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Sample records for eccrine sweat gland

  1. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca2+-dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers – for example InsP3 and Ca2+ – and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid–base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. PMID:26014472

  2. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  4. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Matrigel basement membrane matrix induces eccrine sweat gland cells to reconstitute sweat gland-like structures in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Shaopeng; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Shu, Shenyou; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Severe burn results in irreversible damage to eccrine sweat glands, for which no effective treatment is available. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and epithelial cells is critical for proper three-dimensional organization and function of the epithelium. Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were subcutaneously implanted into the inguinal regions of nude mice. Two weeks later, the Matrigel plugs were removed and evaluated for series of detection items. Sweat gland cells developed into sweat gland-like structures in the Matrigel plugs based on: (1) de novo formation of tubular-like structures with one or more hollow lumens, (2) expression of epithelial and sweat gland markers (pancytokeratin, CK5/7/14/19, α-SMA and CEA), (3) basement membrane formation, (4) myoepithelial cells presenting in and encompassing the tubular-like structures, (5) cellular polarization, evident by the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-2), anchoring junctions (desmoglein-1 and -2 and E-cadherin) and CEA in the luminal membrane, (6) expression of proteins related to sweat secretion and absorption (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotranspoter 1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, aquaporin-5, epithelial sodium channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase), and (7) about 20% of the tubular-like structures are de novo coils and 80% are de novo ducts. This study provides not only an excellent model to study eccrine sweat gland development, cytodifferentiation and reconstitution, but also an in vivo model for regeneration of eccrine sweat glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic analysis for mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands on a human fingertip by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Tanigawa, Motomu; Wada, Yuki; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2011-05-01

    OCT is highly potential for in vivo observation of human sweating dynamics which affects activity of the sympathetic nerve. In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic OCT analysis of mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands. The sweating dynamics is tracked simultaneously for nineteen sweat glands by time-sequential piled-up en-face OCT images with the frame spacing of 3.3 sec. Strong non-uniformity is observed in mental sweating where the amount of excess sweat is different for each sweat gland although the sweat glands are adjacent to each other. The non-uniformity should be necessary to adjust as precisely the total amount of excess sweat as possible through the sympathetic nerve in response to strength of the stress.

  8. PAR-2 receptor-induced effects on human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    PubMed

    L Bovell, Douglas; Kofler, Barbara; Lang, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases can induce cell signaling by stimulating G-protein-coupled receptors, called proteinase-activated receptors (PAR's) on a variety of epithelial cells. While PAR-2, one such receptor, activates cell signaling in a secretory cell line derived from human sweat glands, there was no information on their presence and effects on intact sweat glands. PAR-2 presence and activation of eccrine sweat glands isolated from human skin samples was investigated using Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM) and Ca(2+) imaging. Anti-human PAR-2 antibody demonstrated the presence of these receptors in eccrine sweat glands. EM showed that PAR-2 activation resulted in degranulation of secretory cells. Ca(2+) imaging using PAR-2 activators demonstrated a two phase increase in [Ca(2+)](i) which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) for the second phase, and that the response could be blocked by prior incubation with xestospongin, the IP(3) receptor blocker. The results demonstrated that PAR-2 receptors are present in human sweat gland secretory cells and that these receptors are functionally active and can induce changes associated with secretory events in eccrine glands.

  9. Human eccrine sweat gland cells reconstitute polarized spheroids when subcutaneously implanted with Matrigel in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Liyun; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Bingna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that maintenance of cell polarity plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glandular homeostasis and function. We examine the markers for polarity at different time points to investigate the formation of cell polarity during 3D reconstitution of eccrine sweat glands. Mixtures of eccrine sweat gland cells and Matrigel were injected subcutaneously into the inguinal regions of nude mice. At 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-implantation, Matrigel plugs were removed and immunostained for basal collagen IV, lateral β-catenin, lateroapical ZO-1 and apical F-actin. The results showed that the cell polarity of the spheroids appeared in sequence. Formation of basal polarity was prior to lateral, apical and lateroapical polarity. Collagen IV was detected basally at 2 weeks, β-catenin laterally and ZO-1 lateroapically at 3 weeks, and F-actin apically at 4 weeks post-implantation. At week 5 and week 6, the localization and the positive percentage of collagen IV, β-catenin, ZO-1 or F-actin in spheroids was similar to that in native eccrine sweat glands. We conclude that the reconstituted 3D eccrine sweat glands are functional or potentially functional.

  10. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications

    PubMed Central

    Sonner, Z.; Wilder, E.; Heikenfeld, J.; Kasting, G.; Beyette, F.; Swaile, D.; Sherman, F.; Joyce, J.; Hagen, J.; Kelley-Loughnane, N.; Naik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive and accurate access of biomarkers remains a holy grail of the biomedical community. Human eccrine sweat is a surprisingly biomarker-rich fluid which is gaining increasing attention. This is especially true in applications of continuous bio-monitoring where other biofluids prove more challenging, if not impossible. However, much confusion on the topic exists as the microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland has never been comprehensively presented and models of biomarker partitioning into sweat are either underdeveloped and/or highly scattered across literature. Reported here are microfluidic models for eccrine sweat generation and flow which are coupled with review of blood-to-sweat biomarker partition pathways, therefore providing insights such as how biomarker concentration changes with sweat flow rate. Additionally, it is shown that both flow rate and biomarker diffusion determine the effective sampling rate of biomarkers at the skin surface (chronological resolution). The discussion covers a broad class of biomarkers including ions (Na+, Cl−, K+, NH4+), small molecules (ethanol, cortisol, urea, and lactate), and even peptides or small proteins (neuropeptides and cytokines). The models are not meant to be exhaustive for all biomarkers, yet collectively serve as a foundational guide for further development of sweat-based diagnostics and for those beginning exploration of new biomarker opportunities in sweat. PMID:26045728

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Is Associated with Terminal Differentiation of Epidermis and Eccrine Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Sup; Kim, Hyung Won; Kim, Chang Deok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jin Woon; Jung, Sunggyun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Ko, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) participates in various biological activities, including the regulation of epidermal barrier homeostasis, inflammation, pain perception, and melanosome transfer in the skin. Objective To evaluate the basic physiological role of PAR-2 in skin. Methods We investigated PAR-2 expression in human epidermis, skin tumors, and cultured epidermal cells using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we examined the effect of the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL-NH2, on cultured keratinocytes. Results Strong PAR-2 immunoreactivity was observed in the granular layer of normal human skin and the acrosyringium of the eccrine sweat glands. In contrast, weak PAR-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the granular layer of callused skin and in the duct and gland cells of the eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, PAR-2 immunoreactivity was very weak or absent in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and syringoma. PAR-2 was detected in primary keratinocytes and SV-40T-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV-HEKs), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line, but not in SCC12 cells. SV-HEKs that were fully differentiated following calcium treatment displayed higher PAR-2 expression than undifferentiated SV-HEKs. Treatment of cultured SV-HEKs with PAR-2 agonist increased loricrin and filaggrin expression, a terminal differentiation marker. Conclusion Our data suggest that PAR-2 is associated with terminal differentiation of epidermis and eccrine sweat glands. PMID:26273149

  12. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Is Associated with Terminal Differentiation of Epidermis and Eccrine Sweat Glands.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Sup; Kim, Hyung Won; Kim, Chang Deok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jin Woon; Jung, Sunggyun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Ko, Young-Kwon; Lee, Young Ho

    2015-08-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) participates in various biological activities, including the regulation of epidermal barrier homeostasis, inflammation, pain perception, and melanosome transfer in the skin. To evaluate the basic physiological role of PAR-2 in skin. We investigated PAR-2 expression in human epidermis, skin tumors, and cultured epidermal cells using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we examined the effect of the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL-NH2, on cultured keratinocytes. Strong PAR-2 immunoreactivity was observed in the granular layer of normal human skin and the acrosyringium of the eccrine sweat glands. In contrast, weak PAR-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the granular layer of callused skin and in the duct and gland cells of the eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, PAR-2 immunoreactivity was very weak or absent in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and syringoma. PAR-2 was detected in primary keratinocytes and SV-40T-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV-HEKs), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line, but not in SCC12 cells. SV-HEKs that were fully differentiated following calcium treatment displayed higher PAR-2 expression than undifferentiated SV-HEKs. Treatment of cultured SV-HEKs with PAR-2 agonist increased loricrin and filaggrin expression, a terminal differentiation marker. Our data suggest that PAR-2 is associated with terminal differentiation of epidermis and eccrine sweat glands.

  13. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests intrinsic regulatory activity of human eccrine sweat glands

    PubMed Central

    ZANCANARO, CARLO; MERIGO, FLAVIA; CRESCIMANNO, CATERINA; ORLANDINI, SIMONETTA; OSCULATI, ANTONIO

    1999-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of normal eccrine sweat glands was performed on paraffin sections of human skin. Immunoreactivity (ir) for neuron specific enolase, S100 protein (S100), regulatory peptides, nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS-I) and choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) was found in small nerve bundles close to sweat glands. In the glands, secretory cells were labelled with anticytokeratin antibody. Using antibodies to S100, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) a specific distribution pattern was found in secretory cells. Granulated (dark) and parietal (clear) cells were immunopositive for CGRP, and S100 and SP, respectively. Immunoreactivity was diffuse in the cytoplasm for CGRP and S100, and peripheral for SP. Myoepithelial cells were not labelled. Electron microscopy revealed electron dense granules, probably containing peptide, in granulated cells. Using antibodies to NOS-I and ChAT, ir was exclusively found in myoepithelial cells. Immunoreactivity for the atrial natriuretic peptide was absent in sweat glands. These results provide evidence for the presence of both regulatory peptides involved in vasodilation and key enzymes for the synthesis of nitric oxide and acetylcholine in the secretory coil of human sweat glands. It is suggested that human sweat glands are capable of some intrinsic regulation in addition to that carried out by their nerve supply. PMID:10386780

  14. Human eccrine sweat gland cells turn into melanin-uptaking keratinocytes in dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Hendriks, Bart; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Widmer, Daniel S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Recently, Biedermann et al. (2010) have demonstrated that human eccrine sweat gland cells can develop a multilayered epidermis. The question still remains whether these cells can fulfill exclusive and very specific functional properties of epidermal keratinocytes, such as the incorporation of melanin, a feature absent in sweat gland cells. We added human melanocytes to eccrine sweat gland cells to let them develop into an epidermal analog in vivo. The interaction between melanocytes and sweat gland-derived keratinocytes was investigated. The following results were gained: (1) macroscopically, a pigmentation of the substitutes was seen 2-3 weeks after transplantation; (2) we confirmed the development of a multilayered, stratified epidermis with melanocytes distributed evenly throughout the basal layer; (3) melanocytic dendrites projected to suprabasal layers; and (4) melanin was observed to be integrated into former eccrine sweat gland cells. These skin substitutes were similar or equal to skin substitutes cultured from human epidermal keratinocytes. The only differences observed were a delay in pigmentation and less melanin uptake. These data suggest that eccrine sweat gland cells can form a functional epidermal melanin unit, thereby providing striking evidence that they can assume one of the most characteristic keratinocyte properties.

  15. Thermogenic and psychogenic recruitment of human eccrine sweat glands: Variations between glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied. That was followed by passive heating (0.5°C mean body temperature elevation) and thermal clamping, with a second cognitive challenge then applied. Sudomotor activity was evaluated from both hands, with colourimetry used to identify activated sweat glands, skin conductance to determine the onset of precursor sweating and ventilated sweat capsules to measure rates of discharged sweating. From glandular activation and sweat rate data, sweat-gland outputs were derived. These psychogenic and thermogenic stimuli activated sweat glands from both the glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces, with the former dominating at the glabrous skin and the latter at the non-glabrous surface. Indeed, those stimuli individually accounted for ~90% of the site-specific maximal number of activated sweat glands observed when both stimuli were simultaneously applied. During the normothermic psychological stimulation, sweating from the glabrous surface was elevated via a 185% increase in the number of activated glands within the first 60s. The hypothetical mechanism for this response may involve the serial activation of additional eccrine sweat glands during the progressive evolution of psychogenic sweating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic analysis of mental sweating of eccrine sweat gland of human fingertip by time-sequential piled-up en face optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Masato; Wada, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic analysis of mental sweating for sound stimulus of a few tens of eccrine sweat glands by the time-sequential piled-up en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with the frame spacing of 3.3 sec. In the experiment, the amount of excess sweat can be evaluated simultaneously for a few tens of sweat glands by piling up of all the en face OCT images. Non-uniformity was observed in mental sweating where the amount of sweat in response to sound stimulus is different for each sweat gland. Furthermore, the amount of sweat is significantly increased in proportion to the strength of the stimulus.

  17. Dry skin (xerosis) in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis: the role of decreased sweating of the eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Park, T H; Park, C H; Ha, S K; Lee, S H; Song, K S; Lee, H Y; Han, D S

    1995-12-01

    The aetiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of dry skin in uraemia are still unclear, but the hydration status of stratum corneum clearly influences the appearance of skin. The xerotic skin texture is often referred to as 'dry skin' and has been suggested as a cause of uraemic pruritus. To understand the aetiology of dry skin in uraemia we measured the status of skin surface hydration of uraemic patients with the corneometer and skin surface hydrometer, the functional capacity and the urea concentration of stratum corneum and the response of eccrine sweat gland to sudorific agent (0.05% pilocarpine HCL) in 18 age-matched haemodialysis patients and 10 healthy volunteers. We also performed the water sorption-desorption test to uraemic and control subjects after application of urea in various concentrations. Uraemic patient's skin showed decreased water content compared to control subjects. However, we found no correlation between dry skin and pruritus. Although the urea concentration of the horny layer in uraemic patients was elevated compared to control subjects (28.2 microgram/cm2 vs 5.04 micrograms/cm2, P < 0.05), its moisturizing effect to relieve pruritus is questionable because its artificial application revealed no improvement of the functional capacity of horny layer in concentration 5 times higher than the physiological concentration. Uraemic patients showed decreased sweating response to sudorific agent. In conclusion, the functional abnormalities of eccrine sweat glands may be account for dry skin in uraemic patients at least in part, but there is no correlation between xerosis and pruritus.

  18. A non-contact technique for measuring eccrine sweat gland activity using passive thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Krzywicki, Alan T; Berntson, Gary G; O'Kane, Barbara L

    2014-10-01

    An approach for monitoring eccrine sweat gland activity using high resolution Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) imaging (3-5 μm wave band) is described. This technique is non-contact, passive, and provides high temporal and spatial resolution. Pore activity was monitored on the face and on the volar surfaces of the distal and medial phalanges of the index and middle fingers while participants performed a series of six deep inhalation and exhalation exercises. Two metrics called the Pore Activation Index (PAI) and Pore Count (PC) were defined as size-weighted and unweighted measures of active sweat gland counts respectively. PAI transient responses on the finger tips were found to be positively correlated to Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs). PAI responses were also observed on the face, although the finger sites appeared to be more responsive. Results indicate that thermal imaging of the pore response may provide a useful, non-contact, correlate measure for electrodermal responses recorded from related sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  20. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Axel R.; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E.; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P.; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E.; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel–deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue–specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice. PMID:27721237

  1. De novo epidermal regeneration using human eccrine sweat gland cells: higher competence of secretory over absorptive cells.

    PubMed

    Pontiggia, Luca; Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Oliveira, Carol; Braziulis, Erik; Klar, Agnieszka S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    In our previous work, we showed that human sweat gland-derived epithelial cells represent an alternative source of keratinocytes to grow a near normal autologous epidermis. The role of subtypes of sweat gland cells in epidermal regeneration and maintenance remained unclear. In this study, we compare the regenerative potential of both secretory and absorptive sweat gland cell subpopulations. We demonstrate the superiority of secretory over absorptive cells in forming a new epidermis on two levels: first, the proliferative and colony-forming efficiencies in vitro are significantly higher for secretory cells (SCs), and second, SCs show a higher frequency of successful epidermis formation as well as an increase in the thickness of the formed epidermis in the in vitro and in vivo functional analyses using a 3D dermo-epidermal skin model. However, the ability of forming functional skin substitutes is not limited to SCs, which supports the hypothesis that multiple subtypes of sweat gland epithelial cells hold regenerative properties, while the existence and exact localization of a keratinocyte stem cell population in the human eccrine sweat gland remain elusive.

  2. Cutaneous microdialysis as a novel means of continuously stimulating eccrine sweat glands in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Caroline J; Friedmann, Peter S; Church, Martin K; Clough, Geraldine F

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies of the pharmacological regulation of sweat gland function in humans have administered agonists or antagonists systemically, by local intradermal injection or by iontophoresis. This has not allowed prolonged or steady-state activation of sweat glands to be examined. In this study, we used the technique of dermal microdialysis to administer pharmacological agents singly and in combination for up to 5 hours. Muscarinic stimulation with pilocarpine nitrate (50 mug ml(-1) to 1.66 mg ml(-1)) produced a sigmoid dose response curve, with maximal sweating (measured as transepidermal water loss) (mean 70 g m(-2) hour(-1)) after 15 minutes. This was sustained at steady-state levels (55 g m(-2) hour(-1)) until perfusion stopped. Perfusion with atropine (0.003 mg ml(-1)) reduced sweating below baseline and blocked pilocarpine-induced sweating completely. Noradrenaline (0.005 mg ml(-1)) induced much lower sweat rates than pilocarpine (56.8+/-1.62 g m(-2) hour(-1) vs 8.2+/-1.2 g m(-2) hour(-1), respectively, P<0.001) and this was unaffected by co-administration of atropine. This method has made it possible to show that sweat glands are capable of sustaining near maximal activity for at least 5 hours. The method has future application in investigation of conditions with disordered sweat gland activity.

  3. Effect of skin temperature on the cholinergic sensitivity of the human eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J; Kolkhorst, Fred W

    2003-12-01

    Although sweat gland activity is directly controlled by the central nervous system, which detects changes in core body temperature, sweat glands can also be influenced by local cutaneous thermal conditions. The present study sought to determine the effect of local skin temperature on pilocarpine-induced sweating within a range of typical skin temperatures. Thirteen subjects (30 +/- 6 years; 172 +/- 11 cm; 72.8 +/- 11.0 kg) had forearm sweat rates measured at rest following pilocarpine iontophoresis at each of three skin temperatures in randomized order: warm (T(warm) = 37.1 +/- 0.9 degrees C), control (T(con) = 32.3 +/- 1.4 degrees C), and cool (T(cool) = 26.6 +/- 1.3 degrees C). T(skin) was raised and lowered with an electric heating pad and gel ice pack, respectively. Forearm T(skin) was measured with a skin temperature probe. Pilocarpine iontophoresis was used on an approximately 7 cm(2) area of the anterior forearm to stimulate localized sweating. Following stimulation, sweat was collected from the area for 15 min with a Macroduct Sweat Collection System. There was a higher sweat rate at T(warm) (p = 0.001) and T(con) (p = 0.006) compared to that at T(cool). However, there was no difference between the sweat rate at T(warm) and that at T(con) (p = 0.127). These results indicated that skin temperatures below approximately 32 degrees C affect local sweat production primarily by altering glandular sensitivity to the neurotransmitter, whereas skin temperatures above approximately 32 degrees C predominantly affect neurotransmitter release. Furthermore, sweat glands display maximal or near maximal cholinergic sensitivity at resting skin temperature in a thermoneutral environment.

  4. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  5. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  6. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    PubMed

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cells in 3D-reconstitutued eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into gross cystic disease fluid protein 15-expressing dark secretory cells and carbonic anhydrase II-expressing clear secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Bingna

    2017-07-01

    Secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands are composed of myoepithelial cells, dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells. The two types of cells play important roles in sweat secretion. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into secretory coil-like structures. However, whether the secretory coil-like structures further differentiate into dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells were is still unknown. In this study, we detected the differentiation of clear and dark secretory cells in the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids using the dark secretory cell-specific marker, GCDFP-15, and clear secretory cell-specific marker, CAII by immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that there were both GCDFP-15- and CAII-expressing cells in 12-week-old 3D spheroids, similar to native eccrine sweat glands, indicating that the spheroids possess a cellular structure capable of sweat secretion. We conclude that the 12-week 3D spheroids may have secretory capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft, skin-mounted microfluidic systems for measuring secretory fluidic pressures generated at the surface of the skin by eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Xue, Yeguang; Xia, Wei; Ray, Tyler R; Reeder, Jonathan T; Bandodkar, Amay J; Kang, Daeshik; Xu, Shuai; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2017-07-25

    During periods of activity, sweat glands produce pressures associated with osmotic effects to drive liquid to the surface of the skin. The magnitudes of these pressures may provide insights into physiological health, the intensity of physical exertion, psychological stress factors and/other information of interest, yet they are currently unknown due to absence of means for non-invasive measurement. This paper introduces a thin, soft wearable microfluidic system that mounts onto the surface of the skin to enable precise and routine measurements of secretory fluidic pressures generated at the surface of the skin by eccrine sweat glands (surface SPSG, or s-SPSG) at nearly any location on the body. These platforms incorporate an arrayed collection of unit cells each of which includes an opening to the skin, an inlet through which sweat can flow, a capillary bursting valve (CBV) with a unique bursting pressure (BP), a corresponding microreservoir to receive sweat and an outlet to the surrounding ambient to allow release of backpressure. The BPs systematically span the physiologically relevant range, to enable a measurement precision approximately defined by the ratio of the range to the number of unit cells. Human studies demonstrate measurements of s-SPSG under different conditions, from various regions of the body. Average values in healthy young adults lie between 2.4 and 2.9 kPa. Sweat associated with vigorous exercise have s-SPSGs that are somewhat higher than those associated with sedentary activity. For all conditions, the forearm and lower back tend to yield the highest and lowest s-SPSGs, respectively.

  9. Sweating

    ... half million eccrine sweat glands all over the body. They lie deep in the skin and are connected to the surface by coiled tubes called ducts. Sweat (perspiration) is a liquid mixture made up of 99% water and 1% salt and fat. Up to a quart of liquid a day ...

  10. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality

    PubMed Central

    Grüdl, Sabine; Banowski, Bernhard; Giesen, Melanie; Sättler, Andrea; Proksch, Peter; Welss, Thomas; Förster, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D) sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D) culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3), Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A), and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential bioactives

  11. Transition duration of ingested deuterium oxide to eccrine sweat during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Church, Adam; Lee, Fanny; Buono, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The time necessary for the initial appearance of ingested water as sweat during exercise in the heat remains unknown. Based on the current literature, we estimated fluid transition through the body, from ingestion to appearance as sweat, to have a minimum time duration of approximately three minutes. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction and identify the time necessary for the initial enrichment of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) in sweat following ingestion during exercise in the heat. Eight participants performed moderate intensity (40% of maximal oxygen uptake) treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (40°C, 40% rH) to induce active sweating. After fifteen minutes, while continuing to walk, participants consumed D 2 O (0.15mlkg -1 ) in a final volume of 50ml water. Scapular sweat samples were collected one minute prior to and ten minutes post-ingestion. Samples were analyzed for sweat D 2 O concentration using isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compared to baseline. Mean±SD ∆ sweat D 2 O concentration at minutes one and two post-ingestion were not significantly higher than baseline (0min). Minutes three (9±3ppm) through ten (23±11ppm) post-ingestion had ∆ sweat D 2 O concentrations significantly (P<0.05) higher than baseline. Such results suggest that ingested water rapidly transports across the mucosal membrane of the alimentary canal into the vasculature space, enters the extravascular fluid, and is actively secreted by the eccrine sweat glands onto the surface of the skin for potential evaporation in as little as three minutes during exercise in the heat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomic profiling of eccrine sweat reveals its potential as a diagnostic biofluid for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Olanisun Olufemi; Erhabor, Greg Efosa; Adewole, Temitayo Oluwatoyin; Ojo, Abiodun Oluwasesan; Oshokoya, Harriet; Wolfe, Lisa M; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Excessive sweating is a common symptom of the disease and an unexplored biofluid for TB diagnosis; we conducted a proof-of-concept study to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers of active TB in eccrine sweat. We performed a global proteomic profile of eccrine sweat sampled from patients with active pulmonary TB, other lung diseases (non-TB disease), and healthy controls. A comparison of proteomics between Active-TB, Non-TB, and Healthy Controls was done in search for potential biomarkers of active TB. Sweat specimens were pooled from 32 active TB patients, 27 patients with non-TB diseases, and 24 apparently healthy controls, all were negative for HIV. Over 100 unique proteins were identified in the eccrine sweat of all three groups. Twenty-six proteins were exclusively detected in the sweat of patients with active TB while the remaining detected proteins overlapped between three groups. Gene ontology evaluation indicated that the proteins detected uniquely in sweat of active TB patients were involved in immune response and auxiliary protein transport. Gene products for cellular components (e.g. ribosomes) were detected only in active TB patients. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003224. Proteomics of sweat from active TB patients is a viable approach for biomarker identification, which could be used to develop a nonsputum-based test for detection of active TB. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Proteomic Analysis of Eccrine Sweat: Implications for the Discovery of Schizophrenia Biomarker Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Raiszadeh, Michelle M.; Ross, Mark M.; Russo, Paul S.; Schaepper, Mary Ann H.; Zhou, Weidong; Deng, Jianghong; Ng, Daniel; Dickson, April; Dickson, Cindy; Strom, Monica; Osorio, Carolina; Soeprono, Thomas; Wulfkuhle, Julia D.; Kabbani, Nadine; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Kirsch, Wolff M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) proteomics analyses were performed on eccrine sweat of healthy controls, and the results were compared with those from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first large scale study of the sweat proteome. First, we performed LC-MS/MS on pooled SZ samples and pooled control samples for global proteomics analysis. Results revealed a high abundance of diverse proteins and peptides in eccrine sweat. Most of the proteins identified from sweat samples were found to be different than the most abundant proteins from serum, which indicates that eccrine sweat is not simply a plasma transudate, and may thereby be a source of unique disease-associated biomolecules. A second independent set of patient and control sweat samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and spectral counting to determine qualitative protein differential abundances between the control and disease groups. Differential abundances of selected proteins, initially determined by spectral counting, were verified by MRM-MS analyses. Seventeen proteins showed a differential abundance of approximately two-fold or greater between the SZ pooled sample and the control pooled sample. This study demonstrates the utility of LC-MS/MS and MRM-MS as a viable strategy for the discovery and verification of potential sweat protein disease biomarkers. PMID:22256890

  14. Hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma: a new entity of adnexal nevus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Chang-Zheng; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Feng-Feng; Mo, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Eccrine nevus shows increase in number or size of eccrine glands, whereas hair follicle nevus is composed of densely packed normal vellus hairs, and eccrine-pilar angiomatous nevus reveals increase of eccrine, pilar, and angiomatous structures. No case with increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles only in the dermis has been previously reported. A 10-month-old girl presented with cutaneous hamartoma with overlying skin hyperpigmentation on her left hypochondrium since 3 months of age, in whom the lesion was completely excised. Histopathology demonstrated evidently increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles in the dermis with reactive hyperplasia of collagen fibers. No recurrence occurred after the tumor was completely excised. A term "hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma" is proposed for this unique lesion.

  15. Quantification of cortisol in human eccrine sweat by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Chew, Wade M; Feinstein, Yelena; Skeath, Perry; Sternberg, Esther M

    2016-03-21

    Cortisol has long been recognized as the "stress biomarker" in evaluating stress related disorders. Plasma, urine or saliva are the current source for cortisol analysis. The sampling of these biofluids is either invasive or has reliability problems that could lead to inaccurate results. Sweat has drawn increasing attention as a promising source for non-invasive stress analysis. A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of cortisol ((11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) in human eccrine sweat. At least one unknown isomer that has previously not been reported and could potentially interfere with quantification was separated from cortisol with mixed mode RP HPLC. Detection of cortisol was carried out using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive ion mode, using cortisol-9,11,12,12-D4 as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were estimated to be 0.04 ng ml(-1) and 0.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. Linear range of 0.10-25.00 ng ml(-1) was obtained. Intraday precision (2.5%-9.7%) and accuracy (0.5%-2.1%), interday precision (12.3%-18.7%) and accuracy (7.1%-15.1%) were achieved. This method has been successfully applied to the cortisol analysis of human eccrine sweat samples. This is the first demonstration that HPLC-MS/MS can be used for the sensitive and highly specific determination of cortisol in human eccrine sweat in the presence of at least one isomer that has similar hydrophobicity as cortisol. This study demonstrated that human eccrine sweat could be used as a promising source for non-invasive assessment of stress biomarkers such as cortisol and other steroid hormones.

  16. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  17. Sweating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Sweating Sweating You might think that you are only supposed to sweat when you are hot, but once you hit puberty, you will also sweat when you are nervous. Your sweat glands, which ...

  18. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Sweat Gland of Caruncle: A Unique Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anuradha; Nagpal, R. C.; Harsh, Meena; Bahadur, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination after surgical excision. We are first to report a case of SP involving the caruncle in an elderly female. PMID:28936056

  19. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Sweat Gland of Caruncle: A Unique Case Report.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anuradha; Nagpal, R C; Harsh, Meena; Bahadur, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination after surgical excision. We are first to report a case of SP involving the caruncle in an elderly female.

  20. Is the eccrine gland an integral, functionally important component of the human scalp pilosebaceous unit?

    PubMed

    Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez-Acosta, Francisco; Hardman, Jonathan A; Escario, Eduardo; Paus, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit (PSU) and the eccrine sweat gland (ESG) are classically described as completely independent skin appendages. However, careful inspection of scalp follicular units reveals that the secretory segment of the ESG spatially approximates the hair follicle in a position below the sebaceous gland and the insertion of the arrector pili muscle. Therefore, we propose here that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the PSU and the ESG should not be viewed in isolation, and may form instead, along with the arrector pili muscle and the apocrine gland (where present),one functional unit. For this, we suggest the more inclusive term of 'Hair Cluster' (HC). If confirmed, e.g. by 3D imaging techniques, the novel concept of a functional HC, whose individual components may communicate via secreted molecules and may share selected progenitor cell populations for HC repair/regeneration, has major physiological and pathological implications, which are briefly discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Degranulation and shrinkage of dark cells in eccrine glands and elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Asahina, M; Uehara, T; Matsumoto, K; Araki, N; Okuyama, R

    2017-12-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis (AIGA) is characterized by anhidrosis/hypohidrosis without other autonomic and neurological dysfunctions. Pathologically, AIGA is considered to usually present no significant morphological alterations in eccrine glands, the secretory portion which consists of clear cells, dark cells, and myoepithelial cells. AIGA patients recently have been reported to show high serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Our aim is to reveal morphological abnormalities of dark cells and investigate their relationship with serum CEA. We performed comparative analysis of eccrine glands between sweat-preserved and non-sweating skin in four AIGA patients. Serum CEA concentrations in 22 cases with AIGA were measured with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, we semiquantitatively investigated dermcidin, FoxA1 and CEA expression in eccrine glands of 12 cases with AIGA and 5 cases with non-AIGA. Marked degranulation and shrinkage of dark cells consistently occurred in AIGA. Furthermore, high serum CEA concentrations were found in 14 of 22 AIGA patients (over 60%), but serum CEA levels were not correlated with CEA expression in eccrine glands. Dermcidin expression in dark cells apparently decreased in AIGA patients, severely in those with high serum CEA and moderately in those with low serum CEA, while well-preserved expression was found in non-AIGA subjects. Our study suggests morphological damage and molecular dysregulation of dark cells, leading to impairment of their functions in AIGA patients. Severely damaged dark cells correspond to high serum CEA. Accordingly, these pathological changes in eccrine dark cells may be involved in anhidrosis/hypohidrosis of AIGA. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Effect of chloride ion concentration on the galvanic corrosion of α phase brass by eccrine sweat.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Andrew; Bond, John W; Chaloner, Penelope

    2012-07-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of the relative concentration of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium ions in eccrine sweat deposits from 40 donors revealed positive correlations between chloride and sodium (ρ = 0.684, p < 0.01) and chloride and calcium ions (ρ = 0.91, p < 0.01). Correlations between ion concentration and the corrosion of α phase brass by the donated sweat were investigated by visual grading of the degree of corrosion, by measuring the copper/zinc ratio using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and from a measurement of the potential difference between corroded and uncorroded brass when a large potential was applied to the uncorroded brass. An increasing copper/zinc ratio (indicative of dezincification) was found to correlate positively to both chloride ion concentration and visual grading of corrosion, while visual grading gave correlations with potential difference measurements that were indicative of the preferential surface oxidation of zinc rather than copper. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Small cell sweat gland carcinoma of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Drut, R; Giménez, O P; Oliva, J

    2005-01-01

    Small cell sweat gland carcinoma appears to represent a very unusual histological type of sweat gland anlage tumour presenting in children. The differential diagnosis from other small blue cell tumours involving the skin is often difficult. The present report confirms the original observation describing two patients of 2 and 5 years of age harbouring cutaneous tumours. The histology of these lesions showed a monomorphic proliferation of small cells with a high mitotic rate and areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the cells were negative for desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, Cam 5.2, CD99, chromogranin, CD56, synaptophysin, and S-100, and focally positive for the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3, carcinoembryonic antigen (one case), and neurone specific enolase (one case). The prognosis of this type of tumour seems to be good. As more cases are added, the clinical pathological spectrum of the lesion will become better defined. PMID:16311358

  4. Deficient Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Innervation in the Sweat Glands of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz-Erian, Peter; Dey, Richard D.; Flux, Marinus; Said, Sami I.

    1985-09-01

    The innervation of acini and ducts of eccrine sweat glands by immunoreactive, vasoactive intestinal peptide--containing nerve fibers was sharply reduced in seven patients with cystic fibrosis compared to eight normal subjects. The decrease in innervation by this neuropeptide, which has been shown to promote blood flow and the movement of water and chloride across epithelial surfaces in other systems, may be a basic mechanism for the decreased water content and relative impermeability of the epithelium to chloride and other ions that characterize cystic fibrosis.

  5. Sweat

    MedlinePlus

    Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can ...

