant planets rather than four had a higher probability of satisfying the orbital constraints of the terrestrial planets. Assuming late migration, we predict that Mars was initially on an eccentric and inclined orbit while the orbits of Mercury, Venus and Earth were more circular and coplanar. The lower primordial dynamical excitement and the peculiar partitioning between planets impose new constraints for terrestrial planet formation simulations.

  12. Thermal-orbital coupled tidal heating and habitability of Martian-sized extrasolar planets around M stars

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, D.; Kurita, K.

    2014-07-01

    M-type stars are good targets in the search for habitable extrasolar planets. Due to their low effective temperatures, the habitable zone of M stars is very close to the stars themselves. For planets that are close to their stars, tidal heating plays an important role in thermal and orbital evolutions, especially when the planet's orbit has a relatively large eccentricity. Although tidal heating interacts with the thermal state and the orbit of the planet, such coupled calculations for extrasolar planets around M stars have not been conducted. We perform coupled calculations using simple structural and orbital models and analyze the thermal state and habitability of a terrestrial planet. Considering this planet to be Martian-sized, the tide heats up and partially melts the mantle, maintaining an equilibrium state if the mass of the star is less than 0.2 times the mass of the Sun and the initial eccentricity of the orbit is more than 0.2. The reduction of heat dissipation due to the melted mantle allows the planet to stay in the habitable zone for more than 10 Gyr even though the orbital distance is small. The surface heat flux at the equilibrium state is between that of Mars and Io. The thermal state of the planet mainly depends on the initial value of the eccentricity and the mass of the star.

  13. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  14. Origin of the peculiar eccentricity distribution of the inner cold Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Gaspar, H. S.; Nesvorny, D.

    2014-04-01

    Dawson and Murray-Clay (Dawson and Murray-Clay [2012]. Astrophys. J., 750, 43) pointed out that the inner part of the cold population in the Kuiper belt (that with semi major axis a<43.5 AU) has orbital eccentricities significantly smaller than the limit imposed by stability constraints. Here, we confirm their result by looking at the orbital distribution and stability properties in proper element space. We show that the observed distribution could have been produced by the slow sweeping of the 4/7 mean motion resonance with Neptune that accompanied the end of Neptune’s migration process. The orbital distribution of the hot Kuiper belt is not significantly affected in this process, for the reasons discussed in the main text. Therefore, the peculiar eccentricity distribution of the inner cold population cannot be unequivocally interpreted as evidence that the cold population formed in situ and was only moderately excited in eccentricity; it can simply be the signature of Neptune’s radial motion, starting from a moderately eccentric orbit. We discuss how this agrees with a scenario of giant planet evolution following a dynamical instability and, possibly, with the radial transport of the cold population.

  15. The Photoeccentric Effect and Proto-hot Jupiters. III. A Paucity of Proto-hot Jupiters on Super-eccentric Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-01-01

    Gas giant planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars are unlikely to have formed in situ and are evidence for planetary migration. It is debated whether the typical hot Jupiter smoothly migrated inward from its formation location through the proto-planetary disk, or was perturbed by another body onto a highly eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrank and circularized during close stellar passages. Socrates and collaborators predicted that the latter model should produce a population of super-eccentric proto-hot Jupiters readily observable by Kepler. We find a paucity of such planets in the Kepler sample, which is inconsistent with the theoretical prediction with 96.9% confidence. Observational effects are unlikely to explain this discrepancy. We find that the fraction of hot Jupiters with an orbital period P > 3 days produced by the star-planet Kozai mechanism does not exceed (at two-sigma) 44%. Our results may indicate that disk migration is the dominant channel for producing hot Jupiters with P > 3 days. Alternatively, the typical hot Jupiter may have been perturbed to a high eccentricity by interactions with a planetary rather than stellar companion, and began tidal circularization much interior to 1 AU after multiple scatterings. A final alternative is that early in the tidal circularization process at high eccentricities tidal circularization occurs much more rapidly than later in the process at low eccentricities, although this is contrary to current tidal theories.

  16. THE PHOTOECCENTRIC EFFECT AND PROTO-HOT JUPITERS. III. A PAUCITY OF PROTO-HOT JUPITERS ON SUPER-ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-01-10

    Gas giant planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars are unlikely to have formed in situ and are evidence for planetary migration. It is debated whether the typical hot Jupiter smoothly migrated inward from its formation location through the proto-planetary disk, or was perturbed by another body onto a highly eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrank and circularized during close stellar passages. Socrates and collaborators predicted that the latter model should produce a population of super-eccentric proto-hot Jupiters readily observable by Kepler. We find a paucity of such planets in the Kepler sample, which is inconsistent with the theoretical prediction with 96.9% confidence. Observational effects are unlikely to explain this discrepancy. We find that the fraction of hot Jupiters with an orbital period P > 3 days produced by the star-planet Kozai mechanism does not exceed (at two-sigma) 44%. Our results may indicate that disk migration is the dominant channel for producing hot Jupiters with P > 3 days. Alternatively, the typical hot Jupiter may have been perturbed to a high eccentricity by interactions with a planetary rather than stellar companion, and began tidal circularization much interior to 1 AU after multiple scatterings. A final alternative is that early in the tidal circularization process at high eccentricities tidal circularization occurs much more rapidly than later in the process at low eccentricities, although this is contrary to current tidal theories.

  17. FORMATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS FROM A NARROW ANNULUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2009-09-20

    We show that the assembly of the solar system terrestrial planets can be successfully modeled with all of the mass initially confined to a narrow annulus between 0.7 and 1.0 AU. With this configuration, analogs of Mercury and Mars often form from the collisional evolution of material diffusing out of the annulus under the scattering of the forming Earth and Venus analogs. The final systems also possess eccentricities and inclinations that match the observations, without recourse to dynamical friction from remnant small body populations. Finally, the characteristic assembly timescale for Earth analogs is rapid in this model and consistent with cosmochemical models based on the {sup 182}Hf-{sup 182}W isotopes. The agreement between this model and the observations suggests that terrestrial planet systems may also be formed in 'planet traps', as has been proposed recently for the cores of giant planets in our solar system and others.

  18. Analysis of ballistic capture in Sun-planet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Z.-F.; Topputo, F.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of ballistic capture orbits in Sun-planet systems is conducted in this paper. This mechanism utilizes purely gravitational forces, and may occur in non-Keplerian regimes. Ballistic capture orbits are generated by proper manipulation of sets of initial conditions that satisfy a simple definition of stability. Six Sun-planet systems are considered, including the inner planets, Jupiter, and Saturn. The role of planets orbital eccentricity, their true anomaly, and mass ratios is investigated. Moreover, the influence of the post-capture orbit in terms of inclination and orientation is also assessed. Analyses are performed from qualitative and quantitative perspective. The quality of capture orbits is measured by means of the stability index, whereas the capture ratio gives information on their statistical occurrence. Some underlying principles on the selection of the dynamical model, the initial true anomaly, and inclination are obtained. These provide a reference for practical cases.

  19. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    independent constraints for the solar system's birth environment. Next, we addressed a significant drawback of the original Nice model, namely its inability to create the physically unique, cold classical population of the Kuiper Belt. Specifically, we showed that a locally-formed cold belt can survive the transient instability, and its relatively calm dynamical structure can be reproduced. The last four chapters of this thesis address various aspects and consequences of dynamical relaxation of planetary orbits through dissipative effects as well as the formation of planets in binary stellar systems. Using octopole-order secular perturbation theory, we demonstrated that in multi-planet systems, tidal dissipation often drives orbits onto dynamical "fixed points," characterized by apsidal alignment and lack of periodic variations in eccentricities. We applied this formalism towards investigating the possibility that the large orbital eccentricity of the transiting Neptune-mass planet Gliese 436b is maintained in the face of tidal dissipation by a second planet in the system and computed a locus of possible orbits for the putative perturber. Following up along similar lines, we used various permutations of secular theory to show that when applied specifically to close-in low-mass planetary systems, various terms in the perturbation equations become separable, and the true masses of the planets can be solved for algebraically. In practice, this means that precise knowledge of the system's orbital state can resolve the sin( i) degeneracy inherent to non-transiting planets. Subsequently, we investigated the onset of chaotic motion in dissipative planetary systems. We worked in the context of classical secular perturbation theory, and showed that planetary systems approach chaos via the so-called period-doubling route. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chaotic strange attractors can exist in mildly damped systems, such as photo-evaporating nebulae that host multiple planets. Finally

  20. Perturbation of Compact Planetary Systems by Distant Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Bradley M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the effect of secular perturbations by giant planets on systems of multiple, lower mass planets orbiting Sun-like stars and compare our results to the statistics of the observed Kepler data. We cannot reproduce the observed excess of single transitting planets by pumping only inclination without driving most systems to dynamical instability. Thus we expect the underlying planetary population for single transitting planets to contain an intrinsically low multiplicity component. We can reproduce the Kepler statistics and occurrence rates for R < 2R⊕ planets with a perturber population consistent with that inferred from radial velocity surveys, but require too many giant planets if we wish to explain all planets with R < 4R⊕. These numbers can be brought into agreement if we posit the existence of an equivalent size population of planets below the RV detection limit (of characteristic mass ˜0.1MJ). This population would need to be dynamically hot to produce sufficiently strong perturbations and would leave the imprint of high obliquities and eccentricities amongst the surviving planets. The histories of our perturbed populations also produce a significant number of planets that are lost by collision with the star and some that are driven to short orbital periods by the combined action of secular evolution and tidal dissipation. Some of our simulations also produce planetary systems with planets that survive in the habitable zone but have no planets interior to them - much as in the case of our Solar System. Such configurations may occur around a few percent of FGK stars.

  1. Possible Observational Criteria for Distinguishing Brown Dwarfs From Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The difference in formation process between binary stars and planetary systems is reflected in their composition, as well as orbital architecture, particularly in their orbital eccentricity as a function of orbital period. It is suggested here that this difference can be used as an observational criterion to distinguish between brown dwarfs and planets. Application of the orbital criterion suggests that, with three possible exceptions, all of the recently discovered substellar companions may be brown dwarfs and not planets. These criterion may be used as a guide for interpretation of the nature of substellar-mass companions to stars in the future.

  2. Orbital Architectures of Planet-Hosting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from our Keck AO astrometric monitoring of Kepler Prime Mission planet-hosting binary systems. Observational biases in exoplanet discovery have long left the frequency, properties, and provenance of planets in most binary systems largely unconstrained. Recent results from our ongoing survey of a volume-limited sample of Kepler planet hosts indicate that binary companions at solar-system scales of 20-100 AU suppress the occurrence of planetary systems at a rate of 30-100%. However, some planetary systems do survive in binaries, and determining these systems' orbital architectures is key to understanding why. As a demonstration of this new approach to testing ideas of planet formation, we present a detailed analysis of the triple star system Kepler-444 (HIP 94931) that hosts five Ganymede- to Mars-sized planets. By combining our high-precision astrometry with radial velocities from HIRES we discover a highly eccentric stellar orbit that would have made this a seemingly hostile site for planet formation. This either points to an extremely robust and efficient planet formation mechanism or a rare case of favorable initial conditions. Such broader implications will be addressed by determining orbital architectures for our larger statistical sample of Kepler planet-hosting systems that have stellar companions on solar system scales.

  3. MIGRATION OF PLANETS EMBEDDED IN A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-07-01

    Planetary migration poses a serious challenge to theories of planet formation. In gaseous and planetesimal disks, migration can remove planets as quickly as they form. To explore migration in a planetesimal disk, we combine analytic and numerical approaches. After deriving general analytic migration rates for isolated planets, we use N-body simulations to confirm these results for fast and slow migration modes. Migration rates scale as m{sup -1} (for massive planets) and (1 + (e{sub H}/3){sup 3}){sup -1}, where m is the mass of a planet and e{sub H} is the eccentricity of the background planetesimals in Hill units. When multiple planets stir the disk, our simulations yield the new result that large-scale migration ceases. Thus, growing planets do not migrate through planetesimal disks. To extend these results to migration in gaseous disks, we compare physical interactions and rates. Although migration through a gaseous disk is an important issue for the formation of gas giants, we conclude that migration has little impact on the formation of terrestrial planets.

  4. ARE THE KEPLER NEAR-RESONANCE PLANET PAIRS DUE TO TIDAL DISSIPATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Man Hoi; Fabrycky, D.; Lin, D. N. C. E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com

    2013-09-01

    The multiple-planet systems discovered by the Kepler mission show an excess of planet pairs with period ratios just wide of exact commensurability for first-order resonances like 2:1 and 3:2. In principle, these planet pairs could have both resonance angles associated with the resonance librating if the orbital eccentricities are sufficiently small, because the width of first-order resonances diverges in the limit of vanishingly small eccentricity. We consider a widely held scenario in which pairs of planets were captured into first-order resonances by migration due to planet-disk interactions, and subsequently became detached from the resonances, due to tidal dissipation in the planets. In the context of this scenario, we find a constraint on the ratio of the planet's tidal dissipation function and Love number that implies that some of the Kepler planets are likely solid. However, tides are not strong enough to move many of the planet pairs to the observed separations, suggesting that additional dissipative processes are at play.

  5. ON THE MIGRATION OF JUPITER AND SATURN: CONSTRAINTS FROM LINEAR MODELS OF SECULAR RESONANT COUPLING WITH THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2012-02-01

    We examine how the late divergent migration of Jupiter and Saturn may have perturbed the terrestrial planets. Using a modified secular model we have identified six secular resonances between the {nu}{sub 5} frequency of Jupiter and Saturn and the four apsidal eigenfrequencies of the terrestrial planets (g{sub 1-4}). We derive analytic upper limits on the eccentricity and orbital migration timescale of Jupiter and Saturn when these resonances were encountered to avoid perturbing the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values larger than the observed ones. Because of the small amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial eigenmodes the g{sub 2} - {nu}{sub 5} and g{sub 3} - {nu}{sub 5} resonances provide the strongest constraints on giant planet migration. If Jupiter and Saturn migrated with eccentricities comparable to their present-day values, smooth migration with exponential timescales characteristic of planetesimal-driven migration ({tau} {approx} 5-10 Myr) would have perturbed the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values greatly exceeding the observed ones. This excitation may be mitigated if the eccentricity of Jupiter was small during the migration epoch, migration was very rapid (e.g., {tau} {approx}< 0.5 Myr perhaps via planet-planet scattering or instability-driven migration) or the observed small eccentricity amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial modes result from low probability cancellation of several large amplitude contributions. Results of orbital integrations show that very short migration timescales ({tau} < 0.5 Myr), characteristic of instability-driven migration, may also perturb the terrestrial planets' eccentricities by amounts comparable to their observed values. We discuss the implications of these constraints for the relative timing of terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and the origin of the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon 3.9 {+-} 0.1 Ga ago. We suggest that the simplest way to satisfy these

  6. DAY-SIDE z'-BAND EMISSION AND ECCENTRICITY OF WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rogers, Justin C.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam; Spiegel, David S.; Apai, Daniel; Adams, Elisabeth R.

    2010-06-10

    We report the detection of the eclipse of the very hot Jupiter WASP-12b via z'-band time-series photometry obtained with the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium telescope at Apache Point Observatory. We measure a decrease in flux of 0.082% {+-} 0.015% during the passage of the planet behind the star. That planetary flux is equally well reproduced by atmospheric models with and without extra absorbers, and blackbody models with f {>=} 0.585 {+-} 0.080. It is therefore necessary to measure the planet at other wavelengths to further constrain its atmospheric properties. The eclipse appears centered at phase {phi} = 0.5100{sup +0.0072}{sub -0.0061}, consistent with an orbital eccentricity of |ecos {omega}| = 0.016{sup +0.011}{sub -0.009} (see note at the end of Section 4). If the orbit of the planet is indeed eccentric, the large radius of WASP-12b can be explained by tidal heating.

  7. Stochasticity and predictability in terrestrial planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Volker; Grimm, Simon L.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This is a result of the chaotic evolution of trajectories which are highly sensitive to minuscule displacements. We determine that differences between systems evolved from virtually identical initial conditions can be larger than the differences between systems evolved from very different initial conditions. This implies that individual simulations lack predictive power. For example, there is not a reproducible mapping between the initial and final surface density profiles. However, some key global properties can still be extracted if the statistical spread across many simulations is considered. Based on these spreads, we explore the collisional growth and orbital properties of terrestrial planets, which assemble from different initial conditions (we vary the initial planetesimal distribution, planetesimal masses, and giant planet orbits.). Confirming past work, we find that the resulting planetary systems are sculpted by sweeping secular resonances. Configurations with giant planets on eccentric orbits produce fewer and more massive terrestrial planets on tighter orbits than those with giants on circular orbits. This is further enhanced if the initial mass distribution is biased to the inner regions. In all cases, the outer edge of the system is set by the final location of the ν6 resonance and we find that the mass distribution peaks at the ν5 resonance. Using existing observations, we find that extrasolar systems follow similar trends. Although differences between our numerical modelling and exoplanetary systems remain, we suggest that CoRoT-7, HD 20003 and HD 20781 may host undetected giant planets.

  8. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  9. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-10-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of ˜30 M⊙ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on time scales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO and the Einstein Telescope to such effects. We show that if PBHs make up the dark matter, then roughly one event should have a detectable eccentricity given LIGO's expected sensitivity and observing time of six years. The Einstein Telescope should see O (10 ) such events after ten years.

  10. A four-planet system orbiting the K0V star HD 141399

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Kibrick, Robert; Burt, Jennifer; Hanson, Russell; Laughlin, Gregory; Meschiari, Stefano; Henry, Gregory W.

    2014-06-01

    We present precision radial velocity (RV) data sets from Keck-HIRES and from Lick Observatory's new Automated Planet Finder Telescope and Levy Spectrometer on Mt. Hamilton that reveal a multiple-planet system orbiting the nearby, slightly evolved, K-type star HD 141399. Our 91 observations over 10.5 yr suggest the presence of four planets with orbital periods of 94.35, 202.08, 1070.35, and 3717.35 days and minimum masses of 0.46, 1.36, 1.22, and 0.69 M{sub J} , respectively. The orbital eccentricities of the three inner planets are small, and the phase curves are well sampled. The inner two planets lie just outside the 2:1 resonance, suggesting that the system may have experienced dissipative evolution during the protoplanetary disk phase. The fourth companion is a Jupiter-like planet with a Jupiter-like orbital period. Its orbital eccentricity is consistent with zero, but more data will be required for an accurate eccentricity determination.

  11. Planet 9 and the Inclination of the Solar Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Gomes, Rodney S.; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    It has been recently proposed (Batygin and Brown, 2016; Brown and Batygin, 2016) that the existence of a distant 10-Earth mass planet in the outer Solar System, commonly known as Planet 9, could explain the orbital quasi-alignment of the six objects with the largest semimajor axis in the Kuiper Belt. This putative distant planet should have an orbit with semimajor axis between 300 and 900 AU, perihelion distance between 200 and 350 AU, and orbital inclination of about 30 degrees to the ecliptic plane. Here we evaluate the effects of Planet 9 on the dynamics of the "inner" giant planets of the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We find that, given the large distance of Planet 9, the dynamics of the inner giant planets can be decomposed into a classic Lagrange-Laplace dynamics relative to their own invariant plane (the plane orthogonal to their total angular momentum vector) and a slow precession of said plane relative to the total angular momentum vector of the Solar System, including Planet 9. Under some specific configurations for Planet 9, this precession can explain the current tilt between the invariant plane of the inner giant planets and the solar equator. Given that the planes of the proto-planetary disk and of the solar equator should have coincided, the current tilt of ~6 degrees is surprising and was so far unexplained. An analytical model is developed to map the evolution of the inclination of the inner giant planets' invariable plane as a function of the Planet 9's mass, inclination, eccentricity and semimajor axis, and some numerical simulations of the equations of motion of the giant planets and Planet 9 are performed to validade our analytical approach. Some of the Planet 9 configurations that allow explaining the current solar tilt are compatible with those proposed to explain the orbital confinement of the most distant Kuiper belt objects. Thus, this work on the one hand gives an elegant explanation for the current tilt between the

  12. Late-stage accretion and habitability of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Sean Neylon

    The final stage in the formation of terrestrial planets consists of the accumulation of ~1000 km "planetary embryos" and ~1 km planetesimals via collisional accretion., under the mutual gravity of other solid bodies and the gas giant planets (if any). Water is delivered to planets via collisions with volatile-rich bodies that condensed past the snow line, beyond about 2.5 AU. We present results of a large number of relatively low-resolution simulations, designed to assess the predictability of systems of terrestrial planets as a function of "observables" such as the orbit of gas giant planets. These show that a variety of terrestrial planets can form, from small, dry, Mars-like worlds to planets with similar properties to Earth, to >3 Earth mass "water worlds" with >=30 times as much water as the Earth. The terrestrial planets are largely shaped by the influence of the giant planets and the surface density of material. We have uncovered trends between the terrestrial planets and (i) the mass, (ii) the orbital distance and (iii) the orbital eccentricity of a giant planet, (iv) the surface density of the disk, and (v) the disk's density profile. Five simulations with 1000-2000 particles reveal new aspects of the accretion process Water is delivered to the terrestrial planets as a few large planetesimals in a "hit or miss" process, and as billions of planetesimals in a robust way. The water delivery process is therefore more robust than previously thought, implying that the range of water contents of extra-solar Earths is less stochastic than indicated in previous studies; most planets accrete water- rich bodies. We simulate terrestrial accretion in the presence of close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot jupiters"), assuming these form and migrate quickly. Potentially habitable planets can form in these systems, but are likely to be iron-poor. Asteroid belts may exist between the terrestrial planets and hot jupiters in these systems. We have also tested the accretion

  13. Observational constraints on planet formation and migration timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Trevor J.

    2017-01-01

    Short-period planets have the power to unlock many of the mysteries of planet formation and, fortunately, they are abundant. There is growing evidence that high-eccentricity migration channels are not responsible for all short-period planets; this notion is supported by the recent discovery of K2-33 b, a short-period, Neptune-sized exoplanet transiting a 5-10 Myr old star in the Upper Scorpius association. While in situ formation of K2-33 b can not be conclusively ruled out, the planet is parked just interior to the corotation radius, where theory predicts inwardly migrating planets are halted; this may be interpreted as tantalizing evidence of disk-driven migration. Occurrence rate studies of all clusters observed by K2 will allow for robust conclusions about the predominant modes of planet migration. Moreover, K2-33 b is likely still contracting, and should eventually join the populous class of close-in sub-Neptunes. In addition to K2-33 b, the Kepler/K2 mission has enabled the discovery of planets in the intermediate age Hyades and Praesepe clusters. Many of these close-in planets exhibit radii that are large given their semi-major axes and host star characteristics. It is possible that, even at ages of several hundred Myr, these planets have not finished contracting or are undergoing atmospheric mass loss. If this is the case, we are directly constraining the evolutionary timescales of short-period planets. Finally, the characteristic timescales of protoplanetary disk evolution (and thus giant planet formation) and debris disk evolution can be refined with new fundamental calibrators for pre-main sequence evolutionary models and modern catalogs of homogeneous stellar ages, respectively.

