Science.gov

Sample records for economic benefits

  1. Affirmative Action: Overcoming Disparities Yields Economic Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Affirmative action is a necessary and effective strategy to end racial and gender inequalities. While moral and historical defenses of affirmative action have merit, economic reasoning is a more potent argument. Analysis of the economic costs and benefits of affirmative action in higher education illustrate its effectiveness in reducing income…

  2. Affirmative Action: Overcoming Disparities Yields Economic Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Affirmative action is a necessary and effective strategy to end racial and gender inequalities. While moral and historical defenses of affirmative action have merit, economic reasoning is a more potent argument. Analysis of the economic costs and benefits of affirmative action in higher education illustrate its effectiveness in reducing income…

  3. Crowdfunding our health: Economic risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-10-01

    Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method. These are projects covering health expenses, fundraising health initiatives, supporting health research, or financing commercial health innovation. Crowdfunding could economically benefit the health sector by expanding market participation, drawing money and awareness to neglected health issues, improving access to funding, and fostering project accountability and social engagement. However, the economic risks of health-related crowdfunding include inefficient priority setting, heightened financial risk, inconsistent regulatory policies, intellectual property rights concerns, and fraud. Theorized crowdfunding behaviours such as signalling and herding can be observed in the market for health-related crowdfunding. Broader threats of market failure stemming from adverse selection and moral hazard also apply. Many of the discussed economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding health campaigns are shared more broadly with those of crowdfunding projects in other sectors. Where crowdfunding health care appears to diverge from theory is the negative externality inefficient priority setting may have towards achieving broader public health goals. Therefore, the market for crowdfunding health care must be economically stable, as well as designed to optimally and equitably improve public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  5. Direct economic benefits associated with dietetic internships.

    PubMed

    Conklin, M T; Simko, M D

    1994-02-01

    We explored the direct economic benefits of hospital dietetics departments sponsoring an internship for dietetics studies. Forty-five dietetics departments in US hospitals participated in a mail survey that involved comprehensive data collection procedures using three instruments, including activity logs recorded by 298 dietitians and interns. Direct benefits were defined as the net student labor provided to the department during routine and staff relief experiences that released professional labor for other work. Net student productivity during routine assignments was calculated by subtracting the time dietitians spent teaching during a typical work week from the amount of time dietetic interns spent performing professional services without direct supervision. Student productivity during staff relief rotations was calculated by multiplying the number of students assigned to this type of experience by the length of the rotation. While involved in routine learning experiences, dietetic interns provided a direct benefit. The difference between the time interns spent in independent, professional service in the departments and the time dietitians spent in activities designed specifically for teaching was a mean of 29 hours in favor of the students. All departments received a direct benefit from assigning dietetic interns to a staff relief rotation. The median number of weeks of student labor gained by the departments per year was 24. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the time dietitians devoted to teaching interns and the time students spent in independent, professional service in the departments. The difference was very highly significant (P < .001) This study is a beginning step in objectively documenting positive outcomes associated with sponsoring a dietetic internship. It also represents a model that could be used by program directors to study the economic impact of their supervised practice program on the sponsoring organization.

  6. The Economic Benefits of Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The recent growth of activities towards developing passenger space travel services is very promising; however there is a widespread but mistaken idea that space tourism will remain a small-scale activity of the very wealthy. The truth is that, having been delayed for over three decades by government space agencies' failure to develop more than a small fraction of the commercial potential of space, the start of space travel services is long overdue, and so they are capable of growing rapidly into a major new industry. That is, the technical and business know-how exists to enable space tourism to grow to a turnover of 100 billion Euros/year within a few decades if it receives public support of even 10% of space agencies budgets. This development would sharply reduce the cost of accessing the resources of space, which could prevent the spread of the “resource wars” which have begun so ominously. No activity therefore offers greater economic benefits than the rapid development of low-cost space tourism services. A range of government policies should be revised to reflect this.

  7. Energy and economic benefits of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farsaie, A.; Debarthe, J.V.; Lessley, B.V.; Waffle, R.W.; Wiebold, W.J.

    1982-12-01

    Management practices for three full season and four double cropping systems using sunflowers, peanuts, rapeseed and soybeans were studied. An economic analysis including investment, and annual cost (fixed and variable) for each of the seven cropping systems has been developed.