  6. In vivo single human sweat gland activity monitoring using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Gasecka, P; Formanek, F; Galey, J-B; Rigneault, H

    2016-04-01

    Eccrine sweat secretion is of central importance for control of body temperature. Although the incidence of sweat gland dysfunction might appear of minor importance, it can be a real concern for people with either hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis. However, sweat gland function remains relatively poorly explored. To investigate the function of single human sweat glands. We describe a new approach for noninvasive imaging of single sweat gland activity in human palms in vivo up to a depth of 100 μm, based on nonlinear two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques appear to be useful compared with approaches already described for imaging single sweat gland activity, as they allow better three-dimensional spatial resolution of sweat pore inner morphology and real-time monitoring of individual sweat events. By filling the sweat pore with oil and tuning the CARS contrast at 2845 cm(-1) , we imaged the ejection of sweat droplets from a single sweat gland when oil is pushed out by sweat flow. On average, sweat events lasted for about 30 s every 3 min under the conditions studied. On the other hand, about 20% of sweat glands were found inactive. TPEF and CARS were also used to study, at the single pore level, the antiperspirant action of aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and to reveal, for the first time in vivo, the formation of a plug at the pore entrance, in agreement with reported ACH antiperspirant mechanisms. Although data were acquired on human palms, these techniques show great promise for a better understanding of sweat secretion physiology and should be helpful to improve the efficacy of antiperspirant formulations. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Sweat Gland Progenitors in Development, Homeostasis, and Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Catherine; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The human body is covered with several million sweat glands. These tiny coiled tubular skin appendages produce the sweat that is our primary source of cooling and hydration of the skin. Numerous studies have been published on their morphology and physiology. Until recently, however, little was known about how glandular skin maintains homeostasis and repairs itself after tissue injury. Here, we provide a brief overview of sweat gland biology, including newly identified reservoirs of stem cells in glandular skin and their activation in response to different types of injuries. Finally, we discuss how the genetics and biology of glandular skin has advanced our knowledge of human disorders associated with altered sweat gland activity. PMID:24492848

  8. [Multiple recurrent eccrine porocarcinoma with inguinal metastasis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Acosta-Arencibia, Aida; Abrante-Expósito, Begoña; Ramos-Gordillo, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, first described in 1963, is a rare malignant lesion arising from the eccrine sweat glands. It is usually a primary tumour, or even more common, a malignant degeneration of an eccrine poroma. It usually affects older persons and is located most commonly on the lower extremities. About 20% of eccrine porocarcinoma will recur after treatment. The treatment is wide local excision of the primary lesion. This uncommon skin tumour has a locally aggressive behaviour and a high recurrence rate. An 82 year-old man presenting with multiple recurrent eccrine porocarcinoma with inguinal metastasis. The treatment was a radical excision and inguinal lymphadenectomy. There were no postoperative complications, but there was local recurrence after six months. Early diagnosis and wide excision is the best way to achieve a good prognosis, due to the aggressiveness of this tumour. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  9. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    SciT

    Ohe, Shuichi; Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexalmore » epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.« less

  11. The ultrastructure of the sweat glands of the ox, sheep and goat during sweating and recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, D M; Montgomery, I; Elder, H Y

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the sweat glands of cattle, sheep and goats was studied before, during, and after, exposure of the animals to controlled warm environments. In cattle, sweating induced little ultrastructural change in the gland, although fluid-filled spaces appeared between the myo- and secretory epithelial layers. The mechanism appears to be one of fluid transport and exocytosis of secretory vesicles, which in this species seem to be derived from the Golgi apparatus and/or mitochondria. The glands of the sheep and goat also displayed signs of vesicle exocytosis and of fluid transport during sweating. The sweating 'fatigue' in these species was apparently due to failure of the secretory cells, some of which ruptured and were extruded into the lumen. The evidence during subsequent recovery indicates that neighbouring cells spread to make contact, encase remnants of atretic cells between them and the underlying myoepithelium, and engulf them. Sweat in these species appears to be formed (a) by secretion and (b) from cells which can no longer meet the demands of stimulation. The role in sweating of cell replacement, and of undifferentiated cells found between the myo- and secretory epithelia, is discussed. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:511758

  12. 210Po secretion from sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja

    2017-02-01

    The results of the research indicated that the 210 Po activity concentration in sweat samples was between 0.22 ± 0.03 to 2.10 ± 0.15 mBq·g -1 d.w. The obtained results of the studies showed that smoking and eating fish led to higher activity concentrations of 210 Po in sweat in comparison to the control group. Statistical analysis of 210 Po activity concentrations in sweat samples showed significant differences between control, smoking, fish eating and age groups, while no significant differences was found for 210 Po between volunteers as far as gender is concerned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Quantification of sweat gland volume and innervation in neuropathy: Correlation with thermoregulatory sweat testing.

    PubMed

    Loavenbruck, Adam; Wendelschaefer-Crabbe, Gwen; Sandroni, Paola; Kennedy, William R

    2014-10-01

    No study has correlated thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST) with histopathologic study of sweat glands (SGs) and SG nerve fibers (SGNFs). We studied 10 neuropathy patients in whom anhidrosis was found by TST and 10 matched controls. Skin biopsies were taken from both anhidrotic and sweating skin and immunohistochemical staining was done for nerves and basement membrane. For each biopsy, total tissue volume, total SG volume, and total SGNF length were measured. SGNF length per biopsy volume, SG volume per biopsy volume (SG%), and SGNF length per SG volume were calculated. SGNF length per biopsy volume was reduced in anhidrotic site biopsies of patients compared with controls. SG% was decreased and SGNF length per SG volume increased in patients compared with controls. The results suggest a concomitant loss of SG volume and SGNF length in neuropathy, with greater loss of SGNFs in anhidrotic skin, possibly exceeding collateral reinnervation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting].

    PubMed

    Yao, B; Xie, J F; Huang, S; Fu, X B

    2017-01-20

    Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration.

  15. Technical note: Method for isolation of the bovine sweat gland and conditions for in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, S; Burger, C A; Collier, J L; Collier, R J

    2018-05-01

    Apocrine sweat glands in bovine skin are involved in thermoregulation. Human, horse, and sheep sweat gland epithelial cells have been isolated and grown in vitro. The present study was conducted to identify a method to isolate bovine sweat glands and culture apocrine bovine sweat gland epithelial cells in vitro. Mechanical shearing, collagenase digestion, centrifugation, and neutral red staining were used to identify and isolate the apocrine glands from skin. Bovine sweat glands in situ and after isolation comprised 2 major cell types consisting of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a layer of myoepithelial cells. In situ, the glands were embedded in a collagen matrix primarily comprising fibroblasts, and some of these cells were also present in the isolated material. The isolated material was transferred to complete medium (keratinocyte serum-free medium, bovine pituitary extract, and human recombinant epidermal growth factor + 2.5% fetal bovine serum) in a T 25 flask (Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ) with media film and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. After sweat glands adhered to the bottom of the flask, an additional 2 mL of complete medium was added and the medium was changed every 3 d. Isolated apocrine sweat glands and bovine sweat gland epithelial cells were immunostained for cytokeratin and fibroblast specific protein, indicating fibroblast-free cultures. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    the optimized environmental conditions for the hot room procedure. In addition to the replica and gravimetric techniques, we also measured flux density to determine the onset of firing of sweat glands to ensure that our environmental preconditioning step (30 min in the environmental room) brought subjects to the point that their sweat glands were activated. Although flux density measurements are usually carried out to determine transepidermal water loss (TEWL), we found that they can be equally useful for monitoring the onset of sweat production. Thermal infrared imaging experiments were also carried out allowing us to generate full-body images of subjects containing anatomical thermal distribution data with high accuracy. Overall, we conclude that our in-house hot room procedure offers much potential as an effective and cost-efficient screening tool for narrowing copious antiperspirant formulations to a select few for expensive clinical evaluation.

  17. Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia; Simoni, Paolo

    2005-07-01

    A free-living mouflon (Ovis musimon) was presented with a mass on the left shoulder. At necropsy, multifocal, slightly protruding whitish spots were noted on the kidneys, and several lymph nodes were abnormal. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in tubular and tubulopapillary structures. The cytoplasm of the epithelial cells had numerous periodic acid-Schiff-positive and diastase-resistant granules. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained numerous pleomorphic secretory granules and microvilli, which partially covered the luminal surface of the tumor cells. Metastatic foci were present in prescapular and mediastinal lymph nodes and kidneys. On the basis of histological and ultrastructural findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin.

  18. Sweating - absent

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. An abnormal lack of sweat in response to heat may be harmful, because ... diseases or scarring of the skin that block sweat glands Trauma to sweat glands Use of certain ...

  19. High follicle density does not decrease sweat gland density in Huacaya alpacas.

    PubMed

    Moore, K E; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high ambient temperatures, mammals lose heat evaporatively by either sweating from glands in the skin or by respiratory panting. Like other camelids, alpacas are thought to evaporate more water by sweating than panting, despite a thick fleece, unlike sheep which mostly pant in response to heat stress. Alpacas were brought to Australia to develop an alternative fibre industry to sheep wool. In Australia, alpacas can be exposed to ambient temperatures higher than in their native South America. As a young industry there is a great deal of variation in the quality and quantity of the fleece produced in the national flock. There is selection pressure towards animals with finer and denser fleeces. Because the fibre from secondary follicles is finer than that from primary follicles, selecting for finer fibres might alter the ratio of primary and secondary follicles. In turn the selection might alter sweat gland density because the sweat glands are associated with the primary follicle. Skin biopsy and fibre samples were obtained from the mid-section of 33 Huacaya alpacas and the skin sections were processed into horizontal sections at the sebaceous gland level. Total, primary, and secondary follicles and the number of sweat gland ducts were quantified. Fibre samples from each alpaca were further analysed for mean fibre diameter. The finer-fibred animals had a higher total follicle density (P<0.001) and more sweat glands (P<0.001) than the thicker-fibred animals. The fibre diameter and total follicle density were negatively correlated (R(2)=0.56, P<0.001). Given that the finer-fibred animals had higher follicle density and more sweat glands than animals with thicker fibres, we conclude that alpacas with high follicle density should not be limited for potential sweating ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, Eva; Michaëlsson, Gerd; Stridsberg, Mats

    2010-11-01

    Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat gland apparatus seems to be an immune-competent structure that probably contributes to the defence of the skin. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ because it expresses cholineacetyl-transferase and acetylcholinesterase, nicotinic receptors, beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors. The aim of this study was to obtain further information about neuroendocrine properties of the sweat gland apparatus by examining the expression of common neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranins A and B in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Synaptophysin and chromogranins were expressed in the sweat glands and ducts with some variation in the pattern and intensity of the expression. In PPP skin the expression differed, being higher and lower, depending on the part of the sweat duct. Chromogranins were further expressed in the epidermis, endothelium and inflammatory cells, but its intensity was weaker in epidermis than in the sweat gland apparatus. In most cases, chromogranins in epidermis in involved PPP were weakly expressed compared to healthy controls. The presence of synaptophysin and chromogranins in palmoplantar skin may have marked neuroendocrine effects, and the palmoplantar skin is likely to have important neuroimmuno-endocrine properties. Moreover, the altered chromogranin expression in PPP skin might influence both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunologic properties of palmoplantar skin in these patients. These results indicate important neuroendocrine properties of the palmoplantar skin.

  1. Effect of skin wettedness on sweat gland response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of skin wettedness upon sweating rate. Several techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the quantitative nature of this effect. The results include the finding that the evaporative power of the environment has a profound effect on the relationship between body temperature and sweating rate.

  2. Three-dimensional cell shapes and arrangements in human sweat glands as revealed by whole-mount immunostaining

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Ryuichiro; Futaki, Sugiko; Nakano, Itsuko; Fujita, Fumitaka; Tanemura, Atsushi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Okada, Fumihiro

    2017-01-01

    Because sweat secretion is facilitated by mechanical contraction of sweat gland structures, understanding their structure-function relationship could lead to more effective treatments for patients with sweat gland disorders such as heat stroke. Conventional histological studies have shown that sweat glands are three-dimensionally coiled tubular structures consisting of ducts and secretory portions, although their detailed structural anatomy remains unclear. To better understand the details of the three-dimensional (3D) coiled structures of sweat glands, a whole-mount staining method was employed to visualize 3D coiled gland structures with sweat gland markers for ductal luminal, ductal basal, secretory luminal, and myoepithelial cells. Imaging the 3D coiled gland structures demonstrated that the ducts and secretory portions were comprised of distinct tubular structures. Ductal tubules were occasionally bent, while secretory tubules were frequently bent and formed a self-entangled coiled structure. Whole-mount staining of complex coiled gland structures also revealed the detailed 3D cellular arrangements in the individual sweat gland compartments. Ducts were composed of regularly arranged cuboidal shaped cells, while secretory portions were surrounded by myoepithelial cells longitudinally elongated along entangled secretory tubules. Whole-mount staining was also used to visualize the spatial arrangement of blood vessels and nerve fibers, both of which facilitate sweat secretion. The blood vessels ran longitudinally parallel to the sweat gland tubules, while nerve fibers wrapped around secretory tubules, but not ductal tubules. Taken together, whole-mount staining of sweat glands revealed the 3D cell shapes and arrangements of complex coiled gland structures and provides insights into the mechanical contraction of coiled gland structures during sweat secretion. PMID:28636607

  3. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  4. Eccrine porocarcinoma of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fujimine-Sato, Ayako; Toyoshima, Masafumi; Shigeta, Shogo; Toki, Asami; Kuno, Takashi; Sato, Izumi; Watanabe, Mika; Niikura, Hitoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-11-10

    Malignant tumors arising from the vulva account for only 0.6 % of all cancers in female patients. The predominant histologic type, representing about 90 % of these malignancies, is squamous cell carcinoma. Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor arising from sweat glands. The incidence of eccrine porocarcinoma is estimated at 0.005-0.01 % of all cutaneous tumors. To the best of our knowledge, only seven previous cases of vulvar eccrine porocarcinoma have been reported in the English-language literature. We present the case of a patient with eccrine porocarcinoma of the vulva, and we summarize the clinical features of this disease using seven previously reported cases. A 54-year-old Japanese woman visited a local hospital complaining of fever and left vulvar pain for 2 months. An initial examination revealed a 1 × 1 cm, firm, ulcerative mass in the inner aspect of the left labium minorum. With a preoperative diagnosis of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, we performed a radical local excision followed by bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy. Histological examination showed eccrine porocarcinoma, stage IB (T1bN0M0). Radiation therapy with weekly cisplatin administration was then given as adjuvant therapy. One month after treatment was completed, computed tomography revealed multiple metastases in the bilateral lungs and in the sacral bone. The patient received three courses of chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) and underwent palliative radiation therapy to the sacrum. She died of her disease 12 months after surgery. We report the case of a patient with eccrine porocarcinoma of the vulva and summarize the clinical features and the treatment options of eccrine porocarcinoma from a few retrospective case reports. Although eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare disease, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of its clinical and histological features and its biological behavior.

  5. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and sweat sodium excretion after chronic exercise and heat acclimation was investigated, using subjects exercised, at 40 C and 45 percent humidity, for 2 h/day on ten consecutive days at 45 percent of their maximal oxygen uptake. The data indicate that, following heat acclimation, plasma aldosterone concentrations decrease, and that the eccrine gland responsiveness to aldosterone, as represented by sweat sodium reabsorption, may be augmented through exercise and heat acclimation.

  6. Sweating

    MedlinePlus

    ... the autonomic nervous system. This is the part of the nervous system that is not under your control. Sweating is ... Skin layers References Chelimsky T, Chelimsky G. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy ...

  7. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  9. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    PubMed

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Effects of high and low blood lactate concentrations on sweat lactate response.

    PubMed

    Green, J M; Bishop, P A; Muir, I H; McLester, J R; Heath, H E

    2000-11-01

    Sweat lactate results from eccrine gland metabolism, however, the possible clearance of blood lactate through sweat has not been resolved. On separate days in an environmental chamber (32 +/- 1 C) 12 subjects completed a constant load (CON) (30 min at 40% VO2 max) and an interval cycling trial (INT) (15 one-min intervals at 80% VO2 max, each separated by one min rest) each designed to elicit different blood lactate responses. Each 30 min cycling trial was preceded by 15 min warm-up (30 watts) and followed by 15 min passive rest. Sweat and blood were analyzed for lactate concentration at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min during CON and INT. Total body water loss was used to calculate sweat rate (ml/hr). Blood lactate was significantly greater (p < or = 0.05) at 25, 35, 45, and 60 min during INT compared to CON (approximately 5 mmol/L vs 1.5 mmol/L). Sweat lactate was not significantly different (p>0.05) between trials at any time (approximately 10 mmol/L). Sweat rates (approximately 600ml/hr) and estimated total lactate secretion were not significantly different (CON vs. INT) (p > 0.05). Elevated blood lactate was not associated with changes in sweat lactate concentration. Sweat lactate seems to originate in eccrine glands independent of blood lactate.

  11. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare type of skin cancer arising from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat glands or acrosyringium, representing 0.005-0.01% of all cutaneous tumors. About 20% of EPC will recur and about 20% will metastasize to regional lymph nodes. There is a mortality rate of 67% in patients with lymph node metastases. Although rare, the occurrence of distant metastases has been reported. We report a case of patient with EPC of the left arm, with axillary nodal involvement and subsequent local relapse, treated by complete lymph node dissection and electrochemotherapy (ECT). EPC is an unusual tumor to diagnose. Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy has been proven to be of clinical benefit in treating metastatic disease. Although in the current case the short follow-up period is a limitation, we consider in the management of EPC a therapeutic approach involving surgery and ECT, because of its aggressive potential for loregional metastatic spread. PMID:21410982

  12. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Di Monta, Gianluca; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2011-03-16

    Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare type of skin cancer arising from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat glands or acrosyringium, representing 0.005-0.01% of all cutaneous tumors. About 20% of EPC will recur and about 20% will metastasize to regional lymph nodes. There is a mortality rate of 67% in patients with lymph node metastases. Although rare, the occurrence of distant metastases has been reported.We report a case of patient with EPC of the left arm, with axillary nodal involvement and subsequent local relapse, treated by complete lymph node dissection and electrochemotherapy (ECT).EPC is an unusual tumor to diagnose. Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy has been proven to be of clinical benefit in treating metastatic disease. Although in the current case the short follow-up period is a limitation, we consider in the management of EPC a therapeutic approach involving surgery and ECT, because of its aggressive potential for loregional metastatic spread.

  13. Somatostatin receptors are strongly expressed in palmoplantar sweat glands and ducts: studies of normal and palmoplantar pustulosis skin.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, E; Michaëlsson, G; Stridsberg, M

    2011-07-01

    The acrosyringium is the target for inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat-gland apparatus seems to be an immunocompetent structure that probably contributes to skin defence. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ. To obtain further information about the neuroendocrine properties of the sweat-gland apparatus by examining expression of the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 1-5 in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Biopsy specimens were taken from 25 patients with PPP and 25 healthy controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to investigate expression of SSTRs 1-5. SSTRs 1-5 were expressed in both epidermal and endothelial structures. The staining intensity of the sweat-gland apparatus was more pronounced than that of the epidermis. Expression differed significantly between lesional PPP and normal plantar skin, with increased expression of SSTRs 3 and 4 in ducts in epidermis, and decreased expression of SSTR 1 in ducts in both papillary and reticular dermis. In specimens with pronounced inflammation, numerous dendritic cells with strong expression of SSTRs 1, 2 and 4 were seen, especially in the papillary dermis. The presence of SSTRs in palmoplantar skin, and specifically at high density in the sweat glands and ducts, might be of particular importance in skin neuroimmunoendocrinology. Although the relevance of the changes in SSTR expression in PPP skin compared with normal skin is unclear, our hypothesis is that these differences might influence the function of both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunological properties of palmoplantar skin, especially in the sweat-gland apparatus. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Heat Tolerance and the Peripheral Effects of Anticholinergics. 1. A Non-Invasive Method for Estimating the Cholinergic Sensitivity of the Eccrine Glands in Humans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-30

    exercise history for future data segregation. All tests were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory with subjects in a thermally neutral state. RESULTS ...UNCLASSIIED K K KRANING ET AL 38 AN 85 F/G 6/15 ImmonIIIIlIIfIIIIII wI L_- pu 1 .21. o 136 - MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAT WOL. BUREAU OF...used as sensitive index of anticholiinergic drug potency. Independently, we developed 1 human sweat gland assayd d+ fftf -ng from theirs in several

  15. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  16. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  17. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  18. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision. PMID:26288440

  19. Prolonged and localized sweat stimulation by iontophoretic delivery of the slowly-metabolized cholinergic agent carbachol.

    PubMed

    Simmers, Phillip; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Continuous non-invasive sampling and sensing of multiple classes of analytes could revolutionize medical diagnostics and wearable technologies, but also remains highly elusive because of the many confounding factors for candidate biofluids such as interstitial fluid, tears, saliva, and sweat. Eccrine sweat biosensing has seen a recent surge in demonstrations of wearable sampling and sensing devices. However, for subjects at rest, access to eccrine sweat is highly limited and unpredictable compared to saliva and tears. Reported here is a prolonged and localized sweat stimulation by iontophoretic delivery of the slowly-metabolized nicotinic cholinergic agonist carbachol. Presented here are detailed measurements of natural baseline sweat rates across multiple days, confirming a clear need for localized sweat stimulation. Iontophoresis was performed with either carbachol or pilocarpine in order to stimulate sweat in subjects at rest. Furthermore, improved methods of quantifying sweat generation rates (nL/min/gland) are demonstrated. In-vivo testing reveals that carbachol stimulation can surpass a major goal of 24-h sweat access, in some cases providing more than an order of magnitude longer duration than stimulation with commonly-used pilocarpine. Also demonstrated is reduction of the traditional iontophoretic dosage for sweat stimulation (<5.25-42mC/cm 2 ). This increases the viability of repeated dosing as demonstrated herein, and for carbachol is as much as 100-1000X less than used for other applications. This work is not only significant for wearable sweat biosensing technology, but could also have broader impact for those studying topical skin products, antiperspirants, textiles and medical adhesives, nerve disorders, the effects of perspiration on skin-health, skin related diseases such as idiopathic pure sudomotor failure and hyperhidrosis, and other skin- and perspiration-related applications. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  20. Neuroeffector characteristics of sweat glands in the human hand activated by regular neural stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, M; Kirnö, K; Elam, M; Wallin, B G

    1991-10-01

    1. Intraneural electrical stimuli (0.3-1.2 mA, 0.2 ms) were delivered via a tungsten microelectrode inserted into a cutaneous fascicle in the median nerve at the wrist in twenty-eight normal subjects. The effects on sweat glands within the innervation zone were monitored as changes of skin resistance and water vapour partial pressure (WVPP). Regional anaesthesia of the brachial plexus in the axilla eliminated spontaneous sympathetic activity and reflex effects. 2. At stimulation frequencies of 0.1 Hz each stimulus evoked a transient skin resistance reduction, the amplitude of which varied initially but reached a steady state of less than 10 k omega after, on average, nine responses. If preceded by stimulation-free intervals of 5 min or more, up to fifteen stimuli were required before the first response occurred. With higher frequencies individual responses started to merge, skin resistance levels decreased successively and levelled off around 10 Hz. The total change of resistance (0-10 Hz) was 101 +/- 46 (n = 9) k omega and the higher the pre-stimulus level, the larger the reduction (r = 0.68, P less than 0.05). 3. Stimulus-response latencies to the onset of a skin resistance reduction (single stimuli or trains of six impulses/20 Hz given at 0.1 Hz) shortened initially but reached steady-state values after on average nine to twelve impulses. Average conduction velocity between stimulating electrode and skin resistance recording site was 0.78 m/s and average time for electrical neuroeffector transfer in sweat glands was estimated to be 348 ms. 4. In addition to direct stimulation-induced resistance responses there were also small spontaneous reductions of resistance. They were seen in all subjects and at all frequencies but were more common in some subjects and occurred predominantly at the beginning of stimulation or at changes of frequency. They occurred independently at two skin sites in the same subject and disappeared during stimulation-free periods and after

  1. Primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma: A previously overlooked low-grade sweat gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Twelve cases of primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma (PCSC) have been published, 9 showing ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, a characteristic finding shared with secretory breast carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. A 34-year-old female presented a solitary nodule on the right groin. Biopsy revealed a secretory carcinoma staining positive with CK7, CAM5.2, mammaglobulin and S100 and negative with GATA3, CK20, podoplanin, calponin and CDX2. ETV6-NTRK3 was demonstrated by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCSC is a rare neoplasm, described in the skin in 2009, that affects more frequently females with a mean age of 42.3 years and it is most commonly located in axilla. Histopathologically, these tumor cells are characterized by bubbly eosinophilic secretions diastase-resistant and bland nuclei and they are arranged in various growth patterns, including microcystic, tubular, solid and papillary. S100, mammoglobin and CK7 are usually positive. We review the main histopathological features to rule out histopathologic mimics such as breast metastasis, salivary tumors, cribriform carcinoma and primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. GATA3 negative staining, as in our case, can help to rule out breast metastasis. Moreover, long-term benign follow up (144 months) in this case as well as follow-up data on outcomes from literature review support that PCSC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  3. Proteomic and peptidomic analysis of human sweat with emphasis on proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yijing; Prassas, Ioannis; Muytjens, Carla M J; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-02-23

    Sweat is produced by eccrine and apocrine glands and represents a biological fluid with established roles in thermo-regulation and host infection defense. The composition of sweat is highly dynamic and alters significantly in various skin and other disorders. Therefore, in-depth profiling of sweat protein composition is expected to augment our understanding of the pathobiology of several skin diseases and may lead to the identification of useful sweat-based disease biomarkers. We here reported an in-depth analysis of the human sweat proteome and peptidome. Sweat was collected from healthy males and healthy females of ages 20-60years, following strenuous exercise. Two sweat pools were prepared (1 for males and 1 for females) and were subjected to sample preparation for mass spectrometric analysis. We identified a total of 861 unique proteins during our proteomic analysis and 32,818 endogenous peptides (corresponding to additional 1067 proteins) from our peptidomics workflow. As expected, the human skin was identified as the most abundant source of sweat proteins and peptides. Several skin proteases and protease inhibitors were identified in human sweat, highlighting the intense proteolytic activity of human skin. The presence of several antimicrobial peptides supports the functional roles of sweat in host defense and innate immunity. Sweat is a skin-associated biological fluid, secreted by eccrine and apocrine glands, with essential function in body thermo-regulation and host infection defense. In the present study, we performed in-depth profiling of both sweat proteome and peptidome composition. Our data provide the most in-depth characterization of the skin's catalytic network present in sweat. For the first time, we brought to light novel peptides in human sweat that potentially have antimicrobial activity, which highlight the important role of this fluid in innate immunity. All these findings allow us to have a better understanding of the complex web of

  4. Spatiotemporal antagonism in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling in sweat versus hair fate decision.

    PubMed

    Lu, Catherine P; Polak, Lisa; Keyes, Brice E; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-12-23

    The gain of eccrine sweat glands in hairy body skin has empowered humans to run marathons and tolerate temperature extremes. Epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk is integral to the diverse patterning of skin appendages, but the molecular events underlying their specification remain largely unknown. Using genome-wide analyses and functional studies, we show that sweat glands are specified by mesenchymal-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factors that signal to epithelial buds and suppress epithelial-derived sonic hedgehog (SHH) production. Conversely, hair follicles are specified when mesenchymal BMP signaling is blocked, permitting SHH production. Fate determination is confined to a critical developmental window and is regionally specified in mice. In contrast, a shift from hair to gland fates is achieved in humans when a spike in BMP silences SHH during the final embryonic wave(s) of bud morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells delivered in a microsphere-based engineered skin contribute to cutaneous wound healing and sweat gland repair.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sha; Lu, Gang; Wu, Yan; Jirigala, Enhe; Xu, Yongan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing

    2012-04-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can contribute to wound healing after skin injury. However, the role of BM-MSCs on repairing skin appendages in renewal tissues is incompletely explored. Moreover, most preclinical studies suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by BM-MSCs transplantation are short-lived and relatively unstable. To assess whether engrafted bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a delivery system can participate in cutaneous wound healing and sweat-gland repair in mice. For safe and effective delivery of BM-MSCs to wounds, epidermal growth factor (EGF) microspheres were firstly developed to both support cells and maintain appropriate stimuli, then cell-seeded microspheres were incorporated with biomimetic scaffolds and thus fabricated an engineered skin construct with epithelial differentiation and proliferative potential. The applied efficacy was examined by implanting them into excisional wounds on both back and paws of hind legs in mice. After 3 weeks, BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds exhibited accelerated healing with increased re-epithelialization rates and less skin contraction. Furthermore, histological and immunofluorescence staining analysis revealed sweat glands-like structures became more apparent in BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds but the number of implanted BM-MSCs were decreased gradually in later phases of healing progression. Our study suggests that BM-MSCs delivered by this EGF microspheres-based engineered skin model may be a promising strategy to repair sweat glands and improve cutaneous wound healing after injury and success in this study might provide a potential benefit for BM-MSCs administration clinically. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-03

    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm-printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro.

  7. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands

    PubMed Central

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops. PMID:28400779

  8. Low abundance of sweat duct Cl− channel CFTR in both healthy and cystic fibrosis athletes with exceptionally salty sweat during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Karla K. V.; Pollack, Brian P.; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; McCarty, Nael A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand potential mechanisms explaining interindividual variability observed in human sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]), we investigated the relationship among [Na+] of thermoregulatory sweat, plasma membrane expression of Na+ and Cl− transport proteins in biopsied human eccrine sweat ducts, and basal levels of vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone. Lower ductal luminal membrane expression of the Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was observed in immunofluorescent staining of sweat glands from healthy young adults identified as exceptionally “salty sweaters” (SS) (n = 6, P < 0.05) and from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 6, P < 0.005) compared with ducts from healthy young adults with “typical” sweat [Na+] (control, n = 6). Genetic testing of healthy subjects did not reveal any heterozygotes (“carriers”) for any of the 39 most common disease-causing CFTR mutations in the United States. SS had higher baseline plasma [AVP] compared with control (P = 0.029). Immunostaining to investigate a potential relationship between higher plasma [AVP] (and sweat [Na+]) and ductal membrane aquaporin-5 revealed for all groups a relatively sparse and location-dependent ductal expression of the water channel with localization primarily to the secretory coil. Availability of CFTR for NaCl transport across the ductal membrane appears related to the significant physiological variability observed in sweat salt concentration in apparently healthy humans. At present, a heritable link between healthy salty sweaters and the most prevalent disease-causing CFTR mutations cannot be established. PMID:21228336

  9. Red Eccrine Chromhidrosis with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Ashok Kumar; Ravikiran, Shilpashree P; Roy, Prasoon Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with reddish discoloration of the vest following perspiration for 6 months. He was a habituated consumer of cranberry juice. The peak absorption on spectrophotometric analysis of the extracted sweat coincided approximately with the peak absorption of diluted distillate of the juice. A diagnosis of eccrine chromhidrosis, probably due to the coloring agents in the juice, was considered. This rare case report emphasizes the possible side effect of the various coloring agents used as food additives. PMID:29263551

  10. Characterization of X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XL-HED) Hair and Sweat Gland Phenotypes Using Phototrichogram Analysis and Live Confocal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000

  11. An unusual melanocytic lesion associated with eccrine duct fibroadenomatosis and syringoid features.

    PubMed

    Stefanato, C M; Simkin, D A; Bhawan, J

    2001-04-01

    The intimate association of nevomelanocytic nevi with eccrine ducts commonly seen in congenital nevi was emphasized by Mishima, who described as eccrine-centered nevi those lesions characterized by nevomelanocytic cells predominantly proliferating around and within the eccrine sweat duct walls. However, there were no changes in the overlying epidermis, dermis, or eccrine acrosyringeal or dermal duct proliferation in these lesions. We present the case of a 16-year-old boy with a 1-year-history of a 0.6-cm diameter single tan papule on the right heel, clinically thought to be a Spitz nevus. Histopathologic examination revealed a compound nevomelanocytic nevus associated with epidermal hyperplasia, thin anastomosing cords of acrosyringeal epithelium extending within the dermis, and eccrine ductal proliferation in a syringoma-like pattern associated with a dense fibrous stroma. Features that distinguish our case from eccrine-centered nevus are that the latter lacks epidermal and eccrine duct hyperplasia and a dense fibrous stroma. The location of the lesion on the heel in our case suggests the possibility that the pathologic changes observed could result from repetitive trauma.

  12. [Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; Rosón, E; Flórez, A; Troncoso, A; de la Torre, C

    2011-05-01

    Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a rare, benign tumor characterized by a proliferation of eccrine and vascular structures. We present 2 cases and review the characteristics of this disorder. The first patient was a 33-year-old woman who consulted for a brownish lesion on her back associated with local hyperhidrosis. The second patient was a 25-year-old man with an asymptomatic erythematous lesion on his left palm. In both patients a diagnosis of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma was made based on the histological findings. Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is usually present at birth or develops during childhood. It is typically a solitary lesion and signs and symptoms can vary; diagnosis is therefore based on histological study. The most common site is on the distal parts of limbs. The lesions tend to be asymptomatic, but there may be associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Treatment is not usually necessary except in cases with persistent symptoms, excessive sweating, or cosmetic concerns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Intralesional botulinum toxin-A injection for the treatment of multiple eccrine hidrocystomas.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Mehdi; Hamedani, Behnaz; Robati, RezaM; Mozafari, Nikoo

    2018-01-31

    Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas (MEH) are benign cystic lesions of the sweat gland ducts. They are characterized by translucent, skin-colored or bluish dome-shaped papules on the face, causing cosmetic concern. Recently, botulinum toxin-A, because of its antiperspirant properties, has been used to treat facial MEH. However, there are only some case reports in the literature. Here, we conducted a prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of botulinum toxin-A (Dysport) for the treatment of MEH. Twenty patients (3 men and 17 women), aged from 31 to 75 years old, participated in this study. A 300 unit vial of botulinum toxin-A (Dysport, Ipsenn Biopharm, United Kingdom) was diluted with 4 ml of saline solution without preservative to achieve a concentration of 7.5U/.1 ml. Up to 1.5 unit of botulinum toxin was injected intradermally at the base of each lesion to raise a visible wheal. The patients were evaluated 7 days later, and any clinical changes or adverse effects were recorded. In all patients, more than 75% of eccrine hidrocystoma lesions resolved without any scaring. The result sustained for 2-5 months. In two patients mild smile asymmetry and in one patient lagophthalmos were noted approximately 5-7 days after injection that gradually resolved in 3 weeks. Intralesional botulinum toxin-A for treatment of multiple hidrocystomas is a simple and well-tolerated procedure. It is accompanied by excellent results, a good postoperative course, and no risk of scarring. It can be considered in patients who did not respond to other treatment or even as the first line therapy.

  14. Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).

    PubMed

    Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-04-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Night Sweats

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  16. Super-Absorbent Polymer Valves and Colorimetric Chemistries for Time-Sequenced Discrete Sampling and Chloride Analysis of Sweat via Skin-Mounted Soft Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bong; Zhang, Yi; Won, Sang Min; Bandodkar, Amay J; Sekine, Yurina; Xue, Yeguang; Koo, Jahyun; Harshman, Sean W; Martin, Jennifer A; Park, Jeong Min; Ray, Tyler R; Crawford, Kaitlyn E; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Jungil; Pitsch, Rhonda L; Grigsby, Claude C; Strang, Adam J; Chen, Yu-Yu; Xu, Shuai; Kim, Jeonghyun; Koh, Ahyeon; Ha, Jeong Sook; Huang, Yonggang; Kim, Seung Wook; Rogers, John A

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces super absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric sensing reagents as enabling components of soft, skin-mounted microfluidic devices designed to capture, store, and chemically analyze sweat released from eccrine glands. The valving technology enables robust means for guiding the flow of sweat from an inlet location into a collection of isolated reservoirs, in a well-defined sequence. Analysis in these reservoirs involves a color responsive indicator of chloride concentration with a formulation tailored to offer stable operation with sensitivity optimized for the relevant physiological range. Evaluations on human subjects with comparisons against ex situ analysis illustrate the practical utility of these advances. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. What's Sweat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What's Sweat? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's Sweat? Print en español ¿ ... dehydrated (say: dee-HI-drayt-ed). Why Does Sweat Smell? Sweat isn't just wet — it can ...

  18. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  19. The effects of St. John's wort extract and amitriptyline on autonomic responses of blood vessels and sweat glands in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Martin; Kirch, Wilhelm; Krause, Stephanie; Joraschky, Peter; Mueck-Weymann, Michael

    2004-02-01

    St. John's wort extract is widely used and advertised as a "natural antidepressant" lacking autonomic side effects. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of St. John's wort extract on autonomic responses of blood vessels and sweat glands with those of amitriptyline and placebo. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study was performed in healthy male volunteers aged 22 to 31 years (25 +/- 3 years; mean +/- SD) years. Subjects orally received capsules with 255 to 285 mg St. John's wort extract (900 microg hypericin content), 25 mg amitriptyline, and placebo 3 times daily for periods of 14 days each with at least 14 days between. Vasoconstrictory response of cutaneous blood flow (VR) and skin conductance response (SR) following a single deep inspiration were employed as parameters of autonomic function. St. John's wort extract had no effect on VR and SR. In contrast, SR was diminished and the dilation phase of VR was prolonged following multiple dosing with amitriptyline (P < 0.05). Decreased electrodermal reactivity observed with amitriptyline reflects inhibition of acetylcholine at peripheral m3-cholinoreceptors, whereas prolongation of VR induced by the tricyclic drug may be due to sustained activation of central and/or peripheral sympathetic neurons.

  20. Integrated sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous sweat analyte analysis with individuals at rest.