  14. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  15. Orbital parameter estimation of extrasolar multi-planet systems by Transit Time Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, J.; Grziwa, S.; Pätzold, M.

    2014-04-01

    Transit Time Variation (TTV) is the earlier or later occurrence of a planetary transit relative to the time of a reference transit. TTV may be dominantly caused by the gravitational perturbation of the orbit of the transiting planet by another still unknown planet(s) inside or outside of the orbit of the known transiting planet. Gravitational interactions perturb the velocity of the transiting planet in its orbit which manifests in the periodical perturbation of the revolution period. Measurements of the transit times and the identification of differences from a mean transit period may then indicate the presence of another unknown planet and is therefore proof for the existence of further planets. The estimation of the mass of the transiting planet and the orbital parameters of the undetected planet(s) are constrained by the amplitude of the periodical variation of the transit times. Simulations of known multi-planet systems which show TTV shall be presented. The resulting TTV amplitude is analyzed with regard to the main dependencies: mass of the perturbing planet and the orbit eccentricities.

  16. Urey Prize Lecture: Orbital Dynamics of Extrasolar Planets, Large and Small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric B.

    2012-10-01

    For centuries, planet formation theories were fine tuned to explain the details of solar system. Since 1999, the Doppler technique has discovered dozens of multiple planet systems. The diversity of architectures of systems with giant planets challenged previous theories and led to insights into planet formation, orbital migration and the excitation of orbital eccentricities and inclinations. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Precise measurements of the orbital period and phase constrain the significance of mutual gravitational interactions and potential orbital resonances. For systems that are tightly-packed or near an orbital resonance, measurements of transit timing variations provide a new means for confirming transiting planets and detecting non-transiting planets in multiple planet systems, even around faint target stars. Over the course of the extended mission, Kepler is poised to measure the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for 200 planets, providing precise (but complex) constraints on planetary masses, densities and orbits. I will survey the systems with multiple transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler and discuss early efforts to translate these observations into new constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets.

  17. Constraining the Masses of the Kepler-11 Planets through Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard T.

    2015-01-01

    The six transiting planets of Kepler-11 have all been found to have ultra-low densities through N-body dynamical analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of the six planets. Numerically reproducing TTVs has become a new method for solving the masses of planets, but this method is susceptible to certain dynamic degeneracies: the planet eccentricity is degenerate with the planet mass, and perturbations caused by non-transiting planets could be misattributed to the transiting planets. Furthermore, the masses of planets characterized by TTV analysis are systematically 2x lower than the masses (including non-detections) reported by radial velocity (RV) analysis for planets of the same radius. We address the discrepancy between the TTV- and RV-determined planet masses by measuring the RVs of Kepler-11 at opportunistic times, as determined by the ephemerides of the transiting planets. We place an upper limit on the masses of the Kepler-11 planets using RVs and preliminarily show that the RVs are consistent with the ultra-low mass scenario determined by the TTVs. The lack of disagreement between the TTVs and RVs in the Kepler-11 system bodes well for N-body simulations of TTVs for other Kepler systems that are too faint for RV follow-up.

  18. The Search for Planet X: Testing Inferences from the Kuiper Cliff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-04

    eccentric one. Uranus and Neptune would also transfer some angular momentum to the body, further altering the orbit, and ultimately causing the body to...large for easy recognition. The orbits of the planets that can be seen are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus , Neptune, and Pluto, and are shown in red

  19. Had the Planet Mars Not Existed: Kepler's Equant Model and Its Physical Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracco, C.; Provost, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the equant model for the motion of planets, which was the starting point of Kepler's investigations before he modified it because of Mars observations. We show that, up to first order in eccentricity, this model implies for each orbit a velocity, which satisfies Kepler's second law and Hamilton's hodograph, and a centripetal…

  20. Unstable force analysis for induction motor eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Palazzolo, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing popularity of motors in machinery trains has led to an intensified interest in the forces they produce that may influence machinery vibration. Motor design typically assumes a uniform air gap, however in practice all motors operate with the rotor slightly displaced from the motor centerline in what is referred to as an eccentric position. Rotor center eccentricity can cause a radially unbalanced magnetic field when the motor is operating. This will results in both a radial force pulling the motor further away from the center, and a tangential force which can induce a vibration stability problem. In this paper, a magnetic equivalent circuit MEC modeling method is proposed to calculate both the radial and tangential motor eccentric force. The treatment of tangential force determination is rarely addressed, but it is very important for rotordynamic vibration stability evaluation. The proposed model is also coupled with the motor electric circuit model to provide capability for transient vibration simulations. FEM is used to verify the MEC model. A parametric study is performed on the motor radial and tangential eccentric forces. Also a Jeffcott rotor model is used to study the influence of the motor eccentric force on mechanical vibration stability and nonlinear behavior. Furthermore, a stability criteria for the bearing damping is provided. The motor radial and tangential eccentric forces are both curved fitted to include their nonlinearity in time domain transient simulation for both a Jeffcott rotor model and a geared machinery train with coupled torsional-lateral motion. Nonlinear motions are observed, including limit cycles and bifurcation induced vibration amplitude jumps.

  1. SECULAR RESONANCE SWEEPING OF THE MAIN ASTEROID BELT DURING PLANET MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Minton, David A.; Malhotra, Renu E-mail: renu@lpl.arizona.edu

    2011-05-01

    We calculate the eccentricity excitation of asteroids produced by the sweeping {nu}{sub 6} secular resonance during the epoch of planetesimal-driven giant planet migration in the early history of the solar system. We derive analytical expressions for the magnitude of the eccentricity change and its dependence on the sweep rate and on planetary parameters; the {nu}{sub 6} sweeping leads to either an increase or a decrease of eccentricity depending on an asteroid's initial orbit. Based on the slowest rate of {nu}{sub 6} sweeping that allows a remnant asteroid belt to survive, we derive a lower limit on Saturn's migration speed of {approx}0.15 AU Myr{sup -1} during the era that the {nu}{sub 6} resonance swept through the inner asteroid belt (semimajor axis range 2.1-2.8 AU). This rate limit is for Saturn's current eccentricity and scales with the square of its eccentricity; the limit on Saturn's migration rate could be lower if its eccentricity were lower during its migration. Applied to an ensemble of fictitious asteroids, our calculations show that a prior single-peaked distribution of asteroid eccentricities would be transformed into a double-peaked distribution due to the sweeping of the {nu}{sub 6} resonance. Examination of the orbital data of main belt asteroids reveals that the proper eccentricities of the known bright (H {<=} 10.8) asteroids may be consistent with a double-peaked distribution. If so, our theoretical analysis then yields two possible solutions for the migration rate of Saturn and for the dynamical states of the pre-migration asteroid belt: a dynamically cold state (single-peaked eccentricity distribution with mean of {approx}0.05) linked with Saturn's migration speed {approx}4 AU Myr{sup -1} or a dynamically hot state (single-peaked eccentricity distribution with mean of {approx}0.3) linked with Saturn's migration speed {approx}0.8 AU Myr{sup -1}.

  2. On the Habitability of Planets in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Eggl, S.; Gyergyovits, M.

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of more and more extra-solar planets in and around binary star systems cause questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone (HZ). We present calculations of the radiative and gravitational perturbations of two stars on a terrestrial planet moving in the HZ in different binary - planet configurations. Two types of planetary motion will be considered, i.e. S-type motion (or circumprimary motion) where the planet orbits one star only and P-type (or circumbinary motion) where the binary revolves inside the planet's orbit. It was found that the HZ in S-type configurations tend to be gravitationally dominated, the radiative input due to the second star is negligible compared to its dynamical influence causing secular changes in the eccentricity of the planets. This alters the amount of incident radiation significantly. In P-type configurations the radiation estimates can be determined on shorter time-scales. The radiation amplitude depends on the eccentricity of the binary in both configurations. Finally we present time independent analytical estimates about the habitability of a terrestrial planet in the HZ of a binary star system as shown by Eggl et al.(2012). This work was financed by the Austrian Science Fonds (FWF) P22603-N16 and AS11608-N16 and S.Eggl was financed by the University of Vienna (Forschungsstipendium 2012). Ref.: Eggl, S., Pilat-Lohinger, E., Gerogakarakos, N., Gyergyovits, M. and Funk, B., "Habitable Zones in S-Type Binary Star Systems", ApJ, submitted.

  3. Concentric and eccentric shoulder rehabilitation biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Kohles, S S; Gregorczyk, K N; Phillips, T C; Brody, L T; Orwin, I F; Vanderby, R

    2007-04-01

    The use of an impulse-momentum (IM) exercise technique was investigated for end-stage shoulder rehabilitation. The objectives of this study were to: (a) quantify the net shoulder joint forces and moments while using an IM system and (b) test the influence of gender and muscle loading type (concentric or eccentric) on kinetic and kinematic parameters. Fourteen healthy adults (eight males, six females) performed a repeated measures experiment on an instrumented device utilizing a cabled shuttle system. While maintaining 90 degrees of shoulder abduction and 90 degrees of elbow flexion, the subjects externally rotated their upper arm from 0 degrees to 90 degrees (concentric acceleration) and then internally rotated their upper arm back from 90 degrees to the 0 degrees position (eccentric deceleration). Shoulder joint forces and moments as well as rotational work and power were calculated using inverse dynamics (free-body forces and moments calculated at intersegmental joint centres). Overall concentric peak forces and moments were greater than eccentric peak forces and moments (P < 0.0001). Joint forces and moments reached a maximum during the initial phase of concentric loading (0 degrees to 45 degrees) compared with any other rotational position in the loading cycle (concentric 45 degrees to 90 degrees or eccentric 90 degrees to 0 degrees). The results also indicate that males experienced higher (P < 0.0001) average resultant peak joint forces (concentric 0 degrees to 45 degrees = 108.0 N and eccentric 90 degrees to 45 degrees = 87.2 N) than females (concentric 0 degrees to 45 degrees = 74.7 N and eccentric 45 degrees to 0 degrees = 56.0 N). In addition, males experienced higher (P < 0.0001) average resultant peak joint moments (concentric 0 degrees to 45 degrees = 30.4 N m and eccentric 45 degrees to 0 degrees = 21.0 N m) than females (concentric 0 degrees to 45 degrees = 19.7 N m and eccentric 45 degrees to 0 degrees = 12.8 N m).

  4. M2K. II. A TRIPLE-PLANET SYSTEM ORBITING HIP 57274

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Moriarty, John; Brewer, John; Spronck, Julien F. P.; Schwab, Christian; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Gaidos, Eric; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Johnson, John A.; Wright, Jason T.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Piskunov, Nikolai; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Isaacson, Howard; Apps, Kevin; Lepine, Sebastien; Mann, Andrew

    2012-01-20

    Doppler observations from Keck Observatory have revealed a triple-planet system orbiting the nearby K4V star, HIP 57274. The inner planet, HIP 57274b, is a super-Earth with Msin i = 11.6 M{sub Circled-Plus} (0.036 M{sub Jup}), an orbital period of 8.135 {+-} 0.004 days, and slightly eccentric orbit e = 0.19 {+-} 0.1. We calculate a transit probability of 6.5% for the inner planet. The second planet has Msin i = 0.4 M{sub Jup} with an orbital period of 32.0 {+-} 0.02 days in a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.05 {+-} 0.03). The third planet has Msin i = 0.53 M{sub Jup} with an orbital period of 432 {+-} 8 days (1.18 years) and an eccentricity e = 0.23 {+-} 0.03. This discovery adds to the number of super-Earth mass planets with M sin i < 12 M{sub Circled-Plus} that have been detected with Doppler surveys. We find that 56% {+-} 18% of super-Earths are members of multi-planet systems. This is certainly a lower limit because of observational detectability limits, yet significantly higher than the fraction of Jupiter mass exoplanets, 20% {+-} 8%, that are members of Doppler-detected, multi-planet systems.

  5. Effects of Variable Eccentricity on the Climate of an Earth-like World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler era of exoplanetary discovery has presented the astronomical community with a cornucopia of planetary systems that are very different from the one that we inhabit. It has long been known that Jupiter plays a major role in the orbital parameters of Mars and its climate, but there is also a long-standing belief that Jupiter would play a similar role for Earth if not for the Moon. Using a three-dimensional general circulation model (3D GCM) with a fully coupled ocean, we simulate what would happen to the climate of an Earth-like world if Mars did not exist, but a Jupiter-like planet was much closer to Earth’s orbit. We investigate two scenarios that involve the evolution of the Earth-like planet’s orbital eccentricity from 0 to 0.283 over 6500 years, and from 0 to 0.066 on a timescale of 4500 years. In both cases we discover that they would maintain relatively temperate climates over the timescales simulated. More Earth-like planets in multi-planet systems will be discovered as we continue to survey the skies and the results herein show that the proximity of large gas giant planets may play an important role in the habitability of these worlds. These are the first such 3D GCM simulations using a fully coupled ocean with a planetary orbit that evolves over time due to the presence of a giant planet.

  6. PLANETS AROUND THE K-GIANTS BD+20 274 AND HD 219415

    SciTech Connect

    Gettel, S.; Wolszczan, A.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamow, M.; Zielinski, P.; Maciejewski, G. E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of planet-mass companions to two giant stars by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The less massive of these stars, K5-giant BD+20 274, has a 4.2 M{sub J} minimum mass planet orbiting the star at a 578 day period and a more distant, likely stellar-mass companion. The best currently available model of the planet orbiting the K0-giant HD 219415 points to a {approx}> Jupiter-mass companion in a 5.7 year, eccentric orbit around the star, making it the longest period planet yet detected by our survey. This planet has an amplitude of {approx}18 m s{sup -1}, comparable to the median radial velocity 'jitter', typical of giant stars.

  7. HIDING IN THE SHADOWS: SEARCHING FOR PLANETS IN PRE-TRANSITIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Teanby, Nick A.

    2013-11-10

    Transitional and pre-transitional disks can be explained by a number of mechanisms. This work aims to find a single observationally detectable marker that would imply a planetary origin for the gap and, therefore, indirectly indicate the presence of a young planet. N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded planet of one Jupiter mass on the production of instantaneous collisional dust derived from a background planetesimal disk. Our new model allows us to predict the dust distribution and resulting observable markers with greater accuracy than previous works. Dynamical influences from a planet on a circular orbit are shown to enhance dust production in the disk interior and exterior to the planet orbit, while removing planetesimals from the orbit itself, creating a clearly defined gap. In the case of an eccentric planet, the gap opened by the planet is not as clear as the circular case, but there is a detectable asymmetry in the dust disk.

  8. Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets through Mean-Motion Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Exoplanets are often detected indirectly through their influence on the light arriving from their host stars. We propose another indirect method to detect and characterize planets via their resonant interaction with debris disks. Using simulations, we show that the properties of gaps produced by mean-motion resonances with a single planet orbiting interior or exterior to the disk can help constrain the planet's mass and semimajor axis even if the planet itself remains as-yet undetected. Results published in the Astrophysical Journal (ApJ, 818, 159) will be discussed as well as a follow-up study that attempts to constrain the perturbing planet's orbital eccentricity based on its effect on the disk. Expressions that allow observers to determine the planet's mass and orbital parameters from the width, shape and location of the gaps will be presented.

  9. Spacing of Kepler Planets: Sculpting by Dynamical Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bonan; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-07-01

    We study the orbital architecture of multi-planet systems detected by the Kepler transit mission using N-body simulations, focusing on the orbital spacing between adjacent planets in systems showing four or more transiting planets. We find that the observed spacings are tightly clustered around 12 mutual Hill radii, when transit geometry and sensitivity limits are accounted for. In comparison, dynamical integrations reveal that the minimum spacing required for systems of similar masses to survive dynamical instability for as long as 1 billion yr is ∼10 if all orbits are circular and coplanar and ∼12 if planetary orbits have eccentricities of ∼0.02 (a value suggested by studies of planet transit-time variations). This apparent coincidence, between the observed spacing and the theoretical stability threshold, leads us to propose that typical planetary systems were formed with even tighter spacing, but most, except for the widest ones, have undergone dynamical instability, and are pared down to a more anemic version of their former selves, with fewer planets and larger spacings. So while the high-multiple systems (five or more transiting planets) are primordial systems that remain stable, the single or double planetary systems, abundantly discovered by the Kepler mission, may be the descendants of more closely packed high-multiple systems. If this hypothesis is correct, we infer that the formation environment of Kepler systems should be more dissipative than that of the terrestrial planets.

  10. CALIBRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM TIDE THEORY FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEMS. II

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2012-09-20

    We present a new empirical calibration of equilibrium tidal theory for extrasolar planet systems, extending a prior study by incorporating detailed physical models for the internal structure of planets and host stars. The resulting strength of the stellar tide produces a coupling that is strong enough to reorient the spins of some host stars without causing catastrophic orbital evolution, thereby potentially explaining the observed trend in alignment between stellar spin and planetary orbital angular momentum. By isolating the sample whose spins should not have been altered in this model, we also show evidence for two different processes that contribute to the population of planets with short orbital periods. We apply our results to estimate the remaining lifetimes for short-period planets, examine the survival of planets around evolving stars, and determine the limits for circularization of planets with highly eccentric orbits. Our analysis suggests that the survival of circularized planets is strongly affected by the amount of heat dissipated, which is often large enough to lead to runaway orbital inflation and Roche lobe overflow.

  11. On the effect of eccentricity of a planetary orbit on the stability of satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichtiaroglou, S.; Voyatzis, G.

    1990-03-01

    The effect of the eccentricity of a planet's orbit on the stability of the orbits of its satellites is studied. The model used is the elliptic Hill case of the planar restricted three-body problem. The linear stability of all the known families of periodic orbits is computed. No stable orbits are found, the majority of them possessing one or two pairs of real eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix, while some with complex instability are found. Two families of periodic orbits, bifurcating from the Lagrangian points of the corresponding circular case are found analytically. These orbits are very unstable and the determination of their stability coefficients is not accurate.

  12. Coupled orbital and spin evolution of the CoRoT-7 two-planet system using a Maxwell viscoelastic rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A.; Callegari, N.; Correia, A. C. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the orbital and rotational evolution of the CoRoT-7 two-planet system, assuming that the innermost planet behaves like a Maxwell body. We numerically resolve the coupled differential equations governing the instantaneous deformation of the inner planet together with the orbital motion of the system. We show that, depending on the relaxation time for the deformation of the planet, the orbital evolution has two distinct behaviours: for relaxation times shorter than the orbital period, we reproduce the results from classic tidal theories, for which the eccentricity is always damped. However, for longer relaxation times, the eccentricity of the inner orbit is secularly excited and can grow to high values. This mechanism provides an explanation for the present high eccentricity observed for CoRoT-7 b, as well as for other close-in super-Earths in multiple planetary systems.

  13. The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Andrew; Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Wright, Jason T.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2008-05-01

    We analyze 8 years of precise radial velocity measurements from the Keck Planet Search, characterizing the detection threshold, selection effects, and completeness of the survey. We first carry out a systematic search for planets, by assessing the false-alarm probability associated with Keplerian orbit fits to the data. This allows us to understand the detection threshold for each star in terms of the number and time baseline of the observations, and the underlying “noise” from measurement errors, intrinsic stellar jitter, or additional low-mass planets. We show that all planets with orbital periods P < 2000 days, velocity amplitudes K > 20 m s-1, and eccentricities e ≲ 0.6 have been announced, and we summarize the candidates at lower amplitudes and longer orbital periods. For the remaining stars, we calculate upper limits on the velocity amplitude of a companion. For orbital periods less than the duration of the observations, these are typically 10 m s-1 and increase ∝ P2 for longer periods. We then use the nondetections to derive completeness corrections at low amplitudes and long orbital periods and discuss the resulting distribution of minimum mass and orbital period. We give the fraction of stars with a planet as a function of minimum mass and orbital period and extrapolate to long-period orbits and low planet masses. A power-law fit for planet masses >0.3 MJ and periods < 2000 days gives a mass-period distribution dN = CMα Pβ d ln Md ln P with α = -0.31 ± 0.2, β = 0.26 ± 0.1, and the normalization constant C such that 10.5% of solar type stars have a planet with mass in the range 0.3–10 MJ and orbital period 2–2000 days. The orbital period distribution shows an increase in the planet fraction by a factor of ≈5 for orbital periods ≳300 days. Extrapolation gives 17%–20% of stars having gas giant planets within 20 AU. Finally, we constrain the occurrence rate of planets orbiting M dwarfs compared to FGK dwarfs, taking into account

  14. A Research on Tidal Evolution of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we perform numerical simulations to investigate the tidal evolution of three single-planet systems, including WASP-43, GJ 1214, and Kepler-10 (in which Kepler-10c is considered as a perturber), and two multiple-planet systems, CoRoT-7 and Kepler-10. For the three single-planet systems, the results of the orbital evolution show that tidal decay and circularization may play a very significant role in shaping their final orbits. Especially, for Kepler-10b, considering the general relativity, a perturbed companion, and the stellar quadrupole, the results show that all these effects can be ignored during the tidal evolution. However, the above three kinds of effects, as well as planetary tide, may contribute to the apsidal precession for Kepler-10b, whose numerical precession period agrees quite well with that of the prediction of theory. For the two-planet cases, the tidal evolution of CoRoT-7 system is similar to previous works on the two planets migrating into the host star as well as circularization. But for Kepler-10 system, Kepler-10b may undergo orbital decay and circularization due to its extremely approximate to the host star. However, Kepler-10c's orbit simply performs slight oscillations in the semi-major axis and eccentricity owing to its much farther distance from the star than the inner planet's. In order to compare our results with those of CoRoT-7 system, we fabricate a two-planet system based on Kepler-10 system, in which Kepler-10c with an assumed nonzero eccentricity is located in a closer place within 0.05 au, accompanied with Kepler-10b whose initial eccentricity is assumed to be zero. The numerical results of orbital evolution for the fabricated system are well consistent with the tidal theory. Moreover, additional simulations with alternative values of dissipation factor Q^'_1 are carried out to explore tidal evolution for two planets of Kepler-10, whose outcomes may be indicative of a possible range of 50 ≤ Q^'_1 ≤ 200, and

  15. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  16. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  17. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ENGINE HOUSE IN REAR, NOTE ROD LINES EXITING ECCENTRIC HOUSE. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  18. Secular Orbital Dynamics of Hierarchical Two-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Ford, Eric B.