  8. Economic benefits of supersonic overland operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns are likely to impose some restrictions on the next generation of supersonic commercial transport. There is a global concern over the effects of engine emissions on the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from ultraviolet radiation. There is also some concern over community noise. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) must meet at least the current subsonic noise certification standards to be compatible with the future subsonic fleet. Concerns over sonic boom represent another environmental and marketing challenge to the HSCT program. The most attractive feature of the supersonic transport is speed, which offers the traveling public significant time-savings on long range routes. The sonic boom issue represents a major environmental and economic challenge as well. Supersonic operation overland produces the most desirable economic results. However, unacceptable overland sonic boom raise levels may force HSCT to use subsonic speeds overland. These environmental and economic challenges are likely to impose some restrictions on supersonic operation, thus introducing major changes to existing route structures and future supersonic network composition. The current subsonic route structure may have to be altered for supersonic transports to avoid sensitive areas in the stratosphere or to minimize overland flight tracks. It is important to examine the alternative route structure and the impact of these restrictions on the economic viability of the overall supersonic operation. Future market potential for HSCT fleets must be large enough to enable engine and airframe manufacturers to build the plane at a cost that provides them with an attractive return on investment and to sell it at a price that allows the airlines to operate with a reasonable margin of profit. Subsonic overland operation of a supersonic aircraft hinders its economic viability. Ways to increase the market potential of supersonic operation are described.

  9. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  10. Noneconomic and economic benefits of continuing education for dietitians.

    PubMed

    Partlow, C G; Spears, M C; Oaklief, C R

    1989-09-01

    This research evaluated the expected and actual noneconomic and economic benefits from continuing education as perceived by registered dietitian members of the Kansas Dietetic Association in 1986. A random sample of 180 dietitians was selected from the 550 members of the association; 83.9% of the sample responded to the research questionnaire. Thirteen possible noneconomic or personal benefits and six possible economic or professional benefits were rated on a scale of 1, little or no benefit, to 5, great benefit. The highest ratings on noneconomic benefits were 4.43 expected and 3.95 actual on the benefit of "becoming informed about some subject". On economic benefits, the highest ratings were 4.36 expected and 3.82 actual on "learning recent job knowledge." The overall noneconomic ratings were 2.85 expected and 2.78 actual. On economic benefits, the overall ratings were 3.46 expected and 3.07 actual. Dietitians ranked "expertise of instructors" and "instructor's ability to explain or demonstrate" as the two highest perceived strengths of the continuing education experience. Obviously, the instructor is viewed as an important factor in continuing education. Dietitians rated their degree of participation in continuing experiences in the following descending order: "contributing to the evaluation process", "sharing experiences with others," and "developing goals and ideas."

  11. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development. PMID:23990809

  12. Some economic benefits of a synchronous earth observatory satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battacharyya, R. K.; Greenberg, J. S.; Lowe, D. S.; Sattinger, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made of the economic benefits which might be derived from reduced forecasting errors made possible by data obtained from a synchronous satellite system which can collect earth observation and meteorological data continuously and on demand. User costs directly associated with achieving benefits are included. In the analysis, benefits were evaluated which might be obtained as a result of improved thunderstorm forecasting, frost warning, and grain harvest forecasting capabilities. The anticipated system capabilities were used to arrive at realistic estimates of system performance on which to base the benefit analysis. Emphasis was placed on the benefits which result from system forecasting accuracies. Benefits from improved thunderstorm forecasts are indicated for the construction, air transportation, and agricultural industries. The effects of improved frost warning capability on the citrus crop are determined. The benefits from improved grain forecasting capability are evaluated in terms of both U.S. benefits resulting from domestic grain distribution and U.S. benefits from international grain distribution.

  13. An Economic Methodology for Measuring the Benefits from Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, William P.; Greenberg, David H.

    A model for estimating the economic value of children is presented in this report designed to assist researchers of the less developed nations in assessing: amount and distribution of children's contribution to national output; the economic benefits of health, nutrition, and schooling changes; the persistence of rural people in having large…

  14. Assessing the benefits and economic values of trees

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental...

  15. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of tuition fees of up to 3,000 British Pounds a year for full-time undergraduates in England in 2006 has revitalised the debate about the benefits of a degree to the individual. As a contribution to this discussion Universities UK commissioned PricewaterhouseCoopers (in association with London Economics,) to produce a report on…

  16. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of tuition fees of up to 3,000 British Pounds a year for full-time undergraduates in England in 2006 has revitalised the debate about the benefits of a degree to the individual. As a contribution to this discussion Universities UK commissioned PricewaterhouseCoopers (in association with London Economics,) to produce a report on…

  17. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  18. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  19. Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-10-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (approximately 3,000 km(2)) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not.