    PubMed

    Sonner, Zachary; Wilder, Eliza; Gaillard, Trudy; Kasting, Gerald; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2017-07-25

    Eccrine sweat has rapidly emerged as a non-invasive, ergonomic, and rich source of chemical analytes with numerous technological demonstrations now showing the ability for continuous electrochemical sensing. However, beyond active perspirers (athletes, workers, etc.), continuous sweat access in individuals at rest has hindered the advancement of both sweat sensing science and technology. Reported here is integration of sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous wearable sweat analyte analysis, including the ability for side-by-side integration of chemical stimulants & sensors without cross-contamination. This integration approach is uniquely compatible with sensors which consume the analyte (enzymatic) or sensors which equilibrate with analyte concentrations. In vivo validation is performed using iontophoretic delivery of carbachol with ion-selective and impedance sensors for sweat analysis. Carbachol has shown prolonged sweat stimulation in directly stimulated regions for five hours or longer. This work represents a significant leap forward in sweat sensing technology, and may be of broader interest to those interested in on-skin sensing integrated with drug-delivery.

  1. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Sweat Allergy.

    PubMed

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Biochemical changes in sweat following prolonged ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Hagisawa, S

    1988-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on the measurement of physical parameters at the body support interface in order to detect and moderate conditions which could result in pressure damage to soft tissues. Major difficulties are encountered both in the design of instrumentation and interpretation of the data collected. Metabolic processes in sweat glands that control sweat secretion have been shown to be sensitive to applied pressure, producing sweating rate suppression and changes in sweat NaCl concentration. In this study, we have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring lactate concentration in sweat collected locally using an electrochemical stimulation technique (iontophoresis of pilocarpine nitrate). Elevated levels of sweat lactate concentration during local tissue indentation were detected in a group of able-bodied subjects. Upon removal of the indentor, however, levels of sweat lactate returned to normal.

  4. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your daily routine Sweating causes emotional distress or social withdrawal You suddenly begin to sweat more than usual ... can lead to heavy sweating, as can opioid ... infections. Social and emotional effects. Having clammy or dripping hands ...

  6. 5α-Androst-16-en-3α-ol β-D-glucuronide, precursor of 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Mayenzet, Fabienne; Brauchli, Robert; Troccaz, Myriam

    2013-12-01

    5α-Androst-16-en-3α-ol (α-androstenol) is an important contributor to human axilla sweat odor. It is assumed that α-andostenol is excreted from the apocrine glands via a H2 O-soluble conjugate, and this precursor was formally characterized in this study for the first time in human sweat. The possible H2 O-soluble precursors, sulfate and glucuronide derivatives, were synthesized as analytical standards, i.e., α-androstenol, β-androstenol sulfates, 5α-androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol (β-androstadienol) sulfate, α-androstenol β-glucuronide, α-androstenol α-glucuronide, β-androstadienol β-glucuronide, and α-androstenol β-glucuronide furanose. The occurrence of α-androstenol β-glucuronide was established by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS (heated electrospray ionization (HESI)) in negative-ion mode in pooled human sweat, containing eccrine and apocrine secretions and collected from 25 female and 24 male underarms. Its concentration was of 79 ng/ml in female secretions and 241 ng/ml in male secretions. The release of α-androstenol was observed after incubation of the sterile human sweat or α-androstenol β-glucuronide with a commercial glucuronidase enzyme, the urine-isolated bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae, and the skin bacteria Staphylococcus warneri DSM 20316, Staphylococcus haemolyticus DSM 20263, and Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919, reported to have β-glucuronidase activities. We demonstrated that if α- and β-androstenols and androstadienol sulfates were present in human sweat, their concentrations would be too low to be considered as potential precursors of malodors; therefore, the H2 O-soluble precursor of α-androstenol in apocrine secretion should be a β-glucuronide. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. A Rare Case of Multiple Segmental Eccrine Spiradenomas

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Laura; McClain, Danielle; Amin, Bijal; Turner, Ryan B.

    2011-01-01

    Eccrine spiradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm that has been historically designated as a tumor of eccrine differentiation, although current reconsideration indicates an apocrine process. It usually presents on the trunk and extremities as a tender dermal or subcutaneous papule or nodule frequently with a pink or blue hue. The clinical picture is often not distinct and biopsy is required for diagnosis. Eccrine spiradenoma can present in a variety of ways, including as tumors arranged in zosteriform/dermatomal and/or blaschkoid distributions, often precluding a straightforward diagnosis. Proper diagnosis of eccrine spiradenoma is important due to the occurrence of potentially life-threatening malignant transformation. This article illustrates a rare presentation of eccrine spiradenoma with a concise review for the dermatologist. PMID:21532877

  8. Effect of Sweating on Insulation of Footwear.

    PubMed

    Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the influence of sweating on footwear insulation with a thermal foot model. Simultaneously, the influence of applied weight (35 kg), sock, and steel toe cap were studied. Water to 3 sweat glands was supplied with a pump at the rate of 10 g/hr in total. Four models of boots with steel toe caps were tested. The same models were manufactured also without steel toe. Sweating reduced footwear insulation 19-25% (30-37% in toes). During static conditions, only a minimal amount of sweat evaporated from boots. Weight affected sole insulation: Reduction depended on compressibility of sole material. The influence of steel toe varied with insulation. The method of thermal foot model appears to be a practical tool for footwear evaluation.

  9. Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kris G

    2009-06-01

    Breast and prostate cancer share similarities and likely represent homologous cancers in females and males, respectively. The role of hormones such as testosterone and estrogen in carcinogenesis is well established. Despite worldwide research efforts, the pathogenesis of these diseases is largely not well understood. Personal care products containing estrogens or xenoestrogens have raised concern as a breast cancer risk, especially in young African-American women. In the United States (US) there is a parallel rise in the incidence in breast and prostate cancer compared to selected non-hormone dependent tumors. Observed US and global breast and prostate cancer incidence increases were occurring before exogenous hormone replacement and xenoestrogen exposure were commonplace. An unintentional, inadvertent, and long term hormone exposure may occur from transdermal absorption of sex hormones and pheromones (androgens) from axillary apocrine sweat gland obstruction by aluminum-based antiperspirants. The global rise in antiperspirant use parallels rises in breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. A multi-disciplinary literature based set of evidence is presented on how such a link is possible, to prompt confirmatory investigations in the pursuit of unmet needs in breast and prostate cancer etiology and prevention.

  10. Iron losses in sweat

    SciT

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findingsmore » indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.« less

  11. Congenital Eccrine Angiomatous Hamartoma: A Rare Entity Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Malik, Meenu; Agrawal, Mahima; Jain, Manjula; Gupta, Brijnandan

    2018-01-01

    Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) is a rare benign malformation characterized by eccrine and vascular components. It usually presents at birth or during early infancy or childhood on lower extremities as a nodule or plaque. We report a case of asymptomatic tumoral swelling over the left leg in a 5-month-old Indian infant since birth. This was diagnosed as EAH on histopathology and confirmed on immunohistochemistry. PMID:29854641

  12. Endocrine concomitants of sweating and sweat depression.

    PubMed

    Candas, V; Brandenberger, G; Lutz-Bucher, B; Follenius, M; Libert, J P

    1984-01-01

    The effect of humid heat (Ta = 43 degrees C, Pa = 32 Torr) on sweat rate, plasma renin activity and plasma levels of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was studied in four male subjects before and after repeated heat exposures. Over-sweating and sweat drippage followed by hidromeiosis were observed in three subjects during initial heat exposure. With repeated humid heat exposures increased sweat rates were accompanied by a more intense sweat depression (hidromeiosis) in all four subjects. In our conditions, no changes in plasma levels of aldosterone and ADH or plasma renin activity were observed with hidromeiosis. Plasma renin activity was slightly depressed by repeated exposures, whereas plasma volumes were enhanced, with no significant changes in plasma Na or K. The results suggest that neither ADH nor the components of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system are involved in the hidromeiotic phenomenon.

  13. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  14. Diagnosing night sweats.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthon J; Bond, Michael M; Yates, Scott W

    2003-03-01

    Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.

  15. Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Pérez, Alfredo Daniel; Resano-Abarzuza, Miguel Ángel; Córdoba-Iturriagagoitia, Alicia; Yanguas-Bayona, Juan Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus is a very rare non-hereditary disorder of keratinization with eccrine and hair follicle involvement with only 9 cases described in the literature. In 2009 the term porokeratotic anexial ostial nevus was proposed to comprehend porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus and a related and more common process without follicular involvement: porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus Recent findings suggest that both entities may be produced by a mutation in GJB2 gene, which is associated to KID syndrome. Herein we report 2 cases of porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus and review the existing cases in the Spanish and English literature.

  16. Porokeratotic eccrine duct and hair follicle nevus (PEHFN) associated with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Vincent; Lachiewicz, Anne; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Grenier, Nicole; Dill, Sara Worthing

    2010-01-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus is a rare hamartomatous malformation, histologically characterized by cornoid lamellae overlying dilated eccrine ostia. The nevus most commonly presents in the form of multiple filiform keratotic spines in a linear arrangement, usually on the distal extremities. Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus is thought to be a variant of porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus that additionally involves hair follicle infundibula. We report a case of widespread Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus that developed in a 15-year-old woman with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus: a report of two cases and review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Agulló-Pérez, Alfredo Daniel; Resano-Abarzuza, Miguel Ángel; Córdoba-Iturriagagoitia, Alicia; Yanguas-Bayona, Juan Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus is a very rare non-hereditary disorder of keratinization with eccrine and hair follicle involvement with only 9 cases described in the literature. In 2009 the term porokeratotic anexial ostial nevus was proposed to comprehend porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus and a related and more common process without follicular involvement: porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus Recent findings suggest that both entities may be produced by a mutation in GJB2 gene, which is associated to KID syndrome. Herein we report 2 cases of porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus and review the existing cases in the Spanish and English literature. PMID:29267468

  18. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2008-06-01

    While human sweat secretion is accepted as a mechanism by which the body cools off, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) is now appreciated as a medical condition and the primary site for diagnosis is the palm of the hand. We propose sweat film layer thickness as a potential clinical diagnostic parameter when screening for excessive sweating. In this preliminary study we demonstrate the usefulness of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) for measurement of sweat film thickness in vivo with micron-scale resolution on the hand of a human volunteer. FD-OCT has a superior image acquisition time and identification of active sweat glands, ducts and pores is also possible.

  19. The sweating foot: local differences in sweat secretion during exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-10-01

    Little is known regarding local differences in foot sweat secretion. Since such information is important to our understanding of sweat gland control for thermoregulatory modeling and for the design of footwear we explored this topic. Local sweat rates were investigated across core temperatures from 37-39 degrees C, achieved using endogenous (cycling) and exogenous heat (water-perfusion garment: 46 degrees C). Six healthy adults (three men, three women) performed one-legged, incremental cycling in a heated, climate-controlled chamber (36 degrees C, 60% relative humidity). Sweat rates were measured at the forehead and stationary (left) foot (capsules 3.16 cm2): three dorsal sites (base of toes, second metatarsal, and mid point), the lateral, and the central plantar surfaces. Terminal core temperatures ranged between 38.3-39.1 oC, with peak heart rates of 155-187 bpm. Most foot sweat rates were < 50% of that observed at the forehead: dorsal 1 (38%); dorsal 2 (54%); dorsal 3 (37%); lateral (24%); and plantar surfaces (18%). When averaged across the trial, local sweat rates were: 2.61 (forehead); 0.98 (dorsal 1); 1.39 (dorsal 2); 0.95 (dorsal 3); 0.62 (lateral); and 0.47 mg cm2 2 min-1 (plantar). Two key observations emerged. First, sweat secretion from the experimental foot averaged 30 ml x h(-1), peaking in the last 5 min at 50 ml x h(-1). Second, approximately 70% of the measured sweat flow emanated from the upper skin surfaces, with only 30% coming from the plantar surface.

  20. Sweat electrolytes test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is used to confirm these results. Normal Results Normal results include: A sweat chloride test result ... edema) can affect the test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal test may mean that the ...

  1. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  2. Widespread porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus: clinical features and proposal of a new name unifying porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus and porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Deborah S; Rogers, Maureen; Frieden, Ilona J; Krol, Alfons L; White, Clifton R; Jayaraman, Anu G; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Bruckner, Anna L; Ruben, Beth S

    2009-12-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus and a similar condition, porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus, are rare disorders of keratinization with eccrine and hair follicle involvement. We describe the clinical features in 5 patients, all of whom had widespread skin involvement following the lines of Blaschko. Two patients presented with erosions in the newborn period as the initial manifestation of their disease; one had an associated structural anomaly, unilateral breast hypoplasia; and one adult had malignant transformation in the nevus with development of multifocal squamous cell carcinomas. Three patients had histologic involvement of both acrosyringia and acrotrichia. Based on the observation of overlapping histologic features, we propose the name "porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus" to incorporate the previously described entities porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus and porokeratotic eccrine and hair follicle nevus.

  3. Classification of Systemic and Localized Sweating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yuichiro; Tamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis can be subdivided into generalized hyperhidrosis, with increased sweating over the entire body, and focal hyperhidrosis, in which the excessive sweating is restricted to specific parts of the body. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Secondary generalized hyperhidrosis may be caused by infections such as tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism, endocrine and metabolic disturbances such as pheochromocytoma, neurological disorders, or drugs. Focal hyperhidrosis may also be primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Frey's syndrome is one form of secondary focal hyperhidrosis that occurs during eating together with reddening of the area in front of the ear following parotid gland surgery or injury. Primary focal hyperhidrosis is particularly common on the palms and soles of the feet, in the axilla, and on the head. Anhidrosis may be either congenital/genetic or acquired. Some of the most typical forms of congenital/genetic anhidrosis include hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, and Fabry disease. Acquired anhidrosis is classified as secondary anhidrosis, which may be due to an underlying disorder such as a neurological disorder, an endocrine or metabolic disturbance, or the effect of drugs, or idiopathic anhidrosis for which the pathology, cause, and mechanism are unknown. Idiopathic anhidrosis is classified into acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis (AIGA), idiopathic segmental anhidrosis, and Ross syndrome. AIGA is divided into three categories according to differences in the site of disturbance: (1) sudomotor neuropathy, (2) idiopathic pure sudomotor failure, and (3) sweat gland failure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The nicotinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity AXR (1), and the muscarinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity DIR, in terms of sweat volume, were 103% and 59% higher in the Temperate-N compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The Temperate-N group also had a 17.8% ( P < 0.0001) higher active sweat gland density, 35.4% higher sweat output per gland, 0.24°C higher resting oral temperature, and 0.62°C higher resting forearm skin temperature compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.01). ACh iontophoresis did not influence oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland

  5. Aluminium in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Thin, Soft, Skin-Mounted Microfluidic Networks with Capillary Bursting Valves for Chrono-Sampling of Sweat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Kang, Daeshik; Han, Seungyong; Kim, Sung Bong; Rogers, John A

    2017-03-01

    Systems for time sequential capture of microliter volumes of sweat released from targeted regions of the skin offer the potential to enable analysis of temporal variations in electrolyte balance and biomarker concentration throughout a period of interest. Current methods that rely on absorbent pads taped to the skin do not offer the ease of use in sweat capture needed for quantitative tracking; emerging classes of electronic wearable sweat analysis systems do not directly manage sweat-induced fluid flows for sample isolation. Here, a thin, soft, "skin-like" microfluidic platform is introduced that bonds to the skin to allow for collection and storage of sweat in an interconnected set of microreservoirs. Pressure induced by the sweat glands drives flow through a network of microchannels that incorporates capillary bursting valves designed to open at different pressures, for the purpose of passively guiding sweat through the system in sequential fashion. A representative device recovers 1.8 µL volumes of sweat each from 0.8 min of sweating into a set of separate microreservoirs, collected from 0.03 cm 2 area of skin with approximately five glands, corresponding to a sweat rate of 0.60 µL min -1 per gland. Human studies demonstrate applications in the accurate chemical analysis of lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations and their temporal variations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Intracellular ion concentrations and cell volume during cholinergic stimulation of eccrine secretory coil cells

    SciT

    Takemura, T.; Sato, F.; Saga, K.

    Methacholine (MCh)-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of Na, K, and Cl (( Na)i, (K)i, and (Cl)i, respectively) and in cellular dry mass (a measure of cell shrinkage) were examined in isolated monkey eccrine sweat secretory coils by electron probe X-ray microanalysis using the peripheral standard method. To further confirm the occurrence of cell shrinkage during MCh stimulation, the change in cell volume of dissociated clear and dark cells were directly determined under a light microscope equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. X-ray microanalysis revealed a biphasic increase in cellular dry mass in clear cells during continuous MCh stimulation; anmore » initial increase of dry mass to 158% (of control) followed by a plateau at 140%, which correspond to the decrease in cell volume of 37 and 29%, respectively. The latter agrees with the MCh-induced cell shrinkage of 29% in dissociated clear cells. The MCh-induced increase in dry mass in myoepithelial cells was less than half that of clear cells. During the steady state of MCh stimulation, both (K+)i and (Cl)i of clear cells decreased by about 45%, whereas (Na)i increased in such a way to maintain the sum of (Na) i + (K)i constant. There was a small (12-15 mM) increase in (Na)i and a decrease in (K)i in myoepithelial cells during stimulation with MCh. Dissociated dark cells failed to significantly shrink during MCh stimulation. The decrease in (Cl)i in the face of constant (Na)i + (K)i suggests the accumulation of unknown anion(s) inside the clear cell during MCh stimulation.« less

  8. Sweat production during global heating and during isometric exercise in people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Lee, Scott; Patterson, Chris; Cole, Melissa; Stewart, Brian

    2005-11-01

    While sweat production in response to heat is impaired in people with diabetes, sweat production has not been examined during isometric exercise. Eight subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 control subjects exerted a fatiguing isometric contraction of the handgrip muscles at a tension of 40% of the maximum voluntary strength (MVC) after exposure to a 32 deg C environment for 30 min. compared to 10 controls and 10 subjects with diabetes exposed to a 39 deg C environment. Sweat was impaired to all areas of the body during heat exposure in patients with diabetes under both environmental conditions. For example, on the chest, the average sweat rates after exposure to the 32 deg environment was 259.2 +/- 55.2 nanoliters/min in control subjects and 198.3 +/- 46.2 nanoliters/min for subjects with diabetes. Compared to the 32 deg C environment, control subjects increased sweat in all 4 areas proportionally more than subjects with diabetes. Sudomotor rhythm was present in sweat in control subjects at a rate of repetition of 11 and 50 seconds but almost absent in subjects with diabetes. During exercise, sweat rates slowly increased from the beginning to the end of the exercise. But the head of the subjects with diabetes showed hypersweating while the other areas showed diminished sweating compared to control subjects. Thus some of the impairment in sweating may be due to central mechanisms associated with heat sensitivity or in the hypothalamus and not to the sweat glands themselves.

  9. Sweat glucose and GLUT2 expression in atopic dermatitis: Implication for clinical manifestation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Emi; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Nomura, Yuko; Munetsugu, Takichi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Katayama, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Sweat includes active components and metabolites, which are needed to maintain skin homeostasis. Component changes in sweat derived from atopic dermatitis (AD) have been reported. To investigate the influence of sweat components on the pathogenesis of AD, we performed a multifaceted assessment, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis, and linked these features to clinical features of AD. Distinctive properties of AD sweat are the quite-variation in protein, anti-microbial peptides and glucose concentrations. pH, sodium, and other salt levels in sweat of AD were comparable to that of healthy subjects. Sweat from AD patients with acute inflammation had a more prominent increase in glucose concentration than sweat from healthy individuals or those with AD with chronic inflammation. Topical glucose application delayed recovery of transepidermal water loss in barrier-disrupted mice. Furthermore, the glucose transporter GLUT2 was highly expressed in the lumen of sweat glands from AD patients. AD patients with chronic inflammation had significantly increased GLUT2 mRNA expression and near normal sweat glucose levels. Despite the small sample size in our study, we speculate that the increased glucose levels might be affected by AD severity and phenotype. We hope that this report will bring novel insight into the impact of sweat components on the clinical manifestation of AD. PMID:29677207

  10. Prolonged head-down tilt exposure reduces maximal cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Levine, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous vasodilation and sweat rate are reduced during a thermal challenge after simulated and actual microgravity exposure. The effects of microgravity exposure on cutaneous vasodilator capacity and on sweat gland function are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that simulated microgravity exposure, using the 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest model, reduces maximal forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (FVC) and sweat gland function and that exercise during HDT preserves these responses. To test these hypotheses, 20 subjects were exposed to 14 days of strict HDT bed rest. Twelve of those subjects exercised (supine cycle ergometry) at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum for 90 min/day throughout HDT bed rest. Before and after HDT bed rest, maximal FVC was measured, via plethysmography, by heating the entire forearm to 42 degrees C for 45 min. Sweat gland function was assessed by administering 1 x 10(-6) to 2 M acetylcholine (9 doses) via intradermal microdialysis while simultaneously monitoring sweat rate over the microdialysis membranes. In the nonexercise group, maximal FVC and maximal stimulated sweat rate were significantly reduced after HDT bed rest. In contrast, these responses were unchanged in the exercise group. These data suggest that 14 days of simulated microgravity exposure, using the HDT bed rest model, reduces cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity, whereas aerobic exercise training during HDT bed rest preserves these responses.

  11. Sweat allergy: Extrinsic or intrinsic?

    PubMed

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hiragun, Makiko; Ishii, Kaori; Kan, Takanobu; Hide, Michihiro

    2017-07-01

    Sweat is an exacerbation factor in atopic dermatitis (AD) in all age groups. A body core temperature elevation with sweating triggers cholinergic urticaria (CholU). We recently reported that AD symptoms are improved by tannic acid-containing spray, which suppresses the basophil histamine release induced by semi-purified sweat antigen in vitro, and by showering, which removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. Sweat contains small amount of proteins including proteases, protease inhibitors, and anti-microbial peptides. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia (M.) globosa as a major histamine - releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is a 17-kDa protein in sweat that elicits almost the highest histamine - release activity from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE were significantly higher in patients with AD and CholU than in normal controls. The recombinant protein produced by Pichia pastoris possessed comparable allergenicity to native MGL_1304. We found a monoclonal IgE antibody against MGL_1304 which did not elicit histamine release from sensitized mast cells. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat, or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin grafting impairs postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilator and sweating responses.

    PubMed

    Davis, Scott L; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Cui, Jian; Keller, David M; Purdue, Gary F; Hunt, John L; Arnoldo, Brett D; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that postsynaptic cutaneous vascular responses to endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilators, as well as sweat gland function, are impaired in split-thickness grafted skin 5 to 9 months after surgery. Intradermal microdialysis membranes were placed in grafted and adjacent control skin, thereby allowing local delivery of the endothelial-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (ACh; 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-1) M at 10-fold increments) and the endothelial-independent nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-2) M at 10-fold increments). Skin blood flow and sweat rate were simultaneously assessed over the semipermeable portion of the membrane. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from the ratio of laser Doppler-derived skin blood flow to mean arterial blood pressure. deltaCVC responses from baseline to these drugs were modeled via nonlinear regression curve fitting to identify the dose of ACh and SNP causing 50% of the maximal vasodilator response (EC50). A rightward shift in the CVC dose response curve for ACh was observed in grafted (EC50 = -2.61 +/- 0.44 log M) compared to adjacent control skin (EC50 = -3.34 +/- 0.46 log M; P = .003), whereas the mean EC50 for SNP was similar between grafted (EC50 = -4.21 +/- 0.94 log M) and adjacent control skin (EC50 = -3.87 +/- 0.65 log M; P = 0.332). Only minimal sweating to exogenous ACh was observed in grafted skin whereas normal sweating was observed in control skin. Increased EC50 and decreased maximal CVC responses to the exogenous administration of ACh suggest impairment of endothelial-dependent cutaneous vasodilator responses in grafted skin 5 to 9 months after surgery. Greatly attenuated sweating responses to ACh suggests either abnormal or an absence of functional sweat glands in the grafted skin.

  13. Sweating and Body Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... This fluid is composed mainly of water and salt. Apocrine glands produce a milky fluid that most commonly is secreted when you're under emotional stress. This fluid is odorless until it combines with bacteria found normally on your skin. By Mayo Clinic ...

  14. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  15. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. Objectives To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. Methods We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). Measurements and main results β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P < 0.05, ± SEM) and COPD former smokers (39.0 ± 5.4, P < 0.05) compared to healthy controls (53.6 ± 3.4). Similarly, sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and COPD former smokers (37.8 ± 6.0, P < 0.01) vs. healthy controls (19.1 ± 2.5). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between β-adrenergic sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (−0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (−0.3), and history of smoking (−0.27; each P < 0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression included gender (0.39) and COPD (−0.43) in the final model (R2 = 0.266, P < 0.0001). Conclusions β-adrenergic sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements

  16. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  17. A Little CFTR Goes a Long Way: CFTR-Dependent Sweat Secretion from G551D and R117H-5T Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Taking Ivacaftor

    PubMed Central

    Char, Jessica E.; Wolfe, Marlene H.; Cho, Hyung-ju; Park, Il-Ho; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Frisbee, Eric; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Milla, Carlos; Moss, Richard B.; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco) improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32–143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (−) ivacaftor, 3 only (+) ivacaftor and 3 (+/−) ivacaftor (1–5 tests per condition). The total number of gland measurements was 852 (−) ivacaftor and 906 (+) ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands). For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat) and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat); C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects). By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands) produced C-sweat in the (+) ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3–74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%–2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+) ivacaftor  = 1.6%–7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function. PMID:24520399

  18. Chloride and sodium ion concentrations in saliva and sweat as a method to diagnose cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Aline Cristina; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Mendonça, Regina Maria Holanda; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Levy, Carlos Emílio

    2018-05-19

    Cystic fibrosis diagnosis is dependent on the chloride ion concentration in the sweat test (≥60mEq/mL - recognized as the gold standard indicator for cystic fibrosis diagnosis). Moreover, the salivary glands express the CFTR protein in the same manner as sweat glands. Given this context, the objective was to verify the correlation of saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration, and between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration, in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy control subjects, as a tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis. There were 160 subjects enrolled: 57/160 (35.70%) patients with cystic fibrosis and two known CFTR mutations and 103/160 (64.40%) healthy controls subjects. Saliva ion concentration was analyzed by ABL 835 Radiometer ® equipment and, sweat chloride concentration and sweat sodium concentration, respectively, by manual titration using the mercurimetric procedure of Schales & Schales and flame photometry. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-squared test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman's correlation. Alpha=0.05. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed higher values of sweat chloride concentration, sweat sodium concentration, saliva chloride concentration, and saliva sodium concentration than healthy controls subjects (p-value<0.001). The correlation between saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho (correlation coefficient)=0.475 (95% CI=0.346 to 0.587). Also, the correlation between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho=0.306 (95% CI=0.158 to 0.440). Saliva chloride concentration and saliva sodium concentration are candidates to be used in cystic fibrosis diagnosis, mainly in cases where it is difficult to achieve the correct sweat amount, and/or CFTR mutation screening is difficult, and/or reference methods for sweat test are unavailable to implement or are not easily accessible by

  19. Fast imaging of eccrine latent fingerprints with nontoxic Mn-doped ZnS QDs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoying; Zhou, Ronghui; He, Wenwei; Wu, Lan; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2014-04-01

    Fingerprints are unique characteristics of an individual, and their imaging and recognition is a top-priority task in forensic science. Fast LFP (latent fingerprint) acquirement can greatly help policemen in screening the potential criminal scenes and capturing fingerprint clues. Of the two major latent fingerprints (LFP), eccrine is expected to be more representative than sebaceous in LFP identification. Here we explored the heavy metal-free Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as a new imaging moiety for eccrine LFPs. To study the effects of different ligands on the LFP image quality, we prepared Mn-doped ZnS QDs with various surface-capping ligands using QDs synthesized in high-temperature organic media as starting material. The orange fluorescence emission from Mn-doped ZnS QDs clearly revealed the optical images of eccrine LFPs. Interestingly, N-acetyl-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs could stain the eccrine LFPs in as fast as 5 s. Meanwhile, the levels 2 and 3 substructures of the fingerprints could also be simultaneously and clearly identified. While in the absence of QDs or without rubbing and stamping the finger onto foil, no fluorescent fingerprint images could be visualized. Besides fresh fingerprint, aged (5, 10, and 50 days), incomplete eccrine LFPs could also be successfully stained with N-acetyl-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs, demonstrating the analytical potential of this method in real world applications. The method was also robust for imaging of eccrine LFPs on a series of nonporous surfaces, such as aluminum foil, compact discs, glass, and black plastic bags.

  20. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  1. Why Do I Sweat So Much?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & ... perfectly normal to sweat. Sweating plays an important health role because it helps maintain body temperature by cooling us down. When we're hot ...

  2. Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509

  3. Hidradenocarcinoma eccrinale syringomatodes of the eyelid--case of a rare malignancy.

    PubMed

    Karolina, Ziaja; Arkadiusz, Pogrzebielski; Jolanta, Orłowska-Heitzman; Bozena, Romanowska-Dixon

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of a case of very rare malignant tumor of eccrine sweat glands in the eyelid. A 44 years old man with a tumor of the upper left eyelid is presented. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin adnexa. Diagnosis of these carcinomas is difficult due to their infrequency.

  4. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  5. Metastatic clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva: survival after primary surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Massad, L S; Bitterman, P; Clarke-Pearson, D L

    1996-05-01

    A case of clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva metastatic to regional lymph nodes with long survival after surgical resection is presented. Like the only other case reported to date, this suggests that surgical therapy alone may be adequate, even when metastasis is present.

  6. Hematidrosis (bloody sweat): a review of the recent literature (1996-2016).

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    Hematidrosis is an eccrine sweat disorder characterized by one or more episodes of spontaneous, bloody sweating from non-traumatized skin. The author carried out a systematic review of all cases of hematidrosis reported in PubMed over the past 20 years. A total of 25 cases were reviewed; 21 were women (84%), the median age was 13 years (range 9-72), and the majority (62%) were from Asia, mainly India. Hematidrosis was located on the face-including the forehead (40%), eyes (40%), and ears (36%)-in 96% of the cases and on the umbilicus in 24% and the palms in 20%. Prodromal symptoms were reported by almost 30% of the patients. Possible triggering factors were identified in 56% of the cases; most of these (86%) were stress factors within families (conflicts or abuse) or at school. In two cases, platelet dysfunction and epilepsy were suspected as culprits. Nine patients had a psychiatric diagnosis associated with hematidrosis. The outcome was favorable in most of the cases with medical treatment (e.g., beta-blocker, anxiolytics) and psychological support. The number of cases has increased in recent years. Hematidrosis appears to be a somatization disorder that mainly affects children from developing countries. Its physiopathology remains largely unknown. It deserves better recognition because it is usually a temporary condition when managed properly.

  7. A Soft, Wearable Microfluidic Device for the Capture, Storage, and Colorimetric Sensing of Sweat

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M.; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C.; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R.; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J.; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Capabilities in health monitoring via capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH and concentration of both chloride and lactate. PMID:27881826

  8. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-23

    Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

    DOE PAGES

    Emaminejad, Sam; Gao, Wei; Wu, Eric; ...

    2017-04-17

    Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, withoutmore » electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.« less

  10. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

    SciT

    Emaminejad, Sam; Gao, Wei; Wu, Eric

    Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, withoutmore » electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.« less

  11. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform.

    PubMed

    Emaminejad, Sam; Gao, Wei; Wu, Eric; Davies, Zoe A; Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin; Challa, Samyuktha; Ryan, Sean P; Fahad, Hossain M; Chen, Kevin; Shahpar, Ziba; Talebi, Salmonn; Milla, Carlos; Javey, Ali; Davis, Ronald W

    2017-05-02

    Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 µL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. Our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.

  12. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

    PubMed Central

    Emaminejad, Sam; Gao, Wei; Wu, Eric; Davies, Zoe A.; Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin; Challa, Samyuktha; Ryan, Sean P.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Chen, Kevin; Shahpar, Ziba; Talebi, Salmonn; Milla, Carlos; Javey, Ali; Davis, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals’ health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 µL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. Our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications. PMID:28416667

  13. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc; Cassarino, David S; Shih, Hubert B; Abemayor, Elliot; St John, Maie

    2009-03-01

    The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. The classification and behavior of this entity are discussed in this report. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions.

  14. Apocrine Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scalp: A Classification Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Cassarino, David S.; Shih, Hubert B.; Abemayor, Elliot; John, Maie St.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. Methods A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Results Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. The classification and behavior of this entity are discussed in this report. Conclusion Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions. PMID:20596988

  15. Regional differences in sweat rate response of steers to short-term heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, B.; Wax, L. E.; Aiken, G. E.; Spiers, D. E.

    2008-11-01

    Six Angus steers (319 ± 8.5 kg) were assigned to one of two groups (hot or cold exposure) of three steers each, and placed into two environmental chambers initially maintained at 16.5-18.8°C air temperature ( T a). Cold chamber T a was lowered to 8.4°C, while T a within the hot chamber was increased to 32.7°C over a 24-h time period. Measurements included respiration rate, and air and body (rectal and skin) temperatures. Skin temperature was measured at shoulder and rump locations, with determination of sweat rate using a calibrated moisture sensor. Rectal temperature did not change in cold or hot chambers. However, respiration rate nearly doubled in the heat ( P < 0.05), increasing when T a was above 24°C. Skin temperatures at the two locations were highly correlated ( P < 0.05) with each other and with T a. In contrast, sweat rate showed differences at rump and shoulder sites. Sweat rate of the rump exhibited only a small increase with T a. However, sweat rate at the shoulder increased more than four-fold with increasing T a. Increased sweat rate in this region is supported by an earlier report of a higher density of sweat glands in the shoulder compared to rump regions. Sweat rate was correlated with several thermal measurements to determine the best predictor. Fourth-order polynomial expressions of short-term rectal and skin temperature responses to hot and cold exposures produced r values of 0.60, 0.84, and 0.98, respectively. These results suggest that thermal inputs other than just rectal or skin temperature drive the sweat response in cattle.

  16. Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. Methods A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006–2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable ‘omics’ analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Results Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Conclusion Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease. PMID:28798503

  17. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [<75 mg]), were performed on 904 individuals. The sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.

    PubMed

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 kΩ versus 160 ± 19 kΩ, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 μl cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Treatment of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)].

    PubMed

    Salava, Alexander; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis can be localized or generalized and may cause the patient significant discomfort. Localized hyperhidrosis is usually primary, often begins in adolescence and is partly based on genetic dispositions. As a rule it does not necessitate investigations for secondary causes (e.g. endocrine or neurologic conditions). Generalized hyperhidrosis is commonly associated with environmental or lifestyle factors, and sometimes physiological factors. In new-onset generalized sweating of unclear origin, it may be appropriate to consider secondary causes (underlying diseases, medications, infections). Relatively effective symptomatic treatments are available in localized hyperhidrosis. The treatment of generalized hyperhidrosis is almost always directed against the underlying factors.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions Cold-induced sweating syndrome Cold-induced sweating syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cold-induced sweating syndrome is characterized by problems with regulating body ...

  1. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  2. 7 CFR 29.2559 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2559 Section 29.2559 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2559 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2558 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2558 Section 29.2558 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2558 Sweated. The condition of tobacco...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3553 Section 29.3553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3065 Section 29.3065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2559 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2559 Section 29.2559 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2559 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6042 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.6042 Section 29.6042 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6042 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3554 Section 29.3554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6042 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.6042 Section 29.6042 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6042 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2558 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2558 Section 29.2558 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2558 Sweated. The condition of tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweating. 29.1065 Section 29.1065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [42 FR 21092, Apr...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweating. 29.1065 Section 29.1065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [42 FR 21092, Apr...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2306 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2306 Section 29.2306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2558 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2558 Section 29.2558 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2558 Sweated. The condition of tobacco...