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of multi-planet extrasolar systems has kindled interest in using their orbital evolution as a probe of planet formation. Accurate descriptions of planetary orbits identify systems that could hide additional planets or be in a special dynamical state, and inform targeted follow-up observations. We combine published radial velocity data with Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses in order to obtain an ensemble of masses, semimajor axes, eccentricities, and orbital angles for each of the five dynamically active multi-planet systems: HD 11964, HD 38529, HD 108874, HD 168443, and HD 190360. We dynamically evolve these systems using 52,000 long-term N-body integrations that sample the full range of possible line-of-sight and relative inclinations, and we report on the system stability, secular evolution, and the extent of the resonant interactions. We find that planetary orbits in hierarchical systems exhibit complex dynamics and can become highly eccentric and maybe significantly inclined. Additionally, we incorporate the effects of general relativity in the long-term simulations and demonstrate that it can qualitatively affect the dynamics of some systems with high relative inclinations. The simulations quantify the likelihood of different dynamical regimes for each system and highlight the dangers of restricting simulation phase space to a single set of initial conditions or coplanar orbits.

  19. SECULAR ORBITAL DYNAMICS OF HIERARCHICAL TWO-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Veras, Dimitri; Ford, Eric B.

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of multi-planet extrasolar systems has kindled interest in using their orbital evolution as a probe of planet formation. Accurate descriptions of planetary orbits identify systems that could hide additional planets or be in a special dynamical state, and inform targeted follow-up observations. We combine published radial velocity data with Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses in order to obtain an ensemble of masses, semimajor axes, eccentricities, and orbital angles for each of the five dynamically active multi-planet systems: HD 11964, HD 38529, HD 108874, HD 168443, and HD 190360. We dynamically evolve these systems using 52,000 long-term N-body integrations that sample the full range of possible line-of-sight and relative inclinations, and we report on the system stability, secular evolution, and the extent of the resonant interactions. We find that planetary orbits in hierarchical systems exhibit complex dynamics and can become highly eccentric and maybe significantly inclined. Additionally, we incorporate the effects of general relativity in the long-term simulations and demonstrate that it can qualitatively affect the dynamics of some systems with high relative inclinations. The simulations quantify the likelihood of different dynamical regimes for each system and highlight the dangers of restricting simulation phase space to a single set of initial conditions or coplanar orbits.

  20. CONSEQUENCES OF THE EJECTION AND DISRUPTION OF GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lin, Douglas

    2011-05-10

    The discovery of Jupiter-mass planets in close orbits about their parent stars has challenged models of planet formation. Recent observations have shown that a number of these planets have highly inclined, sometimes retrograde orbits about their parent stars, prompting much speculation as to their origin. It is known that migration alone cannot account for the observed population of these misaligned hot Jupiters, which suggests that dynamical processes after the gas disk dissipates play a substantial role in yielding the observed inclination and eccentricity distributions. One particularly promising candidate is planet-planet scattering, which is not very well understood in the nonlinear regime of tides. Through three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of multi-orbit encounters, we show that planets that are scattered into an orbit about their parent stars with closest approach distance being less than approximately three times the tidal radius are either destroyed or completely ejected from the system. We find that as few as 9 and as many as 12 of the currently known hot Jupiters have a maximum initial apastron for scattering that lies well within the ice line, implying that these planets must have migrated either before or after the scattering event that brought them to their current positions. If stellar tides are unimportant (Q{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 7}), disk migration is required to explain the existence of the hot Jupiters present in these systems. Additionally, we find that the disruption and/or ejection of Jupiter-mass planets deposits a Sun's worth of angular momentum onto the host star. For systems in which planet-planet scattering is common, we predict that planetary hosts have up to a 35% chance of possessing an obliquity relative to the invariable plane of greater than 90{sup 0}.

  1. Eccentric superconducting RF cavity separator structure

    DOEpatents

    Aggus, John R.; Giordano, Salvatore T.; Halama, Henry J.

    1976-01-01

    Accelerator apparatus having an eccentric-shaped, iris-loaded deflecting cavity for an rf separator for a high energy high momentum, charged particle accelerator beam. In one embodiment, the deflector is superconducting, and the apparatus of this invention provides simplified machining and electron beam welding techniques. Model tests have shown that the electrical characteristics provide the desired mode splitting without adverse effects.

  2. Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno C; Benz, Willy; Mayor, Michel

    2005-10-14

    Since 1995, more than 150 extrasolar planets have been discovered, most of them in orbits quite different from those of the giant planets in our own solar system. The number of discovered extrasolar planets demonstrates that planetary systems are common but also that they may possess a large variety of properties. As the number of detections grows, statistical studies of the properties of exoplanets and their host stars can be conducted to unravel some of the key physical and chemical processes leading to the formation of planetary systems.

  3. Chain hexagonal cacti with the extremal eccentric distance sum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hui; Yu, Guihai

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti.

  4. Chain Hexagonal Cacti with the Extremal Eccentric Distance Sum

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti. PMID:24741365

  5. Stellar Companions to Stars with Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, J.; White, R. J.; Ghez, A. M.; McCabe, C.; McLean, I. S.; Larkin, J. E.; Prato, L.; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lloyd, J. P.; Liu, M. C.; Graham, J. R.; Macintosh, B. A.; Gavel, D. T.; Max, C. E.; Bauman, B. J.; Olivier, S. S.; Wizinowich, P.; Acton, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    A combination of high-resolution and wide-field imaging reveals two binary stars and one triple star system among the sample of the first 11 stars with planets detected by radial velocity variations. High-resolution speckle or adaptive optics (AO) data probe subarcsecond scales down to the diffraction limit of the Keck 10 m or the Lick 3 m, and direct images or AO images are sensitive to a wider field, extending to 10" or 38", depending on the camera. One of the binary system-HD 114762-was not previously known to be a spatially resolved multiple system; additional data taken with the combination of Keck adaptive optics and NIRSPEC are used to characterize the new companion. The second binary system-τ Boo-was a known multiple with two conflicting orbital solutions; the current data will help constrain the discrepant estimates of periastron time and separation. Another target-16 Cyg B-was a known common proper motion binary, but the current data resolve a new third component, close to the wide companion 16 Cyg A. Both the HD 114762 and 16 Cyg B systems harbor planets in eccentric orbits, while the τ Boo binary contains an extremely close planet in a tidally circularized orbit. Although the sample is currently small, the proportion of binary systems is comparable to that measured in the field over a similar separation range. Incorporating the null result from another companion search project lowers the overall fraction of planets in binary systems, but the detections in our survey reveal that planets can form in binaries separated by less than 50 AU.

  6. Predictions for shepherding planets in scattered light images of debris disks

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  7. HAT-P-17b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT SATURN AND A LONG-PERIOD, COLD JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Beky, B.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Perumpilly, G.; Shporer, A.; Mazeh, T.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I. E-mail: gbakos@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-04-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-17b,c, a multi-planet system with an inner transiting planet in a short-period, eccentric orbit and an outer planet in a 4.4 yr, nearly circular orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-17b, transits the bright V = 10.54 early K dwarf star GSC 2717-00417, with an orbital period P = 10.338523 {+-} 0.000009 days, orbital eccentricity e = 0.342 {+-} 0.006, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454801.16943 {+-} 0.00020 (BJD: barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1690 {+-} 0.0009 days. HAT-P-17b has a mass of 0.534 {+-} 0.018 M{sub J} and radius of 1.010 {+-} 0.029 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.64 {+-} 0.05 g cm{sup -3}. This planet has a relatively low equilibrium temperature in the range 780-927 K, making it an attractive target for follow-up spectroscopic studies. The outer planet, HAT-P-17c, has a significantly longer orbital period P{sub 2} = 1610 {+-} 20 days and a minimum mass m{sub 2}sin i{sub 2} = 1.31{sup +0.18}{sub -0.15} M{sub J}. The orbital inclination of HAT-P-17c is unknown as transits have not been observed and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.84 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5246 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.00 {+-} 0.08. HAT-P-17 is the second multi-planet system detected from ground-based transit surveys.

  8. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  9. Force matching errors following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Morgan, D L; Percival, P; Weerakkody, N S; Canny, B J

    2004-10-01

    During eccentric exercise contracting muscles are forcibly lengthened, to act as a brake to control motion of the body. A consequence of eccentric exercise is damage to muscle fibres. It has been reported that following the damage there is disturbance to proprioception, in particular, the senses of force and limb position. Force sense was tested in an isometric force-matching task using the elbow flexor muscles of both arms before and after the muscles in one arm had performed 50 eccentric contractions at a strength of 30% of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The exercise led to an immediate reduction of about 40%, in the force generated during an MVC followed by a slow recovery over the next four days, and to the development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) lasting about the same time. After the exercise, even though participants believed they were making an accurate match, they made large matching errors, in a direction where the exercised arm developed less force than the unexercised arm. This was true whichever arm was used to generate the reference forces, which were in a range of 5-30% of the reference arm's MVC, with visual feedback of the reference arm's force levels provided to the participant. The errors were correlated with the fall in MVC following the exercise, suggesting that participants were not matching force, but the subjective effort needed to generate the force: the same effort producing less force in a muscle weakened by eccentric exercise. The errors were, however, larger than predicted from the measured reduction in MVC, suggesting that factors other than effort might also be contributing. One factor may be DOMS. To test this idea, force matches were done in the presence of pain, induced in unexercised muscles by injection of hypertonic (5%) saline or by the application of noxious heat to the skin over the muscle. Both procedures led to errors in the same direction as those seen after eccentric exercise.

  10. A Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    M, a = 700 AU, and e = 0.6) on KBOs; click for a better look! The perihelion position of KBOs with a 250 AU clusters around 180 from the perihelion position of the perturbing planet. More-transparent points are less observable. [Batygin Brown 2016]The result? It turns out that such a distant planet can cause the orbits of KBOs with a 250 AU to all align in the opposite direction of the orbit of the planet. Whats more, the gravitational pull of this planet can also explain other unresolved puzzles about the Kuiper belt, such as the presence of high-perihelion Sedna-like objects, as well as a population of KBOs weve observed that have misaligned orbits.Unfortunately, Batygin and Brown found it isnt possible to exactly determine the properties of the possible planet, since multiple combinations of its mass, eccentricity, and semimajor axis can create the same observational results. That said, they believe the distant perturbers orbit is highly eccentric, its orbital inclination is low, and its fairly massive (since anything less than an Earth-mass wont create the observed clustering of KBO orbits within the age of the solar system).As an example, one possible set of parameters that approximately reproduces the observed KBO orbits is the following:planet mass of 10 Earth-massessemi-major axis of a = 700 AUeccentricity of e = 0.6This would correspond to a perihelion distance of 280 AU and an aphelion distance of 1,120 AU.The authors speculate such a planet might have been formed closer in to the Sun, but it was ejected later on during our solar systems evolution. Interactions with the Suns birth cluster could have then caused the planet to be retained in a bound orbit.Future TestsOur solar system on a logarithmic scale (click for the full view). KBOs with a semimajor axis of a 250 AU may be being aligned by a planetary-mass body with an even more distant orbit. [NASA]How can we test this hypothesis of a ninth planet? Obviously, directly observing the planet would confirm

  11. Characterizing Low-Mass Planets in Kepler's Multi-Planet Systems with Transit Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack; Rowe, Jason; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed an abundance of planets in a regime of mass and size that is absent from the Solar System. This includes systems of high multiplicity within 1 AU, where low-mass volatile-rich planets have been observed in compact orbital configurations. Smaller, rocky planets have also been observed in such systems. The existing sample of characterized planets on the mass-radius diagram shows no abrupt transition from rocky planets to those that must be volatile-rich, but characteristic trends are beginning to emerge. More precise characterizations of planets by mass, radius, and incident flux will aid in revealing fundamental properties of a common class of exoplanets. There is a small sample of exoplanets with known masses and radii, mostly hot jupiters whose radii are known from transit depths, and whose masses are determined from radial velocity spectroscopy (RV). In the absence of mass determinations via RV observations, transit timing variations (TTVs) offer a chance to probe perturbations between planets that pass close to one another or are near resonance, and hence dynamical fits to observed transit times can be used to measure planetary masses and orbital parameters. Such modelling with Kepler data probes planetary masses over orbital periods ranging from ~5-100 days, complementing the sample of RV detections. Furthermore, in select cases, dynamical fits to observed TTVs can tightly constrain the orbital eccentricity vectors, which can, alongside the transit light curve, tightly constrain the density and radius of the host star, and hence reduce the uncertainty on planetary radius. TTV studies have revealed a class of low-mass low-density objects with a substantial mass fraction in the form of a voluminous H-rich atmosphere. To these we add precise mass measurements of the outer planets of Kepler-33, a compact system with five known transiting planets, three of which show detectable transit timing variations. These results will be placed

  12. The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. II. A multiple planet system around HD 9446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, G.; Bonfils, X.; Ségransan, D.; Moutou, C.; Delfosse, X.; Bouchy, F.; Boisse, I.; Arnold, L.; Desort, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Eggenberger, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lovis, C.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Udry, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2010-04-01

    We report the discovery of a planetary system around HD 9446, performed from radial velocity measurements secured with the spectrograph SOPHIE at the 193-cm telescope of the Haute-Provence Observatory for more than two years. At least two planets orbit this G5V, active star: HD 9446b has a minimum mass of 0.7 MJup and a slightly eccentric orbit with a period of 30 days, whereas HD 9446c has a minimum mass of 1.8 MJup and a circular orbit with a period of 193 days. As for most of the known multiple planet systems, the HD 9446-system presents a hierarchical disposition with a massive outer planet and a lighter inner planet. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE Consortium (program 07A.PNP.CONS). The full version of Table 1 (SOPHIE measurements of HD 9446) is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/513/A69

  13. THE PAN-PACIFIC PLANET SEARCH. I. A GIANT PLANET ORBITING 7 CMa

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G.; Endl, Michael; Wang Liang; Johnson, John Asher; O'Toole, S. J.

    2011-12-20

    We introduce the Pan-Pacific Planet Search, a survey of 170 metal-rich Southern Hemisphere subgiants using the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. We report the first discovery from this program, a giant planet orbiting 7 CMa (HD 47205) with a period of 763 {+-} 17 days, eccentricity e = 0.14 {+-} 0.06, and msin i = 2.6 {+-} 0.6 M{sub Jup}. The host star is a K giant with a mass of 1.5 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.21 {+-} 0.10. The mass and period of 7 CMa b are typical of planets which have been found to orbit intermediate-mass stars (M{sub *} > 1.3 M{sub Sun }). Hipparcos photometry shows this star to be stable to 0.0004 mag on the radial-velocity period, giving confidence that this signal can be attributed to reflex motion caused by an orbiting planet.

  14. A transiting circumbinary planet in KIC 10753734

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Mills, Sean; Fabrycky, Daniel; Haghighipour, Nader; Windmiller, Gur

    2016-06-01

    KIC 10753734 is an eclipsing binary discovered by NASA's Kepler mission. The binary period is about 19.4 days with a moderately large eccentricity of e=0.52. Spectroscopic observations from McDonald Observatory show the system is double-lined, which allow us to derive masses for the primary and secondary stars, both of which are roughly solar-like. Two weak transit-like events separated by 6.5 days appear in the Kepler light curve near the end of the nominal mission. A careful examination of the light curve at earlier times reveals two weak transit events (separated by about 7 days) that occurred about 250 days earlier. We show that the two pairs of events represent transits of both stars at successive conjunctions of a circumbinary planet with a period of about 260 days and a radius of about 6 Earth radii. The lack of large eclipse timing variations limit the third body to be sub-stellar in mass, i.e. a planet. Despite the deep primary and secondary eclipses, the analysis is hampered by spots on both stars. We present a progress report on the modelling effort to date, and present preliminary characteristics of the planet.

  15. DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS THROUGH MEAN-MOTION RESONANCES. I. SIMULATIONS OF HYPOTHETICAL DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2016-02-20

    The gravitational influence of a planet on a nearby disk provides a powerful tool for detecting and studying extrasolar planetary systems. Here we demonstrate that gaps can be opened in dynamically cold debris disks at the mean-motion resonances of an orbiting planet. The gaps are opened away from the orbit of the planet itself, revealing that not all disk gaps need contain a planetary body. These gaps are large and deep enough to be detectable in resolved disk images for a wide range of reasonable disk-planet parameters, though we are not aware of any such gaps detected to date. The gap shape and size are diagnostic of the planet location, eccentricity and mass, and allow one to infer the existence of unseen planets, as well as many important parameters of both seen and unseen planets in these systems. We present expressions to allow the planetary mass and semimajor axis to be calculated from observed gap width and location.

  16. BD+48 740-Li OVERABUNDANT GIANT STAR WITH A PLANET: A CASE OF RECENT ENGULFMENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Adamow, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.

    2012-07-20

    We report the discovery of a unique object, BD+48 740, a lithium overabundant giant with A(Li) = 2.33 {+-} 0.04 (where A(Li) = log n{sub Li}/n{sub H} + 12), that exhibits radial velocity (RV) variations consistent with a 1.6 M{sub J} companion in a highly eccentric, e = 0.67 {+-} 0.17, and extended, a 1.89 AU (P = 771 days), orbit. The high eccentricity of the planet is uncommon among planetary systems orbiting evolved stars and so is the high lithium abundance in a giant star. The ingestion by the star of a putative second planet in the system originally in a closer orbit could possibly allow for a single explanation to these two exceptional facts. If the planet candidate is confirmed by future RV observations, it might represent the first example of the remnant of a multiple planetary system recently affected by stellar evolution.

  17. PHOTOMETRIC ORBITS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2009-09-10

    We define and analyze the photometric orbit (PhO) of an extrasolar planet observed in reflected light. In our definition, the PhO is a Keplerian entity with six parameters: semimajor axis, eccentricity, mean anomaly at some particular time, argument of periastron, inclination angle, and effective radius, which is the square root of the geometric albedo times the planetary radius. Preliminarily, we assume a Lambertian phase function. We study in detail the case of short-period giant planets (SPGPs) and observational parameters relevant to the Kepler mission: 20 ppm photometry with normal errors, 6.5 hr cadence, and three-year duration. We define a relevant 'planetary population of interest' in terms of probability distributions of the PhO parameters. We perform Monte Carlo experiments to estimate the ability to detect planets and to recover PhO parameters from light curves. We calibrate the completeness of a periodogram search technique, and find structure caused by degeneracy. We recover full orbital solutions from synthetic Kepler data sets and estimate the median errors in recovered PhO parameters. We treat in depth a case of a Jupiter body-double. For the stated assumptions, we find that Kepler should obtain orbital solutions for many of the 100-760 SPGP that Jenkins and Doyle estimate Kepler will discover. Because most or all of these discoveries will be followed up by ground-based radial velocity observations, the estimates of inclination angle from the PhO may enable the calculation of true companion masses: Kepler photometry may break the 'msin i' degeneracy. PhO observations may be difficult. There is uncertainty about how low the albedos of SPGPs actually are, about their phase functions, and about a possible noise floor due to systematic errors from instrumental and stellar sources. Nevertheless, simple detection of SPGPs in reflected light should be robust in the regime of Kepler photometry, and estimates of all six orbital parameters may be feasible in

  18. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    artifacts and provides accurate and calibrated recovery of exoplanet spectra. We will produce a complete archive of all reduced GPI data products (supplementing the existing Gemini archive of raw data) for use by our collaboration, and release that archive to the public on an 18-month cycle. Most importantly, we will execute the GPI observations, initially through classical telescope visits, transitioning to remote and queue modes as our techniques are refined. As the first direct-imaging planet search with statistical depth comparable to Doppler planet detection and the first to probe into the snow line, the GPI Exoplanet Survey will provide strong constraints on paradigms for planet formation, completing the picture of the giant planet distribution throughout other solar systems, and also illuminating its evolution with stellar age and mass. We will deliver a catalog of detected exoplanets— the principal legacy of this campaign—released for follow-up by the astronomical community within 18 months of observation, as well as searchable archive of fully reduced images and detection limits for all stars surveyed. For each detected planet, we will produce estimated effective temperatures, luminosities, and semi-major axes: for a subset, high-SNR fiducial spectra, orbital eccentricities, and dynamical characterization through polarimetric imaging of attendant debris disks. GPI will complete final acceptance testing this month (May 2013) and is now ready to ship to Chile for first light in September 2013. The GPI survey will provide the best-yet view of the nature of wide-orbit planetary companions, informing our knowledge of solar system formation to guide future NASA planet hunting missions, while simultaneously offering a real- world program using the techniques - from integral field spectroscopy to advanced coronagraphy - that will someday be used to directly image Earthlike planets from space.

  19. Effects of the eccentricity of the primaries in powered Swing-By maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Alessandra F. S.; Prado, Antônio F. B. A.; Winter, Othon C.; Santos, Denilson P. S.

    2017-04-01

    The present paper studies the powered Swing-By maneuver when performed in an elliptical system of primaries. It means that there is a spacecraft travelling in a system governed by the gravity fields of two bodies that are in elliptical orbits around their center of mass. The paper particularly analyzes the effects of the parameters relative to the Swing-By (Vinf-,rp, ψ), the orbit of the secondary body around the primary one (e, ν) and the elements that specify the impulse applied (δV, α) to the spacecraft. The impulse is applied when the spacecraft passes by the periapsis of its orbit around the body, where it performs the Swing-By, with different magnitudes and directions. The inclusion of the orbital eccentricity of the primaries in this problem makes it closer to reality, considering that there are many known systems with eccentricities different from zero. In particular, there are several moons in the Solar System which orbits are not circular, as well as some smaller bodies, like the dwarf planet Haumea and its moons, which have eccentricities of 0.25 or even larger. The behavior of the energy variation of the spacecraft is shown in details, as well as the cases where captures and collisions occur. The results show the conditions that optimize this maneuver, according to some given parameters, and how much can be obtained in terms of gains or losses of energy using the best conditions found by the algorithm developed here.

  20. Characterization of KOI-94 System with Photometric Light Curves and Transit Timing Variation Analysis: Implication for the Planet-Planet Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kento; Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-07-01

    We report the analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) in Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) 94 system using direct numerical integrations. We analyzed the photometric light curve of KOI-94 obtained by the Kepler spacecraft to extract the transit times of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e, and found that they are significantly deviated from the exact periodicity due to the mutual gravitational interaction among the planets, as pointed out by Weiss and coworkers. We fit these variations with numerical simulations and obtained the constraints on the masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons of the three planets, independently of the radial velocity measurements. Our analysis shows that the TTV favors the solution with small (< 0.1) eccentricities for all the three planets and with a rather small mass of KOI-94d (md = 52 '} 7M⊕), in contrast to the radial velocity result, md = 106 '} 11M⊕. We also present analytic modeling of a 'gplanet-planet eclipse (PPE),'h a rare mutual event in which two planets partially overlap with each other on the stellar disk in their double transit phase. We modeled the brightening caused by the PPE analytically, and derived the formula to reconstruct the sky-plane mutual inclination of the two eclipsing planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is also discussed.

  1. Wave of a Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This plot tells astronomers that a fifth planet is in orbit around the star 55 Cancri, making the star the record-holder for hosting the most known exoplanets.

    As planets circle around their stars, they cause the stars to wobble back and forth in a regular pattern. By looking for this motion in a star, scientists can find planets that can't be seen with telescopes.

    The wobble caused by the fifth planet discovered around 55 Cancri is represented here by the sinuous line in blue. The actual data points are yellow and error bars are the lines above and below the yellow dots. The cycle of the wobble indicates that the planet circles around its star about every 260 days. The amplitude of the wobble indicates that the planet is a giant at least 45 times the mass of Earth.

    The wobbles caused by the other four planets has been removed from this plot, to reveal that caused by the fifth. The departure from a perfect sine wave suggests the planet's orbit is not perfectly circular.

    Because 55 Cancri has multiple planets, the star had to be observed for a long time before astronomers could find and confirm its fifth planet. These data were collected over a period of 18 years using both the Lick Observatory near San Jose, Calif., and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

  2. Irregular Satellites in the Context of Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, D.; Sheppard, S.

    2004-11-01

    All four giant planets in the solar system possess irregular satellites, characterized by large, highly eccentric and/or highly inclined orbits. These bodies were likely captured from heliocentric orbit, probably in association with planet formation itself. Enabled primarily by the use of large-format digital imagers on Mauna Kea telescopes, new observational work has dramatically increased the known populations of irregular satellites, with 74 discoveries in the last few years. A new perspective on the irregular satellite systems is beginning to emerge. We find that the number of irregular satellites measured to a given diameter is approximately constant from planet to planet. This is surprising, given the radically different formation scenarios envisioned for the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn compared to the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. We discuss the new results on the irregular satellites and show how these objects might be used to discriminate amongst models of giant planet formation. This work is in press in the procedings of the International Space Science Institute, Bern, from their 12-16 January meeting on "Outer Planets Before the Exploration of Saturn by Cassini".

  3. MIGRATION OF GAS GIANT PLANETS IN GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu

    2011-08-20

    Characterization of migration in gravitationally unstable disks is necessary to understand the fate of protoplanets formed by disk instability. As part of a larger study, we are using a three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics code to investigate how an embedded gas giant planet interacts with a gas disk that undergoes gravitational instabilities (GIs). This Letter presents results from simulations with a Jupiter-mass planet placed in orbit at 25 AU within a 0.14 M{sub sun} disk. The disk spans 5-40 AU around a 1 M{sub sun} star and is initially marginally unstable. In one simulation, the planet is inserted prior to the eruption of GIs; in another, it is inserted only after the disk has settled into a quasi-steady GI-active state, where heating by GIs roughly balances radiative cooling. When the planet is present from the beginning, its own wake stimulates growth of a particular global mode with which it strongly interacts, and the planet plunges inward 6 AU in about 10{sup 3} years. In both cases with embedded planets, there are times when the planet's radial motion is slow and varies in direction. At other times, when the planet appears to be interacting with strong spiral modes, migration both inward and outward can be relatively rapid, covering several AUs over hundreds of years. Migration in both cases appears to stall near the inner Lindblad resonance of a dominant low-order mode. Planet orbit eccentricities fluctuate rapidly between about 0.02 and 0.1 throughout the GI-active phases of the simulations.

  4. Dynamical evolution of the Gliese 436 planetary system. Kozai migration as a potential source for Gliese 436b's eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beust, H.; Bonfils, X.; Montagnier, G.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The close-in planet orbiting GJ 436 presents a puzzling orbital eccentricity (e ≃ 0.14) considering its very short orbital period. Given the age of the system, this planet should have been tidally circularized a long time ago. Many attempts to explain this were proposed in recent years, either involving abnormally weak tides, or the perturbing action of a distant companion. Aims: In this paper, we address the latter issue based on Kozai migration. We propose that GJ 436b was formerly located further away from the star and that it underwent a migration induced by a massive, inclined perturber via Kozai mechanism. In this context, the perturbations by the companion trigger high-amplitude variations to GJ 436b that cause tides to act at periastron. Then the orbit tidally shrinks to reach its present day location. Methods: We numerically integrate the 3-body system including tides and general relativity correction. We use a modified symplectic integrator as well as a fully averaged integrator. The former is slower but accurate to any order in semi-major axis ratio, while the latter is first truncated to some order (4th) in semi-major axis ratio before averaging. Results: We first show that starting from the present-day location of GJ 436b inevitably leads to damping the Kozai oscillations and to rapidly circularizing the planet. Conversely, starting from 5-10 times further away allows the onset of Kozai cycles. The tides act in peak eccentricity phases and reduce the semi-major axis of the planet. The net result is a two-fold evolution, characterized by two phases: a first one with Kozai cycles and a slowly shrinking semi-major axis, and a second one once the planet gets out of the Kozai resonance characterized by a more rapid decrease. The timescale of this process appears in most cases much longer than the standard circularization time of the planet by a factor of 50 or above. Conclusions: This model can provide a solution to the eccentricity paradox of GJ

  5. Eccentricity Pumping Through Circumbinary Disks in Hot Subdwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hot subdwarf-B stars in long-period binaries are found to be on eccentric orbits, even though current binary-evolution theory predicts these objects to be circularized before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF). We have tested three different eccentricity pumping processes on their viability to reproduce the observed wide sdB population; tidally-enhanced wind mass-loss, phase-dependent RLOF on eccentric orbits and the interaction between a circumbinary (CB) disk and the binary. The binary module of the stellar-evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is extended to include the eccentricity-pumping processes, and a parameter study is carried out. We find that models including phase-dependent RLOF or a CB disk can reach the observed periods and eccentricities. However, the models cannot explain the observed correlation between period and eccentricity. Nor can circular short period systems be formed when eccentricity pumping mechanisms are active.

  6. Home Sweet Home?: Determining Habitability From the Eccentricities of Kepler-186

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTier, Moiya; Kipping, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In the search for habitable exoplanets, astronomers' primary criterion has historically been that the planet's equilibrium temperature be suitable for liquid water. Equilibrium temperature is often determined assuming a circular orbit and, therefore, a constant star-planet separation, especially for low-mass transiting exoplanets. Using photometric data from the first Kepler mission, we analyze the transit light curves of Kepler 186, an exoplanetary system located approximately 150pc from Earth. In this poster, we report new lower limits on the eccentricities of the system found using the astrodensity profiling method and discuss how those values effect habitabilty. We also report other orbital, stellar, and planetary properties, which are consistent with, though slightly more precise than, the values reported in Quintana et al, 2014. We assert that, with an eccentricity of 0.092, a semimajor axis of 0.35 AU, and a radius of 1.06 Earth radii, Kepler 186f is an Earth-sized exoplanet that spends its entire orbit in the habitable zone of its star.

  7. ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND METAMORPHISM OF TIDALLY DISRUPTED GIANT PLANETS: THE ROLE OF DENSE CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A large population of planetary candidates in short-period orbits have been found recently through transit searches, mostly with the Kepler mission. Radial velocity surveys have also revealed several Jupiter-mass planets with highly eccentric orbits. Measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that the orbital angular momentum vector of some planets is inclined relative to the spin axis of their host stars. This diversity could be induced by post-formation dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering, the Kozai effect, or secular chaos which brings planets to the vicinity of their host stars. In this work, we propose a novel mechanism to form close-in super-Earths and Neptune-like planets through the tidal disruption of gas giant planets as a consequence of these dynamical processes. We model the core-envelope structure of gas giant planets with composite polytropes which characterize the distinct chemical composition of the core and envelope. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of close encounters between Jupiter-like planets and their host stars, we find that the presence of a core with a mass more than 10 times that of the Earth can significantly increase the fraction of envelope which remains bound to it. After the encounter, planets with cores are more likely to be retained by their host stars in contrast with previous studies which suggested that coreless planets are often ejected. As a substantial fraction of their gaseous envelopes is preferentially lost while the dense incompressible cores retain most of their original mass, the resulting metallicity of the surviving planets is increased. Our results suggest that some gas giant planets can be effectively transformed into either super-Earths or Neptune-like planets after multiple close stellar passages. Finally, we analyze the orbits and structure of known planets and Kepler candidates and find that our model is capable of producing some of the shortest-period objects.

  8. Simulations of planet migration driven by planetesimal scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsh, David R.; Duncan, Martin; Brasser, Ramon; Levison, Harold F.

    2009-01-01

    identified with the root-mean-squared eccentricity of the planetesimal disk, the mass of the particles dragged by the planet in the corotation region, and the index of the surface density power law. The trends are discussed in the context of an analysis of the scattering process itself, which was performed using a large simulation of massless planetesimals. The scattering process alters semi-major axes, eccentricities and timescales of interaction for the planetesimals. In particular, a bias in scattering timescales on either side of the planet's orbit leads to a very strong tendency for the planet to migrate inwards, towards the star, instead of outwards. The detection of this tendency relies on a level of resolution that may not have been achieved in past studies. The results of this work show that planet migration driven by planetesimal scattering should be a widespread phenomenon, especially for low-mass planets such as still-forming protoplanets.

  9. Climatic change on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Observational data related to climatic change on Venus, earth and Mars are reviewed. The channel features on Mars suggest an early to intermediate epoch of warmer and wetter climate, while the layered polar deposits imply more recent periodic variations in climate. A more reducing atmosphere, which would have produced an enhanced greenhouse effect, may have been responsible for warmer periods in the early history of Mars and earth. Detailed calculations relating atmospheric pressure and composition to the temperature state of Mars are presented. The possibility of a runaway greenhouse effect on Venus resulting in the emplacement of volatiles entirely in the atmosphere is also examined. Periodic variations in orbital eccentricity and axial obliquity may have contributed to alternating glacial and interglacial periods on earth. Mechanisms accounting for the laminated terrain of Mars, and the influence of Martian tectonic distortions on the planet's climate also receive attention.

  10. Asymmetric orbital distribution near mean motion resonance: Application to planets observed by Kepler and radial velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ji-Wei E-mail: jwxie@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-05-10

    Many multiple-planet systems have been found by the Kepler transit survey and various radial velocity (RV) surveys. Kepler planets show an asymmetric feature, namely, there are small but significant deficits/excesses of planet pairs with orbital period spacing slightly narrow/wide of the exact resonance, particularly near the first order mean motion resonance (MMR), such as 2:1 and 3:2 MMR. Similarly, if not exactly the same, an asymmetric feature (pileup wide of 2:1 MMR) is also seen in RV planets, but only for massive ones. We analytically and numerically study planets' orbital evolutions near and in the MMR. We find that their orbital period ratios could be asymmetrically distributed around the MMR center regardless of dissipation. In the case of no dissipation, Kepler planets' asymmetric orbital distribution could be partly reproduced for 3:2 MMR but not for 2:1 MMR, implying that dissipation might be more important to the latter. The pileup of massive RV planets just wide of 2:1 MMR is found to be consistent with the scenario that planets formed separately then migrated toward the MMR. The location of the pileup infers a K value of 1-100 on the order of magnitude for massive planets, where K is the damping rate ratio between orbital eccentricity and semimajor axis during planet migration.

  11. Buckling tests on eccentrically loaded beam columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassens, J

    1941-01-01

    Formulas are obtained for computing the buckling load of rods eccentrically loaded at each end, the computation being extended in particular to the inelastic range. The test results are graphically presented on three sets of curves. Two of these, at least for the elastic range, are independent of the material tested. The third set, which is independent of the material, possesses greater clearness and is therefore used for comparing the test results with the theoretical.

  12. A Quick Method to Identify Secular Resonances in Multi-planet Systems with a Binary Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Bazsó, A.; Funk, B.

    2016-11-01

    Gravitational perturbations in multi-planet systems caused by an accompanying star are the subject of this investigation. Our dynamical model is based on the binary star HD 41004 AB where a giant planet orbits HD 41004 A. We modify the orbital parameters of this system and analyze the motion of a hypothetical test planet surrounding HD 41004 A on an interior orbit to the detected giant planet. Our numerical computations indicate perturbations due to mean motion and secular resonances (SRs). The locations of these resonances are usually connected to high eccentricity and highly inclined motion depending strongly on the binary-planet architecture. As the positions of mean motion resonances can easily be determined, the main purpose of this study is to present a new semi-analytical method to determine the location of an SR without huge computational effort.

  13. The Observable Effects of a Planet 9 on the Distant TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankman, Cory; Kavelaars, JJ; Bannister, Michele T.; Lawler, Samantha; Gladman, Brett

    2016-10-01

    We explore the 9th planet hypothesis by integrating the large a, large q TNOs in the presence of the giant planets and a variety of external perturbers whose orbits are consitent with the eccentric and inclined 9th planet proposed in Batygin & Brown 2016.We find a generic outcome of such evolutions is that the known TNOs evolve to large q, large i orbits, removing them from the volume detectable by observation on relatively short timescales.Although some orbits retain confinement in longitude of pericentre, most cycle through i, q values that imply that the currently detected sample is only a small fraction of the population that the presence of a 9th planet would require.Some of the highly inclined orbits produced by the examined perturbers may actually be inside of the orbital parameter space probed by prior surveys, implying a missing signature of the 9th planet scenario.

  14. Analytic Orbit Propagation for Transiting Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried

    2015-04-01

    The analytical framework presented herein fully describes the motion of coplanar systems consisting of a stellar binary and a planet orbiting both stars on orbital as well as secular timescales. Perturbations of the Runge-Lenz vector are used to derive short-period evolution of the system, while octupole secular theory is applied to describe its long-term behavior. A post-Newtonian correction on the stellar orbit is included. The planetary orbit is initially circular and the theory developed here assumes that the planetary eccentricity remains relatively small ({{e}2}\\lt 0.2). Our model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion and is then applied to investigate the dynamical history of some of the circumbinary planetary systems discovered by NASA’s Kepler spacecraft. Our results suggest that the formation history of the systems Kepler-34 and Kepler-413 has most likely been different from that of Kepler-16, Kepler-35, Kepler-38 and Kepler-64, since the observed planetary eccentricities for those systems are not compatible with the assumption of initially circular orbits.

  15. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  16. Planet Formation - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2005-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System, exoplanets &round normal stars and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path.

  17. Detecting Extrasolar Planets Directly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Neuhäuser, R.; Huélamo, N.; Ott, T.; Brandner, W.; Alves, J.; Comerón, F.; Eckart, A.; Hatzes, A.

    Up to now, all extrasolar planets have been found by means of indirect methods. Direct detection of planets orbiting even the nearest stars seems at first glance to be impossible with present day equipment, because of the enormous difference in brightness between the star and the planet, and the small angular separation between them. However, young planets which are still in the contraction phase of evolution are comparatively bright in the infrared, and since many of the extrasolar planets detected have excentric orbits, where they are most of the time at a relatively large distance from the stars, the prospect of detecting young planets directly is much better. In fact, it is principle be possible to detect an extrasolar giant planet, if the planet is younger than 100 millon years, and if the distance is less than 100 pc. Three years ago we thus have embarked on a survey to observe more than one-hundred young, nearby stars in the near infrared. In this talk, we will review the status of the survey. In order to find out whether these stars have additionally a planet at a small distance from the star, we also carried out sensitive radial velocity observation of a subsample using an iodine-cell and the Echelle spectrograph of the Alfred-Jensch Telescope in Tautenburg.

  18. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  19. Age Attenuates Leucine Oxidation after Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kullman, E. L.; Campbell, W. W.; Krishnan, R. K.; Yarasheski, K. E.; Evans, W. J.; Kirwan, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Aging may alter protein metabolism during periods of metabolic and physiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age on whole-body amino acid turnover in response to eccentric exercise and hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia. 16 healthy men were divided into young (N = 8) and older (N = 8) groups. Protein metabolism was assessed using a [1-13C]-leucine isotopic tracer approach. Measures were obtained under fasted basal conditions and during 3-h hyperglycemic clamps that were performed without (control) and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Exercise reduced leucine oxidation in the younger men (P < 0.05), but not in older men. Insulin sensitivity was inversely correlated with leucine oxidation (P < 0.05), and was lower in older men (P < 0.05). Healthy aging is associated with an impaired capacity to adjust protein oxidation in response to eccentric exercise. The decreased efficiency of protein utilization in older men may contribute to impaired maintenance, growth, and repair of body tissues with advancing age. PMID:23325713

  20. On eccentricities of globular cluster galactocentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninkovic, S.

    The orbital eccentricities of 55 globular clusters are calculated and discussed. The data are taken from the study of Woltjer (1975), but include only those clusters for which reliable chemical compositions, positions, and line-of-sight velocities are given. The clusters are divided into six groups according to chemical composition and galactocentric distance, and the formulas of House and Wiegandt (1977) are employed in the calculations. The results are presented in tables and characterized individually. An LSR velocity of 225 km/sec is assumed, but some calculations using 275 km/sec are included for comparison. A general lower limit of eccentricity of 0.3 and upper limits (depending on cluster type) as high as 0.9 are estimated, with perigalactic distances not less than 1 kpc and apogalactic distances generally less than 25 but sometimes as high as 50-100 kpc. The mean orbital eccentricity of the groups is found to be better correlated to galactocentric distance than to chemical composition. The evolutionary contraction of the Galaxy is estimated to have lasted about 2-3 Gyr.

  1. Habitability of exoplanetary systems with planets observed in transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.; Sleep, P. Nick

    2010-09-01

    We have used the measured properties of the stars in the 79 exoplanetary systems with one or more planets that have been observed in transit, to estimate each system's present habitability. Such systems have the advantage that the inclination of the planetary orbits is known, and therefore the actual mass of the planet can be obtained, rather than the minimum mass in the many systems that have been observed only with the radial velocity technique. The measured stellar properties have been used to determine the present location of the classical habitable zone (HZ). To establish habitability we use the estimated distances from the giant planet(s) within which an Earth-like planet would be inside the gravitational reach of the giant. These distances are given by nRH, where RH is the Hill radius of the giant planet and n is a multiplier that depends on the giant's orbital eccentricity eG and on whether the orbit of the Earth-like planet is interior or exterior to the giant planet. We obtained nint(eG) and next(eG) in earlier work and summarize those results here. We then evaluate the present habitability of each exoplanetary system by examining the penetration of the giant planet(s) gravitational reach into the HZ. Of the 79 transiting systems known in 2010 April, only two do not offer safe havens to Earth-like planets in the HZ, and thus could not support life today. We have also estimated whether habitability is possible for 1.7 Gyr into the past, i.e. 0.7 Gyr for a heavy bombardment, plus 1.0 Gyr for life to emerge and thus be present today. We find that, for the best estimate of each stellar age, an additional 28 systems do not offer such sustained habitability. If we reduce 1.7 Gyr to 1.0 Gyr, this number falls to 22. However, if giant planets orbiting closer to the star than the inner boundary of the HZ have got there by migration through the HZ, and if this ruled out the subsequent formation of Earth-like planets, then, of course, none of the presently known

  2. Effects of eccentric cycle ergometry in alpine skiers.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Lüthy, F; Kroell, J; Müller, E; Hoppeler, H; Vogt, M

    2010-08-01

    Eccentric cycling, where the goal is to resist the pedals, which are driven by a motor, increases muscle strength and size in untrained subjects. We hypothesized that it could also be beneficial for athletes, particularly in alpine skiing, which involves predominantly eccentric contractions at longer muscle lengths. We investigated the effects of replacing part of regular weight training with eccentric cycling in junior male alpine skiers using a matched-pair design. Control subjects ( N=7) executed 1-h weight sessions 3 times per week, which included 4-5 sets of 4 leg exercises. The eccentric group ( N=8) performed only 3 sets, followed by continuous sessions on the eccentric ergometer for the remaining 20 min. After 6 weeks, lean thigh mass increased significantly only in the eccentric group. There was a groupxtime effect on squat-jump height favouring the eccentric group, which also experienced a 6.5% improvement in countermovement-jump height. The ability to finely modulate muscle force during variable eccentric cycling improved 50% (p=0.004) only in the eccentric group. Although eccentric cycling did not significantly enhance isometric leg strength, we believe it is beneficial for alpine skiers because it provides an efficient means for hypertrophy while closely mimicking the type of muscle actions encountered while skiing.

  3. CALIBRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM TIDE THEORY FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2010-11-01

    We provide an 'effective theory' of tidal dissipation in extrasolar planet systems by empirically calibrating a model for the equilibrium tide. The model is valid to high order in eccentricity and parameterized by two constants of bulk dissipation-one for dissipation in the planet and one for dissipation in the host star. We are able to consistently describe the distribution of extrasolar planetary systems in terms of period, eccentricity, and mass (with a lower limit of a Saturn mass) with this simple model. Our model is consistent with the survival of short-period exoplanet systems, but not with the circularization period of equal mass stellar binaries, suggesting that the latter systems experience a higher level of dissipation than exoplanet host stars. Our model is also not consistent with the explanation of inflated planetary radii as resulting from tidal dissipation. The paucity of short-period planets around evolved A stars is explained as the result of enhanced tidal inspiral resulting from the increase in stellar radius with evolution.

  4. Relevance of ellipse eccentricity for camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordwinzew, W.; Tietz, B.; Boochs, F.; Paulus, D.

    2015-05-01

    Plane circular targets are widely used within calibrations of optical sensors through photogrammetric set-ups. Due to this popularity, their advantages and disadvantages are also well studied in the scientific community. One main disadvantage occurs when the projected target is not parallel to the image plane. In this geometric constellation, the target has an elliptic geometry with an offset between its geometric and its projected center. This difference is referred to as ellipse eccentricity and is a systematic error which, if not treated accordingly, has a negative impact on the overall achievable accuracy. The magnitude and direction of eccentricity errors are dependent on various factors. The most important one is the target size. The bigger an ellipse in the image is, the bigger the error will be. Although correction models dealing with eccentricity have been available for decades, it is mostly seen as a planning task in which the aim is to choose the target size small enough so that the resulting eccentricity error remains negligible. Besides the fact that advanced mathematical models are available and that the influence of this error on camera calibration results is still not completely investigated, there are various additional reasons why bigger targets can or should not be avoided. One of them is the growing image resolution as a by-product from advancements in the sensor development. Here, smaller pixels have a lower S/N ratio, necessitating more pixels to assure geometric quality. Another scenario might need bigger targets due to larger scale differences whereas distant targets should still contain enough information in the image. In general, bigger ellipses contain more contour pixels and therefore more information. This supports the target-detection algorithms to perform better even at non-optimal conditions such as data from sensors with a high noise level. In contrast to rather simple measuring situations in a stereo or multi-image mode, the impact

  5. Name That Planet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

  6. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  7. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  8. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  9. Extreme orbital evolution from hierarchical secular coupling of two giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssandier, Jean; Naoz, Smadar; Lizarraga, Ian; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-12-20

    Observations of exoplanets over the last two decades have revealed a new class of Jupiter-size planets with orbital periods of a few days, the so-called 'hot Jupiters'. Recent measurements using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect have shown that many (∼50%) of these planets are misaligned; furthermore, some (∼15%) are even retrograde with respect to the stellar spin axis. Motivated by these observations, we explore the possibility of forming retrograde orbits in hierarchical triple configurations consisting of a star-planet inner pair with another giant planet, or brown dwarf, in a much wider orbit. Recently, it was shown that in such a system, the inner planet's orbit can flip back and forth from prograde to retrograde and can also reach extremely high eccentricities. Here we map a significant part of the parameter space of dynamical outcomes for these systems. We derive strong constraints on the orbital configurations for the outer perturber (the tertiary) that could lead to the formation of hot Jupiters with misaligned or retrograde orbits. We focus only on the secular evolution, neglecting other dynamical effects such as mean-motion resonances, as well as all dissipative forces. For example, with an inner Jupiter-like planet initially on a nearly circular orbit at 5 AU, we show that a misaligned hot Jupiter is likely to be formed in the presence of a more massive planetary companion (>2 M{sub J} ) within ∼140 AU of the inner system, with mutual inclination >50° and eccentricity above ∼0.25. This is in striking contrast to the test particle approximation, where an almost perpendicular configuration can still cause large-eccentricity excitations, but flips of an inner Jupiter-like planet are much less likely to occur. The constraints we derive can be used to guide future observations and, in particular, searches for more distant companions in systems containing a hot Jupiter.