  15. 7 CFR 29.6042 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.6042 Section 29.6042 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6042 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3553 Section 29.3553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2307 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2307 Section 29.2307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [37 FR 13521, July 11, 1972...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3065 Section 29.3065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2307 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2307 Section 29.2307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [37 FR 13521, July 11, 1972...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3065 Section 29.3065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2559 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2559 Section 29.2559 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2559 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3554 Section 29.3554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2307 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2307 Section 29.2307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [37 FR 13521, July 11, 1972...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweating. 29.1065 Section 29.1065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [42 FR 21092, Apr...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.1064 Section 29.1064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1064 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2558 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2558 Section 29.2558 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2558 Sweated. The condition of tobacco...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2307 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2307 Section 29.2307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [37 FR 13521, July 11, 1972...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3064 Section 29.3064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2559 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2559 Section 29.2559 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2559 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3064 Section 29.3064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2558 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2558 Section 29.2558 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2558 Sweated. The condition of tobacco...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweating. 29.1065 Section 29.1065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [42 FR 21092, Apr...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3554 Section 29.3554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6042 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.6042 Section 29.6042 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6042 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.1064 Section 29.1064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1064 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2306 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2306 Section 29.2306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3065 Section 29.3065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2306 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2306 Section 29.2306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweating. 29.1065 Section 29.1065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1065 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [42 FR 21092, Apr...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2306 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2306 Section 29.2306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.1064 Section 29.1064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1064 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3553 Section 29.3553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3065 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3065 Section 29.3065 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3553 Section 29.3553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3064 Section 29.3064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweated. 29.1064 Section 29.1064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1064 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2306 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweated. 29.2306 Section 29.2306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  8. 7 CFR 29.6042 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.6042 Section 29.6042 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6042 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3553 Section 29.3553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3064 Section 29.3064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweated. 29.1064 Section 29.1064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1064 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2559 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2559 Section 29.2559 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2559 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3554 Section 29.3554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2307 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweating. 29.2307 Section 29.2307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [37 FR 13521, July 11, 1972...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3064 - Sweated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweated. 29.3064 Section 29.3064 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations natural to tobacco...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweating. 29.3554 Section 29.3554 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  17. Effect of local acetylcholinesterase inhibition on sweat rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, M.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    ACh is the neurotransmitter responsible for increasing sweat rate (SR) in humans. Because ACh is rapidly hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), it is possible that AChE contributes to the modulation of SR. Thus the primary purpose of this project was to identify whether AChE around human sweat glands is capable of modulating SR during local application of various concentrations of ACh in vivo, as well as during a heat stress. In seven subjects, two microdialysis probes were placed in the intradermal space of the forearm. One probe was perfused with the AChE inhibitor neostigmine (10 microM); the adjacent membrane was perfused with the vehicle (Ringer solution). SR over both membranes was monitored via capacitance hygrometry during microdialysis administration of various concentrations of ACh (1 x 10(-7)-2 M) and during whole body heating. SR was significantly greater at the neostigmine-treated site than at the control site during administration of lower concentrations of ACh (1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-3) M, P < 0.05), but not during administration of higher concentrations of ACh (1 x 10(-2)-2 M, P > 0.05). Moreover, the core temperature threshold for the onset of sweating at the neostigmine-treated site was significantly reduced relative to that at the control site. However, no differences in SR were observed between sites after 35 min of whole body heating. These results suggest that AChE is capable of modulating SR when ACh concentrations are low to moderate (i.e., when sudomotor activity is low) but is less effective in governing SR after SR has increased substantially.

  18. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  19. A Wearable Microfluidic Sensing Patch for Dynamic Sweat Secretion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Tai, Li-Chia; Ngo, Quynh Phuong; Chao, Minghan; Zhang, George B; Gao, Wei; Bariya, Mallika; Bullock, James; Kim, Hyungjin; Fahad, Hossain M; Javey, Ali

    2018-05-25

    Wearable sweat sensing is a rapidly rising research area driven by its promising potential in health, fitness, and diagnostic applications. Despite the growth in the field, major challenges in relation to sweat metrics remain to be addressed. These challenges include sweat rate monitoring for its complex relation with sweat compositions and sweat sampling for sweat dynamics studies. In this work, we present a flexible microfluidic sweat sensing patch that enhances real-time electrochemical sensing and sweat rate analysis via sweat sampling. The device contains a spiral-patterned microfluidic component that is embedded with ion-selective sensors and an electrical impedance-based sweat rate sensor on a flexible plastic substrate. The patch is enabled to autonomously perform sweat analysis by interfacing the sensing component with a printed circuit board that is capable of on-site signal conditioning, analysis, and transmission. Progressive sweat flow in the microfluidic device, governed by the pressure induced by the secreted sweat, enhances sweat sampling and electrochemical detection via a defined sweat collection chamber and a directed sweat route. The characteristic of the sweat rate sensor is validated through a theoretical simulation, and the precision and accuracy of the flow rate is verified with a commercial syringe pump and a Macroduct sweat collector. On-body simultaneous monitoring of ion (H + , Na + , K + , Cl - ) concentration and sweat rate is also demonstrated for sensor functionality. This sweat sensing patch provides an integrated platform for a comprehensive sweat secretion analysis and facilitates physiological and clinical investigations by closely monitoring interrelated sweat parameters.

  20. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label-free quantification mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Csősz, É; Emri, G; Kalló, G; Tsaprailis, G; Tőzsér, J

    2015-10-01

    The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analysed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labelled reference peptides were used for method validation. Ninety-five sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin-inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. Our findings with regard to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label-free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Age‐related differences in postsynaptic increases in sweating and skin blood flow postexercise

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; McDonald, Katherine; Kenny, Glen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of peripheral factors on the control of heat loss responses (i.e., sweating and skin blood flow) in the postexercise period remains unknown in young and older adults. Therefore, in eight young (22 ± 3 years) and eight older (65 ± 3 years) males, we examined dose‐dependent responses to the administration of acetylcholine (ACh) and methacholine (MCh) for sweating (ventilated capsule), as well as to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser‐Doppler flowmetry, % of max). In order to assess if peripheral factors are involved in the modulation of thermoeffector activity postexercise, pharmacological agonists were perfused via intradermal microdialysis on two separate days: (1) at rest (DOSE) and (2) following a 30‐min bout of exercise (Ex+DOSE). No differences in sweat rate between the DOSE and Ex+DOSE conditions at either ACh or MCh were observed for the young (ACh: P =0.992 and MCh: P =0.710) or older (ACh: P =0.775 and MCh: P =0.738) adults. Similarly, CVC was not different between the DOSE and Ex+DOSE conditions for the young (ACh: P =0.123 and SNP: P =0.893) or older (ACh: P =0.113 and SNP: P =0.068) adults. Older adults had a lower sweating response for both the DOSE (ACh: P =0.049 and MCh: P =0.006) and Ex+DOSE (ACh: P =0.050 and MCh: P =0.029) conditions compared to their younger counterparts. These findings suggest that peripheral factors do not modulate postexercise sweating and skin blood flow in both young and older adults. Additionally, sweat gland function is impaired in older adults, albeit the impairments were not exacerbated during postexercise recovery. PMID:25347861

  2. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chee, Siew-Yin; Wanga, Chung-Hsing; Lina, Wei-De; Tsaia, Fuu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of 2 or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. The tissues primarily involved are the skin and its appendages (including hair follicles, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands, nails) and teeth. The clinical features include sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth, and an inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands. One such case report of ectodermal dysplasia is presented here.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background . Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion . Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  5. Local versus whole-body sweating adaptations following 14 days of traditional heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martin P; Gagnon, Daniel; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if local changes in sweat rate following 14 days of heat acclimation reflect those that occur at the whole-body level. Both prior to and following a 14-day traditional heat acclimation protocol, 10 males exercised in the heat (35 °C, ∼20% relative humidity) at increasing rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 350 (Ex2), and 400 (Ex3) W·m(-2). A 10-min recovery period followed Ex1, while a 20-min recovery period separated Ex2 and Ex3. The exercise protocol was performed in a direct calorimeter to measure whole-body sweat rate and, on a separate day, in a thermal chamber to measure local sweat rate (LSR), sweat gland activation (SGA), and sweat gland output (SGO) on the upper back, chest, and mid-anterior forearm. Post-acclimation, whole-body sweat rate was greater during each exercise bout (Ex1: 14.3 ± 0.9; Ex2: 17.3 ± 1.2; Ex3: 19.4 ± 1.3 g·min(-1), all p ≤ 0.05) relative to pre-acclimation (Ex1: 13.1 ± 0.6; Ex2: 15.4 ± 0.8; Ex3: 16.5 ± 1.3 g·min(-1)). In contrast, only LSR on the forearm increased with acclimation, and this increase was only observed during Ex2 (Post: 1.32 ± 0.33 vs. Pre: 1.06 ± 0.22 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.03) and Ex3 (Post: 1.47 ± 0.41 vs. Pre: 1.17 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.05). The greater forearm LSR post-acclimation was due to an increase in SGO, as no changes in SGA were observed. Overall, these data demonstrate marked regional variability in the effect of heat acclimation on LSR, such that not all local measurements of sweat rate reflect the improvements observed at the whole-body level.

  6. A new method of sweat testing: the CF Quantum®sweat test.

    PubMed

    Rock, Michael J; Makholm, Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods of sweat testing are time consuming and have many steps that can and do lead to errors. This study compares conventional sweat testing to a new quantitative method, the CF Quantum® (CFQT) sweat test. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and analytic validity of the CFQT. Previously diagnosed CF patients and patients who required a sweat test for clinical indications were invited to have the CFQT test performed. Both conventional sweat testing and the CFQT were performed bilaterally on the same day. Pairs of data from each test are plotted as a correlation graph and Bland-Altman plot. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as well as the means and coefficient of variation by test and by extremity. After completing the study, subjects or their parents were asked for their preference of the CFQT and conventional sweat testing. The correlation coefficient between the CFQT and conventional sweat testing was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of the CFQT in diagnosing CF was 100% (95% confidence interval: 94-100%) and 96% (95% confidence interval: 89-99%), respectively. In one center in this three center multicenter study, there were higher sweat chloride values in patients with CF and also more tests that were invalid due to discrepant values between the two extremities. The percentage of invalid tests was higher in the CFQT method (16.5%) compared to conventional sweat testing (3.8%) (p < 0.001). In the post-test questionnaire, 88% of subjects/parents preferred the CFQT test. The CFQT is a fast and simple method of quantitative sweat chloride determination. This technology requires further refinement to improve the analytic accuracy at higher sweat chloride values and to decrease the number of invalid tests. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A NEW METHOD OF SWEAT TESTING: THE CF QUANTUM® SWEAT TEST

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Michael J.; Makholm, Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional methods of sweat testing are time consuming and have many steps that can and do lead to errors. This study compares conventional sweat testing to a new quantitative method, the CF Quantum® (CFQT) sweat test. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and analytic validity of the CFQT. Methods Previously diagnosed CF patients and patients who required a sweat test for clinical indications were invited to have the CFQT test performed. Both conventional sweat testing and the CFQT were performed bilaterally on the same day. Pairs of data from each test are plotted as a correlation graph and Bland Altman plot. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as well as the means and coefficient of variation by test and by extremity. After completing the study, subjects or their parents were asked for their preference of the CFQT and conventional sweat testing. Results The correlation coefficient between the CFQT and conventional sweat testing was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of the CFQT in diagnosing CF was 100% (95% confidence interval: 94–100%) and 96% (95% confidence interval: 89–99%), respectively. In one center in this three center multicenter study, there were higher sweat chloride values in patients with CF and also more tests that were invalid due to discrepant values between the two extremities. The percentage of invalid tests was higher in the CFQT method (16.5%) compared to conventional sweat testing (3.8%)(p < 0.001). In the post-test questionnaire, 88% of subjects/parents preferred the CFQT test. Conclusions The CFQT is a fast and simple method of quantitative sweat chloride determination. This technology requires further refinement to improve the analytic accuracy at higher sweat chloride values and to decrease the number of invalid tests. PMID:24862724

  8. Endocrine glands

    ... the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The endocrine and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends ... endocrine glands. Because of this intimate relationship, the nervous and endocrine systems are referred to as the neuroendocrine system. The ...

  9. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... in autoimmune diseases such as HIV and Sjögren's syndrome where the body's immune system attacks the salivary glands causing significant inflammation. Dry mouth or dry eyes are common. This may occur with other systemic ...

  10. Pituitary gland

    ... should release by sending it either hormonal or electrical messages. In response to hormonal messages from the ... have properties similar to steroids In response to electrical messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases ...

  11. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Qualification of a precise and easy-to-handle sweat casting imprint method for the prediction and quantification of anti-perspirant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, R; Scheede, S; Thielecke, I; Wenck, H; Schmucker, R; Schreiner, V; Ennen, J; Herpens, A

    2009-06-01

    A time- and cost-effective sweat casting method using the forearm as test site to assess the efficacy of several anti-perspirant formulations with a low number of test subjects has been evaluated and qualified. The imprint sweat casting method is based on a 2-component silcone-imprint technique to measure the efficacy of more than eight products in parallel with the same test subject. In studies using aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) formulations as test anti-perspirants, a clear-cut correlation could be demonstrated between sweat gland activities measured by the imprint method and gravimetric measurement of sweat gland activities. Concentration-dependent inhibition of sweat gland activity could be observed with the imprint technique up to an ACH concentration of 15%, and all formulations containing 2% ACH or above resulted in statistically significant reduction of sweat gland activity (P < 0.001) when compared with untreated control areas. Furthermore, the SDs of individual studies using the imprint technique were in a range of +/-20% of sweat gland activity, which can be regarded rather low for in vivo measurements of a complex process like sweat secretion. A group-wise comparison between the measurements of anti-perspirant activity as determined by the imprint protocol and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guideline compliant gravimetric hot-room protocol revealed that the test results for anti-perspirant activity obtained with the imprint protocol are similar to those obtained with the hot-room protocol. Moreover, the data generated with the imprint protocol have a high predictive value for the outcome of a later guideline-compliant hot-room test. As the imprint casting method tends to be a little more sensitive for formulations with low anti-perspirant activity, and seems to be associated with less interassay variability than the standard gravimetric hot-room test, the imprint casting method may select products which later fail to pass the standard

  13. Sweat test for cystic fibrosis: Wearable sweat sensor vs. standard laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Thaxton, Abigail; Jeong, In Cheol; Kim, Kain; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2018-03-23

    Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis. A Macroduct sweat collection device was attached to one arm and sweat was collected for 30 min and then sent for laboratory analysis. A sensor was attached to the other arm and the chloride ion concentration monitored in real time for 30 min using a Bluetooth transceiver and smart phone app. Stable sweat chloride measurements were obtained within 15 min following sweat induction using the wearable sensor. We define the detection time as the time at which the standard deviation of the real-time chloride ion concentration remained below 2 mEq/L for 5 min. The sweat volume for sensor measurements at the detection time was 13.1 ± 11.4 μL (SD), in many cases lower than the minimum sweat volume of 15 μL for conventional testing. The mean difference between sweat chloride concentrations measured by the sensor and the conventional laboratory practice was 6.2 ± 9.5 mEq/L (SD), close to the arm-to-arm variation of about 3 mEq/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97 highlighting the excellent agreement between the two methods. A wearable sensor can be used to make real-time measurements of sweat chloride within 15 min following sweat induction, requiring a small sweat volume, and with excellent agreement to standard methods. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  15. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    -adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances our understanding of human thermoregulation during exercise and of the mechanism that underlies sweat gland adaptation to habitual exercise training. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    Hydrochromic materials, which undergo changes in their light absorption and/or emission properties in response to water, have been extensively investigated as humidity sensors. Recent advances in the design of these materials have led to novel applications, including monitoring the water content of organic solvents, water-jet-based rewritable printing on paper, and hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. Our interest in this area has focused on the design of hydrochromic materials for human sweat pore mapping. We recognized that materials appropriate for this purpose must have balanced sensitivities to water. Specifically, while they should not undergo light absorption and/or emission transitions under ambient moisture conditions, the materials must have sufficiently high hydrochromic sensitivities that they display responses to water secreted from human sweat pores. In this Account, we describe investigations that we have carried out to develop hydrochromic substances that are suitable for human sweat pore mapping. Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) have been extensively investigated as sensor matrices because of their stimulus-responsive color change property. We found that incorporation of headgroups composed of hygroscopic ions such as cesium or rubidium and carboxylate counterions enables PDAs to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition as well as a fluorescence turn-on response to water. Very intriguingly, the small quantities of water secreted from human sweat pores were found to be sufficient to trigger fluorescence turn-on responses of the hydrochromic PDAs, allowing precise mapping of human sweat pores. Since the hygroscopic ion-containing PDAs developed in the initial stage display a colorimetric transition under ambient conditions that exist during humid summer periods, a new system was designed. A PDA containing an imidazolium ion was found to be stable under all ambient conditions and showed temperature-dependent hydrochromism corresponding to a

  17. Biological variability of the sweat chloride in diagnostic sweat tests: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; Lebecque, P; De Boeck, K; Leal, T

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is unlikely when sweat chloride (Cl sw ) is lower than 30mmol/L, Cl sw >60 is suggestive of CF, with intermediate values between 30 and 60mmol/L. To correctly interpret a sweat chloride value, the biological variability of the sweat chloride has to be known. Sweat tests performed in two centers using the classic Gibson and Cooke method were retrospectively reviewed (n=5904). Within test variability of Cl sw was measured by comparing results from right and left arm collected on the same day. Between test variability was calculated from subjects with sweat tests performed on more than one occasion. Within test variability of Cl sw calculated in 1022 subjects was low with differences between -3.2 (p5) and +3.6mmol/L (p95). Results from left and right arm were classified differently in only 3 subjects. Between test variability of Cl sw in 197 subjects was larger, with differences between -18.2mmol/L (p5) and +14.1mmol/L (p95) between repeat tests. Changes in diagnostic conclusion were seen in 55/197 subjects, the most frequent being changing from indeterminate to 'CF unlikely' range (48/102). Variability of sweat chloride is substantial, with frequent changes in diagnostic conclusion, especially in the intermediate range. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  19. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Manpreet; Kale, Alka D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. Aim: In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3–5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Results: Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Conclusion: Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation. PMID:23248471

  20. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Miyata, Eisuke; Ishai, Paul Ben; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    It is crucial to understand the various biological effects induced by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves with the rapid development of electronic and photonic devices operating in the THz frequency region. The presence of sweat glands plays an important role in THz wave interactions with human skin. We investigated the morphological features of sweat ducts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to further understand such phenomena. We observed remarkable features of the ducts, such as their clear helical structure. The intersubject and intrasubject variations in the diameter of sweat ducts were considerably smaller than the variations in other structural parameters, such as length and number of turns. Based on the sweat duct dimensions and THz dielectric properties of skin measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we calculated the resonating frequency of the sweat duct under the assumption of it functioning as a helical antenna. Here, we show that the resonance frequency in the axial mode of operation lies in the THz wave region with a centre frequency of 0.44 +/- 0.07 THz. We expect that these findings will further our understanding of the various health consequences of the interaction of THz waves with human beings.

  1. Efficient sweat reduction of three different antiperspirant application forms during stress-induced sweating.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rose, T; Lehmbeck, F; Bürger, A; Windisch, B; Keyhani, R; Max, H

    2013-12-01

    Stress sweating can occur in everyday situations independently of thermally-induced perspiration. It is triggered by emotionally challenging situations and leads to underarm wetness and a characteristic unpleasant malodor. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term efficacy of three unperfumed antiperspirant (AP) formulas for different application forms (roll-on, stick, aerosol) against stress-induced sweating and malodor formation. We utilized the widely accepted Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychosocial stress in female and male volunteers (18 - 40 years) and determined physiological stress parameters. To additionally assess the efficacy of the test AP roll-on against thermally-induced sweating, a hot room study was performed. Increasing heart rates and an augmentation of saliva cortisol levels during the TSST indicated a substantial stress reaction which was paralleled by a pronounced sweat production in the untreated axillae of both males and females. Forty-eight hours after application, all three test APs significantly decreased the amount of sweat in the treated axillae independent of gender. With respect to AP effects on malodor production, trained sniffers assessed sweat samples collected during the TSST from the untreated axillae as significantly more malodorous than comparable samples from the AP-treated axillae. Also, independent of gender the test AP roll-on significantly decreased the thermally-induced sweat in the AP-treated axilla. We show for the first time a highly effective reduction of emotionally-induced axillary sweating and malodor production for three different application forms 48 h after the last product use. The specially developed roll-on, stick, and aerosol AP provide long-term protection against stress-induced sweat which is of high relevance in everyday life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Fucci, Nadia; Aroni, Kyriaki; Bacci, Mauro; Marcelli, Antonio; Rossi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL). All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches. Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids.

  3. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  4. Methylxanthine Drug Monitoring with Wearable Sweat Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tai, Li-Chia; Gao, Wei; Chao, Minghan; Bariya, Mallika; Ngo, Quynh P; Shahpar, Ziba; Nyein, Hnin Y Y; Park, Hyejin; Sun, Junfeng; Jung, Younsu; Wu, Eric; Fahad, Hossain M; Lien, Der-Hsien; Ota, Hiroki; Cho, Gyoujin; Javey, Ali

    2018-06-01

    Drug monitoring plays crucial roles in doping control and precision medicine. It helps physicians tailor drug dosage for optimal benefits, track patients' compliance to prescriptions, and understand the complex pharmacokinetics of drugs. Conventional drug tests rely on invasive blood draws. While urine and sweat are attractive alternative biofluids, the state-of-the-art methods require separate sample collection and processing steps and fail to provide real-time information. Here, a wearable platform equipped with an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry sensing module for drug monitoring is presented. A methylxanthine drug, caffeine, is selected to demonstrate the platform's functionalities. Sweat caffeine levels are monitored under various conditions, such as drug doses and measurement time after drug intake. Elevated sweat caffeine levels upon increasing dosage and confirmable caffeine physiological trends are observed. This work leverages a wearable sweat sensing platform toward noninvasive and continuous point-of-care drug monitoring and management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of Heat Acclimation on Sweat Minerals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    training on the trace metals chromium, zinc, and copper. Sports Med. 1987;4:9–18. 6. Chinevere TD , McClung JP, Cheuvront SN. Trace mineral losses in sweat...versus patch tests for estimating body surface electrolyte losses. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:479–88. 33. Robert MF, Wenger CB, Stolwijk JAJ

  6. Autosomal recessive hyponatremia due to isolated salt wasting in sweat associated with a mutation in the active site of Carbonic Anhydrase 12.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Emad; Leventhal, Neta; Parvari, Galit; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Hanukoglu, Israel; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Feinstein, Yael; Weinbrand, Jenny; Jacoby, Harel; Manor, Esther; Nagar, Tal; Beck, John C; Sheffield, Val C; Hershkovitz, Eli; Parvari, Ruti

    2011-04-01

    Genetic disorders of excessive salt loss from sweat glands have been observed in pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA) and cystic fibrosis that result from mutations in genes encoding epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits and the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), respectively. We identified a novel autosomal recessive form of isolated salt wasting in sweat, which leads to severe infantile hyponatremic dehydration. Three affected individuals from a small Bedouin clan presented with failure to thrive, hyponatremic dehydration and hyperkalemia with isolated sweat salt wasting. Using positional cloning, we identified the association of a Glu143Lys mutation in carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) with the disease. Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form a bicarbonate anion and a proton. Glu143 in CA12 is essential for zinc coordination in this metalloenzyme and lowering of the protein-metal affinity reduces its catalytic activity. This is the first presentation of an isolated loss of salt from sweat gland mimicking PHA, associated with a mutation in the CA12 gene not previously implicated in human disorders. Our data demonstrate the importance of bicarbonate anion and proton production on salt concentration in sweat and its significance for sodium homeostasis.

  7. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T; Franca, Arianna L; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor A; Arcara, Kristin M; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-05-15

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-03-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a review of the literature regarding the effect of laboratory and field sweat-testing methodological variations on sweating rate (SR) and sweat composition (primarily sodium concentration [Na + ]). The simplest and most accurate method to assess whole-body SR is via changes in body mass during exercise; however, potential confounding factors to consider are non-sweat sources of mass change and trapped sweat in clothing. In addition, variability in sweat [Na + ] can result from differences in the type of collection system used (whole body or localized), the timing/duration of sweat collection, skin cleaning procedure, sample storage/handling, and analytical technique. Another aim of this paper is to briefly review factors that may impact intra/interindividual variability in SR and sweat [Na + ] during exercise, including exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation, aerobic capacity, body size/composition, wearing of protective equipment, sex, maturation, aging, diet, and/or hydration status. In summary, sweat testing can be a useful tool to estimate athletes' SR and sweat Na + loss to help guide fluid/electrolyte replacement strategies, provided that data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately.

  9. Adenolipoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Del Agua, C; Felipo, F

    2004-10-15

    Adenolipoma of the skin is an unusual variant of lipoma recently described by Hitchcock et al. and characterized by the presence of normal eccrine sweat glands within a lipoma. We report a case and review the literature. A 45-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing, painless nodule on the thigh, clinically considered to be lipoma. Microscopically it comprised an adipose-tissue proliferation with a single eccrine secretory coil and associated duct in the periphery and in the center of the nodule. This benign lesion has been termed adenolipoma because of the presence of adipose tissue and eccrine glands. It probably represents only a histological curiosity in which the eccrine glands are entrapped by the adipose proliferation. Adenolipoma of the skin is a distinct lesion that can occur in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue.

  10. Devices Would Detect Drugs In Sweat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Fredrick W.; Richards, Gil; Kidwell, David A.; Foster, Conrad; Kern, Roger G.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed devices worn on skin detect such substances as methamphetamine, morphine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cocaine in wearers' sweat and transmits radio signals in response to computer queries. Called Remote Biochemical Assay Telemetering System (R-BATS), commonly referred to as "drug badge," attached to wearer by use of adhesive wristband. Used for noninvasive monitoring of levels of prescribed medications in hospital and home-care settings and to detect overdoses quickly.

  11. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (Na(+)) intake during exercise aims to replace the Na(+) lost by sweat to avoid electrolyte imbalances, especially in endurance disciplines. However, Na(+) needs can be very different among individuals because of the great inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration. The aim of this investigation was to determine sweat electrolyte concentration in a large group of marathoners. A total of 157 experienced runners (141 men and 16 women) completed a marathon race (24.4 ± 3.6 °C and 27.7 ± 4.8 % of humidity). During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches placed on the runners' forearms. Sweat electrolyte concentration was measured by using photoelectric flame photometry. As a group, sweat Na(+) concentration was 42.9 ± 18.7 mmol·L(-1) (minimal-maximal value = 7.0-95.5 mmol·L(-1)), sweat Cl(-) concentration was 32.2 ± 15.6 mmol·L(-1) (7.3-90.6 mmol·L(-1)) and sweat K(+) concentration was 6.0 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1) (3.1-8.0 mmol·L(-1)). Women presented lower sweat Na(+) (33.9 ± 12.1 vs 44.0 ± 19.1 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.04) and sweat Cl(-) concentrations (22.9 ± 10.5 vs 33.2 ± 15.8 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.01) than men. A 20 % of individuals presented a sweat Na(+) concentration higher than 60 mmol·L(-1) while this threshold was not surpassed by any female marathoner. Sweat electrolyte concentration did not correlate to sweat rate, age, body characteristics, experience or training. Although there was a significant correlation between sweat Na(+) concentration and running pace (r = 0.18; P = 0.03), this association was weak to interpret that sweat Na(+) concentration increased with running pace. The inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration was not explained by any individual characteristics except for individual running pace and sex. An important portion (20 %) of marathoners might need special sodium intake recommendations due to

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. Testing in artificial sweat - Is less more? Comparison of metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Kettelarij, Jolinde; Lidén, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Metal release from materials immersed in artificial sweat can function as a measure of potential skin exposure. Several artificial sweat models exist that, to various degree, mimic realistic conditions. Study objective was to evaluate metal release from previously examined and well characterized materials in two different artificial sweat solutions; a comprehensive sweat model intended for use within research, based on the composition of human sweat; and the artificial sweat, EN1811, intended for testing compliance with the nickel restriction in REACH. The aim was to better understand whether there are advantages using either of the sweat solutions in bio-elution testing of materials. Metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions was compared for discs of a white gold alloy and two hard metals, and a rock drilling insert of tungsten carbide at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 1 month. The released amount of metal was analysed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar levels of released metals were measured from test materials in the two different artificial sweat solutions. For purposes in relation to legislations, it was concluded that a metal release test using a simple artificial sweat composition may provide results that sufficiently indicate the degree of metal release at skin contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sweat Chlorides in Salt-Deprived Cystic Fibrosis Heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Michael F.

    1965-01-01

    Sweat chlorides of 10 sets of parents of children with cystic fibrosis and 11 controls were studied in an attempt to develop a test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis heterozygotes by subjecting both the parents and controls to a low sodium diet and comparing sweat chloride values as the diet progressed. It was hoped that the sweat chloride levels of the parents, the heterozygotes, would remain stationary throughout the diet, since their children, the homozygotes, reveal this finding under similar conditions of salt deprivation. The sweat chloride levels of the controls, because of effects of aldosterone, were expected to decrease steadily from the commencement of the diet to its termination. A decrease in sweat chloride values of similar magnitude was found in both parents and controls as the diet continued. It is concluded that the study of sweat electrolyte levels in salt-deprived subjects is of no value in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. PMID:14289142

  16. Transient Sweat Rate Calculation from Humidity Measurements Under Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Evaporation of sweat from the skin lowers core and skin temperatures, thus better enabling proper body temperatures in the heat. However, workers ...when individual workers require water to compensate for heat stress. This study made use of a sweating manikin and data from human studies to...Transient Sweat Rate Calculation from Humidity Measurements under Clothing M. Yokota, L.G. Berglund*, J.A. Gonzalez, L.A. Blanchard U.S. Army

  17. Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function

    PubMed Central

    Illigens, Ben M.W.; Gibbons, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable neurophysiologic abnormalities in distal small fiber neuropathy. Traditional neurophysiologic measurements of sudomotor function include thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST), quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART), silicone impressions, the sympathetic skin response (SSR), and the recent addition of quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex testing (QDIRT). These testing techniques, when used in combination, can detect and localized pre- and postganglionic lesions, can provide early diagnosis of sudomotor dysfunction and can monitor disease progression or disease recovery. In this article, we review the common tests available for assessment of sudomotor function, detail the testing methodology, review the limitations and provide examples of test results. PMID:18989618

  18. Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Beeley, John G.; Bovell, Douglas L.; Lu, Jian R.; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (≤1 mg ml−1), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 Å thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

  19. Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hot flashes and night sweats can be a side effect of cancer or its treatment and can occur in both women and men. Learn more about hot flashes and night sweats and ways to treat them in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gender differences in the sweat response during spinning exercise.

    PubMed

    Hazelhurst, Lynton T; Claassen, Nicolaas

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this field study was to examine gender differences in the sweat response reported in the literature in trained men and women during indoor cycling. In the present study, 14 men and 12 women took part in a 90-minute spinning class in preparation for a 108-km road race. Delta body mass, corrected for the volume of water consumed, was used to estimate sweat loss during the exercise period. Men had a significantly higher sweat rate (1.12 L.h(-1)) compared to women (0.57 L.h(-1)), despite the fact that there were no significant gender differences in ad libitum fluid intake. Future research should focus on determining whether women may be more efficient in sweat production and evaporation and whether men may have a greater reserve capacity for increased sweating.

  2. Electron beam therapy

    SciT

    Price, N.M.

    An observed clinical side effect of total skin surface electron beam therapy is the patient's inability to perspire. An evaluation of eccrine sweat gland function was performed, utilizing acetylcholine chloride and a silicone impression material. The patient's inability to sweat after therapy, and recovery within a three- to six-month period after therapy was demonstrated. This phenomenon should be appreciated by both the physician and the patient prior to electron beam therapy in order to avoid the potential complications of this condition.

  3. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available

  4. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis - especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca(2+) and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca(2+) content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca(2+) content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat

  5. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    PubMed

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  6. Flexible nanoporous tunable electrical double layer biosensors for sweat diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Munje, Rujuta D; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-09-30

    An ultra-sensitive and highly specific electrical double layer (EDL) modulated biosensor, using nanoporous flexible substrates for wearable diagnostics is demonstrated with the detection of the stress biomarker cortisol in synthetic and human sweat. Zinc oxide thin film was used as active region in contact with the liquid i.e. synthetic and human sweat containing the biomolecules. Cortisol detection in sweat was accomplished by measuring and quantifying impedance changes due to modulation of the double layer capacitance within the electrical double layer through the application of a low orthogonally directed alternating current (AC) electric field. The EDL formed at the liquid-semiconductor interface was amplified in the presence of the nanoporous flexible substrate allowing for measuring the changes in the alternating current impedance signal due to the antibody-hormone interactions at diagnostically relevant concentrations. High sensitivity of detection of 1 pg/mL or 2.75 pmol cortisol in synthetic sweat and 1 ng/mL in human sweat is demonstrated with these novel biosensors. Specificity in synthetic sweat was demonstrated using a cytokine IL-1β. Cortisol detection in human sweat was demonstrated over a concentration range from 10-200 ng/mL.

  7. Flexible nanoporous tunable electrical double layer biosensors for sweat diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-sensitive and highly specific electrical double layer (EDL) modulated biosensor, using nanoporous flexible substrates for wearable diagnostics is demonstrated with the detection of the stress biomarker cortisol in synthetic and human sweat. Zinc oxide thin film was used as active region in contact with the liquid i.e. synthetic and human sweat containing the biomolecules. Cortisol detection in sweat was accomplished by measuring and quantifying impedance changes due to modulation of the double layer capacitance within the electrical double layer through the application of a low orthogonally directed alternating current (AC) electric field. The EDL formed at the liquid-semiconductor interface was amplified in the presence of the nanoporous flexible substrate allowing for measuring the changes in the alternating current impedance signal due to the antibody-hormone interactions at diagnostically relevant concentrations. High sensitivity of detection of 1 pg/mL or 2.75 pmol cortisol in synthetic sweat and 1 ng/mL in human sweat is demonstrated with these novel biosensors. Specificity in synthetic sweat was demonstrated using a cytokine IL-1β. Cortisol detection in human sweat was demonstrated over a concentration range from 10-200 ng/mL.

  8. Brain stem representation of thermal and psychogenic sweating in humans.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michael J; Trevaks, David; Taylor, Nigel A S; McAllen, Robin M

    2013-05-15

    Functional MRI was used to identify regions in the human brain stem activated during thermal and psychogenic sweating. Two groups of healthy participants aged 34.4 ± 10.2 and 35.3 ± 11.8 years (both groups comprising 1 woman and 10 men) were either heated by a water-perfused tube suit or subjected to a Stroop test, while they lay supine with their head in a 3-T MRI scanner. Sweating events were recorded as electrodermal responses (increases in AC conductance) from the palmar surfaces of fingers. Each experimental session consisted of two 7.9-min runs, during which a mean of 7.3 ± 2.1 and 10.2 ± 2.5 irregular sweating events occurred during psychogenic (Stroop test) and thermal sweating, respectively. The electrodermal waveform was used as the regressor in each subject and run to identify brain stem clusters with significantly correlated blood oxygen level-dependent signals in the group mean data. Clusters of significant activation were found with both psychogenic and thermal sweating, but a voxelwise comparison revealed no brain stem cluster whose signal differed significantly between the two conditions. Bilaterally symmetric regions that were activated by both psychogenic and thermal sweating were identified in the rostral lateral midbrain and in the rostral lateral medulla. The latter site, between the facial nuclei and pyramidal tracts, corresponds to a neuron group found to drive sweating in animals. These studies have identified the brain stem regions that are activated with sweating in humans and indicate that common descending pathways may mediate both thermal and psychogenic sweating.