  10. CONDITIONS OF PASSAGE AND ENTRAPMENT OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SPIN-ORBIT RESONANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Valeri V.

    2012-06-10

    The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque taking into account the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, including the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in 3:2 resonance. The probability of capture in the higher 2:1 resonance is approximately 0.23. These results are confirmed by a semi-analytical estimation of capture probabilities as functions of eccentricity for both prograde and retrograde evolutions of spin rate. As follows from analysis of equilibrium torques, entrapment in 3:2 resonance is inevitable at eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.41. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, the range of spin rates and phase angles for which an immediate resonance passage is triggered is very narrow, and yet a planet like Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance.

  11. Three WASP-South Transiting Exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b, and WASP-89b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to southern telescopes. It is a 0.95MJup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 {R}{Jup} in a 2 day orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 {M}{Jup} with a radius of 1.0 {R}{Jup}. It is in a 5 day orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 MJup planet in a 3 day orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 days, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet’s orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.

  12. Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets through Mean-Motion Resonances: Simulations of Hypothetical Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    A planet orbiting interior or exterior to a debris disk may produce signatures in the disk that reveal the planet's presence even if it remains undetected. These features appear near mean-motion resonances and provide a powerful tool to not only detect unseen planets in extra-solar systems, but also help constrain their mass and orbital parameters. I will present results from simulations of hypothetical debris disks both for interior and exterior resonances, showing that gaps can be opened in cold debris disks away from the orbit of the planet, and thus that not all disk gaps need contain a planetary body. The results allow us to constrain planet masses, semi-major axes and eccentricities based on the locations and widths of the gaps. Moreover, distinct features likely arising from Lindblad resonances are seen when the planet perturbing the disk has non-zero orbital eccentricity. Finally, I will present expressions that relate the planetary mass to the widths and locations of the observed gaps.

  13. STEADY-STATE PLANET MIGRATION BY THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN STELLAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovich, Cristobal

    2015-01-20

    We study the steady-state orbital distributions of giant planets migrating through the combination of the Kozai-Lidov (KL) mechanism due to a stellar companion and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations that describe the secular evolution of a star-planet-star triple system including the effects from general relativistic precession, stellar and planetary spin evolution, and tides. Our simulations show that KL migration produces Hot Jupiters (HJs) with semi-major axes that are generally smaller than in the observations and they can only explain the observations if the following are both true: (1) tidal dissipation at high eccentricities is at least ∼150 times more efficient than the upper limit inferred from the Jupiter-Io interaction; (2) highly eccentric planets get tidally disrupted at distances ≳ 0.015 AU. Based on the occurrence rate and semi-major axis distribution of HJs, we find that KL migration in stellar binaries can produce at most ∼20% of the observed HJs. Almost no intermediate-period (semi-major axis ∼0.1 -2 AU) planets are formed by this mechanism—migrating planets spend most of their lifetimes undergoing KL oscillations at large orbital separations (>2 AU) or as HJs.

  14. DETECTABILITY AND ERROR ESTIMATION IN ORBITAL FITS OF RESONANT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Giuppone, C. A.; Beauge, C.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Michtchenko, T. A.

    2009-07-10

    We estimate the conditions for detectability of two planets in a 2/1 mean-motion resonance from radial velocity data, as a function of their masses, number of observations and the signal-to-noise ratio. Even for a data set of the order of 100 observations and standard deviations of the order of a few meters per second, we find that Jovian-size resonant planets are difficult to detect if the masses of the planets differ by a factor larger than {approx}4. This is consistent with the present population of real exosystems in the 2/1 commensurability, most of which have resonant pairs with similar minimum masses, and could indicate that many other resonant systems exist, but are currently beyond the detectability limit. Furthermore, we analyze the error distribution in masses and orbital elements of orbital fits from synthetic data sets for resonant planets in the 2/1 commensurability. For various mass ratios and number of data points we find that the eccentricity of the outer planet is systematically overestimated, although the inner planet's eccentricity suffers a much smaller effect. If the initial conditions correspond to small-amplitude oscillations around stable apsidal corotation resonances, the amplitudes estimated from the orbital fits are biased toward larger amplitudes, in accordance to results found in real resonant extrasolar systems.

  15. Type I planet migration in nearly laminar disks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lubow, S H; Lin, D

    2008-01-01

    We describe two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the migration of low-mass planets ({<=}30 M{sub {circle_plus}}) in nearly laminar disks (viscosity parameter {alpha} < 10{sup -3}) over timescales of several thousand orbit periods. We consider disk masses of 1, 2, and 5 times the minimum mass solar nebula, disk thickness parameters of H/r = 0.035 and 0.05, and a variety of {alpha} values and planet masses. Disk self-gravity is fully included. Previous analytic work has suggested that Type I planet migration can be halted in disks of sufficiently low turbulent viscosity, for {alpha} {approx} 10{sup -4}. The halting is due to a feedback effect of breaking density waves that results in a slight mass redistribution and consequently an increased outward torque contribution. The simulations confirm the existence of a critical mass (M{sub {alpha}} {approx} 10M{sub {circle_plus}}) beyond which migration halts in nearly laminar disks. For {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -3}, density feedback effects are washed out and Type I migration persists. The critical masses are in good agreement with the analytic model of Rafikov. In addition, for {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -4} steep density gradients produce a vortex instability, resulting in a small time-varying eccentricity in the planet's orbit and a slight outward migration. Migration in nearly laminar disks may be sufficiently slow to reconcile the timescales of migration theory with those of giant planet formation in the core accretion model.

  16. Perpetual long libration of terrestrial planets in tidal resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri

    2015-11-01

    On the example of Mercury, I show that firm planets of terrestrial composition, locked in the 3:2 or higher spin-orbit resonances, undergo long-period perpetual libration in longitude without any influence of third bodies. This non-damped libration at the natural frequency is driven by a secular tidal torque, which is increasing with frequency within a narrow interval around the resonance. The spectrum of regular forced, eccentricity-driven, libration defines the conditions for the perpetual long libration. The possibility of validating the tidal theory from the observable amplitude of perpetual libration is discussed.

  17. Formation of giant planets by fragmentation of protoplanetary disks.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lucio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim

    2002-11-29

    The evolution of gravitationally unstable protoplanetary gaseous disks has been studied with the use of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with unprecedented resolution. We have considered disks with initial masses and temperature profiles consistent with those inferred for the protosolar nebula and for other protoplanetary disks. We show that long-lasting, self-gravitating protoplanets arise after a few disk orbital periods if cooling is efficient enough to maintain the temperature close to 50 K. The resulting bodies have masses and orbital eccentricities similar to those of detected extrasolar planets.

  18. Convergence zones for Type I migration: an inward shift for multiple planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossou, C.; Raymond, S. N.; Pierens, A.

    2013-05-01

    Earth-mass planets embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. In radiative disks an additional component of the corotation torque scaling with the entropy gradient across the horseshoe region can counteract the general inward migration, Type I migration can then be directed either inward or outward depending on the local disk properties. Thus, special locations exist in the disk toward which planets migrate in a convergent way. Here we present N-body simulations of the convergent migration of systems of low-mass (M = 1-10M⊕) planets. We show that planets do not actually converge in convergence zones. Rather, they become trapped in chains of mean motion resonances. This causes the planets' eccentricities to increase to high enough values to affect the structure of the horseshoe region and weaken the positive corotation torque. The zero-torque equilibrium point of the resonant chain of planets is determined by the sum of the attenuated corotation torques and unattenuated differential Lindblad torques acting on each planet. The effective convergence zone is shifted inward. Systems with several planets can experience stochastic migration as a whole due to continuous perturbations from planets entering and leaving resonances.

  19. ALL SIX PLANETS KNOWN TO ORBIT KEPLER-11 HAVE LOW DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Agol, Eric; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Deck, Katherine M.; Fischer, Debra A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Short, Donald R.; Welsh, William F.

    2013-06-20

    The Kepler-11 planetary system contains six transiting planets ranging in size from 1.8 to 4.2 times the radius of Earth. Five of these planets orbit in a tightly packed configuration with periods between 10 and 47 days. We perform a dynamical analysis of the system based upon transit timing variations observed in more than three years of Kepler photometric data. Stellar parameters are derived using a combination of spectral classification and constraints on the star's density derived from transit profiles together with planetary eccentricity vectors provided by our dynamical study. Combining masses of the planets relative to the star from our dynamical study and radii of the planets relative to the star from transit depths together with deduced stellar properties yields measurements of the radii of all six planets, masses of the five inner planets, and an upper bound to the mass of the outermost planet, whose orbital period is 118 days. We find mass-radius combinations for all six planets that imply that substantial fractions of their volumes are occupied by constituents that are less dense than rock. Moreover, we examine the stability of these envelopes against photoevaporation and find that the compositions of at least the inner two planets have likely been significantly sculpted by mass loss. The Kepler-11 system contains the lowest mass exoplanets for which both mass and radius have been measured.

  20. On the formation of hot and warm Jupiters via secular high-eccentricity migration in stellar triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2017-01-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are Jupiter-like planets orbiting their host star in tight orbits of a few days. They are commonly believed not to have formed in situ, requiring inwards migration towards the host star. One of the proposed migration scenarios is secular high-eccentricity or high-e migration, in which the orbit of the planet is perturbed to high eccentricity by secular processes, triggering strong tidal evolution and orbital migration. Previous theoretical studies have considered secular excitation in stellar binaries. Recently, a number of HJs have been observed in stellar triple systems. In the latter, the secular dynamics are much richer compared to stellar binaries, and HJs could potentially be formed more efficiently. Here, we investigate this possibility by modeling the secular dynamical and tidal evolution of planets in two hierarchical configurations in stellar triple systems. We find that the HJ formation efficiency is higher compared to stellar binaries, but only by at most a few tens of per cent. The orbital properties of the HJs formed in the simulations are very similar to HJs formed in stellar binaries, and similarly to studies of the latter we find no significant number of warm Jupiters. HJs are only formed in our simulations for triples with specific orbital configurations, and our constraints are approximately consistent with current observations. In future, this allows to rule out high-e migration in stellar triples if a HJ is detected in a triple grossly violating these constraints.

  1. Interesting dynamics at high mutual inclination in the framework of the Kozai problem with an eccentric perturber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, A.-S.; Delsate, N.

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of the 3D three-body problem of a small body moving under the attractions of a star and a giant planet which orbits the star on a much wider and elliptic orbit. In particular, we focus on the influence of an eccentric orbit of the outer perturber on the dynamics of a small highly inclined inner body. Our analytical study of the secular perturbations relies on the classical octupole Hamiltonian expansion (third-order theory in the ratio of the semimajor axes), as third-order terms are needed to consider the secular variations of the outer perturber and potential secular resonances between the arguments of the pericentre and/or longitudes of the node of both bodies. Short-period averaging and node reduction (by adoption of the Laplace plane reference frame) reduce the problem to two degrees of freedom. The 4D dynamics is analysed through representative planes which identify the main equilibria of the problem. As in the circular problem (i.e. perturber on a circular orbit), the 'Kozai-bifurcated' equilibria play a major role in the dynamics of an inner body on a quasi-circular orbit: its eccentricity variations are very limited for mutual inclination between the orbital planes smaller than ˜40°, while they become large and chaotic for higher mutual inclination. Particular attention is also given to a region around 35° of mutual inclination, detected numerically by Funk et al. and consisting of long-time stable and particularly low-eccentricity orbits of the small body. Using a 12th-order Hamiltonian expansion in eccentricities and inclinations, in particular its action-angle formulation obtained by Lie transforms from Libert & Henrard, we show that this region presents an equality of two fundamental frequencies and can be regarded as a secular resonance. Our results also apply to binary star systems where a planet is revolving around one of the two stars.

  2. Outer-planet scattering can gently tilt an inner planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratia, Pierre; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Chaotic dynamics are expected during and after planet formation, and a leading mechanism to explain large eccentricities of gas giant exoplanets is planet-planet gravitational scattering. The same scattering has been invoked to explain misalignments of planetary orbital planes with respect to their host star's spin. However, an observational puzzle is presented by Kepler-56, which has two inner planets (b and c) that are nearly coplanar with each other, yet are more than 45° inclined to their star's equator. Thus, the spin-orbit misalignment might be primordial. Instead, we further develop the hypothesis in the discovery paper, that planets on wider orbits generated misalignment through scattering, and as a result gently torqued the inner planets away from the equator plane of the star. We integrated the equations of motion for Kepler-56 b and c along with an unstable outer system initialized with either two or three Jupiter-mass planets. We address here whether the violent scattering that generates large mutual inclinations can leave the inner system intact, tilting it gently. In almost all of the cases initially with two outer planets, either the inner planets remain nearly coplanar with each other in the star's equator plane, or they are scattered violently to high mutual inclination and high spin-orbit misalignment. On the contrary, of the systems with three unstable outer planets, a spin-orbit misalignment large enough to explain the observations is generated 28 per cent of the time for coplanar inner planets, which is consistent with the observed frequency of this phenomenon reported so far. We conclude that multiple-planet scattering in the outer parts of the system may account for this new population of coplanar planets hosted by oblique stars.

  3. The planets around NN Serpentis: still there

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Bours, M. C. P.; Littlefair, S. P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Breedt, E.; Caceres, C.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present 25 new eclipse times of the white dwarf binary NN Ser taken with the high-speed camera ULTRACAM on the William Herschel Telescope and New Technology Telescope, the RISE camera on the Liverpool Telescope and HAWK-I on the Very Large Telescope to test the two-planet model proposed to explain variations in its eclipse times measured over the last 25 yr. The planetary model survives the test with flying colours, correctly predicting a progressive lag in eclipse times of 36 s that has set in since 2010 compared to the previous 8 yr of precise times. Allowing both orbits to be eccentric, we find orbital periods of 7.9 ± 0.5 and 15.3 ± 0.3 yr, and masses of 2.3 ± 0.5 and 7.3 ± 0.3 MJ. We also find dynamically long-lived orbits consistent with the data, associated with 2:1 and 5:2 period ratios. The data scatter by 0.07 s relative to the best-fitting model, by some margin the most precise of any of the proposed eclipsing compact object planet hosts. Despite the high precision, degeneracy in the orbit fits prevents a significant measurement of a period change of the binary and of N-body effects. Finally, we point out a major flaw with a previous dynamical stability analysis of NN Ser, and by extension, with a number of analyses of similar systems.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  5. From Disks to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    This pedagogical chapter covers the theory of planet formation, with an emphasis on the physical processes relevant to current research. After summarizing empirical constraints from astronomical and geophysical data, we describe the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks. We consider the growth of planetesimals and of larger solid protoplanets, followed by the accretion of planetary atmospheres, including the core accretion instability. We also examine the possibility that gas disks fragment directly into giant planets and/or brown dwarfs. We defer a detailed description of planet migration and dynamical evolution to other work, such as the complementary chapter in this series by Morbidelli.

  6. Challenges in planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are the following: (1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; (2) the growth of the first planetesimals; (3) orbital migration driven by interactions between protoplanets and gaseous disk; (4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and (5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  7. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  8. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  9. Planets under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2009-04-01

    Deep inside the planet Jupiter, diamonds hail down from hydrocarbon clouds as intense atmospheric pressures break methane into its atomic components. Further in - but still only 15% of the way to the planet's centre - the pressure reaches a million times that of the Earth's atmosphere. This is enough to transform hydrogen from the transparent, insulating gas we know at our planet's surface into a metallic fluid that sustains Jupiter's huge magnetic field. Even diamond is not forever: at pressures of 8-10 million atmospheres it is transformed into an opaque, metallic form of carbon, rather than the familiar transparent crystal.

  10. Our Changing Planet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Our Changing Planet 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Budget Erin Wuchte Office of Management and Budget Margaret R. McCalla Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology OUR CHANGING PLANET THE FISCAL...you a copy of Our Changing Planet : The FY 2003 U.S. Global Change Research Program and Climate Change Research Initiative. The report describes the

  11. Strength After Bouts of Eccentric or Concentric Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Catherine L.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the influence of an initial bout of eccentric or concentric actions and a subsequent bout of eccentric actions on muscular strength. Twenty-four healthy males, 24-45 yr old, were placed in three groups that performed eccentric actions in bouts 1 and 2 (ECC/ECC, N = 8), concentric actions in bout 1, and eccentric actions in bout 2 (CON/ECC, N = 8) or served as controls (N = 8). Bouts involved unilateral actions with the left and right quadriceps femoris. Ten sets of 10 repetitions with an initial resistance equal to 85% of the eccentric or concentric one repetition maximum (1 RM) were performed for each bout. Three minutes of rest were given between sets and 3 wk between bouts. Two weeks before bout 1 and 1, 4, 7, and 10 d after bouts 1 and 2, eccentric and concentric 1 RM were measured for the right quadriceps femoris and a speed-torque relation established for the left quadriceps femoris. Eccentric and concentric 1 RM decreased (P less than 0.05) 32% 1 d after bout 1 for group ECC/ECC. The speed-torque relation was down-shifted (P less than 0.05) 38%. Eccentric 1 RM and eccentric and isometric torque returned to normal 6 d later. Concentric 1 RM and torque at 3.14 rad-s(exp -1) had not recovered on day 10 (-7% for both, P less than 0.05). Decreases in strength after bout 2 for group ECC/ECC only occurred on day 1 (-9% for concentric 1 RM and 16% downshift of the speed- torque relation). Group CONIECC showed the opposite responses; marked decreases in strength after bout 2 but not bout 1. The results indicate that the initial decrease in strength after performance of a novel bout of eccentric exercise is comparable for eccentric, concentric and isometric muscle actions. Recovery of strength, however, appears to occur more rapidly for eccentric and isometric actions. They suggest that performance of a prior bout of eccentric but not concentric actions, as done in this study, can essentially eradicate decreases in strength after a subsequent bout

  12. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    PubMed Central

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  13. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  14. An infrared eccentric photo-optometer.

    PubMed

    Roorda, A; Bobier, W R; Campbell, M C

    1998-06-01

    An objective infrared optometer has been designed, based on the optical principles of eccentric photorefraction. A CCD camera with an eccentric infrared light source images the subject's pupil through a Badal optometer. The slope of the light distribution across the pupil is continuously recorded. Accommodative state is measured by moving the camera behind the Badal lens until the slope is zero. This position corresponds to the case where the camera is conjugate with the retina of the observer. In this Badal optometer, the irradiance of light at the pupil plane, the sensitivity of the photorefractor, and the focal setting of the camera lens remain constant for all positions of the camera from the eye. The repeatability of a single measure of refractive state in a cyclopleged eye was less than 0.05 D. Static accommodative responses taken from 3 subjects in both closed and open loop conditions provided expected stimulus/response measures. The instrument can also be adapted to measure dynamic accommodation.

  15. ON THE ORIGIN OF PLANETS AT VERY WIDE ORBITS FROM THE RECAPTURE OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. E-mail: thijskouwenhoven@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, several planets have been discovered at wide orbits (>100 AU) around their host stars. Theoretical studies encounter difficulties in explaining their formation and origin. Here we propose a novel scenario for the production of planetary systems at such orbits, through the dynamical recapture of free floating planets (FFPs) in dispersing stellar clusters and stellar associations. This process is a natural extension of the recently suggested scenario for the formation of wide stellar binaries. We use N-body simulations of dispersing clusters with 10-1000 stars and comparable numbers of FFPs to study this process. We find that planets are captured into wide orbits in the typical range {approx}few Multiplication-Sign 100-10{sup 6} AU and have a wide range of eccentricities (thermal distribution). Typically, 3-6 Multiplication-Sign (f{sub FFP}/1)% of all stars capture a planetary companion with such properties (where f{sub FFP} is the number of FFP per star in the birth clusters). The planetary capture efficiency is comparable to that of capture-formed stellar binaries, and shows a similar dependence on the cluster size and structure. It is almost independent of the specific planetary mass; planets as well as substellar companions of any mass can be captured. The capture efficiency decreases with increasing cluster size, and for a given cluster size it increases with the host/primary mass. We also find that more than one planet can be captured around the same host through independent consecutive captures; similarly, planets can be captured into binary systems, both in circumstellar and circumbinary orbits. We also expect planets to be captured into pre-existing planetary (and protoplanetary systems) as well as into orbits around black holes and massive white dwarfs, if these formed early enough before the cluster dispersal. In particular, stellar black holes have a high capture efficiency (>50% and 5-10 Multiplication-Sign (f{sub FFP}/1)% for capture of

  16. A Bayesian multi-planet Kepler periodogram for exoplanet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, P. C.

    2005-12-01

    A Bayesian multi-planet Kepler periodogram has been developed for the analysis of precision radial velocity data (Gregory, Ap. J., 631, 1198, 2005). The periodogram employs a parallel tempering Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with a novel statistical control system. Examples of its use will be presented, including a re-analysis of data for HD 208487 (Gregory, 2005b, astro-ph/0509412) for which we find strong evidence for a second planet with a period of 998-62+57 days, an eccentricity of 0.19-0.18+0.05, and an M sin i = 0.46-0.13+0.05 MJ. This research was supported in part by a grant from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada at the University of British Columbia.

  17. No Pseudosynchronous Rotation for Terrestrial Planets and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael

    2013-02-01

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  18. NO PSEUDOSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS AND MOONS

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil

    2013-02-10

    We re-examine the popular belief that a telluric planet or a satellite on an eccentric orbit can, outside a spin-orbit resonance, be captured in a quasi-static tidal equilibrium called pseudosynchronous rotation. The existence of such configurations was deduced from oversimplified tidal models assuming either a constant tidal torque or a torque linear in the tidal frequency. A more accurate treatment requires that the torque be decomposed into the Darwin-Kaula series over the tidal modes, and that this decomposition be combined with a realistic choice of rheological properties of the mantle, which we choose to be a combination of the Andrade model at ordinary frequencies and the Maxwell model at low frequencies. This development demonstrates that there exist no stable equilibrium states for solid planets and moons, other than spin-orbit resonances.

  19. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  20. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  1. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  2. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  3. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  4. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  5. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  6. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  7. The planet Mercury (1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  8. Secular dynamics of multiplanet systems: implications for the formation of hot and warm Jupiters via high-eccentricity migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.; Antonini, Fabio; Lithwick, Yoram; Perets, Hagai B.; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2017-01-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are Jupiter-like planets that reside very closely to their host star, within ˜0.1 au. Their formation is not well understood. It is generally believed that they cannot have formed in situ, implying that some form of migration must have occurred after their initial formation. We study the production of HJs through secular evolution in multiplanet systems with three to five planets. In this variant of high-e migration, the eccentricity of the orbit of the innermost planet is excited on secular time-scales, triggering orbital migration due to tidal dissipation. We use a secular dynamics code and carry out a population synthesis study. We find that HJs are only produced if the viscous time-scale is short (≈0.014 yr). In contrast, in up to ≈0.3 of systems, the innermost planet is tidally disrupted. The orbital period distribution is peaked around 5 d, consistent with observations. The median HJ mass is 1 MJ with a maximum of ≈2 MJ, similar to observed HJs. Approximately 0.1 of the HJs have retrograde orbits with respect to the stellar spin. We do not find a significant population of warm Jupiters in our simulations, i.e. planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 au.

  9. On the stability of the detected planet in the triple system HD 131399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, B.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Bazsó, Á.; Bancelin, D.

    2017-03-01

    Wagner et al. (2016) reported the discovery of a Jovian planet within a triple-star system by using direct imaging. In their paper they suspect the planet might be on an unstable orbit. Due to the discovery by direct imaging the orbital parameters of the system (distances and eccentricities) possess large uncertainties. Therefore in our work we tested different dynamical configurations to determine the stable regions in the system HD 131399 by varying the distances and the eccentricities of the stellar and the planetary components. Using different numerical methods we could show that stable regions remain for almost all possible orbital parameters. Additionally we also investigated the possible habitability of the system HD 131399.

  10. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  11. Resonance Overlap Is Responsible for Ejecting Planets in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Wu, Yanqin

    2006-03-01

    A planet orbiting around a star in a binary system experiences both secular and resonant perturbations from the companion star. It may be dislodged from its host star if it is simultaneously affected by two or more resonances. We find that overlap between subresonances lying within mean-motion resonances (mostly of the j:1 type) can account for the boundary of orbital stability within binary systems first observed in numerical studies (e.g., Holman & Wiegert). Strong secular forcing from the companion displaces the centroids of different subresonances, producing large regions of resonance overlap. Planets lying within these overlapping regions experience chaotic diffusion, which in most cases leads to their eventual ejection. The overlap region extends to shorter period orbits as either the companion's mass or its eccentricity increase, with boundaries largely agreeing with those obtained by Holman & Wiegert. Furthermore, we find the following two results: First, at a given binary mass ratio, the instability boundary as a function of eccentricity appears jagged, with jutting peninsulas and deep inlets corresponding to islands of instability and stability, respectively; as a result, the largest stable orbit could be reduced from the Holman & Wiegert values by as much as 20%. Second, very high-order resonances (e.g., 50:3) do not significantly modify the instability boundary; these weak resonances, while producing slow chaotic diffusion that may be missed by finite-duration numerical integrations, do not contribute markedly to planet instability. We present some numerical evidence for the first result. More extensive experiments are called for to confirm these conclusions. For the special case of circular binaries, we are intrigued to find that the Hill criterion (based on the critical Jacobi integral) yields an instability boundary that is very similar to that obtained by resonance overlap arguments, making the former both a necessary and a sufficient condition for

  12. Formation of the Long-Period Eccentric Binary IP Eri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. J.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a formation channel that is able to reproduce the observational properties of the K0 + He white dwarf binary IP Eri, in particular its high eccentricity (e≍ 0.25). Our scheme invokes a tidally-enhanced wind-loss mechanism on the red giant branch that can counteract the circularising effect of tides, thereby preserving or even increasing the eccentricity.

  13. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a…

  14. Time course of neuromuscular adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training.

    PubMed

    Baroni, B M; Rodrigues, R; Franke, R A; Geremia, J M; Rassier, D E; Vaz, M A

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the chronology of neural and morphological adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training and their contribution to strength gains in isometric, concentric and eccentric muscle actions. 20 male healthy subjects performed a 12-week eccentric training program on an isokinetic dynamometer, and neuromuscular evaluations of knee extensors were performed every 4 weeks. After 12 training weeks, significant increases were observed for: isometric (24%), concentric (15%) and eccentric (29%) torques; isometric (29%) and eccentric (33%) electromyographic activity; muscle thickness (10%) and anatomical cross-sectional area (19%). Eccentric and isometric torques increased progressively until the end of the program. Concentric torque and muscle mass parameters increased until the eighth training week, but did not change from this point to the twelfth training week. Eccentric and isometric activation increased at 4 and 8 training weeks, respectively, while no change was found in concentric activation. These results suggest that: 1) the relative increment in concentric strength was minor and does not relate to neural effects; 2) eccentric and isometric strength gains up to 8 training weeks are explained by the increased neural activation and muscle mass, whereas the increments in the last 4 training weeks seem to be associated with other mechanisms.

  15. Transit Timing Variation of Near-resonance Planetary Pairs. II. Confirmation of 30 Planets in 15 Multiple-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ji-Wei

    2014-02-01

    Following on from Paper I in this series, I report the confirmation of a further 30 planets in 15 multiple-planet systems via transit timing variations (TTVs), using the publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q16). All 15 pairs are near first-order mean motion resonances, showing sinusoidal TTVs consistent with theoretically predicted periods, which demonstrate they are orbiting and interacting in the same systems. Although individual masses cannot be accurately extracted based only on TTVs (because of the well known degeneracy between mass and eccentricity), the measured TTV phases and amplitudes can still place relatively tight constraints on their mass ratios and upper limits on their masses, which confirm their planetary nature. Some of these systems (KOI-274, KOI-285, KOI-370, and KOI-2672) are relatively bright and thus suitable for further follow-up observations.

  16. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  17. Formation and Evolution of Circumbinary Planets, and the Apparent Lack of CPBs Around Short-Period Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2015-12-01

    The success of the Kepler space telescope in detecting planets in circumbinary orbits strongly suggests that planet formation around binary stars is robust and planets of a variety of sizes and orbital configurations may exist in such complex environments. Accurate modeling of Kepler data has also indicated that some of these planets orbit their central binaries in close proximity to the boundary of orbital stability. This finding, combined with the unsuccessful attempts in forming circumbinary planets (CBPs) close to the orbital stability limit has lent strong support to the idea that almost all currently known CBPs have formed at large distances and undergone substantial radial migration. A survey of the currently known CBPs further indicates that these planets are mainly Neptune-mass and there seems to be a lack of planets of Jupiter-mass or larger in P-type orbits. Furthermore, an examination of the observational data obtained by the Kepler telescope seems to suggest an absence of CBPs around short-period binaries. Finally, recent detections of episodic transits in the two newly discovered circumbinary systems, Kepler 413b and Kepler 453b, as well as the discovery of Kepler non-transiting CBPs, (please see the abstract by Fabrycky et al) have indicated that in general, the orbits of planets and their host binaries are not co-planar. We present a new model for the formation and evolution of CBPs in which the migration of CBPs has been studied for low and high eccentricity binaries, and for different values of binary period. Results of our extensive hydrodynamical simulations show that planet-disk interaction in low-eccentricity binaries can account for the migration of CBPs and the proximity of their final orbits to the boundary of stability. In eccentric binaries, the situation is, however, more complex and in order to explain the final orbital architecture of the system, other factors such as planet-planet interaction have to be taken into account. We show

  18. On the Nature and Timing of Giant Planet Migration in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnor, Craig B.

    2016-05-01

    Giant planet migration is a natural outcome of gravitational scattering and planet formation processes (Fernandez & Ip 1984). There is compelling evidence that the solar system's giant planets experienced large-scale migration involving close approaches between planets as well as smooth radial migration via planetesimal scattering. Aspects of giant planet migration have been invoked to explain many features of the outer solar system including the resonant structure of the Kuiper Belt (e.g., Malhotra 1993, Levison et al. 2008), the eccentricities of Jupiter and Saturn (Tsiganis et al. 2005, Morbidelli et al. 2009), the capture of Jupiter's Trojan companions (Morbidelli et al. 2005) and the capture of irregular planetary satellites (e.g., Nesvorny et al. 2007) to name a few. If this migration epoch occurred after the formation of the inner planets, then it may also explain the so-called lunar Late Heavy Bombardment (Gomes et al. 2005). This scenario necessarily requires coeval terrestrial and migrating giant planets. Recent N-body integrations exploring this issue have shown that giant planet migration may excite the terrestrial system via nodal and apsidal secular resonances (e.g., Brasser et al. 2013), may drive the terrestrial planets to crossing orbits (Kaib & Chambers 2016) or alternatively leave the inner solar system in a state closely resembling the observed one (Roig et al. 2016). The factors accounting for the large range of outcomes remain unclear. Using linear secular models and N-body simulations I am identifying and characterising the principal aspects of giant planet migration that excite the terrestrial planets' orbits. I will present these results and discuss how they inform the nature and timing of giant planet migration in the solar system.

  19. INFLATING AND DEFLATING HOT JUPITERS: COUPLED TIDAL AND THERMAL EVOLUTION OF KNOWN TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Jackson, B. E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org

    2009-09-10

    We examine the radius evolution of close in giant planets with a planet evolution model that couples the orbital-tidal and thermal evolution. For 45 transiting systems, we compute a large grid of cooling/contraction paths forward in time, starting from a large phase space of initial semimajor axes and eccentricities. Given observational constraints at the current time for a given planet (semimajor axis, eccentricity, and system age), we find possible evolutionary paths that match these constraints, and compare the calculated radii to observations. We find that tidal evolution has two effects. First, planets start their evolution at larger semimajor axis, allowing them to contract more efficiently at earlier times. Second, tidal heating can significantly inflate the radius when the orbit is being circularized, but this effect on the radius is short-lived thereafter. Often circularization of the orbit is proceeded by a long period while the semimajor axis slowly decreases. Some systems with previously unexplained large radii that we can reproduce with our coupled model are HAT-P-7, HAT-P-9, WASP-10, and XO-4. This increases the number of planets for which we can match the radius from 24 (of 45) to as many as 35 for our standard case, but for some of these systems we are required to be viewing them at a special time around the era of current radius inflation. This is a concern for the viability of tidal inflation as a general mechanism to explain most inflated radii. Also, large initial eccentricities would have to be common. We also investigate the evolution of models that have a floor on the eccentricity, as may be due to a perturber. In this scenario, we match the extremely large radius of WASP-12b. This work may cast some doubt on our ability to accurately determine the interior heavy element enrichment of normal, noninflated close in planets, because of our dearth of knowledge about these planets' previous orbital-tidal histories. Finally, we find that the end

  20. HD 91669B: A NEW BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE FROM THE MCDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Ramirez, Ivan; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Reffert, Sabine

    2009-03-15

    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M {sub Jup} places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i {approx}> 23{sup 0}. This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  1. Inflating and Deflating Hot Jupiters: Coupled Tidal and Thermal Evolution of Known Transiting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Jackson, B.

    2009-09-01

    We examine the radius evolution of close in giant planets with a planet evolution model that couples the orbital-tidal and thermal evolution. For 45 transiting systems, we compute a large grid of cooling/contraction paths forward in time, starting from a large phase space of initial semimajor axes and eccentricities. Given observational constraints at the current time for a given planet (semimajor axis, eccentricity, and system age), we find possible evolutionary paths that match these constraints, and compare the calculated radii to observations. We find that tidal evolution has two effects. First, planets start their evolution at larger semimajor axis, allowing them to contract more efficiently at earlier times. Second, tidal heating can significantly inflate the radius when the orbit is being circularized, but this effect on the radius is short-lived thereafter. Often circularization of the orbit is proceeded by a long period while the semimajor axis slowly decreases. Some systems with previously unexplained large radii that we can reproduce with our coupled model are HAT-P-7, HAT-P-9, WASP-10, and XO-4. This increases the number of planets for which we can match the radius from 24 (of 45) to as many as 35 for our standard case, but for some of these systems we are required to be viewing them at a special time around the era of current radius inflation. This is a concern for the viability of tidal inflation as a general mechanism to explain most inflated radii. Also, large initial eccentricities would have to be common. We also investigate the evolution of models that have a floor on the eccentricity, as may be due to a perturber. In this scenario, we match the extremely large radius of WASP-12b. This work may cast some doubt on our ability to accurately determine the interior heavy element enrichment of normal, noninflated close in planets, because of our dearth of knowledge about these planets' previous orbital-tidal histories. Finally, we find that the end

  2. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation. II. Dependence of exoplanet architectures on giant planet and disk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    plausible initial conditions for planetary systems. However, among the configurations explored, the best candidates for hosting terrestrial planets at ~1 AU are stars older than 0.1-1 Gyr with bright debris disks at 70 μm but with no currently-known giant planets. These systems combine evidence for the presence of ample rocky building blocks, with giant planet properties that are least likely to undergo destructive dynamical evolution. Thus, we predict two correlations that should be detected by upcoming surveys: an anti-correlation between debris disks and eccentric giant planets and a positive correlation between debris disks and terrestrial planets. Three movies associated to Figs. 1, 3, and 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Rotation of mercury: theoretical analysis of the dynamics of a rigid ellipsoidal planet.

    PubMed

    Laslett, L J; Sessler, A M

    1966-03-18

    The second-order nonlinear differential equation for the rotation of Mercury implies locked-in motion when the period is within the range where e is the eccentricity and T is the period of Mercury's orbit, the time t is measured from perihelion, and lambda is a measure of the planet's disiortion. For values near 2T/3, the instantaneous period oscillates about 2T/3 with period (21lambdae/2)T.

  4. Numerical predictions for planets in the debris discs of HD 202628 and HD 207129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilliez, E.; Maddison, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    Resolved debris disc images can exhibit a range of radial and azimuthal structures, including gaps and rings, which can result from planetary companions shaping the disc by their gravitational influence. Currently, there are no tools available to determine the architecture of potential companions from disc observations. Recent work by Rodigas, Malhotra & Hinz presents how one can estimate the maximum mass and minimum semimajor axis of a hidden planet empirically from the width of the disc in scattered light. In this work, we use the predictions of Rodigas et al. applied to two debris discs HD 202628 and HD 207129. We aim to test if the predicted orbits of the planets can explain the features of their debris disc, such as eccentricity and sharp inner edge. We first run dynamical simulations using the predicted planetary parameters of Rodigas et al., and then numerically search for better parameters. Using a modified N-body code including radiation forces, we perform simulations over a broad range of planet parameters and compare synthetics images from our simulations to the observations. We find that the observational features of HD 202628 can be reproduced with a planet five times smaller than expected, located 30 AU beyond the predicted value, while the best match for HD 207129 is for a planet located 5-10 AU beyond the predicted location with a smaller eccentricity. We conclude that the predictions of Rodigas et al. provide a good starting point but should be complemented by numerical simulations.

  5. Know the Planet, Know the Star: Precise Stellar Parameters with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Emily; Kipping, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionized exoplanetary science with unprecedentedly precise photometric measurements of the light curves of transiting planets. In addition to information about the planet and its orbit, encoded in each Kepler transiting planet light curve are certain properties of the host star, including the stellar density and the limb darkening profile. For planets with strong prior constraints on orbital eccentricity (planets to which we refer as “stellar anchors”), we may measure these stellar properties directly from the light curve. This method promises to aid greatly in the characterization of transiting planet host stars targeted by the upcoming NASA TESS mission and any long-period, singly-transiting planets discovered in the same systems. Using Bayesian inference, we fit a transit model, including a nonlinear limb darkening law, to a large sample of transiting planet hosts to measure their stellar properties. We present the results of our analysis, including posterior stellar density distributions for each stellar host, and show how the method yields superior precision to literature stellar properties in the majority of cases studied.

  6. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  7. Reinflating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  8. Long-Term Stability of Planets in the Alpha Centauri System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quarles, Billy L.

    2016-10-01

    The alpha Centauri star system contains the Solar Systems closest stellar neighbors. If an earthlike planet is present in the system, it could in principle be detected using a small space-based telescope (Belikov et al. 2105, Proc. SPIE 9605, 960518). The alpha Centauri system is billions of years old, so planets are only expected to be found in regions where their orbits are long-lived. We evaluate the extent of the regions within the alpha Centauri AB star system where small planets are able to orbit for billion-year timescales, and we map the positions in the sky plane where planets on stable orbits about either stellar component may appear. We confirm the qualitative results of Wiegert & Holman (Astron. J. 113, 1445, 1997) regarding the approximate size of the regions of stable orbits of a single planet, which are larger for retrograde orbits relative to the binary than for prograde orbits. Additionally, we find that mean motion resonances with the binary orbit leave an imprint on the limits of orbital stability, and the effects of the Lidov-Kozai mechanism are also readily apparent. Because the binary companion induces a forced eccentricity upon the orbits of planets in orbit around either star, appropriately-phased circumstellar orbits with small initial eccentricities are stable to somewhat larger initial semimajor axes than are initially circular orbits and the initial mean anomaly of planets is a factor in determining stability. Our results can guide observers designing instrumentation and search strategies to attempt to discover planets orbiting the nearest sunlike stars.

  9. The Last Stages of Terrestrial Planet Formation: Dynamical Friction and the Late Veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H.; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M⊕ of chondritic material was delivered as "late veneer" by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M⊕ is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii <~ 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars ~(ρ⊕/ρmars)(R⊕/Rmars)4 ~ 17, which agrees well with the mass accretion ratio inferred from HSEs of 12-23. For the Earth-Moon system, we find a mass accretion ratio of

  10. Corralling a distant unseen planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Volk, Kathryn; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-10-01

    Several recent studies have appealed to the clustering of the angular orbital elements of very distant, extreme Kuiper belt objects (eKBOs) to argue for the existence of a large planet in the distant solar system. We identify other properties of eKBOs that may support the existence of such an unseen planet. We observe that several eKBOs have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. These would be dynamically significant only if the eKBOs are in mean motion resonances (MMRs) with an unseen massive planet. If such MMRs are true, then their resonant dynamics can provide constraints on the planet's parameters and its current location in its orbital path. We calculate that a hypothetical planet with orbital period ~17,117 years (semimajor axis ~665 AU), could have small integer period ratios (of the form N/1 or N/2) with the four longest period eKBOs. Our calculations suggest two possibilities for the planet's orbit plane: a plane moderately close to the ecliptic (i~18°) or an inclined plane (i~48°). The former offers dynamical stability of the high-eccentricity eKBOs by means of libration of the relative longitudes, and the latter offers enhanced dynamical stability by means of additional libration of the argument of perihelion, ω. Standard theory of MMRs breaks down for the extremely high orbital eccentricities (~0.7-0.9) of the eKBOs. We developed asymptotic analytical approximations, supported by numerical analysis of the circular restricted three body problem, to estimate that a planet of mass >~10 M♀ has MMR widths large enough that the current orbital uncertainties of the eKBOs allow libration in the hypothesized MMRs, as well as libration of ω in the inclined planet case. Our calculations indicate that the planet's orbital eccentricity is unlikely to exceed ~0.3 for stable resonant librations of the eKBOs. Libration of critical resonant angles of the hypothesized MMRs of the eKBOs define exclusion zones of the current location of the planet

  11. THE LAST STAGES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION: DYNAMICAL FRICTION AND THE LATE VENEER

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H.; Yin Qingzhu

    2012-06-10

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} of chondritic material was delivered as 'late veneer' by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii {approx}< 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars {approx}({rho}{sub Circled-Plus }/{rho}{sub mars})(R{sub Circled-Plus }/R{sub mars}){sup 4} {approx} 17, which agrees well with the mass

  12. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the

  13. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  14. Modification of Eccentric Gaze-Holding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Paloski, W. H.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Wood, S. J.; Kornilova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Clear vision and accurate localization of objects in the environment are prerequisites for reliable performance of motor tasks. Space flight confronts the crewmember with a stimulus rearrangement that requires adaptation to function effectively with the new requirements of altered spatial orientation and motor coordination. Adaptation and motor learning driven by the effects of cerebellar disorders may share some of the same demands that face our astronauts. One measure of spatial localization shared by the astronauts and those suffering from cerebellar disorders that is easily quantified, and for which a neurobiological substrate has been identified, is the control of the angle of gaze (the "line of sight"). The disturbances of gaze control that have been documented to occur in astronauts and cosmonauts, both in-flight and postflight, can be directly related to changes in the extrinsic gravitational environment and intrinsic proprioceptive mechanisms thus, lending themselves to description by simple non-linear statistical models. Because of the necessity of developing robust normal response populations and normative populations against which abnormal responses can be evaluated, the basic models can be formulated using normal, non-astronaut test subjects and subsequently extended using centrifugation techniques to alter the gravitational and proprioceptive environment of these subjects. Further tests and extensions of the models can be made by studying abnormalities of gaze control in patients with cerebellar disease. A series of investigations were conducted in which a total of 62 subjects were tested to: (1) Define eccentric gaze-holding parameters in a normative population, and (2) explore the effects of linear acceleration on gaze-holding parameters. For these studies gaze-holding was evaluated with the subjects seated upright (the normative values), rolled 45 degrees to both the left and right, or pitched back 30 and 90 degrees. In a separate study the further

  15. WASP-8b: CHARACTERIZATION OF A COOL AND ECCENTRIC EXOPLANET WITH SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Anderson, David R.

    2013-05-01

    WASP-8b has 2.18 times Jupiter's mass and is on an eccentric (e = 0.31) 8.16 day orbit. With a time-averaged equilibrium temperature of 948 K, it is one of the least-irradiated hot Jupiters observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have analyzed six photometric light curves of WASP-8b during secondary eclipse observed in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 {mu}m Infrared Array Camera bands. The eclipse depths are 0.113% {+-} 0.018%, 0.069% {+-} 0.007%, and 0.093% {+-} 0.023%, respectively, giving respective brightness temperatures of 1552, 1131, and 938 K. We characterized the atmospheric thermal profile and composition of the planet using a line-by-line radiative transfer code and a Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler. The data indicated no thermal inversion, independently of any assumption about chemical composition. We noted an anomalously high 3.6 {mu}m brightness temperature (1552 K); by modeling the eccentricity-caused thermal variation, we found that this temperature is plausible for radiative timescales less than {approx}10{sup 2} hr. However, as no model spectra fit all three data points well, the temperature discrepancy remains as an open question.

  16. The 2D surfaces that generate Newtonian and general relativistic orbits with small eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Chad A.

    2015-07-01

    Embedding diagrams prove to be quite useful when learning general relativity as they offer a way of visualizing spacetime curvature through warped two dimensional (2D) surfaces. In this manuscript, we present a different 2D construct that also serves as a useful conceptual tool for gaining insight into gravitation: orbital dynamics—namely, the cylindrically symmetric surfaces that generate Newtonian and general relativistic orbits with small eccentricities. Although we first show that no such surface exists that can exactly reproduce the arbitrary bound orbits of Newtonian gravitation or of general relativity (or, more generally, of any spherically symmetric potential), surfaces do exist that closely approximate the resulting orbital motion for small eccentricities (exactly the regime that describes the motion of the solar system planets). These surfaces help to illustrate the similarities and differences between the two theories of gravitation (i.e., stationary elliptical orbits in Newtonian gravitation and precessing elliptical-like orbits in general relativity) and offer, in this age of 3D printing, an opportunity for students and instructors to experimentally explore the predictions made by each.