  9. Sweat conductivity: an accurate diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Mattar, Ana Claudia Veras; Leone, Claudio; Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos; Adde, Fabíola Villac

    2014-09-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Sweat conductivity is widely used although still considered a screening test. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, diagnostic research conducted at the laboratory of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Sweat chloride (quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis) and sweat conductivity tests were simultaneously performed in patients referred for a sweat test between March 2007 and October 2008. Conductivity and chloride cut-off values used to rule out or diagnose CF were <75 and ≥90 mmol/L and <60 and ≥60 mmol/L, respectively. The ROC curve method was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), as well as the respective 95% confidence intervals and to calculate the area under the curve for both tests. The kappa coefficient was used to evaluate agreement between the tests. Both tests were performed in 738 children, and CF was ruled out in 714 subjects; the median sweat chloride and conductivity values were 11 and 25 mmol/L in these populations, respectively. Twenty-four patients who had received a diagnosis of CF presented median sweat chloride and conductivity values of 87 and 103 mmol/L, respectively. Conductivity values above 90 mmol/L had 83.3% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, 90.9% PPV and 99.4% NPV to diagnose CF. The best conductivity cut-off value to exclude CF was <75 mmol/L. Good agreement was observed between the tests (kappa: 0.934). The sweat conductivity test yielded a high degree of diagnostic accuracy and it showed good agreement with sweat chloride. We suggest that it should play a role as a diagnostic test for CF in the near future. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  11. Skin-interfaced systems for sweat collection and analytics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jungil; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Baker, Lindsay B.; Rogers, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary advances in materials, mechanics, and microsystem designs for biocompatible electronics, soft microfluidics, and electrochemical biosensors establish the foundations for emerging classes of thin, skin-interfaced platforms capable of capturing, storing, and performing quantitative, spatiotemporal measurements of sweat chemistry, instantaneous local sweat rate, and total sweat loss. This review summarizes scientific and technical progress in this area and highlights the implications in real time and ambulatory modes of deployment during physical activities across a broad range of contexts in clinical health, physiology research, fitness/wellness, and athletic performance. PMID:29487915

  12. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of w...

  13. Investigating the Effects of Sweat Therapy on Group Dynamics and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Eason, Evan A.; Winterowd, Carrie L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Cashel, Chris

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of sweat therapy on group dynamics and affect. Sweat therapy is the combination of intense heat exposure with psychotherapy or counseling (Colmant & Merta, 1999; 2000). Twenty-four undergraduates were separated by sex and randomly assigned to eight sessions of either a sweat or non-sweat group counseling…

  14. Sweating responses during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvartz, E.; Bhattacharya, A.; Sperinde, S. J.; Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Van Beaumont, W.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on ten young male subjects to determine sweating onset, distribution, and patterns as well as the relationships of these responses to body temperature during heat acclimation and moderate conditioning performed in temperate (24 C) conditions. The subjects are randomly assigned to two groups of five subjects each. The experimental period consisted of eight successive days of either graded exercise to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer in heat (acclimation group) or in a temperate environment (control group). Major conclusions are that (1) acclimation and conditioning result in relatively more sweat rate on the limbs than on the torso, but that these changes are less related to body temperature than torso sweat rate; and (2) sweating sensitivity increases during acclimation and conditioning, but its contribution to heat acclimation is minor.

  15. Observation of the sweating in lipstick by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, S Y; Lee, I S; Shin, H Y; Choi, K Y; Kang, S H; Ahn, H J

    1999-06-01

    The relationship between the wax matrix in lipstick and sweating has been investigated by observing the change of size and shape of the wax matrix due to sweating by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For observation by SEM, a lipstick sample was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The oil in the lipstick was then extracted in cold isopropanol (-70 degrees C) for 1-3 days. After the isopropanol was evaporated, the sample was sputtered with gold and examined by SEM. The change of wax matrix underneath the surface from fine, uniform structure to coarse, nonuniform structure resulted from the caking of surrounding wax matrix. The oil underneath the surface migrated to the surface of lipstick with sweating; consequently the wax matrix in that region was rearranged into the coarse matrix. In case of flamed lipstick, sweating was delayed and the wax matrix was much coarser than that of the unflamed one. The larger wax matrix at the surface region was good for including oil. The effect of molding temperature on sweating was also studied. As the molding temperature rose, sweating was greatly reduced and the size of the wax matrix increased. It was found that sweating was influenced by the compatibility of wax and oil. A formula consisting of wax and oil that have good compatibility has a tendency to reduce sweating and increase the size of the wax matrix. When pigments were added to wax and oil, the size of the wax matrix was changed, but in all cases sweating was increased due to the weakening of the binding force between wax and oil. On observing the thick membrane of wax at the surface of lipstick a month after molding it was also found that sweating was influenced by ageing. In conclusion, the structure of the wax matrix at the surface region of lipstick was changed with the process of flaming, molding temperature, compatibility of wax and oil, addition of pigment, and ageing. In most cases, as the size of the wax matrix was increased, sweating was reduced and delayed.

  16. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Lowsweat and TS was 0.11 ± 0.15 kg (8.0 ± 5.1% SL). During Moderate, subjects lost 1.60 ± 0.56 kg sweat and TS was 0.21 ± 0.21 kg (11.6 ± 6.3% SL). During High, subjects lost 2.12 ± 0.66 kg sweat and TS was 0.38 ± 0.28 kg (16.0 ± 7.4% SL). Multiple regression and partial correlation analysis suggested TS was significantly related to SL ( P  < 0.0001; partial r  = 0.81-0.89), whereas the contributions of body mass ( P  = 0.22-0.92) and age ( P  = 0.29-0.44) were not significant. TS during on-court training was 0.35 ± 0.36 kg, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 11.5% underestimation in SL, and was not statistically different than laboratory-based results ( P  = 0.59). Clothed body mass measurements should be used with caution, as TS is highly variable and can cause a significant underestimation in SL in athletes with high sweating rates. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  17. Does anticipatory sweating occur prior to fluid consumption?

    PubMed

    Wing, David; McClintock, Rebecca; Plumlee, Deva; Rathke, Michelle; Burnett, Tim; Lyons, Bailey; Buono, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if anticipatory sweating occurs prior to fluid consumption in dehydrated subjects. It was hypothesized that there would first be an anticipatory response to the sight of water, and then with drinking, a second response caused by mechanical stimulation of oropharyngeal nerves. Dehydrated subjects (n=19) sat in a heat chamber for 30 minutes. At minute 15, a resistance hygrometer capsule was attached and sweat rate was measured every 3 seconds. At minute 35:00, a researcher entered the room with previously measured water (2 ml/kg euhydrated body weight). At minute 35:30, the subject was allowed to drink. Data collection continued for 5 minutes post consumption. As expected, 16 of the 19 subjects responded to oropharyngeal stimuli with increased sweat rate. However, the new finding was that a majority (12 of 19) also showed an anticipatory sweating response prior to fluid consumption. Subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the magnitude of the sweating response. Strong responders' (n=4) anticipatory response accounted for 50% or more of the total change in sweat rate. Moderate responders' (n=4) anticipatory response accounted for 20%-49%. Weak responders' (n=4) anticipatory response accounted for 6-20%. Finally, non-responders (n=7) showed no anticipatory response. Although previously noted anecdotally in the literature, the current study is the first to demonstrate that measurable anticipatory sweating occurs prior to fluid intake in dehydrated subjects in a significant percentage of the population. Such data suggests that cerebral input, like oropharyngeal stimulation, can temporarily remove the dehydration-induced inhibition of sweating.

  18. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collaco, Joseph M; Blackman, Scott M; Raraigh, Karen S; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M; Pace, Rhonda G; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R; Strug, Lisa J; Knowles, Michael R; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-12-01

    Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H 2  = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker for assessing response to therapies directed at mutant CFTR.

  19. The physiological effects of dehydration caused by sweat loss. [athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms of fluid loss in the human body while sweating due to physical exercise are discussed. Trained and untrained persons were examined and compared. Since sweat is hypotonous, a disruption in the hydrosalinic balance occurs; the consequences of this finding, also pertaining to the fluid and electrolytic substitution, are presented. Further explanations on the problem of dehydration refer to reactions of individual organ systems, to alterations in bodily capabilities as well as to questions relating to sex and age.

  20. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  1. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc HSD). No differences in oxylipins and endocannabinoids were observed between study groups. Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  2. Evaluation of protective ensemble thermal characteristics through sweating hot plate, sweating thermal manikin, and human tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Powell, Jeffery B; Roberge, Raymond J; Shepherd, Angie; Coca, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble wearers may encounter while performing work. A series of three tests, consisting of the Sweating Hot Plate (SHP) test on two sample fabrics and the Sweating Thermal Manikin (STM) and human performance tests on two single-layer encapsulating ensembles (fabric/ensemble A = low THL and B = high THL), was conducted to compare THL values between SHP and STM methods along with human thermophysiological responses to wearing the ensembles. In human testing, ten male subjects performed a treadmill exercise at 4.8 km and 3% incline for 60 min in two environmental conditions (mild = 22°C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and hot/humid = 35°C, 65% RH). The thermal and evaporative resistances were significantly higher on a fabric level as measured in the SHP test than on the ensemble level as measured in the STM test. Consequently the THL values were also significantly different for both fabric types (SHP vs. STM: 191.3 vs. 81.5 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble A, and 909.3 vs. 149.9 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble B (p < 0.001). Body temperature and heart rate response between ensembles A and B were consistently different in both environmental conditions (p < 0.001), which is attributed to significantly higher sweat evaporation in ensemble B than in A (p < 0.05), despite a greater sweat production in ensemble A (p < 0.001) in both environmental conditions. Further, elevation of microclimate temperature (p < 0.001) and humidity (p < 0.01) was significantly greater in ensemble A than in B. It was concluded that: (1) SHP test determined THL values are significantly different from the actual THL potential of the PPE ensemble tested on STM, (2) physiological benefits from wearing a more breathable PPE ensemble may not be feasible with incremental THL values (SHP test) less than approximately 150-200 W·m(2), and (3) the

  3. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  4. [Comparative ultrastructural study of parotid gland, lacrimal gland and pituitary gland between miniature pig and mouse].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Hai, Bo; Sun, Yi-lin; Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Song-ling

    2009-02-01

    To study the ultrastructure of parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands between miniature pig and mouse. Five adult miniature pigs and 5 mice were studied. Ultrastructure of their parotid glands, lacrimal glands, and pituitary glands was observed. The secretary granules in acinar cell of miniature pig parotid glands showed higher density and more aequalis than those of mice. The cell apparatus in acinar cell of mouse parotid glands were more plentiful than those of miniature pigs. The secretary granules on blood vessel wall were richer in parotid gland of miniature pigs compared with mouse parotid gland. Lacrimal gland had the similar ultrastructure to parotid gland in these two animals. Many blood vessel antrum were found in pituitary glands of these two animals. Compared with mouse parotid glands, there are more secretary granules in acinar cells and vascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands, which might enter blood stream and have function of endocrine secretion.

  5. Perianal nodular hidradenocarcinoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sierra Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra Luzuriaga, Gastón; Leone Stay, Gaetano; Salazar Menéndez, Vilma; Quiñonez Auria, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Eccrine glands (sweat glands) appear in all sites of the skin and are more abundant in hands and feet. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NH) is a rare malignant and aggressive tumor of the eccrine glands. The objective of this study is to report a case of perianal hidradenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 75-year-old female with diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Physical examination revealed a small perianal tumor that was palpated near the anal canal. Biopsy was done. Pathology report revealed perianal hidradenoma. Rectosigmoidoscopy was normal. Computed tomography showed 1-cm adenopathies in inguinal and right iliac regions. Extensive resection of the tumor was done. Definitive pathology report was malignant eccrine acrospiroma. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy in the Oncology Service and died 1 month later. In patients with a first symptom of metastases in the inguinal region, suspicion must be directed to the anal canal.

  6. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B.; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-01-01

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm2, with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings. PMID:29439398

  7. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-02-10

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm², with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes in older primary care patients: an OKPRN study.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W; Roberts, Michelle; Aboshady, Hesham M

    2004-01-01

    We wanted to estimate the prevalence of night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes in older primary care patients and identify associated factors. We undertook a cross-sectional study of patients older than 64 years recruited from the practices of 23 family physicians. Variables included sociodemographic information, health habits, chronic medical problems, symptoms, quality of life, and the degree to which patients were bothered by night sweats, daytime sweating, and hot flashes. Among the 795 patients, 10% reported being bothered by night sweats, 9% by day sweats, and 8% by hot flashes. Eighteen percent reported at least 1 of these symptoms. The 3 symptoms were strongly correlated. Factors associated with night sweats in the multivariate models were age (odds ratio [OR] 0.94/y; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.98), fever (OR 12.60; 95% CI, 6.58-24.14), muscle cramps (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.53-5.24), numbness of hands and feet (OR 3.34; 95% CI, 1.92-5.81), impaired vision (OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.41-4.27), and hearing loss (OR 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03-3.27). Day sweats were associated with fever (OR 4.10; 95% CI, 2.14-7.87), restless legs (OR 3.22; 95% CI, 1.76-5.89), lightheadedness (OR 2.24; 95% CI, 1.30-3.88), and diabetes (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.22-3.92). Hot flashes were associated with nonwhite race (OR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.60-5.98), fever (OR 3.98; 95% CI, 1.97-8.04), bone pain (OR 2.31; CI 95%: 1.30-4.08), impaired vision (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.19-3.79), and nervous spells (OR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01-3.46). All 3 symptoms were associated with reduced quality of life. Many older patients are bothered by night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes. Though these symptoms are similar and related, they have somewhat different associations with other variables. Clinical evaluation should include questions about febrile illnesses, sensory deficits, anxiety, depression, pain, muscle cramps, and restless legs syndrome.

  9. Effect of antiperspirants on whole body sweat rate and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Burry, J S; Evans, R L; Rawlings, A V; Shiu, J

    2003-08-01

    It is well established that the evaporation of sweat from the human body surface is the main mechanism by which heat balance is maintained following a rise in body core temperature. Since the introduction of the first brand name antiperspirant in the United States during the early 1900s, antiperspirant products designed to control underarm wetness have grown to represent one of the largest cosmetic categories in most global markets. However, although axillary sweating only constitutes less than 1% of whole body sweat rate, consumers, particularly in hot countries, have begun to articulate the concern that antiperspirants may interfere with the body's natural cooling process. To investigate this, we undertook carefully designed experiments that measured the effects of axillary antiperspirant application on whole body sweat rate and body core temperature, following a regimen of exercise-induced heat stress in a hot environment in human volunteers. Our data show clearly that although antiperspirant prevents sweat production in the axillary area, this does not impact the ability of the body to thermoregulate following a rise in body core temperature. Thus, recent consumer questioning over this aspect of antiperspirant use appears to be unwarranted.

  10. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background . Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods . Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results . Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions . Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  11. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs. PMID:27800487

  12. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  13. Dehydration and heat-related death: sweat lodge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Riches, Karen J

    2005-09-01

    A 37-year-old Caucasian male died of dehydration and heat exposure following a sweat lodge ceremony in outback Australia. The case demonstrates difficulties that may arise in the determination of the cause of death at autopsy due to nonspecific pathologic findings in hyperthermic deaths. There are also a number of features that characterize this particular "sweat lodge syndrome," including prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures in a relatively uncontrolled environment, failure to ensure adequate hydration, failure to appreciate the significance of loss of consciousness, use of ineffective alternative methods of treatment, and delay in seeking appropriate medical care. Unfortunately, the adoption of rituals and practice from other cultures may not be a completely safe undertaking. Participants in this type of activity must be cognizant of the types of medical problems that may arise. Individuals with significant cardiovascular disease, those who are taking certain medications that predispose to hyperthermia, or those who have had large amounts of alcohol should not enter sweat lodges.

  14. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  16. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; <30 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and <60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na + intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na + concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and serum osmolality (297 ± 6 vs 299 ± 5, 301 ± 6 mOsm/kg; P < 0.05) than low-salt and typical sweaters. Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  18. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  19. Immediate Wheal Reactivity to Autologous Sweat in Atopic Dermatitis Is Associated with Clinical Severity, Serum Total and Specific IgE and Sweat Tryptase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Tiina; Virolainen, Anu; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2016-01-01

    Sweating can worsen atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of this work was to study the associations between reactivity to autologous sweat and the clinical severity of AD as well as investigate the possible wheal-inducing factors of sweat. Intracutaneous skin tests with autologous sweat were performed on 50 AD patients and 24 control subjects. In skin biopsies, tryptase and PAR-2 were enzyme and immunohistochemically stained. The associations between skin test reactivity and sweat histamine concentration, tryptase or chymase activity levels, tryptase or PAR-2 expression and AD clinical severity or IgE levels were investigated. The wheal reactions in the intracutaneous tests with autologous sweat were positive, weakly positive and negative in 38, 34 and 28% of the AD patients, respectively, and in 4, 46 and 50% of the healthy controls, respectively (p = 0.008). In AD, the wheal reaction was associated significantly with clinical severity, serum total and specific IgE levels and sweat tryptase activity, but not with sweat histamine and chymase. In nonlesional AD skin, the percentage of PAR-2+ mast cells (MCs) or the number of tryptase+ MCs did not differ significantly between the intracutaneous test reactivity groups. Reactivity to autologous sweat correlates with the clinical severity of AD, and tryptase may be one of the factors involved in the sweat-induced wheal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a non-invasive approach for cutaneous research

    Sweat is a complex biological fluid with potential diagnostic value for the investigation of skin disorders. Previous efforts in sweat testing focused on analysis of small molecules and ions for forensic and diagnostic testing, but with advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques, there h...

  1. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  2. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n = 7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine ion...

  3. Development of emotional sweating in the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1982-09-01

    Sweating from the palm and sole occurs independently of ambient temperature but is influenced by emotional factors. It thus provides a useful objective measure of emotional state. The development of this emotional sweating in the newborn was investigated by measuring palmar water loss and relating it to the infant's state of arousal. Although 433 individual measurements were made on 124 babies of gestational age 25 to 41 weeks and postnatal age 15 hours to 9 weeks. Palmar water loss was also recorded continuously in 22 infants undergoing heel prick for routine blood sampling. In babies of 37 weeks' gestation or more, there was a clear relationship between palmar water loss and arousal from the day of birth, and by the third week levels on vigorous crying were comparable with those of an anxious adult. Less mature babies did not show emotional sweating at birth; it was first seen at the equivalent of 36 to 37 weeks' gestation regardless of maturity. Continuous recordings confirmed the cross-sectional data and illustrated the abrupt nature of the response. Emotional sweating could be a useful tool for the assessment of emotional state of the newborn.

  4. A liquid cooled garment temperature controller based on sweat rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    An automatic controller for liquid cooled space suits is reported that utilizes human sweat rate as the primary input signal. The controller is so designed that the coolant inlet temperature is inversely proportional to the subject's latent heat loss as evidenced by evaporative water loss.

  5. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  6. The Native American Sweat Lodge as Metaphor for Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Walkingstick; Osborne, W. Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the interrelationship and growth emphasized by the Native American sweat lodge ceremony and "the talking circle" can provide a richer understanding of group counseling. Details each ceremony and explores the implications of practices that are based on cultural traditions, arguing that such traditions can enrich the group…

  7. Sweat loss prediction using a multi-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William R.

    2011-07-01

    A new multi-model approach (MMA) for sweat loss prediction is proposed to improve prediction accuracy. MMA was computed as the average of sweat loss predicted by two existing thermoregulation models: i.e., the rational model SCENARIO and the empirical model Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA). Three independent physiological datasets, a total of 44 trials, were used to compare predictions by MMA, SCENARIO, and HSDA. The observed sweat losses were collected under different combinations of uniform ensembles, environmental conditions (15-40°C, RH 25-75%), and exercise intensities (250-600 W). Root mean square deviation (RMSD), residual plots, and paired t tests were used to compare predictions with observations. Overall, MMA reduced RMSD by 30-39% in comparison with either SCENARIO or HSDA, and increased the prediction accuracy to 66% from 34% or 55%. Of the MMA predictions, 70% fell within the range of mean observed value ± SD, while only 43% of SCENARIO and 50% of HSDA predictions fell within the same range. Paired t tests showed that differences between observations and MMA predictions were not significant, but differences between observations and SCENARIO or HSDA predictions were significantly different for two datasets. Thus, MMA predicted sweat loss more accurately than either of the two single models for the three datasets used. Future work will be to evaluate MMA using additional physiological data to expand the scope of populations and conditions.

  8. Cyclooxygenase inhibition does not alter methacholine-induced sweating

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; Paull, Gabrielle; Stapleton, Jill M.; Meade, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic agents (e.g., methacholine) induce cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Reports indicate that either nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), or both can contribute to cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation. Also, NO is reportedly involved in cholinergic sweating; however, whether COX contributes to cholinergic sweating is unclear. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) were evaluated in 10 healthy young (24 ± 4 yr) adults (7 men, 3 women) at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 mM ketorolac (a nonselective COX inhibitor), 3) 10 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor), or 4) a combination of 10 mM ketorolac + 10 mM l-NAME. At the four skin sites, methacholine was simultaneously infused in a dose-dependent manner (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 2,000 mM). Relative to the control site, forearm CVC was not influenced by ketorolac throughout the protocol (all P > 0.05), whereas l-NAME and ketorolac + l-NAME reduced forearm CVC at and above 10 mM methacholine (all P < 0.05). Conversely, there was no main effect of treatment site (P = 0.488) and no interaction of methacholine dose and treatment site (P = 0.711) on forearm sweating. Thus forearm sweating (in mg·min−1·cm−2) from baseline up to the maximal dose of methacholine was not different between the four sites (at 2,000 mM, control 0.50 ± 0.23, ketorolac 0.44 ± 0.23, l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.22, and ketorolac + l-NAME 0.51 ± 0.23). We show that both NO synthase and COX inhibition do not influence cholinergic sweating induced by 1–2,000 mM methacholine. PMID:25213633

  9. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma with prominent squamous differentiation: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Kim, Y C; Cinn, Y W

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. While histopathology of the tumor showed a circumscribed, lobulated intradermal mass with prominent squamous differentiation, the immunohistochemical study with antibodies to cytokeratins, CAM 5.2 and 19, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein and p53 all demonstrated positivity. These findings confirmed that the tumor was of eccrine sweat gland origin and it was thought to be a nodular hidradenocarcinoma differentiating toward the eccrine duct and/or secretory portions. She was treated with a wide local excision and no recurrence was observed 18 months after excision.

  10. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  11. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thyroidectomy - series Incision for thyroid gland surgery References Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  12. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ... PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/adult/salivary-gland-treatment-pdq . Updated January ...

  13. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  14. Body map of regional vs. whole body sweating rate and sweat electrolyte concentrations in men and women during moderate exercise-heat stress.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Ungaro, Corey T; Sopeña, Bridget C; Nuccio, Ryan P; Reimel, Adam J; Carter, James M; Stofan, John R; Barnes, Kelly A

    2018-05-01

    This study determined the relations between regional (REG) and whole body (WB) sweating rate (RSR and WBSR, respectively) as well as REG and WB sweat Na + concentration ([Na + ]) during exercise. Twenty-six recreational athletes (17 men, 9 women) cycled for 90 min while WB sweat [Na + ] was measured using the washdown technique. RSR and REG sweat [Na + ] were measured from nine regions using absorbent patches. RSR and REG sweat [Na + ] from all regions were significantly ( P < 0.05) correlated with WBSR ( r = 0.58-0.83) and WB sweat [Na + ] ( r = 0.74-0.88), respectively. However, the slope and y-intercept of the regression lines for most models were significantly different than 1 and 0, respectively. The coefficients of determination ( r 2 ) were 0.44-0.69 for RSR predicting WBSR [best predictors: dorsal forearm ( r 2  = 0.62) and triceps ( r 2  = 0.69)] and 0.55-0.77 for REG predicting WB sweat [Na + ] [best predictors: ventral forearm ( r 2  = 0.73) and thigh ( r 2  = 0.77)]. There was a significant ( P < 0.05) effect of day-to-day variability on the regression model predicting WBSR from RSR at most regions but no effect on predictions of WB sweat [Na + ] from REG. Results suggest that REG cannot be used as a direct surrogate for WB sweating responses. Nonetheless, the use of regression equations to predict WB sweat [Na + ] from REG can provide an estimation of WB sweat [Na + ] with an acceptable level of accuracy, especially using the forearm or thigh. However, the best practice for measuring WBSR remains conventional WB mass balance calculations since prediction of WBSR from RSR using absorbent patches does not meet the accuracy or reliability required to inform fluid intake recommendations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study developed a body map of regional sweating rate and regional (REG) sweat electrolyte concentrations and determined the effect of within-subject (bilateral and day-to-day) and between-subject (sex) factors on the relations

  15. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  16. Quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium (Na) and sweat chloride (Cl) as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis: are we on the right way?

    PubMed

    Faria, Alethéa Guimarães; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Gomez, Carla Cristina de Souza; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Morais, Lucas Brioschi; Servidoni, Maria de Fátima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Sakano, Eulália; Goto, Maura; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Hessel, Gabriel; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Peixoto, Andressa Oliveira; Simões, Maria Cristina Ribeiro; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-10-26

    To assess the quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective study of 5,721 sweat samples and subsequent descriptive analysis were carried out. The test was considered "of good quality" (correct) when: (i) sweat chloride was lower than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was higher than sweat chloride; (ii) sweat chloride was higher than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was lower than sweat chloride. The study included 5,692/5,721 sweat samples of ST which had been requested due to clinical presentations compatible with CF and/or neonatal screenings with altered immunoreactive trypsinogen values. Considering the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as ST quality parameter, the test was performed correctly in 5,023/5,692 (88.2 %) sweat samples. The sweat chloride test results were grouped into four reference ranges for chloride (i) chloride < 30 mEq/L: 3,651/5,692 (64.1 %); (ii) chloride ≥ 30 mEq/L to < 40 mEq/L: 652/5,692 (11.5 %); (iii) ≥ 40 mEq/L to < 60 mEq/L: 673/5,692 (11.8 %); (iv) ≥ 60 mEq/L: 716/5,692 (12.6 %). In the comparative analysis, there was no association between ST quality and: (i) symptoms to indicate a ST [respiratory (p = 0.084), digestive (p = 0.753), nutritional (p = 0.824), and others (p = 0.136)], (ii) sweat weight (p = 0.416). However, there was a positive association with: (i) gender, (ii) results of ST (p < 0.001), (iii) chloride/sodium ratio (p < 0.001), (iv) subject's age at the time of ST [grouped according to category (p < 0.001) and numerical order (p < 0.001)]. For the subset of 169 patients with CF and two CFTR mutations Class I, II and/or III, in comparative analysis, there was a positive association with: (i) sweat chloride/sodium ratio (p < 0.001), (ii) sweat chloride values (p = 0.047), (iii) subject's age at the time of the ST grouped by

  17. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Chemical Constituents of Human Sweat: A Study Based on Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Moulvi, Aafrinnaz; Minz, Pooja; Rath, Subrata; Ashma, Richa

    2018-06-01

    There is a strong evidence in the literature that human odor is unique to an individual; therefore, the focus of this study was to strengthen this evidence through the testing of sweat samples on unrelated individuals with the same ethnicity. Sweat samples were collected from 42 unrelated Indian males and females residing in the same city to determine the chemical constituents in human sweat. The volatile compounds of sweat were subsequently analyzed and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and a National Institute of Standards and Technology library was used for individual profiling. A total of 78 compounds were identified in human sweat tested with 22 compounds found to be unique to the individual (frequency of occurrence one). A scent profile, or "chexmotype," unique to the sweat of each individual was obtained. This is the first extensive study on an Indian population with 36 new compounds detected in human sweat.

  19. Determination of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Andrlová, Lenka; Kostelník, Adam; Čegan, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for the determination of fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Plasma and dried sweat spot samples were obtained from a group of blood donors. The sweat was collected from each volunteer during exercise. Sweat was spotted onto collection paper containing butylated hydroxytoluene. Fatty acids were derivatized with acetyl chloride in methanol to form methyl esters of fatty acids. The fatty acids in dried sweat spot samples treated with butylated hydroxytoluene and stored at -20°C were stable for 3 months. Our results indicate that sweat contains, among fatty acids with short chain, also fatty acids with long chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Linear relationships between percentage content of selected fatty acids in dried sweat spot and plasma were observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sunscreen Use and Sweat Production in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Aburto-Corona, Jorge; Aragón-Vargas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Sunscreen lotions are important to protect the skin during outdoor exercise, but they may interfere with sweating. Objective: To measure the effect of 2 water-resistant sunscreens on local sweat production in men and women exercising in the heat and to compare those effects with the expected inhibition resulting from the use of an antiperspirant. Design: Randomized crossover study. Setting: Exercise in the heat (ambient temperature = 30.2°C ± 0.4°C dry bulb and 58% ± 4.3% relative humidity) in a controlled-environment laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty physically active, apparently healthy college students, 10 men (age = 22.5 ± 2.8 years, height = 1.771 ± 0.069 m, mass = 70.2 ± 11.0 kg) and 10 women (age = 22.2 ± 3.2 years, height = 1.625 ± 0.075 m, mass = 57.7 ± 7.9 kg). Intervention(s): With sweat-collection patches applied to their right and left scapular regions, the participants performed 2 exercise sessions on consecutive days. We assigned skin treatments (antiperspirant; organic chemical sun filter, sunscreen A; inorganic physical sun block, sunscreen B; no lotion) randomly to side and session. Participants pedaled at 79% ± 1% of maximum heart rate for 20 minutes in the heat. Main Outcome Measure(s): Scapular localized sweat rate. Results: No baseline, environmental, or exercise condition was different among skin treatments. Scapular localized sweat rate was lower for the antiperspirant treatment (88.3 μL/min·dm2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.0, 94.7 μL/min·dm2) and the inorganic physical sun block (sunscreen B) treatment (99.3 μL/min·dm2; 95% CI = 93.1, 105.5 μL/min·dm2) than for the organic chemical sun filter (sunscreen A) treatment (114.8 μL/min·dm2; 95% CI = 108.8, 120.6 μL/min·dm2) or the no-lotion treatment (122.6 μL/min·dm2; 95% CI = 116.2, 129.0 μL/min·dm2; P < .01). Conclusions: The inorganic physical sun block, sunscreen B, hindered effective sweating to the same extent as the antiperspirant

  1. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  2. A new oil/membrane approach for integrated sweat sampling and sensing: sample volumes reduced from μL's to nL's and reduction of analyte contamination from skin.

    PubMed

    Peng, R; Sonner, Z; Hauke, A; Wilder, E; Kasting, J; Gaillard, T; Swaille, D; Sherman, F; Mao, X; Hagen, J; Murdock, R; Heikenfeld, J

    2016-11-01

    Wearable sweat biosensensing technology has dominantly relied on techniques which place planar-sensors or fluid-capture materials directly onto the skin surface. This 'on-skin' approach can result in sample volumes in the μL regime, due to the roughness of skin and/or due to the presence of hair. Not only does this increase the required sampling time to 10's of minutes or more, but it also increases the time that sweat spends on skin and therefore increases the amount of analyte contamination coming from the skin surface. Reported here is a first demonstration of a new paradigm in sweat sampling and sensing, where sample volumes are reduced from the μL's to nL's regime, and where analyte contamination from skin is reduced or even eliminated. A micro-porous membrane is constructed such that it is porous to sweat only. To complete a working device, first placed onto skin is a cosmetic-grade oil, secondly this membrane, and thirdly the sensors. As a result, spreading of sweat is isolated to only regions above the sweat glands before it reaches the sensors. Best case sampling intervals are on the order of several minutes, and the majority of hydrophilic (low oil solubility) contaminants from the skin surface are blocked. In vitro validation of this new approach is performed with an improved artificial skin including human hair. In vivo tests show strikingly consistent results, and reveal that the oil/membrane is robust enough to even allow horizontal sliding of a sensor.

  3. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    PubMed

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. THE EXCRETION OF Na$sup 22$ IN SWEAT

    SciT

    Weigel, H.W.; Parsons, J.; Elrick, H.

    A new method for measuring sodium excretion in sweat, utilizing Na/sup 22/, is described. The physical characteristics of the radioisotope are very favorable and the test procedure is simple. The method has been applied to 50 control subjects, 20 patients with chronic lung disease, and 4 patients with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. The results show a significant elevation of sweat Na excretion in patients with chronic lung disease, but not to the degree seen in patients with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. These findings are compatible with the concept that some patients with chronic lung disease may have amore » form of pancreatic fibrosis not clinically detectable. (auth)« less

  5. Refrigerator with anti-sweat hot liquid loop

    SciT

    Woolley, S.J.; Cushing, D.S.; Jenkins, T.E.

    A cabinet assembly for a refrigerator having a freezer compartment ontop with two top front corners, a fresh food compartment on the bottom, a mullion partition between the compartments and a hot liquid anti-sweat loop is described comprising; an outer sheet metal shell having a top panel, side panels and a front face, a brace located at each of the two top front corners of the cabinet and having two formed sections at right angles to each other and each section is formed as an inwardly open U-shaped channel having a base, a first leg and a second leg spacedmore » apart and integrally joined to the base, fastening means for rigidly attaching each of the second leg of the corner braces to the flange of the third wall of the front face, and means to secure a portion of the hot liquid anti-sweat loop to the braces.« less

  6. Expanded Prediction Equations of Human Sweat Loss and Water Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the limits to accurate sweat loss prediction during prolonged exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 101: 215–224, 2007. 4. Chinevere TD ...113–117, 2001. 17. Miller RG. Simultaneous Statistical Interference (2nd ed.). New York: Springer, 1981. 18. Mitchell JW, Nadel ER, Stolwijk JAJ ...modeling of physiological responses and human performance in the heat. Comput Biol Med 16: 319–329, 1986. 20. Saltin B, Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ . Body

  7. Laboratory performance of sweat conductivity for the screening of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Massie, John; Scott, Sue; Wiley, Veronica C; Metz, Michael P; Mackay, Richard J

    2018-03-28

    There are several complementary English-language guidelines for the performance of the sweat chloride test. These guidelines also incorporate information for the collection of conductivity samples. However, recommendations for the measurement and reporting of sweat conductivity are less clear than for sweat chloride. The aim of the study was to develop an understanding of the testing and reporting practices of sweat conductivity in Australasian laboratories. A survey specifically directed at conductivity testing was sent to the 12 laboratories registered with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs. Nine (75%) laboratories participated in the survey, seven of whom used Wescor Macroduct® for collecting sweat and the Wescor SWEAT·CHEK™ for conductivity testing, and the remaining two used the Wescor Nanoduct®. There was considerable variation in frequency and staffing for this test. Likewise, criteria about which patients it was inappropriate to test, definitions of adequate collection sweat rate, cutoffs and actions recommended on the basis of the result showed variations between laboratories. Variations in sweat conductivity testing and reporting reflect many of the same issues that were revealed in sweat chloride test audits and have the potential to lead to uncertainty about the result and the proper action in response to the result. We recommend that sweat testing guidelines should include clearer statements about the use of sweat conductivity.

  8. 3D modeling and characterization of a calorimetric flow rate sensor for sweat rate sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2017-03-01

    Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.

  9. Lipoid proteinosis: A case with distinct histopathological and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Brar, Balvinder Kaur; Jain, Sarina; Brar, Sukhmani Kaur

    2017-10-01

    Lipoid proteinosis is a rare inherited genodermatosis characterized by hyaline deposits in various tissues. Clinically, it manifests with cutaneous as well as extracutaneous features. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-reactive hyaline deposits in the upper dermis, with localization around blood vessels and eccrine sweat glands, in particular, is the histopathological hallmark finding. On brain imaging, bilateral symmetrical temporal lobe calcifications are considered to be pathognomonic of this disorder. We report a case of lipoid proteinosis in which hyaline deposits were present in the papillary and reticular dermis, without being seen at the periphery of eccrine sweat glands, along with dystrophic calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed hydrocephalus, subependymal heterotropia and absent splenium of corpus callosum with no evidence of temporal lobe calcification. Thus, our case highlights the inherent diverse nature of lipoid proteinosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human lacrimal gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Friedrich; Langer, Gesa; Hoffmann, Werner; Berry, Monica

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the lacrimal gland synthesizes mucins and whether they are changed with age or in cases of dry eye. Expression of mucins in human lacrimal glands was monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the presence and distribution of MUC1, -2, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7 in epithelia of the human lacrimal gland and its excretory duct system were assessed with antisera to mucin peptide cores. Thirty normal tissues from cadavers of different ages were tested, plus four with dry eye treated with artificial tears. Expression studies detected mRNAs for mucins MUC1, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7; whereas the MUC2 message was absent. The message for MUC4 was present in all four cases of dry eye, but only in six out of the 30 normal glands from individuals who did not receive artificial tears. MUC6 mRNA was detected only in about half of the investigated samples. Immunohistochemistry revealed membrane-bound MUC1 at the apical surface of acinar cells, absence of MUC2, MUC5AC associated with goblet cells of excretory ducts, MUC5B and -7 in the cytoplasm of acinar cells, and MUC7 also in epithelial cells of excretory ducts. MUC4 mucin was detected only in those individuals in which message was identified. In dry eyes, MUC5AC and -5B were localized in the same acinar cells; whereas MUC2 and MUC6 were not detectable. Dot-blot analysis clearly revealed increased amounts of MUC4, -5AC, and -5B in the glands of elderly women who received treatment for dry eyes. These results confirm that the human lacrimal gland synthesizes a spectrum of mucins; part of them might be correlated with age. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  11. Expanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R R; Cheuvront, S N; Montain, S J; Goodman, D A; Blanchard, L A; Berglund, L G; Sawka, M N

    2009-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine expressed a need for improved sweating rate (msw) prediction models that calculate hourly and daily water needs based on metabolic rate, clothing, and environment. More than 25 years ago, the original Shapiro prediction equation (OSE) was formulated as msw (g.m(-2).h(-1))=27.9.Ereq.(Emax)(-0.455), where Ereq is required evaporative heat loss and Emax is maximum evaporative power of the environment; OSE was developed for a limited set of environments, exposures times, and clothing systems. Recent evidence shows that OSE often overpredicts fluid needs. Our study developed a corrected OSE and a new msw prediction equation by using independent data sets from a wide range of environmental conditions, metabolic rates (rest to sweat losses were carefully measured in 101 volunteers (80 males and 21 females; >500 observations) by using a variety of metabolic rates over a range of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, 15-46 degrees C; water vapor pressure, 0.27-4.45 kPa; wind speed, 0.4-2.5 m/s), clothing, and equipment combinations and durations (2-8 h). Data are expressed as grams per square meter per hour and were analyzed using fuzzy piecewise regression. OSE overpredicted sweating rates (P<0.003) compared with observed msw. Both the correction equation (OSEC), msw=147.exp (0.0012.OSE), and a new piecewise (PW) equation, msw=147+1.527.Ereq-0.87.Emax were derived, compared with OSE, and then cross-validated against independent data (21 males and 9 females; >200 observations). OSEC and PW were more accurate predictors of sweating rate (58 and 65% more accurate, P<0.01) and produced minimal error (standard error estimate<100 g.m(-2).h(-1)) for conditions both within and outside the original OSE domain of validity. The new equations provide for more accurate sweat predictions over a broader range of conditions with applications to public health, military, occupational, and sports

  12. Imaging calcium carbonate distribution in human sweat pore in vivo using nonlinear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueqin; Gasecka, Alicja; Formanek, Florian; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopies, including two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), were used to study individual human sweat pore morphology and topically applied antiperspirant salt penetration inside sweat pore, in vivo on human palms. Sweat pore inner morphology in vivo was imaged up to the depth of 100 μm by TPEF microscopy. The 3D penetration and distribution of "in situ calcium carbonate" (isCC), an antiperspirant salt model, was investigated using CARS microscopy.

  13. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  14. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Li, Jun; Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Qian; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wei-Tian; Li, Ying-Xue

    2016-06-10

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations.

  15. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Yong-Mei; WANG, Dao-Gang; LI, Jun; LI, Xing-Hua; WANG, Qian; LIU, Nan; LIU, Wei-Tian; LI, Ying-Xue

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  16. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signature of sweat and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-09

    This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for nondestructive identification of traces of sweat for forensic purposes. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectra revealed that dry sweat was intrinsically heterogeneous, and its biochemical composition varies significantly with the donor. As a result, no single Raman spectrum could adequately represent sweat traces. Instead, a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of sweat was built that allowed for the presentation of any single experimental spectrum as a linear combination of two fluorescent backgrounds and three Raman spectral components dominated by the contribution from lactate, lactic acid, urea and single amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tramadol reduces the sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering thresholds.

    PubMed

    De Witte, J L; Kim, J S; Sessler, D I; Bastanmehr, H; Bjorksten, A R

    1998-07-01

    The analgesic tramadol inhibits the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, facilitates 5-hydroxytryptamine release, and activates mu-opioid receptors. Each of these actions is likely to influence thermoregulatory control. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tramadol inhibits thermoregulatory control. Eight volunteers were evaluated on four study days, on which they received no drugs, tramadol 125 mg, tramadol 250 mg, and tramadol 250 mg with naloxone, respectively. Skin and core temperatures were gradually increased until sweating was observed and then decreased until vasoconstriction and shivering were detected. The core temperature triggering each response defined its threshold. Tramadol decreased the sweating threshold by -1.03 +/- 0.67 degrees C microgram-1.mL (r2 = 0.90 +/- 0.12). Tramadol also decreased the vasoconstriction threshold by -3.0 +/- 4.0 degrees C microgram-1.mL (r2 = 0.94 +/- 0.98) and the shivering threshold by -4.2 +/- 4.0 degrees C microgram-1.mL(r2 = 0.98 +/- 0.98). The sweating to vasoconstriction interthreshold range nearly doubled from 0.3 +/- 0.4 degree C to 0.7 +/- 0.6 degree C during the administration of large-dose tramadol (P = 0.04). The addition of naloxone only partially reversed the thermoregulatory effects of tramadol. The thermoregulatory effects of tramadol thus most resemble those of midazolam, another drug that slightly decreases the thresholds triggering all three major autonomic thermoregulatory defenses. In this respect, both drugs reduce the "setpoint" rather than produce a generalized impairment of thermoregulatory control. Nonetheless, tramadol nearly doubled the interthreshold range at a concentration near 200 ng/mL. This indicates that tramadol slightly decreases the precision of thermoregulatory control in addition to reducing the setpoint. The authors evaluated the effects of the analgesic tramadol on the three major thermoregulatory responses: sweating, vasoconstriction, and shivering

  18. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  19. DEET Insect Repellent: Effects on Thermoregulatory Sweating and Physiological Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    local measures of mean sweat rate of upper arm and forearm during 70 min of cycling exercise in *44C. They reported a significant increase in rectal...right arm of four volunteers and the left arm of the remaining five. The mid-point of the ventral forearm , between the antecubital space and the wrist...acclimation (45_C, 20% rh; 545 watts; 100 min/day) and performed three trials: control (CON); DEET applied to forearm (DEETLOC, 12 cm2 ); and DEET

  20. Sweat patterns differ between tilt-induced reflex syncope and tilt-induced anxiety among youth.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Geoffrey L; Harvey, Rebecca A; Islam, Monica P

    2016-08-01

    Profound sweating can occur with reflex-syncope and with emotional distress, but little is known about the similarities and differences between these sweat responses when they occur during orthostatic challenge. We sought to characterize and compare the sweat patterns related to tilt-induced syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal tilt testing. In a prospective observational study, quantitative sweat rate was measured from the abdomen, forearm, ankle, and thigh during head-upright tilt. Sweat characteristics were compared across tilt diagnoses of syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal testing. When anxiety and syncope/presyncope occurred during the same study (separated by ≥6 min), both were diagnosed. Our cohort comprised150 patients (15.1 ± 2.3 years; 82.9 % female) with 156 diagnoses: 76 with reflex-syncope, 31 with presyncope, 23 with anxiety, and 26 with normal results. All syncope/presyncope patients and 20 (87 %) of the anxiety patients had corresponding sweat responses. Minimal or negligible sweating occurred among patients with normal tests. Neither basal sweat (19.4 ± 4.7 versus 18.3 ± 3.7 versus 18.5 ± 3.7 nL/min/cm(2)) nor peak sweat (171 ± 47.4 versus 149.4 ± 64.4 versus 154.4 ± 59.2 nL/min/cm(2)) differed between patients with syncope, presyncope, or anxiety, p = .32 and p = .12, respectively. However, the qualitative sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope (diffuse, smoothly contoured, symmetrical, single peaks) differed considerably from the sweat patterns related to anxiety (heterogeneous, asymmetrical, roughly contoured single-peak, multi-peak, or progressive sweat changes). The sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope are distinguishable from the sweat patterns related to anxiety. Recognition of the different sweat patterns can inform how signs and symptoms are interpreted during clinical orthostatic challenge.

  1. Fungal protein MGL_1304 in sweat is an allergen for atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kan, Takanobu; Mihara, Shoji; Yanase, Yuhki; Bartels, Joachim; Schröder, Jens-M; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Sweat is a major aggravating factor of atopic dermatitis (AD) and approximately 80% of patients with AD show type I hypersensitivity against sweat. To identify and characterize an antigen in sweat that induces histamine release from basophils of patients with AD. Basophil histamine-releasing activity in sweat was purified by a combination of chromatographies, and proteins were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Recombinant proteins of the sweat antigen were generated, and their biological characteristics were studied by immunoblots, histamine release tests, and neutralization assays. We identified a fungal protein, MGL_1304, derived from Malassezia globosa (M globosa) in the purified sweat antigen. Recombinant MGL_1304 induced histamine release from basophils of most of the patients with AD, in accordance with the semi-purified sweat antigen. Moreover, recombinant MGL_1304 abolished the binding of serum IgE of patients with AD to the semi-purified sweat antigen, or vice versa in immunoblot analysis, and attenuated the sensitization of RBL-48 mast cells expressing human FcɛRI by serum IgE. Studies of truncated mutants of MGL_1304 indicated that IgE of patients with AD recognized the conformational structure of MGL_1304 rather than short peptide sequences. Western blot analysis of the whole lysate, the culture supernatant of M globosa, and the semi-purified sweat antigen showed that MGL_1304 was produced as a minor immunological antigen of M globosa with posttranslational modification, cleaved, and secreted as a 17-kDa major histamine-releasing sweat antigen. MGL_1304 is a major allergen in human sweat and could cause type I allergy in patients with AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  3. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. Materials and methods EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Results Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Conclusion Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level. PMID:28392735

  4. Monitoring cocaine use in substance-abuse-treatment patients by sweat and urine testing.

    PubMed

    Preston, K L; Huestis, M A; Wong, C J; Umbricht, A; Goldberger, B A; Cone, E J

    1999-09-01

    Sweat and urine specimens were collected from 44 methadone-maintenance patients to evaluate the use of sweat testing to monitor cocaine use. Paired sweat patches that were applied and removed weekly (on Tuesdays) were compared with 3-5 consecutive urine specimens collected Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. All patches (N = 930) were extracted in 2.5 mL of solvent and analyzed by ELISA immunoassay (cutoff concentration 10 ng/mL); a subset of patches (N = 591) was also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) (cutoff concentration 5 ng/mL). Urine specimens were subjected to qualitative analysis by EMIT (cutoff 300 ng/mL) and subsets were analyzed by TDx (semiquantitative, LOD 30 ng/mL) and by GC-MS for cocaine (LOD 5 ng/mL). Results were evaluated to (1) determine the relative amounts of cocaine and its metabolites in sweat; (2) assess replicability in duplicate patches; (3) compare ELISA and GC-MS results for cocaine in sweat; and (4) compare the detection of cocaine use by sweat and urine testing. Cocaine was detected by GC-MS in 99% of ELISA-positive sweat patches; median concentrations of cocaine, BZE, and EME were 378, 78.7, and 74 ng/mL, respectively. Agreement in duplicate patches was approximately 90% by ELISA analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of sweat ELISA cocaine results as compared with sweat GC-MS results were 93.6%, 91.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency between ELISA sweat patch and EMIT urine results were 97.6%, 60.5%, and 77.7%, respectively. These results support the use of sweat patches for monitoring cocaine use, though further evaluation is needed.

  5. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  7. Progressive freezing and sweating in a test unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J.; Özoğuz, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Crystallization from melts is applied in several fields like waste water treatment, fruit juice or liquid food concentration and purification of organic chemicals. Investigations to improve the understanding, the performance and the control of the process have been carried out. The experimental unit used a vertical tube with a falling film on the outside. With an specially designed measuring technique process controlling parameters have been studied. The results demonstrate the dependency of those parameters upon each other and indicate the way to control the process by controlling the dominant parameter. This is the growth rate of the crystal coat. A further purification of the crystal layer can be achieved by introducing the procedure of sweating, which is a controlled partial melting of the crystal coat. Here again process parameters have been varied and results are presented. The strong effect upon the final purity of the product by an efficient executed sweating which is effectively tuned on the crystallization procedure should save crystallization steps, energy and time.

  8. Immunological multimetal deposition for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints.

    PubMed

    He, Yayun; Xu, Linru; Zhu, Yu; Wei, Qianhui; Zhang, Meiqin; Su, Bin

    2014-11-10

    A simple method termed immunological multimetal deposition (iMMD) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints with bare eyes, by combining the conventional MMD with the immunoassay technique. In this approach, antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to specifically interact with the corresponding antigens in the fingerprint residue. The AuNPs serve as the nucleation sites for autometallographic deposition of silver particles from the silver staining solution, generating a dark ridge pattern for visual detection. Using fingerprints inked with human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), we obtained the optimal formulation of iMMD, which was then successfully applied to visualize sweat fingerprints through the detection of two secreted polypeptides, epidermal growth factor and lysozyme. In comparison with the conventional MMD, iMMD is faster and can provide additional information than just identification. Moreover, iMMD is facile and does not need expensive instruments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stretchable wireless system for sweat pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wenting; Manjakkal, Libu; Navaraj, William Taube; Lorenzelli, Leandro; Vinciguerra, Vincenzo; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2018-06-01

    Sensor-laden wearable systems that are capable of providing continuous measurement of key physiological parameters coupled with data storage, drug delivery and feedback therapy have attracted huge interest. Here we report a stretchable wireless system for sweat pH monitoring, which is able to withstand up to 53% uniaxial strain and more than 500 cycles to 30% strain. The stretchability of the pH sensor patch is provided by a pair of serpentine-shaped stretchable interconnects. The pH sensing electrode is made of graphite-polyurethane composite, which is suitable for biosensor application. The sensing patch validated through in-depth electrochemical studies, exhibits a pH sensitivity of 11.13 ± 5.8 mV/pH with a maximum response time of 8 s. Interference study of ions and analyte (Na + , K + and glucose) in test solutions shows negligible influence on the pH sensor performance. The pH data can be wirelessly and continuously transmitted to smartphone through a stretchable radio-frequency-identification antenna, of which the radiating performance is stable under 20% strain, as proved by vector network analyzer measurement. To evaluate the full system, the pH value of a human sweat equivalent solution has been measured and wirelessly transmitted to a custom-developed smart phone App. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150) healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot) did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and < 62 Kg), those with BW ≥62 Kg had larger total sweat volume. Median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot were 0.538 μl, 0.744 μl, 0.695 μl, and 0.338 μl, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of male and female participants in the two BW groups. In all conditions, the total sweat volume recorded at the foot site was the smallest. Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population. PMID:22682097

  11. Relationship between sweat chloride, sodium, and age in clinically obtained samples.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Nadav; Shi, Qiuhu; Dozor, Allen J

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sweat electrolytes and age is uncertain, as is the value of measuring sodium or the chloride:sodium ratio. 13,785 sweat tests performed over 23 years at one center through the Macroduct collection in clinically obtained samples were analyzed. Sweat chloride tended to decrease over the first year of life, slowly increase until the fourth decade, then either level off or slightly decrease. In children, sweat sodium overlapped between those with positive and negative sweat tests, but not in adults. If the sweat test was positive, there was a higher likelihood of having a chloride:sodium ratio >1, but most subjects with a ratio >1 did not have CF. Sweat chloride and sodium vary with age. Measurement of sweat sodium did not add discriminatory value. The proportion of subjects with a chloride:sodium ratio >1, with or without CF, varied greatly between age ranges. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between osmotic pressure of the blood and secretion of sweat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montuori, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with cats show that the thermic secretion of sweat represents a specific case of a general law: The central nervous apparatus that controls the secretion of sweat begins to function when the osmotic pressure of the blood drops below normal.

  13. Sweat Chloride as A Biomarker of CFTR Activity: Proof of Concept and Ivacaftor Clinical Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Frank J.; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J.; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L.; Rowe, Steven M.; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W.; Hoch, Heather E.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Campbell, Preston W.; Ashlock, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821 } of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a G551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Methods Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing, and analysis was employed for the first time.. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Results Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Conclusions Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators. PMID:24660233

  14. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    PubMed

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  15. Biological Variation of Chloride and Sodium in Sweat Obtained by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis in Adults: How Sure are You About Sweat Test Results?

    PubMed

    Willems, Philippe; Weekx, Steven; Meskal, Anissa; Schouwers, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CV A ) and within-subject (CV I ) and between-subject (CV G ) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study. At least eight samples of sweat were collected from each individual by pilocarpine iontophoresis. Chloride and sodium concentrations were measured in duplicate for each sample using ion selective electrodes. After the removal of outliers, the CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride and sodium were determined, and their impact on measurement uncertainty and reference change value were calculated. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride in sweat samples were 6.5, 17.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of sodium sweat samples were 6.0, 17.5, and 42.6%, respectively. Our study indicates that sweat chloride and sodium concentration results must be interpreted with great care. Different components of variation, particularly the biological variations, have a considerable impact on the interpretation of these results. If no pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical errors are suspected, repeated sweat testing to confirm first-measurement results might not be desirable.

  16. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands of the vulva successfully treated with surgery and hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Benito, Virginia; Arribas, Sara; Martínez, David; Medina, Norberto; Lubrano, Amina; Arencibia, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a rare malignancy; most tumors are squamous cell type while adenocarcinomas are rare. Primary adenocarcinomas of the vulva predominantly include extramammary Paget's disease and sweat gland carcinomas. Greene first described a rare form of adenocarcinoma in 1936, which was called adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands of the vulva because of its morphologic and immunohistochemical resemblance to breast adenocarcinomas. In the management of this entity, varying combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy may be used, as in patients with orthotopic breast carcinoma. However, hormonal therapy leads the way in patients with positive hormonal receptors, where other therapies cannot be used due to comorbidities or advanced age. We present the first reported case of an elderly patient with metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma arising from mammary-like glands, successfully treated with a combination of surgery and hormonal therapy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for metaboreceptor stimulation of sweating in normothermic and heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, M.; Kondo, N.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    1. Isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise increases sweat rate and arterial blood pressure, and both remain elevated during post-exercise ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the elevation in arterial blood pressure during post-exercise ischaemia contributes to the increase in sweating. 2. In normothermia and during whole-body heating, 2 min IHG exercise at 40% maximal voluntary contraction, followed by 2 min post-exercise ischaemia, was performed with and without bolus intravenous administration of sodium nitroprusside during the ischaemic period. Sodium nitroprusside was administered to reduce blood pressure during post-exercise ischaemia to pre-exercise levels. Sweat rate was monitored over two microdialysis membranes placed in the dermal space of forearm skin. One membrane was perfused with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine, while the other was perfused with the vehicle. 3. In normothermia, IHG exercise increased sweat rate at the neostigmine-treated site but not at the control site. Sweat rate remained elevated during post-exercise ischaemia even after mean arterial blood pressure returned to the pre-IHG exercise baseline. Subsequent removal of the ischaemia stimulus returned sweat rate to pre-IHG exercise levels. Sweat rate during post-exercise ischaemia without sodium nitroprusside administration followed a similar pattern. 4. During whole-body heating, IHG exercise increased sweat rate at both neostigmine-treated and untreated sites. Similarly, regardless of whether mean arterial blood pressure remained elevated or was reduced during post-exercise ischaemia, sweat rate remained elevated during the ischaemic period. 5. These results suggest that sweating in non-glabrous skin during post-IHG exercise ischaemia is activated by metaboreflex stimulation and not via baroreceptor loading.

  19. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Raina, Manzoor A; Khan, Mosin S; Malik, Showkat A; Raina, Ab Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J; Bhat, Javed I; Mudassar, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test.

  20. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  1. Roof sprinkling system sweats down A/C costs

    SciT

    Not Available

    This article describes a roof spray system which enhances the energy efficiency of a building's HVAC system at a nominal cost in relationship to the benefits it yields. Roof spray cooling is based on the fact that water, when it evaporates, absorbs large amounts of heat. The evaporation of one gallon of water will dissipate about 8500 BTU's of heat; and three fallons of water evaporated over one hour's time offers the same cooling capacity as a two-ton airconditioner operated over the same period. By intermittently spraying its surface with water, a direct evaporative cooling system allows a roof tomore » sweat away the sun's radiant heat, cooling an un-airconditioned building from 10 to 12 degrees mrt and reducing summer electric costs by 25%.« less

  2. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  3. Audit of sweat testing: a first report from Italian Cystic Fibrosis Centres.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Natalia; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria

    2008-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis diagnosis is confirmed using sweat test. The aim of our study was to evaluate current techniques and methodologies in use at Italian CF Care Centres. A series of questions related to the performance of the sweat test was collected by all CF Care Centres in Italy. Answers were compared with UK and NCCLS guidelines. 39/41 Centres replied to the questionnaire. A good adherence to guidelines was registered for storing samples before analysis in 90.9%, while performing CF diagnosis by at least two sweat tests, and chloride analysis were reported respectively in 100% and 75.7% of Centres. Some inconsistencies were registered for minimum acceptable sweat quantity and time to collect sweat inadequate in respectively 42.5% and 24.2% of Centres, while performing quality control procedures and referring to an external quality assessment scheme were found inadequate in respectively 54.6% and 100%. 57.6% didn't provide any appropriate analytical ranges and only 15.1% of Centres offered proper information to patients/parents. A report form, including sweat quantity, reference ranges and interpretation, was adequate only for 9.4 up to 41.4% of CF Centres. Our study showed areas of inconsistencies in sweat testing current practices in Italy and highlights the need for evidence based national guidelines to improve practice and management strategies.

  4. Quantitative comparison of topical aluminum salt solution efficacy for management of sweating: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Swary, Jillian H; West, Dennis P; Kakar, Rohit; Ortiz, Sara; Schaeffer, Matthew R; Veledar, Emir; Alam, Murad

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of studies objectively comparing the efficacy of topical antiperspirants in reducing sweat. To objectively and quantitatively compare the efficacy of two aluminum salt solutions for the reduction of induced sweating. A subject, rater, and statistician-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Nineteen subjects were exposed to a standardized heat challenge for 3 h. Topical agent A (20% aluminum chloride hexahydrate) was randomized to either axilla, and topical agent B (1% aluminum acetate) assigned to the contralateral side. A sauna suit induced sweating during three 30-min heat intervals: (1) with no study agents (pre); (2) with both study agents, one on each side; and (3) after the agents were washed off (post). Sweat levels were measured by securing Whatman(®) filter paper to each axilla and measuring the paper weight after each heat interval. The difference in paper weight following each heat interval between Study Agent A and Study Agent B was measured by a gravimetric scale. Topical agent A had a significantly greater effect at reducing axillary sweating than B (P = 0.0002). In a sweating simulation, 20% aluminum chloride hexahydrate quantitatively and objectively appeared to reduce sweat more effectively than 1% aluminum acetate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mena-Bravo, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-01

    Sweat is a biofluid with present scant use as clinical sample. This review tries to demonstrate the advantages of sweat over other biofluids such as blood or urine for routine clinical analyses and the potential when related to metabolomics. With this aim, critical discussion of sweat samplers and equipment for analysis of target compounds in this sample is made. Well established routine analyses in sweat as is that to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and the advantages and disadvantages of sweat versus urine or blood for doping control have also been discussed. Methods for analytes such as essential metals and xenometals, ethanol and electrolytes in sweat in fact constitute target metabolomics approaches or belong to any metabolomics subdiscipline such as metallomics, ionomics or xenometabolomics. The higher development of biomarkers based on genomics or proteomics as omics older than metabolomics is discussed and also the potential role of metabolomics in systems biology taking into account its emergent implementation. Normalization of the volume of sampled sweat constitutes a present unsolved shortcoming that deserves investigation. Foreseeable trends in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel methods of imaging and analysis for the thermoregulatory sweat test.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael Sean; Reed, David W; Kuntz, Nancy L; Weese-Mayer, Debra Ellyn

    2018-06-07

    The thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) can be central to the identification and management of disorders affecting sudomotor function and small sensory and autonomic nerve fibers, but the cumbersome nature of the standard testing protocol has prevented its widespread adoption. A high resolution, quantitative, clean and simple assay of sweating could significantly improve identification and management of these disorders. Images from 89 clinical TSTs were analyzed retrospectively using two novel techniques. First, using the standard indicator powder, skin surface sweat distributions were determined algorithmically for each patient. Second, a fundamentally novel method using thermal imaging of forced evaporative cooling was evaluated through comparison with the standard technique. Correlation and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to determine the degree of match between these methods, and the potential limits of thermal imaging were examined through cumulative analysis of all studied patients. Algorithmic encoding of sweating and non-sweating regions produces a more objective analysis for clinical decision making. Additionally, results from the forced cooling method correspond well with those from indicator powder imaging, with a correlation across spatial regions of -0.78 (CI: -0.84 to -0.71). The method works similarly across body regions, and frame-by-frame analysis suggests the ability to identify sweating regions within about 1 second of imaging. While algorithmic encoding can enhance the standard sweat testing protocol, thermal imaging with forced evaporative cooling can dramatically improve the TST by making it less time-consuming and more patient-friendly than the current approach.

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. A Preliminary Study of Biomonitoring for Bisphenol-A in Human Sweat.

    PubMed

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Wilkins, Diana G; Anderson, David J; Bailey, Nicole M; Szczotka, Kathryn M; Stanford, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of human exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) is hampered by the ubiquitous but transient exposure for most individuals, coupled with a short metabolic half-life which leads to high inter- and intra-individual variability. We investigated the possibility of measuring multiday exposure to BPA in human sweat among volunteer participants with the goal of identifying an exposure assessment method less affected by temporal variability. We recruited 50 participants to wear a sweat collection patch (PharmChek(®)) for 7 days with concurrent collection of daily first-morning urine. Urines and sweat patch extracts were analyzed with quantitative LC-MS-MS using a method we previously validated. In addition, a human volunteer consumed one can of commercially available soup (16 oz, 473 cm(3)) daily for 3 days and collected urine. Sweat patches (n = 2, 1 per arm) were worn for the 3 days of the study. BPA was detected in quality control specimens prepared by fortification of BPA to sweat patches, but was only detected at 5× above average background on three participant patches. Although the highest measured urine BPA concentration was 195 ng/mL for an individual with deliberate exposure, no BPA was detected above background in the corresponding sweat patches. In this preliminary investigation, the use of sweat patches primarily worn on the upper-outer arm did not detect BPA exposures that were documented by urine monitoring. The absence of BPA in sweat patches may be due to several factors, including insufficient quantity of specimen per patch, or extremely low concentrations of BPA in naturally occurring sweat, among others. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Sweat Metabolome of Screen-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Infants: Revealing Mechanisms beyond Impaired Chloride Transport

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing. Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat specimens were collected independently from two CF clinics, including 50 unaffected infants (e.g., carriers) and 18 confirmed CF cases. Nontargeted metabolite profiling was performed using multisegment injection–capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry as a high throughput platform for analysis of polar/ionic metabolites in volume-restricted sweat samples. Amino acids, organic acids, amino acid derivatives, dipeptides, purine derivatives, and unknown exogenous compounds were identified in sweat when using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including metabolites associated with affected yet asymptomatic CF infants, such as asparagine and glutamine. Unexpectedly, a metabolite of pilocarpine, used to stimulate sweat secretion, pilocarpic acid, and a plasticizer metabolite from environmental exposure, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalic acid, were secreted in the sweat of CF infants at significantly lower concentrations relative to unaffected CF screen-positive controls. These results indicated a deficiency in human paraoxonase, an enzyme unrelated to mutations to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and impaired chloride transport, which is a nonspecific arylesterase/lactonase known to mediate inflammation, bacterial biofilm formation, and recurrent lung infections in affected CF children later in life. This work sheds new light into the

  10. The Sweat Metabolome of Screen-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Infants: Revealing Mechanisms beyond Impaired Chloride Transport.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Adriana N; Mathiaparanam, Stellena; Brick, Lauren; Keenan, Katherine; Gonska, Tanja; Pedder, Linda; Hill, Stephen; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-08-23

    The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing. Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat specimens were collected independently from two CF clinics, including 50 unaffected infants (e.g., carriers) and 18 confirmed CF cases. Nontargeted metabolite profiling was performed using multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry as a high throughput platform for analysis of polar/ionic metabolites in volume-restricted sweat samples. Amino acids, organic acids, amino acid derivatives, dipeptides, purine derivatives, and unknown exogenous compounds were identified in sweat when using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including metabolites associated with affected yet asymptomatic CF infants, such as asparagine and glutamine. Unexpectedly, a metabolite of pilocarpine, used to stimulate sweat secretion, pilocarpic acid, and a plasticizer metabolite from environmental exposure, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalic acid, were secreted in the sweat of CF infants at significantly lower concentrations relative to unaffected CF screen-positive controls. These results indicated a deficiency in human paraoxonase, an enzyme unrelated to mutations to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and impaired chloride transport, which is a nonspecific arylesterase/lactonase known to mediate inflammation, bacterial biofilm formation, and recurrent lung infections in affected CF children later in life. This work sheds new light into the

  11. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p < 0.0001). The skin temperature measured before stimulation was higher than after (p < 0.0001). In Experiment 3 (29 subjects) the PDC showed better kappa index compared to CDC (0.9218 versus 0.5205, respectively). The performance of the CST with CDC and PDC with CD of 0.14 to 0.21 mA/cm2 showed efficacy in steps of stimulation and collection of sweat, without side effects. The optimal

  12. Wearable sweat detector device design for health monitoring and clinical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiuchen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tian, Bihao; Zhang, Hongyan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Miniaturized sensor is necessary part for wearable detector for biomedical applications. Wearable detector device is indispensable for online health care. This paper presents a concept of an wearable digital health monitoring device design for sweat analysis. The flexible sensor is developed to quantify the amount of hydrogen ions in sweat and skin temperature in real time. The detection system includes pH sensor, temperature sensor, signal processing module, power source, microprocessor, display module and so on. The sweat monitoring device is designed for sport monitoring or clinical diagnosis.

  13. PIXE analysis of cystic fibrosis sweat samples with an external proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F.; Massonnet, B.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE analysis with an external proton beam is used to study, in four control and five cystic fibrosis children, the elemental composition of sweat samples collected from different parts of the body during entire body hyperthermia. We observe no significant difference of sweat rates and of temperature variations between the two groups during sweat test. The statistical study of results obtained by PIXE analysis allows us to pick out amongst 8 elements studied, 6 elements (Na, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Br) significatively different between the two groups of subjects. Using regression analysis, Na, Cl and Br concentrations could be used in a predictive equation of the state of health.

  14. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflie, R. J.; Fernandez, L. Bustos; Perec, C. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Marzi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested. PMID:4852110

  15. Don't Sweat the Small Stuff: Food Allergy Sufferer Lives a Cautious but Normal Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal life Follow us Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but ... stings. The show recommended giving your child a small dose of antihistamine if you feared an allergic ...

  16. Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hot flashes and night sweats can be cancer or treatment related and occur commonly in both women and men. Get information on hormonal and nonhormonal agents, cognitive and behavioral methods, and integrative medicine treatment options in this clinician summary.

  17. Epidemiology of salivary gland infections.

    PubMed

    Cascarini, Luke; McGurk, Mark

    2009-08-01

    This article approaches sialadenitis from a personal perspective based on 15 years of clinical practice limited mainly to salivary gland diseases. Disorders of the salivary glands are uncommon. When they occur, experience in managing the process is diluted over a range of disciplines. The result is that traditional views go unchallenged and are recast unchanged from one textbook to another. Sialadenitis of bacterial origin is a relatively uncommon occurrence today and is normally associated with sialoliths. The most common viral infection of the salivary glands is mumps.

  18. Use of dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water losses to determine sweating rates in exercising horses.

    PubMed

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-02-01

    To compare dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water loss as methods for determination of sweating rate (SR) in exercising horses. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. SR was measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km, with a 15-minute rest at the end of each 15-km phase. Each horse completed 2 exercise trials. Dew-point hygrometry, as a method of local SR determination, was validated in vitro by measurement of rate of evaporative water loss. During exercise, local SR was determined every 10 minutes by the following 2 methods: (1) dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax, and (2) on the basis of the volume of sweat collected from a sealed plastic pouch attached to the lateral area of the thorax. Mean whole body SR was calculated from total body water loss incurred during exercise. Evaporation rate measured by use of dew-point hygrometry was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.92) with the actual rate of evaporative water loss. There was a similar pattern of change in SR measured by dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax during exercise, with a significantly higher SR on the neck. The SR measured on the thorax by direct sweat collection and by dew-point hygrometry were of similar magnitude. Mean whole body SR calculated from total body water loss was not significantly different from mean whole body SR estimated from direct sweat collection or dew-point hygrometry measurements on the thorax. Dew-point hygrometry and direct sweat collection are useful methods for determination of local SR in horses during prolonged, steady-state exercise in moderate ambient conditions. Both methods of local SR determination provide an accurate estimated of whole body SR.

  19. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  20. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  1. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  2. Thermoregulatory vs. event sweating--comparison of clinical methodologies, physiology and results.

    PubMed

    Biehle-Hulette, S J; Krailler, J M; Elstun, L T; Bentz, S; Benzing, K W; Spruell, R D; Hellhammer, J; Swaile, D F

    2014-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of sweating due to thermoregulation vs. stress are distinct, the antiperspirant industry focuses primarily on perspiration due to heat as their method of efficacy testing. To better understand the overall protection afforded by a 'Clinical Strength' over-the-counter antiperspirant product, we compare results from a standard hot-room study with results from two studies using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). For each study, unscented antiperspirant was applied to one axilla, leaving the other untreated for internal control. The hot-room protocol involved a 40-min warm-up period with 2-20 min sweat collections at 100 ± 2 °F (35% RH). The TSST requires naïve subjects to give an impromptu speech and conduct mental arithmetic, with collections of sweat, heart rate and other biomarkers of stress before, during and after the event. During the TSST, heart rate and salivary cortisol data indicate significant emotional stress. Wetness results show that sweat was reduced by 69.4% in the hot-room study, compared with 83.7% and 89.3% reductions in the stress studies. We have found added value in investigating antiperspirancy from several causes of sweat production to give a more encompassing picture of the protection afforded by an antiperspirant product, specifically wetness protection from heat, activity and stress-induced sweat. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Lindegaard; Nybo, Mads

    2014-11-01

    Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study was to investigate how performance of the test is organized in Denmark. Departments conducting the sweat test were contacted and interviewed following a premade questionnaire. They were asked about methods performed, applied NPU (Nomenclature for Properties and Units) code, reference interval, recommended interpretation and referred literature. 14 departments performed the sweat test. One department measured chloride and sodium concentration, while 13 departments measured conductivity. One department used a non-existing NPU code, two departments applied NPU codes inconsistent with the method performed, four departments applied no NPU code and seven applied a correct NPU code. Ten of the departments measuring conductivity applied reference intervals. Nine departments measuring conductivity had recommendations of a normal area, a grey zone and a pathological value, while four departments only applied a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use.

  4. Higher sweat chloride levels in patients with asthma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shally; Dixit, Pratibha; Maurya, Nutan

    2015-02-01

    To screen asthmatic patients by sweat chloride test to identify proportion with Cystic Fibrosis (CF); (Sweat chloride level >60 mmol/L). Also, to compare sweat chloride levels between cases of bronchial asthma and age and sex matched healthy children aged 5 mo-15 y. The present case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in India. Cases of bronchial asthma, diagnosed by GINA guideline 2008, and age matched healthy controls were included. Case to control ratio was 2:1. Sweat Chloride test was done by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis method. From April 2010 through May 2012, 216 asthmatics and 112 controls were recruited. Among asthmatics, there was no case of Cystic Fibrosis. Mean sweat chloride levels in asthmatics was 22.39 ± 8.45 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-28 mmol/L) and in controls 19.55 ± 7.04 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-23.5 mmol/L) (p value = 0.048). No Cystic Fibrosis case was identified among asthmatics. Mean sweat chloride levels were higher in asthmatics as compared to controls.