  17. WASP-8b: Characterization of a Cool and Eccentric Exoplanet with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Blecic, Jasmina; Anderson, David R.; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.

    2013-05-01

    WASP-8b has 2.18 times Jupiter's mass and is on an eccentric (e = 0.31) 8.16 day orbit. With a time-averaged equilibrium temperature of 948 K, it is one of the least-irradiated hot Jupiters observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have analyzed six photometric light curves of WASP-8b during secondary eclipse observed in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm Infrared Array Camera bands. The eclipse depths are 0.113% ± 0.018%, 0.069% ± 0.007%, and 0.093% ± 0.023%, respectively, giving respective brightness temperatures of 1552, 1131, and 938 K. We characterized the atmospheric thermal profile and composition of the planet using a line-by-line radiative transfer code and a Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler. The data indicated no thermal inversion, independently of any assumption about chemical composition. We noted an anomalously high 3.6 μm brightness temperature (1552 K) by modeling the eccentricity-caused thermal variation, we found that this temperature is plausible for radiative timescales less than ~102 hr. However, as no model spectra fit all three data points well, the temperature discrepancy remains as an open question.

  18. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations V: astrometry and distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacky, Quinn M.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Dillon, Daren; Sadakuni, Naru; Maire, Jérôme; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hinkley, Sasha; Kalas, Paul; Esposito, Thomas; Marois, Christian; Ingraham, Patrick J.; Marchis, Franck; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Wang, Jason J.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Morzinski, Katie; Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, James E.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Patience, Jenny; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of both laboratory and on sky astrometric characterization of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). This characterization includes measurement of the pixel scale* of the integral field spectrograph (IFS), the position of the detector with respect to north, and optical distortion. Two of these three quantities (pixel scale and distortion) were measured in the laboratory using two transparent grids of spots, one with a square pattern and the other with a random pattern. The pixel scale in the laboratory was also estimate using small movements of the artificial star unit (ASU) in the GPI adaptive optics system. On sky, the pixel scale and the north angle are determined using a number of known binary or multiple systems and Solar System objects, a subsample of which had concurrent measurements at Keck Observatory. Our current estimate of the GPI pixel scale is 14.14 +/- 0.01 millarcseconds/pixel, and the north angle is -1.00 +/- 0.03°. Distortion is shown to be small, with an average positional residual of 0.26 pixels over the field of view, and is corrected using a 5th order polynomial. We also present results from Monte Carlo simulations of the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) assuming GPI achieves ~1 milliarcsecond relative astrometric precision. We find that with this precision, we will be able to constrain the eccentricities of all detected planets, and possibly determine the underlying eccentricity distribution of widely separated Jovians.

  19. On the Dynamical Evolution of Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.

    2009-05-01

    In recent years many binary minor planets (BMPs) have been discovered in the Solar system. Many models have been suggested for their formation, but these encounter difficulties explaining their observed characteristics. Here we show that secular perturbations by the Sun (Kozai mechanism) fundamentally change the evolution and the initial distribution of BMPs predicted by such models and lead to unique observational signatures. The Kozai mechanism can lead to a large periodic oscillations in the eccentricity and inclination of highly inclined BMP orbits, where we predict such effects to be observable with current accuracy within a few years. In addition, the combined effects of the Kozai mechanism and tidal friction (KCTF) drives BMPs into short period circular orbits. We predict a specific inclination dependent distribution of the separation and eccentricity of BMPs, due to these effects, including a zone of avoidance at the highest inclinations. Specifically the Kozai evolution could explain the recently observed peculiar orbit of the Kuiper belt binary 2001 QW . Additionally, the KCTF process could lead to BMPs coalescence and serve as an important route for the formation of irregular shaped single minor planets with large axial tilts.

  20. Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from −2.5% to −99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

  1. Chronic tendinopathy: effectiveness of eccentric exercise

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Brett L; Newsham‐West, Richard J; Baxter, G David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise (EE) programmes in the treatment of common tendinopathies. Data sources: Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were sourced using the OVID website databases: MEDLINE (1966–Jan 2006), CINAHL (1982–Jan 2006), AMED (1985–Jan 2006), EMBASE (1988–Jan 2006), and all EBM reviews – Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, and CCTR (Jan 2006). The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) was also searched using the keyword: eccentric. Review methods: The PEDro and van Tulder scales were employed to assess methodological quality. Levels of evidence were then obtained according to predefined thresholds: Strong–consistent findings among multiple high‐quality RCTs. Moderate–consistent findings among multiple low‐quality RCTs and/or clinically controlled trials (CCTs) and/or one high‐quality RCT. Limited–one low‐quality RCT and/or CCT. Conflicting–inconsistent findings among multiple trials (RCTs and/or CCTs). No evidence–no RCTs or CCTs. Results: Twenty relevant studies were sourced, 11 of which met the inclusion criteria. These included studies of Achilles tendinopathy (AT), patella tendinopathy (PT) and tendinopathy of the common wrist extensor tendon of the lateral elbow (LET). Limited levels of evidence exist to suggest that EE has a positive effect on clinical outcomes such as pain, function and patient satisfaction/return to work when compared to various control interventions such as concentric exercise (CE), stretching, splinting, frictions and ultrasound. Levels of evidence were found to be variable across the tendinopathies investigated. Conclusions: This review demonstrates the dearth of high‐quality research in support of the clinical effectiveness of EE over other treatments in the management of tendinopathies. Further adequately powered studies that include appropriate randomisation procedures, standardised outcome measures and long‐term follow‐up are required

  2. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-02-10

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  3. Search for Radio Emission from HD80606b: a Highly Eccentric Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, M.; Winterhalter, D.; Lazio, J.; Majid, W.; Kuiper, T.; Farrell, W. M.; Spitler, L.

    2014-12-01

    Exoplanetary radio emission is a potential goldmine of information about a wider sample of planetary interiors, dynamos, and magnetospheres than our solar system provides. To date, however, radio searches for exoplanetary radio emission have been unsuccessful likely because the observing frequencies are too high. Using the relatively new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), we present analyses of observations of the highly eccentric Jovian exoplanet HD80606b during five epochs before and after the planet's periastron. All of the gas giants in the solar system, as well as the Earth, exhibit magnetospheric radio emission due to the electron cyclotron maser instability. The power of this emission is modulated by the solar wind intensity. HD80606b is in a highly eccentric (e=0.93) orbit with a 111 day period. As the planet passes from apastron (0.88 AU) to periastron (0.03 AU), it experiences widely varying stellar wind conditions which should lead to variable radio emission with the highest power corresponding to periastron passage. HD80606b has been observed previously with the VLA at 325 MHz and 1425 MHz by Lazio et. al (2010), but LOFAR's lower frequency range (30-75 MHz) and high sensitivity is better suited to Jovian-type radio emissions. The LOFAR observations were made 48 hours and 18 hours pre-periastron, plus 18 and 48 hours post-periastron to capture the predicted strongest emission, and near apastron to provide a baseline level. The data are analyzed for both time-dependent and frequency dependent emission at each of the five observation epochs. This work presents the ongoing analysis of the data. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Primordial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Gibson, Carl H.

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion at the time of plasma neutralization 380,000 years after the big bang. Most have been frozen and invisible, but are now manifesting themselves in numerous ways as sensitive modern space telescopes become operational. Their key detection signature is their thermal emission spectrum, pegged at the 13.8 degrees Kelvin triple point of hydrogen, the baryonic dark matter (Staplefeldt et al. 1999).

  5. Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-07-25

    The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the Hα line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for Hα modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

  6. TESTING IN SITU ASSEMBLY WITH THE KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Brad M. S.; Murray, Norm E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca

    2013-09-20

    We present a Monte Carlo model for the structure of low-mass (total mass <25 M{sub ⊕}) planetary systems that form by the in situ gravitational assembly of planetary embryos into final planets. Our model includes distributions of mass, eccentricity, inclination, and period spacing that are based on the simulation of a disk of 20 M{sub ⊕}, forming planets around a solar-mass star, and assuming a power-law surface density distribution that drops with distance a as ∝ a {sup –1.5}. The output of the Monte Carlo model is then subjected to the selection effects that mimic the observations of a transiting planet search such as that performed by the Kepler satellite. The resulting comparison of the output to the properties of the observed sample yields an encouraging agreement in terms of the relative frequencies of multiple-planet systems and the distribution of the mutual inclinations when moderate tidal circularization is taken into account. The broad features of the period distribution and radius distribution can also be matched within this framework, although the model underpredicts the distribution of small period ratios. This likely indicates that some dissipation is still required in the formation process. The most striking deviation between the model and observations is in the ratio of single to multiple systems in that there are roughly 50% more single-planet candidates observed than are produced in any model population. This suggests that some systems must suffer additional attrition to reduce the number of planets or increase the range of inclinations.

  7. Recipes for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  8. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  9. Eccentricity effect of micropatterned surface on contact angle.

    PubMed

    Kashaninejad, Navid; Chan, Weng Kong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-03-13

    This article experimentally shows that the wetting property of a micropatterned surface is a function of the center-to-center offset distance between successive pillars in a column, referred to here as eccentricity. Studies were conducted on square micropatterns which were fabricated on a silicon wafer with pillar eccentricity ranging from 0 to 6 μm for two different pillar diameters and spacing. Measurement results of the static as well as the dynamic contact angles on these surfaces revealed that the contact angle decreases with increasing eccentricity and increasing relative spacing between the pillars. Furthermore, quantification of the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) shows that, for the case of lower pillar spacing, CAH could increase up to 41%, whereas for the case of higher pillar spacing, this increment was up to 35%, both corresponding to the maximum eccentricity of 6 μm. In general, the maximum obtainable hydrophobicity corresponds to micropillars with zero eccentricity. As the pillar relative spacing decreases, the effect of eccentricity on hydrophobicity becomes more pronounced. The dependence of the wettability conditions of the micropatterned surface on the pillar eccentricity is attributed to the contact line deformation resulting from the changed orientation of the pillars. This finding provides additional insights in design and fabrication of efficient micropatterned surfaces with controlled wetting properties.

  10. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  11. Insights into the neural control of eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Jacques; Baudry, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to examine our current knowledge of the neural control of eccentric contractions. The review focuses on three main issues. The first issue considers the ability of individuals to activate muscles maximally during eccentric contractions. Most studies indicate that, regardless of the experimental approach (surface EMG amplitude, twitch superimposition, and motor unit recordings), it is usually more difficult to achieve full activation of a muscle by voluntary command during eccentric contractions than during concentric and isometric contractions. The second issue is related to the specificity of the control strategy used by the central nervous system during submaximal eccentric contractions. This part underscores that although the central nervous system appears to employ a single size-related strategy to activate motoneurons during the different types of contractions, the discharge rate of motor units is less during eccentric contractions across different loading conditions. The last issue addresses the mechanisms that produce this specific neural activation. This section indicates that neural adjustments at both supraspinal and spinal levels contribute to the specific modulation of voluntary activation during eccentric contractions. Although the available information on the control of eccentric contractions has increased during the last two decades, this review indicates that the exact mechanisms underlying the unique neural modulation observed in this type of contraction at spinal and supraspinal levels remains unknown and their understanding represents, therefore, a major challenge for future research on this topic.

  12. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  14. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  15. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  16. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  17. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Seamon, Bryant A.; Gonzales, Tomas I.; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from −5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s−1

  18. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications.

    PubMed

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Gonzales, Tomas I; Hernandez, Haniel J; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from -5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s(-1) while

  19. Characterization of the KOI-94 system with transit timing variation analysis: Implication for the planet-planet eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Kento; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nagasawa, Makiko

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a 'planet-planet eclipse (PPE)', in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m{sub c}=9.4{sub −2.1}{sup +2.4} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub d}=52.1{sub −7.1}{sup +6.9} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub e}=13.0{sub −2.1}{sup +2.5} M{sub ⊕}, and e ≲ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m {sub d} = 106 ± 11 M {sub ⊕}. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  20. Characterization of the KOI-94 System with Transit Timing Variation Analysis: Implication for the Planet-Planet Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kento; Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a "planet-planet eclipse (PPE)," in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m_c = 9.4_{-2.1}^{+2.4}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_d = 52.1_{-7.1}^{+6.9}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_e = 13.0_{-2.1}^{+2.5}\\, M_{\\oplus }, and e <~ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m d = 106 ± 11 M ⊕. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  1. Planet Hunters. VII. Discovery of a New Low-mass, Low-density Planet (PH3 C) Orbiting Kepler-289 with Mass Measurements of Two Additional Planets (PH3 B and D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Joseph R.; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine M.; Rogers, Leslie A.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Fischer, Debra A.; Wang, Ji; Holman, Matthew J.; Jek, Kian J.; Margossian, Charles; Omohundro, Mark R.; Winarski, Troy; Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Schwamb, Megan E.; Simpson, Robert; Smith, Arfon M.

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of one newly confirmed planet (P = 66.06 days, R P = 2.68 ± 0.17 R ⊕) and mass determinations of two previously validated Kepler planets, Kepler-289 b (P = 34.55 days, R P = 2.15 ± 0.10 R ⊕) and Kepler-289-c (P = 125.85 days, R P = 11.59 ± 0.10 R ⊕), through their transit timing variations (TTVs). We also exclude the possibility that these three planets reside in a 1:2:4 Laplace resonance. The outer planet has very deep (~1.3%), high signal-to-noise transits, which puts extremely tight constraints on its host star's stellar properties via Kepler's Third Law. The star PH3 is a young (~1 Gyr as determined by isochrones and gyrochronology), Sun-like star with M * = 1.08 ± 0.02 M ⊙, R * = 1.00 ± 0.02 R ⊙, and T eff = 5990 ± 38 K. The middle planet's large TTV amplitude (~5 hr) resulted either in non-detections or inaccurate detections in previous searches. A strong chopping signal, a shorter period sinusoid in the TTVs, allows us to break the mass-eccentricity degeneracy and uniquely determine the masses of the inner, middle, and outer planets to be M = 7.3 ± 6.8 M ⊕, 4.0 ± 0.9M ⊕, and M = 132 ± 17 M ⊕, which we designate PH3 b, c, and d, respectively. Furthermore, the middle planet, PH3 c, has a relatively low density, ρ = 1.2 ± 0.3 g cm-3 for a planet of its mass, requiring a substantial H/He atmosphere of 2.1+0.8-0.3% by mass, and joins a growing population of low-mass, low-density planets. .

  2. WASP-44b, WASP-45b and WASP-46b: three short-period, transiting extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Todd, I.; Udry, S.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of three extrasolar planets that transit their moderately bright (mV= 12-13) host stars. WASP-44b is a 0.89-MJup planet in a 2.42-day orbit around a G8V star. WASP-45b is a 1.03-MJup planet which passes in front of the limb of its K2V host star every 3.13 days. Weak Ca II H&K emission seen in the spectra of WASP-45 suggests that the star is chromospherically active. WASP-46b is a 2.10-MJup planet in a 1.43-day orbit around a G6V star. Rotational modulation of the light curves of WASP-46 and weak Ca II H&K emission in its spectra show the star to be photospherically and chromospherically active. We imposed circular orbits in our analyses as the radial-velocity data are consistent with (near-)circular orbits, as could be expected from both empirical and tidal-theory perspectives for such short-period, ˜Jupiter-mass planets. We discuss the impact of fitting for eccentric orbits for such planets when not supported by the data. The derived planetary and stellar radii depend on the fitted eccentricity and these parameters inform intense theoretical efforts concerning tidal circularization and heating, bulk planetary composition and the observed systematic errors in planetary and stellar radii. As such, we recommend exercising caution in fitting the orbits of short-period, ˜Jupiter-mass planets with an eccentric model when there is no evidence of non-circularity.

  3. Spin-orbit evolution of the GJ 667C system: the effect of composition and other planets' perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P. A.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J. I.; Portilla-Revelo, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-12-01

    Potentially habitable planets within the habitable zone of M dwarfs are affected by tidal interaction. We studied tidal evolution in GJ 667C using a numerical code we call TIDEV. We reviewed the problem of dynamical evolution, focusing on the effects of a rheological treatment, different compositions and the inclusion of orbital perturbations on the spin-down time and the probability of becoming trapped in a low spin-orbit resonance. The composition has a noticeable effect on the spin-down time, which changes, in some cases, by almost a factor of 2 with respect to the value estimated for a reference Earth-like model. We calculated the time required to reach a low resonance value (3:2) for a configuration of six planets. Capture probabilities are affected when assuming different compositions and eccentricity variations. We chose planets b and c to evaluate the probabilities of capture in resonances below 5:2 for two compositions: Earth-like and Waterworld planets. We found that perturbations, although having a secular effect on eccentricities, have a low impact on capture probabilities and no effect on spin-down times. The implications of the eccentricity variations and actual habitability of the GJ 667C system are discussed.

  4. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  5. Migration of icy planetesimals to forming terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Sergei I.; Marov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Our studies of migration of planetesimals from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn to forming terrestrial planets were based on computer simulations of the orbital evolution of 10^4 planetesimals under the gravitational influence of planets. In series JN, all planets were considered in present orbits with present masses, and in series JS, Uranus and Neptune were excluded. Initial eccentricities and inclinations of planetesimals were 0.3 and 0.15 rad, respectively. Their initial semi-major axes were between 4.5 and 12 AU. Masses of planets moving in the orbits of the terrestrial planets were equal to present masses of the planets in series JS and JN, and were smaller by a factor of 10 in series JS_{01} and JN_{01}. The obtained results show that the ratio of the fraction of the planetesimals collided with an embryo of the Earth's embryo was about 2\\cdot10^{-6} and 4\\cdot10^{-7} for the mass of the embryo equal to the Earth mass and to 10% of the Earth mass, respectively. We concluded that during the growth of the mass of the Earth's embryo up to a half of the present mass of the Earth, the amount of water delivered to the embryo could be about 30% of all water delivered to the Earth from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn. The total mass of water delivered to the Earth from the feeding zones of the giant planets and beyond these zones could be comparable with the mass of the Earth's oceans. A half of this water could come from the feeding zone of Jupiter and Saturn, and another half from more distant regions. Most of the water that was delivered from the distant regions to the Earth's embryo came when its mass was not small (e.g., was mainly greater than a half of the Earth mass). In series JS, the ratio of the mass of water delivered to a planet to the mass of the planet for the Earth was smaller by a factor of 2, 1.25, and 1.3 than for Mars, Venus and Mercury, respectively. For series JN, the above values of the factor were equal to 3.4, 0.7 i 0.8. For

  6. Bringing “The Moth” to Light: A Planet-sculpting Scenario for the HD 61005 Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Wang, Jason; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric; Ammons, S. Mark; Bruzzone, Sebastian; De Rosa, Robert J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Vega, David; Wolff, Schuyler

    2016-10-01

    The HD 61005 debris disk (“The Moth”) stands out from the growing collection of spatially resolved circumstellar disks by virtue of its unusual swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetries, and dust ring offset. Despite several suggestions for the physical mechanisms creating these features, no definitive answer has been found. In this work, we demonstrate the plausibility of a scenario in which the disk material is shaped dynamically by an eccentric, inclined planet. We present new Keck NIRC2 scattered-light angular differential imaging of the disk at 1.2-2.3 μm that further constrains its outer morphology (projected separations of 27-135 au). We also present complementary Gemini Planet Imager 1.6 μm total intensity and polarized light detections that probe down to projected separations less than 10 au. To test our planet-sculpting hypothesis, we employed secular perturbation theory to construct parent body and dust distributions that informed scattered-light models. We found that this method produced models with morphological and photometric features similar to those seen in the data, supporting the premise of a planet-perturbed disk. Briefly, our results indicate a disk parent body population with a semimajor axis of 40-52 au and an interior planet with an eccentricity of at least 0.2. Many permutations of planet mass and semimajor axis are allowed, ranging from an Earth mass at 35 au to a Jupiter mass at 5 au.

  7. Changing Phases of Alien Worlds: Probing Atmospheres of Kepler Planets with High-precision Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, Lisa J.; De Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2015-05-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of planetary phase variations, including possible planetary light offsets, using eighteen quarters of data from the Kepler space telescope. Our analysis found fourteen systems with significant detections in each of the phase curve components: planet’s phase function, secondary eclipse, Doppler boosting, and ellipsoidal variations. We model the full phase curve simultaneously, including primary and secondary transits, and derive albedos, day- and night-side temperatures and planet masses. Most planets manifest low optical geometric albedos (< 0.25), with the exception of Kepler-10b, Kepler-91b, and KOI-13b. We find that KOI-13b, with a small eccentricity of 0.0006 ± 0.0001, is the only planet for which an eccentric orbit is favored. We detect a third harmonic for HAT-P-7b for the first time, and confirm the third harmonic for KOI-13b reported in Esteves et al.: both could be due to their spin-orbit misalignments. For six planets, we report a planetary brightness peak offset from the substellar point: of those, the hottest two (Kepler-76b and HAT-P-7b) exhibit pre-eclipse shifts or on the evening-side, while the cooler four (Kepler-7b, Kepler-8b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b) peak post-eclipse or on the morning-side. Our findings dramatically increase the number of Kepler planets with detected planetary light offsets, and provide the first evidence in the Kepler data for a correlation between the peak offset direction and the planet’s temperature. Such a correlation could arise if thermal emission dominates light from hotter planets that harbor hot spots shifted toward the evening-side, as theoretically predicted, while reflected light dominates cooler planets with clouds on the planet’s morning-side.

  8. CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Lisa J.; Mooij, Ernst J. W. De; Jayawardhana, Ray E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca

    2015-05-10

    We present a comprehensive analysis of planetary phase variations, including possible planetary light offsets, using eighteen quarters of data from the Kepler space telescope. Our analysis found fourteen systems with significant detections in each of the phase curve components: planet’s phase function, secondary eclipse, Doppler boosting, and ellipsoidal variations. We model the full phase curve simultaneously, including primary and secondary transits, and derive albedos, day- and night-side temperatures and planet masses. Most planets manifest low optical geometric albedos (< 0.25), with the exception of Kepler-10b, Kepler-91b, and KOI-13b. We find that KOI-13b, with a small eccentricity of 0.0006 ± 0.0001, is the only planet for which an eccentric orbit is favored. We detect a third harmonic for HAT-P-7b for the first time, and confirm the third harmonic for KOI-13b reported in Esteves et al.: both could be due to their spin–orbit misalignments. For six planets, we report a planetary brightness peak offset from the substellar point: of those, the hottest two (Kepler-76b and HAT-P-7b) exhibit pre-eclipse shifts or on the evening-side, while the cooler four (Kepler-7b, Kepler-8b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b) peak post-eclipse or on the morning-side. Our findings dramatically increase the number of Kepler planets with detected planetary light offsets, and provide the first evidence in the Kepler data for a correlation between the peak offset direction and the planet’s temperature. Such a correlation could arise if thermal emission dominates light from hotter planets that harbor hot spots shifted toward the evening-side, as theoretically predicted, while reflected light dominates cooler planets with clouds on the planet’s morning-side.

  9. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  10. Twist planet drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

  11. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  12. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  13. Mercury: the forgotten planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1997-11-01

    Mercury is the neglected child of the planetary system. Only one spacecraft has every ventured near it, whereas scores have probed the moon, Venus and Mars. The scant facts available show this strange, blazingly hot planet is full of surprises: its anomalous density and magnetic field suggest that Mercury may be where to seek clues to the origin of the solar system.

  14. Making and Differentiating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The rocky planets formed by progressive aggregation of dust to make planetesimals which joined to make large objects called planetary embryos that finally accumulated into planets, one of which we live on. This chaotic process is complicated further by chemical changes with distance from the Sun, including differences in oxidation conditions and water concentration. Once the inner planets began to form, metallic iron sank to form cores, reacting with the rocky portions in the process. David C. Rubie (University of Bayreuth, Germany) and colleagues in Germany, France, and the United States put all this planetary action into an impressively thorough computer model of planet formation and differentiation. They show that the observed compositions of the Earth can be matched by simulations that include the Grand Tack (Jupiter and Saturn migrate inwards towards the Sun and then back out), and chemical gradients in the Solar System, with more reducing conditions near the Sun, more oxidizing farther from the Sun, and oxidizing and hydrated conditions even farther from the Sun. The study identifies other important variables, such as the extent to which metallic iron chemically equilibrated with the silicate making up the Earth's mantle, the pressure at which it happened, and the likelihood that Earth accreted heterogeneously.

  15. Accumulation of the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to increase understanding of planet forming processes that are likely to have occurred in the Solar System during its early evolution. This was accomplished by development of computer models that are compatible with the present state of the Solar System as well as with observational and theoretical data attained from astrophysical observations and theory.

  16. A Planet for Goldilocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, N.

    2014-07-01

    The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

  17. NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand...

  18. Finding Planets around other stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Just as the Earth revolves around the sun, our closest star, other planets might orbit the stars you see in the night sky. Think of all the planets in the universe that may be just the right distan...

  19. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge: New High Perihelion Trans-Neptunian Objects with Moderate Semimajor Axes and Eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick; Tholen, David J.

    2016-07-01

    We are conducting a survey for distant solar system objects beyond the Kuiper Belt edge (˜50 au) with new wide-field cameras on the Subaru and CTIO telescopes. We are interested in the orbits of objects that are decoupled from the giant planet region to understand the structure of the outer solar system, including whether a massive planet exists beyond a few hundred astronomical units as first reported in 2014 by Trujillo & Sheppard. In addition to discovering extreme trans-Neptunian objects detailed elsewhere, we found several objects with high perihelia (q > 40 au) that differ from the extreme and inner Oort cloud objects due to their moderate semimajor axes (50 < a < 100 au) and eccentricities (e ≲ 0.3). Newly discovered objects 2014 FZ71 and 2015 FJ345 have the third and fourth highest perihelia known after Sedna and 2012 VP113, yet their orbits are not nearly as eccentric or distant. We found several of these high-perihelion but moderate orbit objects and observe that they are mostly near Neptune mean motion resonances (MMRs) and have significant inclinations (i > 20°). These moderate objects likely obtained their unusual orbits through combined interactions with Neptune’s MMRs and the Kozai resonance, similar to the origin scenarios for 2004 XR190. We also find the distant 2008 ST291 has likely been modified by the MMR+KR mechanism through the 6:1 Neptune resonance. We discuss these moderately eccentric distant objects along with some other interesting low inclination outer classical belt objects like 2012 FH84 discovered in our ongoing survey.

  20. Applying KAM Theory to Highly Eccentric Orbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi- major axis of its orbit. In 1687, Isaac Newton would prove Kepler’s discoveries after...solving the n-body problem) gave way for more exhaustive research efforts of Newton , Euler, Lagrange, Jacobi, Poincaré, and many others. The King...coordinates, H(I, θ) = H ′(I′), (2.5) 3. Solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the following generating function (Equa- tion (2.6) using a Newton

  1. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION OF (FROM LEFT) ECCENTRIC HOUSE, BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION OF (FROM LEFT) ECCENTRIC HOUSE, BELT SHED, AND ENGINE HOUSE, NOTE EXHAUST LOWER RIGHT OF ENGINE HOUSE. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  3. VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES EXITING THE BUILDING AND ROD LINES WITH SUPPORTS IN FOREGROUND LEFT. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  4. Near- and Far-Field Optical Response of Eccentric Nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Díaz-Núñez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Montaño-Priede, Luis; Rivera, Antonio; Pal, Umapada

    2017-01-01

    We study the optical response of eccentric nanoshells (i.e., spherical nanoparticles with an eccentric spherical inclusion) in the near and the far field through finite-difference time-domain simulations. Plasmon hybridization theory is used to explain the obtained results. The eccentricity generates a far-field optical spectrum with various plasmon peaks. The number, position, and width of the peaks depend on the core offset. Near-field enhancements in the surroundings of these structures are significantly larger than those obtained for equivalent concentric nanoshells and, more importantly, they are almost independent of the illumination conditions. This opens up the door for using eccentric nanoshells in applications requiring intense near-field enhancements.

  5. Some Expansions of the Elliptic Motion to High Eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Fernandes, Sandro

    1995-12-01

    Some classic expansions of the elliptic motion — cosmE and sinmE — in powers of the eccentricity are extended to highly eccentric orbits, 0.6627...eccentricity. The coefficients are given in terms of the derivatives of Bessel functions with respect to the eccentricity. The expansions have the same radius of convergence ρ(e*) of the extended solution of Kepler's equation, previously derived by the author. Some other simple expansions — (a/r), (r/a), (r/a) sinv, ..., — derived straightforward from the expansions ofE, cosE and sinE are also presented.

  6. Near- and Far-Field Optical Response of Eccentric Nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Díaz-Núñez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Montaño-Priede, Luis; Rivera, Antonio; Pal, Umapada

    2017-12-01

    We study the optical response of eccentric nanoshells (i.e., spherical nanoparticles with an eccentric spherical inclusion) in the near and the far field through finite-difference time-domain simulations. Plasmon hybridization theory is used to explain the obtained results. The eccentricity generates a far-field optical spectrum with various plasmon peaks. The number, position, and width of the peaks depend on the core offset. Near-field enhancements in the surroundings of these structures are significantly larger than those obtained for equivalent concentric nanoshells and, more importantly, they are almost independent of the illumination conditions. This opens up the door for using eccentric nanoshells in applications requiring intense near-field enhancements.

  7. The orbital eccentricities of binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.; Heggie, Douglas C.

    1995-01-01

    Low-mass binary millisecond pulsars (LMBPs) are born with very small orbital eccentricities, typically of order e(sub i) approximately 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -3). In globular clusters, however, higher eccentricities e(sub f) much greater than e(sub i) can be induced by dynamical interactions with passing stars. Here we show that the cross section for this process is much larger than previously estimated. This is becuse, even for initially circular binaries, the induced eccentricity e(sub f) for an encounter with pericenter separation r(sub p) beyond a few times the binary semimajor axis a declines only as a power law (e(sub f) varies as (r(sub p)/a)(exp -5/2), and not as an exponential. We find that all currently known LMBPs in clusters were probably affected by interactions, with their current eccentricities typically greater than at birth by an order of magnitude or more.

  8. RESEARCH PAPERS : Geomagnetic induction in multiple eccentrically nested spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic solution to the 3-D forward modelling of electromagnetic induction in a heterogeneous model consisting of multiple eccentrically nested spheres. A number of numerical methods for 2-D and 3-D global electromagnetic modelling have been applied recently, including thin-sheet, perturbation-expansion, finite-element and spectral-finite-element schemes. The present semi-analytical approach may be used as an aid for testing more general algorithms of electromagnetic induction modelling. The multiple eccentrically nested spheres solution has been tested by comparing against the analytical solution for electromagnetic induction in a uniform sphere and in two eccentrically nested spheres with an azimuthal structure of electrical conductivity, and good agreements have been obtained. We further solve the electromagnetic induction problem in three and four eccentrically nested spheres configurations and compute the global response function and the spherical components of magnetic intensity within the model.

  9. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  10. Studies of Constraints from the Terrestrial Planets, Asteroid Belt and Giant Planet Obliquities on the Early Solar System Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, David

    The planetary instability has been invoked as a convenient way to explain several observables in the present Solar System. This theory, frequently referred to under a broad and somewhat ill-defined umbrella as the ‘Nice model’, postulates that at least one of the ice giants suffered scattering encounters with Jupiter and Saturn. This could explain several things, including the excitation of the proper eccentric mode in Jupiter's orbit, survival of the terrestrial planets during giant planet migration, and, if the instability was conveniently delayed, also the Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon. These properties/events would be unexpected if the migration histories of the outer planets were ideally smooth (at least no comprehensive model has yet been fully developed to collectively explain them). Additional support for the planetary instability comes from the dynamical properties of the asteroid and Kuiper belts, Trojans, and planetary satellites. We created a large database of dynamical evolutions of the outer planets through and 100 Myr past the instability (Nesvorny and Morbidelli 2012. Many of these dynamical histories have been found to match constraints from the orbits of the outer planets themselves. We now propose to test these different scenarios using constraints from the terrestrial planets, asteroid belt and giant planet obliquities. As we explain in the proposal narrative, we will bring all these constraints together in an attempt to develop a comprehensive model of early Solar System's evolution. This will be a significant improvement over the past work, where different constraints were considered piecewise and in various approximations. Our work has the potential to generate support for the Nice-type instability, or to rule it out, which could help in sparking interest in developing better models. RELEVANCE The proposed research is fundamental to understanding the formation and early evolution of the Solar System. This is a central theme of NASA

  11. Polarimetry of gas planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Franco

    The quest for new worlds was not only an adventure at the times of Columbus. Also nowadays mankind searches for new, undiscovered territories. But today they lie no longer only on our Earth, but also well outside the solar system. There, new planets are sought and found. One of the challenges of modern astrophysics is the direct detection of extra- solar planets. To reach this goal, the largest available telescopes and most sophisticated detection techniques are required. A promising method to "see" and analyse extra-solar planets is based on the fact, that light reflected by a planet can be polarised. For its detection, accurate polarisation measurements are needed. This is one of the methods ESO intends to make use of to find new planets outside the solar system. The Institute of Astronomy of ETH Zürich contributes ZIMPOL to this planet-finder project. ZIMPOL is a very sensitive imaging polarimeter. This thesis is situated within the ESO-planet-finder project. It deals with two problems that are crucial for a successful mission: (1) Instrumental polarisation can seriously hamper the performance of the instrument. It is therefore essential, to keep instrumental polarisation very low. (2) A knowledge of the polarisation properties of our targets would be very helpful. For this reason the polarisation properties of our solar system planets are investigated. Promising candidates for a detection with ZIMPOL are large planets with atmospheres similar to those of our giant gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the first part of the thesis the planet-finder project is presented and the role of ZIMPOL is explained. To obtain the instrumental polarisation, the polarimetric properties of mirrors and other optical components of our planet- finder instrument are analysed. The instrumental polarisation for the wavelength range of 600 to 1000 nm and for all zenith distances is calculated with Mueller matrices. Methods for reducing the instrumental polarisation

  12. Seismic response of eccentrically braced tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Spectral analysis and system identification techniques are used to analyze a set of acceleration reponse records obtained during the Loma Prieta earthquake from the 47-story, moment-resisting framed and eccentrically braced Embarcadero Building (EMB). The EMB was constructed in 1979 based on the 1976 Uniform Building Code requirements and a design response spectra defined by two levels of earthquake performances. The EMB is in the lower market area of San Francisco, which is of great interest to the engineering community because of the area's soft soil characteristics that amplify ground motions originating at long distances, and because the Embarcadero freeway suffered extensive damage during the earthquake and was razed in 1991. The first modal frequencies of the building at approximately 0.19 Hz (north-south) and 0.16 Hz (east-west) are identified. The torsional response and rocking motions of the building are insignificant. Discontinuity of stiffness and mass at the 40th floor level causes significant response issues above that floor such as excessive drift ratios.

  13. First law of mechanics for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    Using the canonical Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian formalism, a "first law of mechanics" is established for binary systems of point masses moving along generic stable bound (eccentric) orbits. This relationship is checked to hold within the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity, up to third order. Several applications are discussed, including the use of gravitational self-force results to inform post-Newtonian theory and the effective one-body model for eccentric-orbit compact binaries.

  14. Misaligned spin-orbit in the XO-3 planetary system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, G.; Bouchy, F.; Pont, F.; Loeillet, B.; Rabus, M.; Bonfils, X.; Moutou, C.; Boisse, I.; Delfosse, X.; Desort, M.; Eggenberger, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2008-09-01

    The transiting extrasolar planet XO-3b is remarkable, with a high mass and eccentric orbit. These unusual characteristics make it interesting to test whether its orbital plane is parallel to the equator of its host star, as it is observed for other transiting planets. We performed radial velocity measurements of XO-3 with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the 1.93 m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory during a planetary transit and at other orbital phases. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and, together with a new analysis of the transit light curve, to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint of a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration due to interaction with the accretion disk. This surprising result requires confirmation by additional observations, especially at lower airmass, to fully exclude the possibility that the signal is due to systematic effects. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE Consortium (program 07A.PNP.CONS).

  15. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  16. Shapes and gravitational fields of rotating two-layer Maclaurin ellipsoids: Application to planets and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John; Zhang, Keke; Kong, D.; Helled, Ravit

    2011-08-01

    The exact solution for the shape and gravitational field of a rotating two-layer Maclaurin ellipsoid of revolution is compared with predictions of the theory of figures up to third order in the small rotational parameter of the theory of figures. An explicit formula is derived for the external gravitational coefficient J2 of the exact solution. A new approach to the evaluation of the theory of figures based on numerical integration of ordinary differential equations is presented. The classical Radau-Darwin formula is found not to be valid for the rotational parameter ɛ2 = Ω2/(2 πG ρ2) ⩾ 0.17 since the formula then predicts a surface eccentricity that is smaller than the eccentricity of the core-envelope boundary. Interface eccentricity must be smaller than surface eccentricity. In the formula for ɛ2, Ω is the angular velocity of the two-layer body, ρ2 is the density of the outer layer, and G is the gravitational constant. For an envelope density of 3000 kg m -3 the failure of the Radau-Darwin formula corresponds to a rotation period of about 3 h. Application of the exact solution and the theory of figures is made to models of Earth, Mars, Uranus, and Neptune. The two-layer model with constant densities in the layers can provide realistic approximations to terrestrial planets and icy outer planet satellites. The two-layer model needs to be generalized to allow for a continuous envelope (outer layer) radial density profile in order to realistically model a gas or ice giant planet.

  17. Measurement of Planet Masses with Transit Timing Variations Due to Synodic “Chopping” Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. Here we show that synodic “chopping” contributions to these transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used to uniquely measure the masses of planets without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. We present simple analytic formulae for the chopping signal, which are valid (generally \\lt 10% error) for modest eccentricities e≲ 0.1. Importantly, these formulae primarily depend on the mass of the perturbing planet, and therefore the chopping signal can be used to break the mass/free-eccentricity degeneracy, which can appear for systems near first-order mean motion resonances. Using a harmonic analysis, we apply these TTV formulae to a number of Kepler systems, which had been previously modeled with full dynamical analyses. We show that when chopping is measured, the masses of both planets can be determined uniquely, in agreement with previous results, but without the need for numerical orbit integrations. This demonstrates how mass measurements from TTVs may primarily arise from an observable chopping signal. The formula for chopping can also be used to predict the number of transits and timing precision required for future observations, such as those made by TESS or PLATO, in order to infer planetary masses through analysis of TTVs.

  18. Dance as an eccentric form of exercise: practical implications.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Kitas, George D; Wyon, Matthew A; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-06-01

    The eccentric action is an integral part of the stretch-shortening (or eccentric-concentric) cycle of muscle movement, especially when repositioning of the centre of gravity is required. Jumps and landing tasks are examples of this cycle and are incorporated in most dance activities. However, unaccustomed eccentric muscle action can cause muscle damage, which is characterised by the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness and swelling, decline of pain-free range of motion, as well as sustained loss of muscle force and range of motion. Furthermore, unaccustomed eccentric muscle action can induce disturbances in movement economy and energy expenditure, so dancers spend more energy during a routine than usual. Such negative effects are gradually reduced and eventually disappear due to physiological adaptations to this form of muscular activity. Given that eccentric exercises also appear to induce greater muscle performance improvements than other forms of muscle conditioning, it is advised that they should be integrated into dancers' weekly schedules. The purpose of the present review is to examine the possible effects of the eccentric component of dance on the performance and health status of dancers.

  19. Inferred Eccentricity and Period Distributions of Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the underlying eccentricity and orbital period distributions from an observed sample of eclipsing binary stars is not a trivial task. Shen and Turner (2008) have shown that the commonly used maximum likelihood estimators are biased to larger eccentricities and they do not describe the underlying distribution correctly; orbital periods suffer from a similar bias. Hogg, Myers and Bovy (2010) proposed a hierarchical probabilistic method for inferring the true eccentricity distribution of exoplanet orbits that uses the likelihood functions for individual star eccentricities. The authors show that proper inference outperforms the simple histogramming of the best-fit eccentricity values. We apply this method to the complete sample of eclipsing binary stars observed by the Kepler mission (Prsa et al. 2011) to derive the unbiased underlying eccentricity and orbital period distributions. These distributions can be used for the studies of multiple star formation, dynamical evolution, and they can serve as a drop-in replacement to prior, ad-hoc distributions used in the exoplanet field for determining false positive occurrence rates.

  20. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  1. How Giant Planets Shape the Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2016-01-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are not ubiquitous. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times and the delivery of volitiles. This work has important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets.

  2. The role of dynamics on the habitability of an Earth-like planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-04-01

    From the numerous detected planets outside the Solar System, no terrestrial planet comparable with our Earth has been discovered so far. The search for an Exo-Earth is certainly a big challenge which may require the detections of planetary systems resembling our Solar System in order to find life like on Earth. However, even if we find Solar System analogues, it is not certain that a planet in Earth position will have similar circumstances as those of the Earth. Small changes in the architecture of the giant planets can lead to orbital perturbations which may change the conditions of habitability for a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone (HZ). We present a numerical investigation where we first study the motion of test-planets in a particular Jupiter-Saturn configuration for which we can expect strong gravitational perturbations on the motion at the Earth's position according to a previous work. In this study, we show that these strong perturbations can be reduced significantly by the neighbouring planets of Earth. In the second part of our study, we investigate the motion of test-planets in inclined Jupiter-Saturn systems where we analyse changes in the dynamical behaviour of the inner planetary system. Moderate values of inclination seem to counteract the perturbations in the HZ, while high inclinations induce more chaos in this region. Finally, we carry out a stability study of the actual orbits of Venus, Earth and Mars moving in the inclined Jupiter-Saturn systems for which we used the Solar System parameters. This study shows that the three terrestrial planets will only move in low-eccentric orbits if Saturn's inclination is <=10°. Therefore, it seems that it is advantageous for the habitability of Earth when all planets move nearly in the same plane.

  3. Orbital Architectures of Planet-Hosting Binaries: Testing Co-alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Prato, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Most planetary system only offer the possibility to measure the initial conditions of planet formation (e.g., protoplanetary disks) separately from the final outcome (e.g., planet demographics of field samples). Planet-hosting binaries offer the rare opportunity to observe both simultaneously. For example, in our previous work on the hierarchical triple system Kepler-444 that hosts five Mars-sized planets, we demonstrated that the present-day stellar orbits imply that the planets must have formed from a protoplanetary disk that was truncated at 1-2 AU. Here we will present new results from our continuing Keck adaptive optics program to monitor the stellar orbits of Kepler planet hosts that have binary companions at solar-system scales of 20-100 AU. The astrometric orbital arcs that we measure enable a fundamental test: whether or not the stellar orbits are seen edge-on and thus co-aligned with the transiting planets in the system. This orbit-orbit alignment test allows us to critically examine the possible formation pathways for these systems, thereby providing key insights into planet formation models that have been proposed to explain the origins of Kepler planets. We will also discuss preliminary results for a subset of our sample for which we have obtained resolved radial velocities with NIRSPAO that allow us to measure additional orbit parameters (eccentricity and semimajor axis). Full orbit determinations will allow us to address whether special conditions (e.g., circular orbits) are preferred for forming planets in binaries, which are the most common type of stellar system in the Galaxy.

  4. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). IV. Seven Transiting Planets in the Praesepe Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric; Vanderburg, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ansdell, Megan; Medina, Jennifer Vanessa; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-02-01

    Open clusters and young stellar associations are attractive sites to search for planets and to test theories of planet formation, migration, and evolution. We present our search for, and characterization of, transiting planets in the 800 Myr old Praesepe (Beehive, M44) Cluster from K2 light curves. We identify seven planet candidates, six of which we statistically validate to be real planets, the last of which requires more data. For each host star, we obtain high-resolution NIR spectra to measure its projected rotational broadening and radial velocity, the latter of which we use to confirm cluster membership. We combine low-resolution spectra with the known cluster distance and metallicity to provide precise temperatures, masses, radii, and luminosities for the host stars. Combining our measurements of rotational broadening, rotation periods, and our derived stellar radii, we show that all planetary orbits are consistent with alignment to their host star’s rotation. We fit the K2 light curves, including priors on stellar density to put constraints on the planetary eccentricities, all of which are consistent with zero. The difference between the number of planets found in Praesepe and Hyades (8 planets, ≃ 800 Myr) and a similar data set for Pleiades (0 planets, ≃125 Myr) suggests a trend with age, but may be due to incompleteness of current search pipelines for younger, faster-rotating stars. We see increasing evidence that some planets continue to lose atmosphere past 800 Myr, as now two planets at this age have radii significantly larger than their older counterparts from Kepler.

  5. Planet formation in transition disks: Modeling, spectroscopy, and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liskowsky, Joseph Paul

    due to either a massive planet accreting the material onto it or via a photoevaporation process whereby the central star's radiation field ejects material from the inner disk out of the bound system in the the interstellar medium. It is presumed that this phase is the last gasp of the planetary disk's evolution before the debris disk stage and before a fully formed solar system evolves. Our work specifically focuses on one object of this transition disk class: HD100546. We add to the understanding of transition disks by showing that a model where ro-vibrational OH emission in the NIR is preferentially emitted along the 'wall' of the disk is consistent with observations, and furthermore that adding an eccentricity to this `wall' component is required to generate the necessary observed line shape. In conjunction with this observation we present supporting material whic