  5. On sweat analysis for quantitative estimation of dehydration during physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of water loss during physical exercise is of importance because dehydration can impair both muscular strength and aerobic endurance. A physiological indicator for deficit of total body water (TBW) might be the concentration of electrolytes in sweat. It has been shown that concentrations differ after physical exercise depending on whether water loss was replaced by fluid intake or not. However, to the best of our knowledge, this fact has not been examined for its potential to quantitatively estimate TBW loss. Therefore, we conducted a study in which sweat samples were collected continuously during two hours of physical exercise without fluid intake. A statistical analysis of these sweat samples revealed significant correlations between chloride concentration in sweat and TBW loss (r = 0.41, p <; 0.01), and between sweat osmolality and TBW loss (r = 0.43, p <; 0.01). A quantitative estimation of TBW loss resulted in a mean absolute error of 0.49 l per estimation. Although the precision has to be improved for practical applications, the present results suggest that TBW loss estimation could be realizable using sweat samples.

  6. Stretchable, wireless sensors and functional substrates for epidermal characterization of sweat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Liu, Yuhao; Chen, Kaile; Shin, Woo-Jung; Lu, Ching-Jui; Kong, Gil-Woo; Patnaik, Dwipayan; Lee, Sang-Heon; Cortes, Jonathan Fajardo; Rogers, John A

    2014-08-13

    This paper introduces materials and architectures for ultrathin, stretchable wireless sensors that mount on functional elastomeric substrates for epidermal analysis of biofluids. Measurement of the volume and chemical properties of sweat via dielectric detection and colorimetry demonstrates some capabilities. Here, inductively coupled sensors consisting of LC resonators with capacitive electrodes show systematic responses to sweat collected in microporous substrates. Interrogation occurs through external coils placed in physical proximity to the devices. The substrates allow spontaneous sweat collection through capillary forces, without the need for complex microfluidic handling systems. Furthermore, colorimetric measurement modes are possible in the same system by introducing indicator compounds into the depths of the substrates, for sensing specific components (OH(-) , H(+) , Cu(+) , and Fe(2+) ) in the sweat. The complete devices offer Young's moduli that are similar to skin, thus allowing highly effective and reliable skin integration without external fixtures. Experimental results demonstrate volumetric measurement of sweat with an accuracy of 0.06 μL/mm(2) with good stability and low drift. Colorimetric responses to pH and concentrations of various ions provide capabilities relevant to analysis of sweat. Similar materials and device designs can be used in monitoring other body fluids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research[S

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Lauren A.; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Sivamani, Raja K.; Newman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30–C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc HSD). No differences in oxylipins and endocannabinoids were observed between study groups. Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs. PMID:27875258

  8. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1 in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (p<0.0001). Thus, sweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of sweat rates during cycling exercise by means of the closed chamber condenser technology.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Clijsen, R; Barel, A O; Schouteden, R; van Olst, B; Aerenhouts, D

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of local sweating patterns is of importance in occupational and exercise physiology settings. The recently developed closed chamber condenser technology (Biox Aquaflux ® ) allows the measurement of evaporative skin water loss with a greater measurement capacity (up to 1325 g/h/m 2 ) compared to traditional evaporimeters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the Biox Aquaflux ® to estimate sweat production during exercise. Fourteen healthy subjects performed a 20-min cycle ergometer trial at respectively 55% heart rate (HR reserve and 75% HR reserve . Sweat production was estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise, by calculating the amount of sweat collected in a patch, and by measuring the water flux (in g/h/m 2 ) with the Biox Aquaflux ® instrument. The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument allowed the follow up of sweat kinetics at both intensities. Correlations between the measurement methods were all significant for the 75% HR reserve trial (with r ranging from 0.68 to 0.76) whilst for the 55% HR reserve a significant relation was detected between the patch method and the Biox Aquaflux ® only (with r ranging from 0.41 to 0.79). The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument is a practical and direct method for the estimation of local sweat rates under field conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells

    SciT

    Sorscher, E.J.; Kirk, K.L.; Weaver, M.L.

    The authors have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropryl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl{sup {minus}} transport inmore » sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br{sup {minus}} uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatments, but not after treatments for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl{sup {minus}} transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability.« less

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations using sweat samples in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Makoto; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tsuda, Takao; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-03-10

    L-dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is commonly used for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, regardless of its prominent effect, therapeutic range of L-dopa narrows down with disease progression, which leads to development of motor complications including wearing off and dyskinesias. In addition, intestinal absorption of L-dopa is inversely correlated with the amount of oral protein intake, and shows intra- and inter-day variability. Hence, frequent monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations is beneficial, but frequent venipuncture imposes physical and psychological burdens on patients with PD. We investigated the usefulness of sweat samples instead of plasma samples for monitoring L-dopa concentrations. With a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system, L-dopa in sweat samples was successfully quantified and analyzed in 23 PD patients. We found that the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the plasma and sweat l-dopa concentrations was 0.678. Although the disease durations and severities were not correlated with the deviation of the actual sweat L-dopa concentrations from the fitted line, acquisition of the sweat samples under a stable condition was technically difficult in severely affected patients. The deviations may also be partly accounted for by skin permeability of L-dopa. Measuring L-dopa concentrations in sweat is suitable to get further insights into the L-dopa metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjae; Song, Changyeong; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Hye Rim; Kang, Taegyu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging. We present a wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device integrated with a feedback transdermal drug delivery module. Careful multilayer patch design and miniaturization of sensors increase the efficiency of the sweat collection and sensing process. Multimodal glucose sensing, as well as its real-time correction based on pH, temperature, and humidity measurements, maximizes the accuracy of the sensing. The minimal layout design of the same sensors also enables a strip-type disposable device. Drugs for the feedback transdermal therapy are loaded on two different temperature-responsive phase change nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are embedded in hyaluronic acid hydrogel microneedles, which are additionally coated with phase change materials. This enables multistage, spatially patterned, and precisely controlled drug release in response to the patient’s glucose level. The system provides a novel closed-loop solution for the noninvasive sweat-based management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28345030

  13. Revisiting sweat chloride test results based on recent guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ali, Mahesheema; Dowlin, Michael; Suo, Liye; Ward, Tabitha; Ruiz, Fadel; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2018-03-01

    Recent sweat chloride guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation changed the intermediate sweat chloride concentration range from 40-59 mmol/L to 30-59 mmol/L for age > 6 months. We wanted to know how this new guideline would impact detection of cystic fibrosis among patients who previously had sweat tests done at Texas Children's Hospital. We revisited sweat chloride test results (n = 3012) in the last 5 years at Texas Children's Hospital based on the new guidelines on diagnosis of cystic fibrosis from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. We identified 125 patients that would be reclassified in the intermediate sweat chloride value with the new guidelines that were classified as "unlikely to have CF" in the previous guidelines. 8 (32%) patients with CFTR gene testing were positive for CFTR gene mutation(s). 4 (50%) of these patients were identified to have 2 CFTR mutations. One had variant combination that was reported to cause CF but all were diagnosed with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome. Our findings concur with the new CF diagnosis guidelines that changing the intermediate cut-off to 30-59 mmol/L sweat chloride concentration in combination with CFTR genetic analysis enhances the probability of identifying individuals that have risk of developing CF or have CF and enables for earlier therapeutic intervention.

  14. Sixty-five years since the New York heat wave: advances in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collie, Jake T B; Massie, R John; Jones, Oliver A H; LeGrys, Vicky A; Greaves, Ronda F

    2014-02-01

    The sweat test remains important as a diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis (CF) and has contributed greatly to our understanding of CF as a disease of epithelial electrolyte transport. The standardization of the sweat test, by Gibson and Cooke [Gibson and Cooke (1959) Pediatrics 1959;23:5], followed observations of excessive dehydration amongst patients with CF and confirmed the utility as a diagnostic test. Quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis remains the gold standard for sweat induction, but there are a number of collection and analytical methods. The pathophysiology of electrolyte transport in sweat was described by Quinton [Quinton (1983) Nature 1983;301:421-422], and this complemented the developments in genetics that discovered the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial-based electrolyte transport protein. Knowledge of CF has since increased rapidly and further developments in sweat testing include: new collection methods, further standardization of the technique with international recommendations and age related reference intervals. More recently, sweat chloride values have been used as proof of effect for the new drugs that activate CFTR. However, there remain issues with adherence to sweat test guidelines in many countries and there are gaps in our knowledge, including reference intervals for some age groups and stability of sweat samples in transport. Furthermore, modern methods of elemental quantification need to be explored as alternatives to the original analytical methods for sweat electrolyte measurement. The purpose of this review is therefore to describe the development of the sweat test and consider future directions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... To see other pages, use the menu. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance ...

  16. [Eccrine Porocarcinoma: clinical-pathological study of 19 cases in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima - Peru].

    PubMed

    Casavilca, Sandro; Lama, Anny; Guerrero, Melvy; Essary, Lydia R; Mantilla, Raúl; Cano, Luis; Barrionuevo, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    In order to describe the clinical-pathological characteristics of the cases of Eccrine Porocarcinoma (EP) found in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), a cross-sectional study was carried out, including all EP cases recorded between 1998 and 2009. A revision of the clinical-pathological records indentified and a new reading of the pathology slides of the cases found were performed. 19 EP cases were found, the median age of which was 64 years (range: 37-98). EP was primarily found on male patients (57.9%) and was most commonly located on the foot (21.1%), followed by the head, thorax and thigh (15.8%, respectively). In one case, EP was located on the gluteal region, and showed an unusually invasive behavior and rectal involvement. We conclude that EP is a rather uncommon entity in Peru. Its most common location is on the foot and it affects mostly male patients for the most part.

  17. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the ear helix: report of primary ear helix adnexal carcinoma with regional lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Tae Hui; Kang, Shin Hyuk; Kim, Han Koo; Kim, Woo Seob; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of eccrine sweat gland origin that has a predilection for the head and neck. It has an indolent growth pattern and a higher incidence of regional and distant metastases. Metastasizing adnexal carcinomas are rare; thus, currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. We report a case of an 89-year-old female patient with clear cell hidradenocarcinoma manifesting in the right ear helix that metastasized to the right parotid gland who was treated by wide local excision and radiation therapy.

  18. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, R Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L; Dascombe, Benjamin J; Macdonald, Margaret M; Evans, Craig A; Stevens, Christopher J; Crompton, Marcus J; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine, glycine

  19. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, R. Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Margaret M.; Evans, Craig A.; Stevens, Christopher J.; Crompton, Marcus J.; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32–34°C and 20–30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as “faux” sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine

  20. Variability of sweat chloride concentration in subjects with cystic fibrosis and G551D mutations.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; Le Camus, C; Davies, J C; Bilton, D; Milenković, D; De Boeck, K

    2017-01-01

    Sweat chloride concentration, a biomarker of CFTR function, is an appropriate outcome parameter in clinical trials aimed at correcting the basic CF defect. Although there is consensus on a cut-off value to diagnose CF, we have only limited information on the within subject variability of sweat chloride over time. Such information would be useful for sample size calculations in clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed repeated sweat chloride values obtained in patients with G551D mutation(s) assigned to placebo in an ivacaftor interventional trial. In subjects with G551D at least 12years of age, a pilocarpine sweat test using Macroduct collector was taken on both arms at 8 time points over 48weeks. We explored 1062 pilocarpine sweat test values obtained in 78 placebo patients of the VX08-770-102 trial. Mean overall sweat chloride value (all patients, all tests, n=1062) was 100.8mmol/L (SD 12.7mmol/L). Using a multilevel mixed model, the between-subject standard deviation (SD) for sweat chloride was 8.9mmol/L (95% CI 7.4-10.6) and within-subject SD was 8.1mmol/L (95% CI 7.5-8.7). Limits of repeatability for repeat measurements were -19.7 to +21.6mmol/L using values from one arm, and -13.3 to 11.8mmol/L using mean of values obtained at 4 test occasions. Sample size calculations showed that the minimal treatment effect on sweat chloride concentration that can be demonstrated for a group of 5 patients is around 15mmol/L, using a cross-over design and combinations of 4 tests for each phase of the trial. Although the sweat test is considered a robust measure, sweat chloride measurements in patients with CF and a G551D mutation had an inherent biological variability that is higher than commonly considered. Further analyses of placebo group data are crucial to learn more about the natural variability of this outcome parameter. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Coastal Hydraulics: Simple Tools and Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnis, D.; Fertenbaugh, C.; Orou-Pete, S.; Mullen, A.; Smith, C.; Silliman, S. E.; Yalo, N.; Boukari, M.

    2009-12-01

    Field efforts are targeted at providing characterization of surface / subsurface interaction along coastal Benin as part of an overall research effort examining coastal hydrology and salt-water intrusion near the large urban center of Cotonou, Benin. Specifically, efforts at adapting an existing numerical model indicate substantial sensitivity of the model results to assumed conditions in a vast region of interconnected fresh-water / salt-water lagoons which are home to a distributed human population. Limits on funding for this project resulted in choice of a series of field techniques that focused predominantly on manual labor (truly sweat equity of undergraduate and graduate students from Benin and the United States) in order to characterize the shallow (less than 10 meters) hydrology and geochemistry of this coastal region. An integrated picture is therefore being developed through application of shallow geochemical analysis to depths less than 10 meters (collection of samples using a manual direct-push drilling method based on a Geoprobe® apparatus and chemical analyses of Cl, Na, Br, Fl, and conductivity performed using specific-ion electrodes), monitoring of the rate of advance of the direct-push to determine vertical distribution of sediment resistance, a home-made falling-head field permeameter to measure shallow (less than 2 meters) permeabilities, manually installed, multi-level piezometers at several points within Lake Nokoue (a large, shallow-water lake bordering Cotonou and the southern coast), and electrical resistivity imaging (using an entry-level resistivity assembly). All tests are performed by students and faculty from the U.S. and Benin, with plans in place for the Benin students to return multiple times per year to monitor changes at the field stations. Results to date have provided significant insight into spatial structure within the surface/subsurface that was not apparent in either satellite imagery or ground-level inspection of the region

  2. Variability of measurements of sweat sodium using the regional absorbent-patch method.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Christine E; Ross, Megan L; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    There is interest in including recommendations for the replacement of the sodium lost in sweat in individualized hydration plans for athletes. Although the regional absorbent-patch method provides a practical approach to measuring sweat sodium losses in field conditions, there is a need to understand the variability of estimates associated with this technique. Sweat samples were collected from the forearms, chest, scapula, and thigh of 12 cyclists during 2 standardized cycling time trials in the heat and 2 in temperate conditions. Single measure analysis of sodium concentration was conducted immediately by ion-selective electrodes (ISE). A subset of 30 samples was frozen for reanalysis of sodium concentration using ISE, flame photometry (FP), and conductivity (SC). Sweat samples collected in hot conditions produced higher sweat sodium concentrations than those from the temperate environment (P = .0032). A significant difference (P = .0048) in estimates of sweat sodium concentration was evident when calculated from the forearm average (mean ± 95% CL; 64 ± 12 mmol/L) compared with using a 4-site equation (70 ± 12 mmol/L). There was a high correlation between the values produced using different analytical techniques (r2 = .95), but mean values were different between treatments (frozen FP, frozen SC > immediate ISE > frozen ISE; P < .0001). Whole-body sweat sodium concentration estimates differed depending on the number of sites included in the calculation. Environmental testing conditions should be considered in the interpretation of results. The impact of sample freezing and subsequent analytical technique was small but statistically significant. Nevertheless, when undertaken using a standardized protocol, the regional absorbent-patch method appears to be a relatively robust field test.

  3. Long-term outcomes of children with intermediate sweat chloride values in infancy.

    PubMed

    Groves, Tyler; Robinson, Paul; Wiley, Veronica; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical course of children who have intermediate sweat chloride values on initial screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed a retrospective review of children with intermediate sweat chloride values (raised immunoreactive trypsinogen/1 copy of p.F508del CF mutation on newborn screening (NBS)/sweat chloride value of 30-59 mmol/L) presenting to The Children's Hospital at Westmead over 15 years. Patients with an intermediate sweat chloride evolving to a formal diagnosis of CF (termed "delayed CF") were matched (2:1) with NBS positive patients with CF (termed "NBS positive CF"). Clinical outcomes were compared. Fourteen of 29 (48%, 95% CI 0.3-0.66) patients with intermediate sweat chloride value evolved to a diagnosis of CF and were matched with 28 NBS positive patients with CF. Delayed CF had less pancreatic insufficiency (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.44, P = .006), less colonization with nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.38, P = .005), milder obstructive lung disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio), and overall disease severity (Shwachman scores) at 10 years (mean difference 5.93, 95% CI 0.39-11.46, P = .04; mean difference 4.72, 95% CI 0.9-8.53, P = .015, respectively). Nutritional outcomes were better at 2 years for delayed CF but did not persist to later ages. In this cohort, approximately one-half of infants with intermediate sweat chloride value were later diagnosed with CF. The clinical course of delayed CF was milder in some aspects compared with NBS positive CF. These results emphasize the importance of ongoing follow-up of infants with intermediate sweat chloride values. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Sweating and Tolerance to Exercise in the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.; Ruff, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms that facilitate acute acclimation to heat have not been fully elucidated, but the result is the establishment of a more efficient cardiovascular system to increase heat dissipation via increased sweating that allows the acclimated man to function with a cooler internal environment and to extend his performance. Men in good physical condition with high maximal oxygen uptakes generally acclimate to heat more rapidly and retain it longer than men in poorer condition. Also, upon first exposure trained men tolerate exercise in the heat better than untrained men. Both resting in heat and physical training in a cool environment confer only partial acclimation when first exposed to work in the heat. These observations suggest separate additive stimuli of metabolic heat from exercise and environmental heat to increase sweating during the acclimation process. However, the necessity of utilizing physical exercise during acclimation has been questioned. Bradbury et al. (1964) have concluded exercise has no effect on the course of heat acclimation since increased sweating can be induced by merely heating resting subjects. Preliminary evidence suggests there is a direct relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake and the capacity to maintain thermal regulation, particularly through the control of sweating. Since increased sweating is an important mechanism for the development of heat acclimation, and fit men have high sweat rates, it follows that upon initial exposure to exercise in the heat, men with high maximal oxygen uptakes should exhibit less strain than men with lower maximal oxygen uptakes. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine if men with higher maximal oxygen uptakes exhibit greater tolerance than men with lower oxygen uptakes during early exposure to exercise in the heat, and (2) to investigate further the mechanism of the relationship between sweating and maximal work capacity.

  5. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    PubMed

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    2017-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. In this retrospective analysis children from the Rotterdam CF clinic with available sweat chloride level at diagnosis and at least one routine spirometry-controlled volumetric chest CT scan in follow-up were included. CT scans were scored using the CF-CT scoring system (% of maximum). Associations between sweat chloride-levels and CF-CT scores were calculated using linear regression models, adjusting for age at sweat test and age at follow-up. Because structural lung damage develops over the course of many years, effect modification by the age at follow-up CT-scan was tested for by age-stratification. In 59 children (30 male) sweat chloride was measured at diagnosis (median age 0.5 years, range 0-13) and later chest CT performed (median age 14 years, range 6-18). Sweat chloride was associated with significantly higher CT-CT total score, bronchiectasis score, and mucus plugging score. Stratification for age at follow-up in tertiles showed this association remained only in the oldest age group (range 15-18 years). In that subgroup associations were found with all but one of the CF-CT subscores, as well as with all tested lung functions parameters. Sweat chloride-level is a significant predictor of CF lung disease severity as determined by chest CT and lung function. This association could only be demonstrated in children with follow-up to age 15 years and above. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in American football (50.4 ± 15.3 mmol·L -1 ), baseball (54.0 ± 14.0 mmol·L -1 ), and basketball (48.3 ± 14.0 mmol·L -1 ) than either soccer (43.2 ± 12.0 mmol·L -1 ) or rugby (44.0 ± 12.1 mmol·L -1 ), but with no differences among the N.American or British sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football ( r s = 0.962, p < 0.001), basketball ( r s = 0.953, p < 0.001), rugby ( r s = 0.813, p < 0.001), and soccer ( r s = 0.748, p < 0.001). The normative data provided on sweat-sodium concentrations might assist sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  7. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P < 0.05). In subsequent weeks, no SE counts were obtained from the egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P < 0.05). In samples from weeks 4, 5, and 6, there was no difference in SE prevalence between SES and SENS. Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Regional and circadian variations of sweating rate and body surface temperature in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Al-Haidary, Ahmed A

    2012-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the regional variations in surface temperature and sweating rate and to visualize body thermal windows responsible for the dissipation of excess body heat in dromedary camels. This study was conducted on five dromedary camels with mean body weight of 450 ± 20.5 kg and 2 years of age. Sweating rate, skin and body surface temperature showed significant (P < 0.001) circadian variation together with the variation in ambient temperature. However, daily mean values of sweating rate, skin and body surface temperature measured on seven regions of the camel body did not significantly differ. The variation in body surface temperature compared to the variation in skin temperature was higher in the hump compared to the axillary and flank regions, indicating the significance of camel's fur in protecting the skin from daily variation in ambient temperature. Infrared thermography revealed that flank and axillary regions had lower thermal gradients at higher ambient temperature (T(a) ) and higher thermal gradients at lower T(a) , which might indicate the working of flank and axillary regions as thermal windows dissipating heat during the night. Sweating rate showed moderate correlation to skin and body surface temperatures, which might indicate their working as potential thermal drivers of sweating in camels. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Sweat osmolarity shows intra-animal regional variation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Potts, Samantha; Thatcher, Rhys; Jones, Arwel W; Warren, Lori K; Tenbroeck, Saundra H; Nottage, Florence; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-10-01

    Sweating is important in regulating body temperature but can be a source of loss of both fluids and electrolytes. Although the process has been studied in horses, the variation in sweat osmolarity across the body has not. This work describes an investigation to determine if there is regional variation in the osmolarity of sweat across different anatomical regions of the horse. Ten horses were used in the study and were animals either stabled for riding lessons or had livery on-site. Sweat samples were collected from five regions on each horse following exercise and the osmolarity measurements were made using an Osmomat 030 (Gonotec, Berlin, Germany). Values were analysed by paired t-tests and analysis of variance. Samples from the back and ears had statistically (P < 0.05) lower osmolarity values than those seen for the neck and forelimb, with thigh values intermediate between the other two sets of values. Previous studies have used osmolarity values based on the sweat collected from the horse's back. The current work demonstrates that these values are probably an underestimation of electrolyte loss, which may have implications for the composition and administration of rehydration compounds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of resonance of human sweat duct in different modes of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Takahashi, Shogo; Kinumura, Kento; Kawase, Kodo

    2018-02-01

    Recently, some studies have demonstrated that the sweat ducts present in the skin play a significant role in terahertz (THz) wave interaction with human beings. It was reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the sub-terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters, such as helix diameter and helix length. According to the antenna theory, a helical antenna resonates in two different modes of operation known as normal mode and axial mode and the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of number of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we calculated the dielectric properties of human skin using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Based on the structural parameters of human sweat ducts and its THz dielectric properties of surrounding medium, we computed the frequency of resonance of sweat duct in different modes of operation and we found that these ducts resonate in subterahertz frequency region. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies.

  12. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  13. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  14. Bilateral isolated submandibular gland mumps.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Linnea; Henderson, Arthur Harry; Banfield, Graham; Carswell, Andrew

    2017-06-05

    Isolated submandibular swellings pose a diagnostic challenge to the practising otolaryngologist. We report an unusual case of mumps isolated to bilateral submandibular glands. We discuss the case and the literature surrounding this condition and remind clinicians that mumps should be considered as a diagnosis in the presence of submandibular gland swelling in the absence of typical parotid swelling associated with mumps. Early consideration of this differential diagnosis, serological testing and a multidisciplinary approach may help to clinch the diagnosis earlier and prevent spread of the virus. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  16. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase modulate β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in young men.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-02-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. Using intradermal microdialysis, we evaluated the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating elicited by administration of isoproterenol. We show that while NOS contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, COX restricts cutaneous vasodilatation. We also show that combined inhibition of NOS and COX augments β-adrenergic sweating These new findings advance our basic knowledge regarding the physiological control of cutaneous blood flow and sweating, and provide important and new information to better understand the physiological significance of β-adrenergic receptors in the skin. β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and (2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with (1) lactated Ringer solution (control), (2) 10 mm N ω -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a non-specific NOS inhibitor, (3) 10 mm ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or (4) a combination of l-NNA and ketorolac. All sites were co-administered with a high dose of isoproterenol (100 μm) for 3 min to maximally induce β-adrenergic sweating (β-adrenergic sweating is significantly blunted by subsequent activations). Approximately 60 min after the washout period, three incremental doses of isoproterenol were co-administered (1, 10 and 100 μm each for 25 min). Increases in CVC induced

  18. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  19. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. The use of sweat to monitor lead absorption through the skin.

    PubMed

    Lilley, S G; Florence, T M; Stauber, J L

    1988-10-15

    It is usually assumed that lead can be absorbed through the skin only if it is present as an organolead compound such as tetraethyllead or lead naphthanate. It has been found, however, that finely-powdered lead metal or lead nitrate solution placed on the skin results in rapid absorption of lead, and transport of the metal around the body. The absorbed lead appears in sweat and saliva, but not in blood or urine. The application of 6 mg of lead as 0.5 M lead nitrate to the left arm resulted in an increase in lead concentration in pilocarpine-induced iontophoresis sweat samples taken from the right arm, from an initial value of 15-25 micrograms Pbl-1 to greater than 300 micrograms Pbl-1 after 2 days. Saliva lead increased from 2.5 to 15 micrograms Pbl-1 in the same period. The rate of lead absorption through the skin increases with increased sweating of the skin. Since no measurable increase in blood lead has been found, the lead must be transported in the plasma and rapidly concentrated into the extracellular fluid pool (sweat and saliva), without significant uptake by the erythrocytes, and with a very low transient concentration in the plasma. Workers occupationally exposed to lead have extremely high levels of lead in sweat even though their lead in blood is only moderately elevated. Lead absorbed through the skin may be eliminated via sweat and other extracellular fluids, and hence not be as great a health hazard as ingested lead, but this will need to be proved by further studies.

  2. The effect of water temperature and voluntary drinking on the post rehydration sweating.

    PubMed

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    During heat stress and dehydration, thermoregulation is partly suppressed to save body fluid and circulation. Drinking induces the recovery of thermoregulatory responses including sweating. Our objective is to investigate the effect of water temperature and voluntary drinking on the extent of the drinking-induced sweating. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). After dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with temperatures of 5, 16, 26, 58°C on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Also, blood samples were collected during the experiments and plasma osmolality was measured. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The rate of this response was lower in ingested water temperature of 5°C (0.43 ± 0.03 g, p = 0.000). Different intake occurred with different water temperatures (respectively 4.2, 6.4, 3.1, 1.8 ml/kg). Water at 16°C induced higher intake (6.4 ml/kg) together with lower sweating (0.54 ± 0.03 g), which can result in optimum level of hydration. Conclusion- When dehydrated subjects drink water with different temperatures, there are different sweating responses together with different voluntary intakes. According to our results, consuming 16°C water, cool tap water, could be suggested in dehydration.

  3. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field. PMID:19783796

  4. Use of an electrical resistance hygrometer to measure human sweat rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suga, T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the resistance hygrometer as a tool to measure the localized sweat rate from the human body in both the active and passive sweat regions was studied. It was found that the physiological function of the skin membrane and fluid carrier transport phenomena from the outer skin have an indistinguishable effect on the observed findings from the instrument. The problems associated with the resistance hygrometer technique are identified and the usage of the instrument in the physiological experimentation from the engineering standpoint is evaluated.

  5. The impact of the sweat lodge ceremony on dimensions of well-being.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Jeannette Wagemakers; Moore, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    The importance of traditional healing practices for First Nations people has created interest in traditional ceremonies, including sweat lodges, which are increasingly incorporated into programs serving Aboriginal people. Despite the fact that traditional healing practices have always been valued by Aboriginal people, there is virtually no research on their efficacy. The results of a pilot study that measured the impact of the sweat lodge ceremony on the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual domains of individual participants indicated that an increase in spiritual and emotional well-being of participants was directly attributable to the ceremony.

  6. [Aging of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Golubev, A G

    2002-01-01

    The age-related changes in the pineal gland are functional rather than organic, which makes their correction or prevention more tenable. The amelioration or inhibition of some age-related impairments of the pineal gland were observed with dietary restriction and the use of S-adenosylmethionine or MAO-A inhibitors. A threefold increase in nocturnal melatonin peaks occurs in old rhesus monkeys treated with a synthetic peptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly (Epithalon) designed basing on the amino acid content of a pineal peptide extract Epithalamin. Other effects of Epithalon markedly overlap with melatonin effects. Besides life extension in mice and fruit flies, Epithalon effects include the postponing vision loss in Campbell rats with hereditary pigmental dystrophy. A uniting aspect of such a range of activities might be the participation of transcription factors, since they are often highly conservative in evolution and, on the other hand, may be strictly tissue-specific. The targets of Epithalon may include transfactors that in mammals are specific for the pineal gland and retina and exhibit impaired functions in the aged pineal gland.

  7. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  8. Ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, B M; Barraclough, B H

    2000-02-01

    The superficial position of thyroid and parathyroid glands facilitates the use of diagnostic ultrasound (US) as an imaging technique. Techniques of image acquisition and interpretation are described in detail. Size and morphology of glands can be defined easily. The most important use of US guided biopsy in relation to thyroid and parathyroid glands is to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  9. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

    2014-04-01

    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  10. Effect of sweating set rate on clothing real evaporative resistance determined on a sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen; Song, Guowen

    2016-04-01

    The ASTM F2370 (2010) is the only standard with regard to measurement of clothing real evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. However, the sweating set-point is not recommended in the standard. In this study, the effect of sweating rate on clothing real evaporative resistance was investigated on a 34-zone "Newton" sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r). Four different sweating set rates (i.e., all segments had a sweating rate of 400, 800, 1200 ml/hr ∙ m(2), respectively, and different sweating rates were assigned to different segments) were applied to determine the clothing real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the boundary air layer. The results indicated that the sweating rate did not affect the real evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with the absence of strong moisture absorbent layers. For the clothing ensemble with tight cotton underwear, a sweating rate of lower than 400 ml/hr ∙ m(2) is not recommended. This is mainly because the wet fabric "skin" might not be fully saturated and thus led to a lower evaporative heat loss and thereby a higher real evaporative resistance. For vapor permeable clothing, the real evaporative resistance determined in the so-called isothermal condition should be corrected before being used in thermal comfort or heat strain models. However, the reduction of wet thermal insulation due to moisture absorption in different test scenarios had a limited contribution to the effect of sweating rate on the real evaporative resistance.

  11. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  12. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  13. Skin-Attachable, Stretchable Electrochemical Sweat Sensor for Glucose and pH Detection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Yun; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Lee, Geumbee; Oh, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hanchan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2018-04-25

    As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO 4 /CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 71.44 mV pH -1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.

  14. Artificial sweat enhances dermal transfer of chlorpyrifos from treated nylon carpet fibers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan L; Reifenrath, William G; Krieger, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The dermal transfer and absorption of 14C-ring-chlorpyrifos from nylon carpet fibers was measured in skin penetration-evaporation cells with excised pig skin. Prior to application, synthetic sweat was applied to skin in half of the cells. Radioactivity was measured in receptor fluid, dermis, epidermis, tape stripping samples, and vapor trap samples during a 24-h period. The sum of radiolabel recovered from the dermis and receptor fluid represented the absorbed dose. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in percutaneous absorption between cells that received the synthetic sweat application and "dry" cells (1.3 +/- 0.3% of applied dose). There was significantly more (p < 0.05) radiolabel recovered from tape stripping (5.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.6%) and in the epidermis (4.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.3%) from cells that received the synthetic sweat application, which indicated synthetic sweat facilitated transfer of chlorpyrifos from a treated substrate to the skin surface. The measured value for percutaneous absorption of chlorpyrifos agreed with the value predicted from an empirical model previously developed for nitro compound-containing soil.

  15. Pacing-induced palmar sweating evaluated by unique hygrometer: possible implications of sympathetic activation during tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, T; Yanaga, T; Makino, N

    2000-03-01

    Although reflex sympathetic activation is a major determinant of the haemodynamic tolerability of ventricular tachycardia (VT), the methods for evaluating this aspect during on-going VT remain invasive and complicated. Palmar sweating as an indirect but non-invasive measure of sympathetic activity was estimated by means of a unique hygrometer under right ventricular (RV) rapid pacing (up to 150 beats min-1) replicating VT, and concurrent monitoring of aortic blood pressure in five patients with various kinds of cardiac arrhythmias in our electrophysiological laboratory. The peak palmar sweating rate in arbitrary units was augmented as the RV pacing rate increased and was proportional to the pacing-induced fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.903 (P<0.006). The slope of linearity between the sweating rate and the fall in SBP varied among individual patients, with greater sweating amplitude in the younger patients even with the same extent of fall in SBP. This preliminary study suggests sympathetic acceleration caused by haemodynamic deterioration under simulated VT, and therefore this protocol may be able to predict the haemodynamic tolerability of sustained monomorphic VT.

  16. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles. PMID:20359338

  17. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  18. The Impact of the Sweat Lodge Ceremony on Dimensions of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Jeannette Wagemakers; Moore, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    The importance of traditional healing practices for First Nations people has created interest in traditional ceremonies, including sweat lodges, which are increasingly incorporated into programs serving Aboriginal people. Despite the fact that traditional healing practices have always been valued by Aboriginal people, there is virtually no…

  19. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  20. The Italian pilot external quality assessment program for cystic fibrosis sweat test.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Marco; Floridia, Giovanna; Amato, Annalisa; Censi, Federica; Carta, Claudio; de Stefano, Maria Chiara; Ferrari, Gianluca; Tosto, Fabrizio; Capoluongo, Ettore; Caruso, Ubaldo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Cirilli, Natalia; Corbetta, Carlo; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-05-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. In 2014 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità established the Italian pilot external quality assessment program for CF sweat test (IEQA-ST). Ten laboratories, included among the 33 Italian CF Referral Centers, were selected and enrolled on the basis of their attitude to perform sweat test (ST) analysis by using methods recommended by the Italian Guidelines. They received three different sweat-like samples (normal, borderline and pathologic chloride concentration), with mock clinical indications, for analysis according to routine procedures. Assessment, performed by a panel of experts, covered analytical performance, interpretation and reporting of results; categories of "poor" and "satisfactory" performance were not defined. All data were managed through a web utility. The program identified important areas of interest and, in some case, of concern. It is important to underline that results are referred to a small proportion, i.e. about 30%, of Italian laboratories performing CF ST in the context of the Referral Centers. Data collected highlight the importance of participation in EQA programs as it may improve laboratory/clinical performance; our study represents a model for the setting up of a large-scale EQA scheme for ST. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  2. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  3. Sweating rates of dairy and feedlot cows under stressful thermal environments

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  4. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat…

  5. Using the Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Group Therapy for Navajo Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the sweat lodge ceremony used at a residential treatment center located on the Navajo Nation and compares the ceremony to modern group work identifying Yalom's (1995) 11 therapeutic factors of group therapy within the ceremony. Considers widespread use of the ceremony with Native Americans and nonnative Americans as well as…

  6. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize...

  7. Inhibition of neuropeptide degradation suppresses sweating but increases the area of the axon reflex flare.

    PubMed

    Schlereth, Tanja; Breimhorst, Markus; Werner, Nicolas; Pottschmidt, Katrin; Drummond, Peter D; Birklein, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptides CGRP (calcitonin gene-elated peptide) and substance P (SP) mediate neurogenic inflammation. Both are degraded by the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) which can be blocked by phosphoramidon. The aim was to evaluate the effect of NEP inhibition on sweating and vasodilatation. Dermal microdialysis was performed on the skin of 39 subjects. Two fibres were perfused with phosphoramidon (0.01%, 0.02% or 0.2%), two with saline. Acetylcholine (ACh) was either added to the microdialysis perfusate (n = 30, 10(-2)  m) or thermoregulatory sweating was induced (n = 9). Co-application of phosphoramidon reduced cholinergic and thermoregulatory sweating. However, the flare size - a localized increase in superficial blood flow after ACh-application - was significantly increased. The increase in flare size is most probably due to increased CGRP levels. The inhibition of sweating by phosphoramidon may involve an increase in SP, a reduction in CGRP-degradation fragments or a direct inhibitory action of phosphoramidon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Sweating is greater in NCAA football linemen independently of heat production.

    PubMed

    Deren, Tomasz M; Coris, Eric E; Bain, Anthony R; Walz, Steve M; Jay, Ollie

    2012-02-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate whether differences in local sweat rates on the upper body between American football linemen (L) and backs (B) exist independently of differences in metabolic heat production. Twelve NCAA Division I American football players (6 linemen (mass = 141.6 ± 6.5 kg, body surface area (BSA) = 2.67 ± 0.08 m2) and 6 backs (mass = 88.1 ± 13.4 kg, BSA = 2.11 ± 0.19 m2)) cycled at a fixed metabolic heat production per unit BSA of 350 W·m(-2) for 60 min in a climatic chamber (t(db) [dry bulb temperature] = 32.4°C ± 1.0°C, t(wb) [wet bulb temperature] = 26.3°C ± 0.6°C, v [air velocity] = 0.9 ± 0.1 m·s(-1)). Local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, lower back, and chest were measured after 10, 30, and 50 min of exercise. Core temperature, mean skin temperature, and HR were measured throughout exercise. Because metabolic heat production per unit surface area was fixed between participants, the rate of evaporation required for heat balance was similar (L = 261 ± 35 W·m(-2), B = 294 ± 30 W·m(-2), P = 0.11). However, local sweat rates on the head, arm, shoulder, and chest were all significantly greater (P < 0.05) in linemen at all time points, and end-exercise core temperature was significantly greater (P = 0.033) in linemen (38.5°C ± 0.4°C) relative to backs (38.0°C ± 0.2°C) despite a ∼25% lower heat production per unit mass. The change in mean skin temperature from rest was greater in linemen (P < 0.001) after 15, 30, 45, and 60 min, and HR was greater in linemen for the last 30 min of exercise. Football linemen sweat significantly more on the torso and head than football backs independently of any differences in metabolic heat production per unit BSA and therefore the evaporative requirements for heat balance. Despite greater sweating, linemen demonstrated significantly greater elevations in core temperature suggesting that sweating efficiency (i.e., the proportion of sweat that evaporates) was much lower in

  9. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Development of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A candidate reference method using ICP-MS for sweat chloride quantification.

    PubMed

    Collie, Jake T; Massie, R John; Jones, Oliver A H; Morrison, Paul D; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for sweat chloride (Cl) quantification using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to present to the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM) as a candidate reference method for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Calibration standards were prepared from sodium chloride (NaCl) to cover the expected range of sweat Cl values. Germanium (Ge) and scandium (Sc) were selected as on-line (instrument based) internal standards (IS) and gallium (Ga) as the off-line (sample based) IS. The method was validated through linearity, accuracy and imprecision studies as well as enrolment into the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) for sweat electrolyte testing. Two variations of the ICP-MS method were developed, an on-line and off-line IS, and compared. Linearity was determined up to 225 mmol/L with a limit of quantitation of 7.4 mmol/L. The off-line IS demonstrated increased accuracy through the RCPAQAP performance assessment (CV of 1.9%, bias of 1.5 mmol/L) in comparison to the on-line IS (CV of 8.0%, bias of 3.8 mmol/L). Paired t-tests confirmed no significant differences between sample means of the two IS methods (p=0.53) or from each method against the RCPAQAP target values (p=0.08 and p=0.29). Both on and off-line IS methods generated highly reproducible results and excellent linear comparison to the RCPAQAP target results. ICP-MS is a highly accurate method with a low limit of quantitation for sweat Cl analysis and should be recognised as a candidate reference method for the monitoring and diagnosis of CF. Laboratories that currently practice sweat Cl analysis using ICP-MS should include an off-line IS to help negate any pre-analytical errors.

  12. Modelling fire-fighter responses to exercise and asymmetric infrared radiation using a dynamic multi-mode model of human physiology and results from the sweating agile thermal manikin.

    PubMed

    Richards, M G M; Fiala, D

    2004-09-01

    In this study, predicted dynamic physiological responses are compared with wear trials results for firefighter suits: impermeable (A), semi-permeable (B) and permeable (C), and underwear. Wear trials consisted of three rest phases and two moderate work phases, with a frontal infrared (IR) radiation exposure of 500 W/m2 for the last 15 min of each work phase. Simulations were performed by detailed modelling of the experimental boundary conditions, including the inhomogeneous IR radiation combined with clothing properties for still and walking conditions measured using the Sweating Agile thermal Manikin. Accounting for the effect of sweat gland activity suppression with increased skin wettedness, the predicted total moisture loss was insignificantly different (P<0.05) from the wear trial value for suits B and C but was 37% too high for suit A. Predicted evolution of core, mean skin and local skin temperatures agreed well with the wear trial results for all clothing. Root mean square deviations ranged from 0.11 degrees C to 0.26 degrees C for core temperatures and from 0.28 degrees C to 0.38 degrees C for mean skin temperatures, which where typically lower than the experimental error. Transient thermodynamic processes occurring within suit A may account for the delayed/reduced fall in core temperature following exercise.

  13. Management of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-09-01

    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be ≥5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiation is indicated for malignant tumors with high-risk features such as close (or invaded) margins, perineural speed, lymphatic and/or vascular invasion, lymph-node involvement and high-grade histology. A Phase II trial testing adjuvant concomitant cisplatin plus radiation therapy versus adjuvant radiation therapy alone after surgery is currently under investigation for high-risk salivary gland cancer. For inoperable cancers, photons combined with proton boost seem to be a valuable option. Even if protons or carbon ions are promising, access to the latter is limited for usual treatment. For recurrent and/or metastatic cancer, polychemotherapy (cisplatin based) gives a 25% response rate in adenoid cystic carcinoma and should be used when the disease is overtly in progression. Targeted therapies with anti-EGF receptor molecules, antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing, but more trials are needed to establish their efficacy, as is the use of bortezomib followed by doxorubicin. The products of fusion oncogenes, which have a pathogenic role in some adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, are of interest as potential therapeutic targets.

  14. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production: new data and review of hyperhidrosis data for 1980-2013.

    PubMed

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus; Carlsen, Berit C

    2015-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. The main objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded 100 mg/5 min. A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss

    2005-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

  16. Leaching from the stratum corneum does not explain the previously reported elevated potassium ion concentration in sweat.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Stone, Michael; Cannon, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if K+ is leached from the stratum corneum when sweat is present on the skin's surface. The results will help address whether sweat [K+] previously reported in the literature are artifactually elevated as a result of K+ leaching. Twelve (six female, six male) healthy volunteers participated in this study. After thorough skin cleansing and preparation with isopropyl alcohol and high-performance liquid chromatography-grade distilled water, three sites were chosen and a 50 μL drop of artificial sweat was pipetted directly onto the skin. The artificial sweat had a [K+] of 4 mEq·L-1, an osmolality of 120 mosm·L-1, and a pH of 6.0. Immediately following, a clear plastic cover slip (~6 cm2) with a shallow 0.8 cm2 convex impression in the center was applied over each drop, preventing evaporation. Each sample was allowed to sit on the forearm, under the plastic cover slip, for 10 min. The mean (±SD) [K+] in 'artificial' sweat not exposed to the skin was measured to be 4.2±0.4 mEq·L-1. After 10 min of exposure to the stratum corneum of the forearm, the artificial sweat had a mean (±SD) [K+] of 3.9±0.3 mEq·L-1. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the [K+] between the control artificial sweat and the samples collected after 10 min of exposure to forearm skin. These results do not support the hypothesis that significant K+ leaching from the stratum corneum into standing sweat is the cause for the previously reported elevated sweat [K+].

  17. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct.

  18. Isotretinoin in lacrimal gland fluid and tears.

    PubMed

    Rismondo, V; Ubels, J L

    1987-03-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is used in the treatment of severe cystic acne. Adverse ocular reactions, including blepharoconjunctivitis and dry eye symptoms, are frequent side effects of this drug. Our previous observation that retinol is present in tears and lacrimal gland fluid suggests that isotretinoin may also be secreted by the lacrimal gland. Rabbits were treated with isotretinoin, and lacrimal gland fluid was collected from the cannulated lacrimal gland duct. Tears were collected from patients who were being treated with isotretinoin. Lacrimal gland fluid and tears were analyzed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and a peak eluted from each sample, which was identified as isotretinoin. We conclude that the lacrimal gland is able to secrete isotretinoin in addition to retinol and that, in animals and patients treated systemically with isotretinoin, the ocular surface is exposed to the drug via the tear film.

  19. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  20. Evidence for cyclooxygenase-dependent sweating in young males during intermittent exercise in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Our recent work implicated nitric oxide (NO) in the control of sweating during intermittent exercise; however, it is unclear if cyclooxygenase (COX) is also involved. On separate days, ten healthy young (24 ± 4 years) males cycled in the heat (35°C). Two 30 min exercise bouts were performed at either a moderate (400 W, moderate heat load) or high (700 W, high heat load) rate of metabolic heat production and were followed by 20 and 40 min of recovery, respectively. Forearm sweating (ventilated capsule) was evaluated at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), (2) 10 mm ketorolac (a non-selective COX inhibitor), (3) 10 mm NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor) or (4) a combination of 10 mm ketorolac + 10 mml-NAME. During the last 5 min of the first exercise at moderate heat load, forearm sweating (mg min−1 cm−2) was equivalently reduced with ketorolac (0.54 ± 0.08), l-NAME (0.55 ± 0.07) and ketorolac+l-NAME (0.56 ± 0.08) compared to Control (0.67 ± 0.06) (all P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for the second exercise at moderate heat load (all P < 0.05). However, forearm sweating was similar between the four sites during exercise at high heat load and during recovery regardless of exercise intensity (all P > 0.05). We show that (1) although both COX and NO modulate forearm sweating during intermittent exercise bouts in the heat at a moderate heat load, the effects are not additive, and (2) the contribution of both enzymes to forearm sweating is less evident during intermittent exercise when the heat load is high and during recovery. PMID:25326453

  1. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  4. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Simões, Maria Inês; Marcão, Isabel; Toscano, Mário; Borges, Luís

    2018-03-29

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  5. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  6. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  7. Effect of two sweating simulation methods on clothing evaporative resistance in a so-called isothermal condition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The effect of sweating simulation methods on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin  = T a  = T r ). Two sweating simulation methods, namely, the pre-wetted fabric "skin" (PW) and the water supplied sweating (WS), were applied to determine clothing evaporative resistance on a "Newton" thermal manikin. Results indicated that the clothing evaporative resistance determined by the WS method was significantly lower than that measured by the PW method. In addition, the evaporative resistances measured by the two methods were correlated and exhibited a linear relationship. Validation experiments demonstrated that the empirical regression equation showed highly acceptable estimations. The study contributes to improving the accuracy of measurements of clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin.

  8. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  9. Physiological responses to heat of resting man with impaired sweating capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totel, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of total-body heat exposure were studied in three groups of subjects with varied degrees of impaired sweating capacity. The responses of two ectodermal dysplasic men, six quadriplegic men, and a man with widespread burned scar tissue were compared with the responses of three able-bodied men resting in the heat. It was found that the able-bodied and burned subjects competed successfully with a controlled environment of 38 C and 20% relative humidity for up to 150 min, whereas the quadriplegic and ectodermal dysplasic men developed hyperthermia, hyperventilation, and distress after only 120 and 75 min of heat exposure, respectively. The intolerance to heat is thus ascribed directly to the inability to produce and evaporate sweat.

  10. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (wbody) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P < 0.01; wbody: 0.26 no-dimension units (nd), SD 0.02, to 0.92 nd, SD 0.01, P < 0.01], with no differences between TIGHT-FIT and LOOSE-FIT (P > 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness. PMID:25878153

  12. Clinical presentation of epignathus teratoma with cleft palate; and duplication of cranial base, tongue, mandible, and pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yujiro; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Madoka; Saijo, Hideto; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    A 2-day-old girl was diagnosed with an oral epignathus teratoma and an uncommon combination of orofacial malformations including cleft palate; tongue, mandible, cranial base, cervical vertebrae, lower lip, and pituitary gland duplications; and fistula of the glabella and lower lip. Computed tomography revealed that the mass within the nasal cavity had tooth-like calcifications and protruded into the nasopharynx and oral cavity. It was implanted on the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid bone and was accompanied with mandibular duplication. Magnetic resonance imaging detected duplication of the pituitary gland and confirmed the absence of intracranial communication of the nasopharyngeal mass. The teratoma did not cause respiratory obstruction; however, the patient required continuous nasogastric tube feeding. Usually, an epignathus teratoma is associated with few midline defects and can be corrected with multiple interventions at different time points. The current study describes the surgical procedure comprising excision of the tumor along with reconstructive surgeries of the mandible, tongue, and fistulae undertaken when the infant reached 7 months of age. The cleft palate was repaired at 18 months of age using the Kaplan buccal flap method. Histopathologic examination confirmed a grade 0 teratoma covered with keratinized skin and containing pilosebaceous and sweat glands, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle. The long-term success of this intervention was determined at the follow-up examination conducted at 3 years of age, with no signs of the teratoma recurrence observed.

  13. Corrections to the Shapiro Equation used to Predict Sweating and Water Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Nishi, Y., and A. P. Gagge. Effective temperature scale useful for hypobaric and hyperbaric environments. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48: 97-107, 1977...time series predictions of specific variables (35). Comparison of the original Shapiro equation predicting sweat loss and water requirements was...40 60 80 100 % O ff (+ ,m od el u nd er pr ed ic ts ;-, ov er pr ed ic ts ) It is clear from Figure 2’s plot of the residual values ( comparison

  14. Effect of dietary copper on the copper content of urine, parotid saliva, and sweat in humans

    SciT

    Turnlund, J.R.

    Eleven young men were confined to a metabolic research unit to study the effect of the level of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu metabolism. They were fed a constant diet containing the following three levels of dietary Cu: adequate Cu (1.68 mg/d) for 24 days (MP1), low Cu (0.785 mg/d) for 42 days (MP2), and high Cu (7.53 mg/d) for 24 days (MP3). Urine was collected throughout the study and Cu was determined in 6-day pools from the beginning of the study, the end of each MP, and the midpoint of MP2. Parotid saliva was collected near the end ofmore » each MP. Sweat was collected from the upper arm and ancillary area of three subjects for 2-day periods near the end of each MP. Urinary Cu averaged 0.34, 0.34 and 0.33 {mu}mol/d for MP 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.39 {mu}mol/d. Parotid saliva Cu averaged 13.4, 13.0, and 12.0 nmol/L for MP 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 6.9 to 17.8 nmol/L. Sweat Cu levels were very low and did not appear to be affected by dietary Cu. The limited data suggest that sweat losses would have little effect on Cu balance. Neither urinary nor salivary Cu was affected by dietary Cu or related to indices of Cu status (serum Cu, ceruloplasmin, or erythrocyte superoxide dismutase). Urinary and salivary Cu differed significantly among individuals. Results suggest that urinary, salivary, and sweat Cu do not play a role in regulating Cu retention or affect Cu status of humans.« less

  15. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  17. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  19. A modified ion-selective electrode method for measurement of chloride in sweat.

    PubMed

    Finley, P R; Dye, J A; Lichti, D A; Byers, J M; Williams, R J

    1978-06-01

    A modified method of analysis of sweat chloride concentration with an ion-selective electrode is presented. The original method of sweat chloride analysis proposed by the Orion Research Corporation (Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139) is inadequate because it produces erratic and misleading results. The modified method was compared with the reference quantitative method of Gibson and Cooke. In the modified method, individual electrode pads are cut and placed in the electrodes rather than using the pads supplied by the company; pilocarpine nitrate (2,000 mg/l) is used in place of pilocarpine HCl (640 mg/l); sodium bicarbonate as the weak electrolyte is used instead of K2SO4. A 10-minute period for sweat accumulation is employed rather than a zero-time collection as in the original Orion method. The modification has been studied for reproducibility in individuals, reproducibility between right and left arm in individuals; it has been compared extensively with the quantitative method of Gibson and Cooke, both in normal individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis. There is excellent agreement between the modified method and the quantitative reference method. There appears to be a slight bias toward higher concentrations of chloride from the right arm compared with the left arm, but this difference is not medically significant.

  20. Wearable Platform for Real-time Monitoring of Sodium in Sweat.

    PubMed

    McCaul, Margaret; Porter, Adam; Barrett, Ruairi; White, Paddy; Stroiescu, Florien; Wallace, Gordon; Diamond, Dermot

    2018-06-19

    A fully integrated and wearable platform for harvesting and analysing sweat sodium concentration in real time during exercise has been developed and tested. The platform was largely produced using 3D printing, which greatly simplifies fabrication and operation compared to previous versions generated with traditional production techniques. The 3D printed platform doubles the capacity of the sample storage reservoir to about 1.3 ml, reduces the assembly time and provides simple and precise component alignment and contact of the integrated solid-state ion-selective and reference electrodes with the sorbent material. The sampling flowrate in the device can be controlled by introducing threads to enhance wicking of sweat from the skin, across the electrodes to the storage area. The platform was characterised in the lab and in exercise trials over a period of about 60 minutes continuous monitoring. Sweat sodium concentration was found to rise initially to approximately 17 mM and decline gradually over the period of the trial to about 11-12 mM. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Measurement of sodium concentration in sweat samples: comparison of 5 analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Eric D B; Asselin, Audrey; Gosselin, Jonathan; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-08-01

    Sweat sodium concentration (SSC) can be determined using different analytical techniques (ATs), which may have implications for athletes and scientists. This study compared the SSC measured with 5 ATs: ion chromatography (IChr), flame photometry (FP), direct (DISE) and indirect (IISE) ion-selective electrode, and ion conductivity (IC). Seventy sweat samples collected from 14 athletes were analyzed with 5 instruments: the 883 Basic IC Plus (IChr, reference instrument), AAnalyst 200 (FP), Cobas 6000 (IISE), Sweat-Chek (IC), and B-722 Laqua Twin (DISE). Instruments showed excellent relative (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.999) and absolute (coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 2.6%) reliability. Relative validity was also excellent between ATs (ICC ≥ 0.961). In regards to the inter-AT absolute validity, compared with IChr, standard error of the estimates were similar among ATs (2.8-3.8 mmol/L), but CV was lowest with DISE (3.9%), intermediate with IISE (7.6%), and FP (6.9%) and highest with IC (12.3%). In conclusion, SSC varies depending on the AT used to analyze samples. Therefore, results obtained from different ATs are scarcely comparable and should not be used interchangeably. Nevertheless, taking into account the normal variability in SSC (∼±12%), the imprecision of the recommendations deriving from FP, IISE, IC, and DISE should have trivial health and physiological consequences under most exercise circumstances.

  2. Textile Functionalization and Its Effects on the Release of Silver Nanoparticles into Artificial Sweat.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Sandra; Dommershausen, Nils; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Mitrano, Denise; Nowack, Bernd; Schneider, Gregor; Luch, Andreas

    2016-06-07

    This study addresses the release of total silver (Ag) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from textiles into artificial sweat, particularly considering the functionalization technology used in textile finishing. Migration experiments were conducted for four commercially available textiles and for six laboratory-prepared textiles. Two among these lab-prepared textiles represent materials in which Ag-NPs were embedded within the textile fibers (composites), whereas the other lab-prepared textiles contain Ag particles on the respective fiber surfaces (coatings). The results indicate a smaller release of total Ag from composites in comparison to surface-coated textiles. The particulate fraction determined within the artificial sweat was negligible for most textiles, meaning that the majority of the released Ag is present as dissolved Ag. It is also relevant to note that nanotextiles do not release more particulate Ag than conventional Ag textiles. The results rather indicate that the functionalization type is the most important parameter affecting the migration. Furthermore, after measuring different Ag-NP types in their pristine form with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the single particle mode, there is evidence that particle modifications, like surface coating, may also influence the dissolution behavior of the Ag-NPs in the sweat solutions. These factors are important when discussing the likelihood of consumer exposure.

  3. 'Rusters'. The corrosive action of palmar sweat: II. Physical and chemical factors in palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, O; Nielsen, E

    1979-01-01

    When measuring sweating rates, close correspondence was found with the clinical estimation of hyperhidrosis. Corrosion was seen to increase with increasing sweat rates, reaching its maximum after an assumed rise in the actual sodium chloride concentration on the skin surface due to evaporation of water. The findings confirm that hyperhidrosis is of primary importance in the constitution of a 'ruster', and are also in good agreement with experimental reports. The small variations in palmar skin pH had no influence on the degree of corrosion; nor had the character of the metal surface. Of the two types of metal studied. corrosion was much more severe on the type having the lowest concentration of copper, thus confirming that increasing copper concentrations have a positive effect in reducing corrosion rates. At 50--60% relative humidity (RH) corrosion increased as time elapsed, whereas at 40% RH no corrosion developed on a sweat-contaminated plate. When exposed to 75% RH, metal samples became severely corroded in the course of a few days. Protective methods for the avoidance of rust are mentioned, with special emphasis on frequent handwashing.

  4. The analysis of metabolites in human sweat: analytical methods and potential application to investigation of pressure ischaemia of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R P; Polliack, A A; Bader, D L

    1994-01-01

    A straightforward technique was developed for sweat collection applicable to tissues subjected to external load without introducing distortion of underlying tissues, and for analysis of six metabolites in the collected sweat. Chloride was measured colorimetrically and lactate, urea and urate by enzymatic methods on a centrifugal analyser. Sodium and potassium were measured by flame photometry. The methods showed good precision, recovery and linearity. To assess the technique sweat was collected: (i) from the sacrum, ischium, forearm and calf in healthy individuals at 32 degrees C for 1 h; (ii) from the sacrum of healthy subjects at ambient temperature for 9 h; (iii) at ambient temperature from the sacrum of a patient with a history of pressure sores. Sweat rates were greater at the sacrum and ischium than the calf or forearm. There were differences in the concentrations of lactate and urea between sites but these were smaller when expressed as amount secreted. Sweat rates were significantly lower in groups (ii) and (iii), but sweat could be collected reliably. This technique has potential clinical application to the investigation of susceptibility to pressure sores.

  5. Optimization study for metabolomics analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-14

    Sweat has recently gained popularity as a potential tool for diagnostics and biomarker monitoring as it is a non-invasive biofluid the composition of which could be modified by certain pathologies, as is the case with cystic fibrosis, which increases chloride levels in sweat. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS/MS) in high resolution mode. Thus, different sample preparation strategies and different chromatographic modes (HILIC and C18 reverse modes) were compared to check their effect on the profile of sweat metabolites. Forty-one compounds were identified by the MS/MS information obtained with a mass tolerance window below 4 ppm. Amino acids, dicarboxylic acids and other interesting metabolites such as inosine, choline, uric acid and tyramine were identified. Among the tested protocols, direct analysis after dilution was a suited option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome. In addition, sample clean up by C18 SpinColumn SPE cartridges improved the sensitivity of most identified compounds and reduced the number of interferents. As most of the identified metabolites are involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new possibilities to the use of sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of specific disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    PubMed

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (<60, 60-<80, ≥80mmol/L), CFTR genotype (high and lower risk for lung function decline), and survival and mixed linear regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (<60 HR 0.53 [0.37, 0.77], 60-<80 0.51 [0.42, 0.63]). Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  8. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  9. Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2013-12-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation.

  10. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate cutaneous vasodilation. Sweat rate was estimated using the ventilated capsule technique. Core and skin temperatures were measured continuously. Exercise duration was similar between conditions (Control: 42.2 ± 3.6 min vs. GCS: 42.2 ± 3.6 min, P  = 1.00). Relative to Control, GCS increased forearm vascular conductance during the late stages (≥30 min) of exercise (e.g., at 40 min, 15.6 ± 5.6 vs. 18.0 ± 6.0 units, P  = 0.01). This was paralleled by a greater sensitivity (23.1 ± 9.1 vs. 32.1 ± 15.0 units°C -1 , P  = 0.043) and peak level (14.1 ± 5.1 vs. 16.3 ± 5.7 units, P  = 0.048) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with core temperature. However, the core temperature threshold at which an increase in forearm vascular conductance occurred did not differ between conditions (Control: 36.9 ± 0.2 vs. GCS: 37.0 ± 0.3°C, P  = 0.13). In contrast, no effect of GCS on sweating was measured (all P  > 0.05). We show that the use of GCS during exercise in the heat enhances cutaneous vasodilation and not sweating. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  11. Active recovery attenuates the fall in sweat rate but not cutaneous vascular conductance after supine exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thad E; Carter, Robert; Cutler, Michael J; Cui, Jian; Smith, Michael L; Crandall, Craig G

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether baroreceptor unloading was responsible for less efficient heat loss responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweat rate) previously reported during inactive compared with active recovery after upright cycle exercise (Carter R III, Wilson TE, Watenpaugh DE, Smith ML, and Crandall CG. J Appl Physiol 93: 1918-1929, 2002). Eight healthy adults performed two 15-min bouts of supine cycle exercise followed by inactive or active (no-load pedaling) supine recovery. Core temperature (T(core)), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), thoracic impedance, central venous pressure (n = 4), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/MAP expressed as percentage of maximal vasodilation), and sweat rate were measured throughout exercise and during 5 min of recovery. Exercise bouts were similar in power output, heart rate, T(core), and T(sk). Baroreceptor loading and thermal status were similar during trials because MAP (90 +/- 4, 88 +/- 4 mmHg), thoracic impedance (29 +/- 1, 28 +/- 2 Omega), central venous pressure (5 +/- 1, 4 +/- 1 mmHg), T(core) (37.5 +/- 0.1, 37.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C), and T(sk) (34.1 +/- 0.3, 34.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C) were not significantly different at 3 min of recovery between active and inactive recoveries, respectively; all P > 0.05. At 3 min of recovery, chest CVC was not significantly different between active (25 +/- 6% of maximum) and inactive (28 +/- 6% of maximum; P > 0.05) recovery. In contrast, at this time point, chest sweat rate was higher during active (0.45 +/- 0.16 mg.cm(-2).min(-1)) compared with inactive (0.34 +/- 0.19 mg.cm(-2).min(-1); P < 0.05) recovery. After exercise CVC and sweat rate are differentially controlled, with CVC being primarily influenced by baroreceptor loading status while sweat rate is influenced by other factors.

  12. Limited social plasticity in the socially polymorphic sweat bee Lasioglossum calceatum.

    PubMed

    Davison, P J; Field, J

    2018-01-01

    Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations. In this paper, we focus on the sweat bee Lasioglossum calceatum , in which northern or high-altitude populations are solitary, whereas more southern or low-altitude populations are typically eusocial. To test whether social phenotype responds to local environmental cues, we transplanted adult females from a solitary, northern population, to a southern site where native bees are typically eusocial. Nearly all native nests were eusocial, with foundresses producing small first brood (B1) females that became workers. In contrast, nine out of ten nests initiated by transplanted bees were solitary, producing female offspring that were the same size as the foundress and entered directly into hibernation. Only one of these ten nests became eusocial. Social phenotype was unlikely to be related to temperature experienced by nest foundresses when provisioning B1 offspring, or by B1 emergence time, both previously implicated in social plasticity seen in two other socially polymorphic sweat bees. Our results suggest that social polymorphism in L. calceatum predominantly reflects genetic differentiation between populations, and that plasticity is in the process of being lost by bees in northern populations. Phenotypic plasticity is thought to play a key role in the early stages of the transition from solitary to eusocial behaviour, but may then be lost if environmental conditions become less variable. Socially polymorphic sweat bees exhibit

  13. [Malignant tumors of thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Uhliarová, B; Bugová, G; Hajtman, A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. The aim of this work was to determine risk factors, diagnostic methods and extent of surgical treatment of malignant goiter. The authors retrospectively analyzed patients who were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Comenius University, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Teaching Hospital in Martin, Slovakia, from the January 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2013, for thyroid disease. The incidence, risk factors of malignant thyroid tumors, indication for surgery and its complications were evaluated. A total of 1,620 adult patients were surgically treated for thyroid disease at the Department of ENT, Head and Neck Surgery, CU JMF, UH in Martin, Slovakia, between 2006- 2013. Malignant tumors were identified in 238 patients (15%). Microcarcinoma (incidentally detected malignant tumor 1 cm) occurred in 78 cases (5%). Malignant thyroid tumor was more common in younger patients (p = 0.002). Newly created and larger nodules positively correlated with the occurrence of malignancy (p = 0.003, p = 0.041, resp.). Gender, family history of thyroid disorder, previous radiation therapy, and previous malignancy did not affect the incidence of malignant tumor of thyroid gland. High sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid nodule was observed using aspiration cytology (75%, 97%, resp.) and intraoperative histopathological examination (88%, 100%, resp.). Malignant tumor of thyroid gland is more common in younger patients with newly developed nodule. The risk factors of malignancy increase with the size of the thyroid nodule. Aspiration cytology and peroperative histopathology have high sensitivity and specificity in the dia-gnosis of malignant thyroid tumor; therefore, they should be a standard method in the dia-gnosis of nodular goiter. The method of choice in the treatment of thyroid malignancy is total thyroidectomy.

  14. Management of thyroid gland abscess.

    PubMed

    García Callejo, Javier; Redondo Martínez, Jaume; Civera, Miguel; Verdú Colomina, José; Pellicer Zoghbi, Verónica; Martínez Beneyto, M Paz

    2018-06-08

    Thyroid abscess or acute suppurative thyroiditis is an unusual clinical condition. We present our experience with cases attended over 41 years. A retrospective study was performed on these patients reviewing their epidemiological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic manoeuvres chosen for them all, as well as their clinical outcome. A group of 9 males and 5 females was studied, with ages ranging from 19 to 68 (mean of 40.6±15.4). These patients suffered 22 acute episodes, and 2 patients each had 4 episodes. Suppurative thyroiditis comprised 0.29% of the neck abscesses. Fine needle aspiration was performed in 13 cases to evacuate the collection and isolate the aetiological agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently identified. Nine patients underwent ultrasound and 7 computed tomography imaging studies. Surgery was the option for 10 patients, including drainage for 7, thyroidectomy for 4 and hemithyroidectomy for the remaining 2. Systemic or intralesional antibiotics and sclerosis of the gland were also carried out. Although one case presented with hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in the acute phase, definitive hypothyroidism was observed in 5 patients at 6 months following discharge. The rate of success was 100%. Thyroid gland suppuration is a very infrequent circumstance in neck pathology, and the options for its treatment are varied, from conservative to invasive techniques according to the microbial and radiologic findings. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Thyroid gland in the gravidity].

    PubMed

    Vargová, V; Mechírová, V; Pytliak, M

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are the most common endocrinopathies in the gravidity. The spectrum of thyroid diseases in the pregnancy is not different from the diseases that affect the thyroid outside this period of life. However, clinical manifestations of thyreopaties can be modified by gravidity. Some thyreopaties are associated with gravidity or post partum period, or become manifest in this periods for the first time. The aim of this study was to assess thyroidal status of healthy pregnant women without history or clinical signs of thyreopathy. One-time cross-sectional study. 3rd internal clinic FNLP, Kosice. We examined 76 pregnant women (mean age 34.46 +/- 5.34 years). The protocol included medical history, physical examination and assessment of TSH, fT4 and anti-TPO concentrations. The mean concentration of TSH was 2.78 +/- 1.25 mlU/ml. We found TSH concentration over 5.0 mlU/ml in 5 participants (6.58%), TSH levels in the borderline range between 4.0-5.0 mlU/ml had another 2 pregnants (2.63%). fT4 concentration was 15.02 +/- 3.61 pmol/l. The mean anti-TPO concentration was 43.28 +/- 15.75 IU/ml. 17 pregnant women (22%) had anti-TPO concentration over 25 IU/ml, which is the level that indicates autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyreopathies are the most common endocrinopathies in the population and there is the evidence that almost one third of European population is affected from diseases of thyroid gland, predominantly women in fertile age. In the clinical praxis it is essential to think of thyroid disorders and in the case of need screening of the thyroid function.

  16. The significance of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum in cholinergic urticaria: cholinergic urticaria may have different subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Kwan Ho; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kang, Hoon; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cholinergic urticaria (ChU) has been unclear except for the involvement of acetylcholine. Attempts to classify ChU according to etiology have rarely been performed. To evaluate the significance of responsiveness to autologous sweat and serum in ChU in relation to their clinical characteristics. This study involved 18 patients diagnosed with ChU between January 2010 and April 2011 in the Catholic Medical Center-St. Paul's Hospital. History taking included symptom duration, association with atopy, decreased sweat secretions, seasonal variation, and response to treatment. Intradermal autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous sweat skin test (ASwST) and basophil histamine release test with sweat were done. Sweat hypersensitivity was proven by a positive ASwST and basophil histamine release test in only 37.5% of patients with ChU, and in none of the healthy controls. The weal size of ASwST correlated with percentage basophil histamine release. A positive response to autologous serum was displayed by 38.9% of patients, whereas 10% of healthy controls showed a positive ASST response. Intriguingly, patients with a positive ASwST had a negative ASST, and vice versa. Despite this, there was no difference in the clinical characteristics between positive ASST and positive ASwST groups. The frequency of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum was significantly higher in patients with ChU, compared with healthy controls. This suggests that autoimmunity to an unknown serum factor as well as sweat hypersensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of ChU. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, R H; Sparkes, D L; Dascombe, B J; Stevens, C J; Murphy, G R; Macdonald, M M; Gottfries, J; Gottfries, C-G; Roberts, T K

    2017-08-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.

  18. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  19. Gland segmentation in prostate histopathological images

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Malay; Kalaw, Emarene Mationg; Giron, Danilo Medina; Chong, Kian-Tai; Tan, Chew Lim; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Glandular structural features are important for the tumor pathologist in the assessment of cancer malignancy of prostate tissue slides. The varying shapes and sizes of glands combined with the tedious manual observation task can result in inaccurate assessment. There are also discrepancies and low-level agreement among pathologists, especially in cases of Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 prostate adenocarcinoma. An automated gland segmentation system can highlight various glandular shapes and structures for further analysis by the pathologist. These objective highlighted patterns can help reduce the assessment variability. We propose an automated gland segmentation system. Forty-three hematoxylin and eosin-stained images were acquired from prostate cancer tissue slides and were manually annotated for gland, lumen, periacinar retraction clefting, and stroma regions. Our automated gland segmentation system was trained using these manual annotations. It identifies these regions using a combination of pixel and object-level classifiers by incorporating local and spatial information for consolidating pixel-level classification results into object-level segmentation. Experimental results show that our method outperforms various texture and gland structure-based gland segmentation algorithms in the literature. Our method has good performance and can be a promising tool to help decrease interobserver variability among pathologists. PMID:28653016

  20. Ultrastructure of the mink parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Tandler, B

    1991-01-01

    Acini in the parotid gland of the North American mink (Mustela vision) are composed of seromucous cells that contain secretory granules of peculiar morphology. Many of the granules consist of a light matrix in which is embedded an inclusion made up of dense, frequently parallel rodlets in a fibrillar material of moderate density. Like the submandibular gland of the same animal, the tall cells of the parotid striated ducts contain numerous polygonal, often rhomboidal, crystalloids in their apical cytoplasm. These crystalloids are present equally in both sexes and are as abundant in the parotid as in the submandibular gland. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1769893