  20. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-01-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (~3,000 km2) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not. PMID:17076583

  1. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  2. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  3. Economic benefits of improved meteorological forecasts - The construction industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R. K.; Greenberg, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are made of the potential economic benefits accruing to particular industries from timely utilization of satellite-derived six-hour weather forecasts, and of economic penalties resulting from failure to utilize such forecasts in day-to-day planning. The cost estimate study is centered on the U.S. construction industry, with results simplified to yes/no 6-hr forecasts on thunderstorm activity and work/no work decisions. Effects of weather elements (thunderstorms, snow and sleet) on various construction operations are indicated. Potential dollar benefits for other industries, including air transportation and other forms of transportation, are diagrammed for comparison. Geosynchronous satellites such as STORMSAT, SEOS, and SMS/GOES are considered as sources of the forecast data.

  4. Economic benefits of improved meteorological forecasts - The construction industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R. K.; Greenberg, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are made of the potential economic benefits accruing to particular industries from timely utilization of satellite-derived six-hour weather forecasts, and of economic penalties resulting from failure to utilize such forecasts in day-to-day planning. The cost estimate study is centered on the U.S. construction industry, with results simplified to yes/no 6-hr forecasts on thunderstorm activity and work/no work decisions. Effects of weather elements (thunderstorms, snow and sleet) on various construction operations are indicated. Potential dollar benefits for other industries, including air transportation and other forms of transportation, are diagrammed for comparison. Geosynchronous satellites such as STORMSAT, SEOS, and SMS/GOES are considered as sources of the forecast data.

  5. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  6. [Pharmacoeconomy in acne--evaluation of benefit and economics].

    PubMed

    Radtke, Marc A; Schäfer, Ines; Augustin, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    Acne belongs to the most common skin diseases and has a prevalence in the adolescence of nearly 100% and in adults of about 4%. The quality of life indes is significantly reduced und has impact on daily activities and social life and physical and psychological well being as well. The socioeconomic relevance is based not only on its prevalence but on direct and indirect costs. For acne therapy the knowledge on therapeutic costs is of importance but the cost benefit ratio as well. Evidence of therapeutic costs in acne and economic benefit of the therapy. Systematic review of Cochrane data. Calculations reveal general costs of acne treatment in Germany over 400 Mill.Euro per year. For the treatment with topical retinoids, BPO and antibiotics as well as systemic drugs only a few studies on costeffectiveness are available. For topical treatments results are not conclusive and dependent on the different health systems. New topical combinations may have a better economic outcome, however, more studies are needed. With regard to systemic therapies of moderate to severe acne based on the international references the costbenefit ratio favours the treatment with oral isotretinoin on the longterm outcome. Superiority is based on the relationship of costs and clinical outcome and the increased quality of life as well (cost-benefit ratio). It has to be emphazised that only longterm observations over years will lead to a valid calculation of costs and benefit. FACIT: Taking the high social and quality of life impact into consideration an early, well targeted and effective therapy is prevailing. Initial higher cost are balanced by a high quality of outcome under experienced dermatological supervision. The patients benefit is ranked over the final costs because of its medical, social and ethical aspects. To sample more differentiated data on pharmacoeconomic aspects well designed new clinical studies are to be set up.

  7. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  8. Evaluating the Economic and Social Benefits of Nutrient ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New England’s coastal social-ecological systems are subject to chronic environmental problems, including water quality degradation. Researchers at EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) Atlantic Ecology Division (AED) are piloting an effort to further understand how reduced water quality due to nutrient enrichment is affecting and may affect the economic prosperity, social capacity, and ecological integrity of coastal New England communities. This research is part of task 4.61 of ORD’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (Integrated Solutions for Sustainable Communities: Social-Ecological Systems for Resilience and Adaptive Management in Communities - A Cape Cod Case Study). Concurrent with this effort, AED researchers are participating in EPA’s three-office effort (Office of Research and Development, Office of Policy, and Office of Water) to quantify and monetize the benefits of water quality improvements across the Nation. AED’s effort is a case study of changes in recreation demand and values due to changes in nutrients in Northeastern estuaries and freshwater ponds. This work is part of task 3.04A of the Safe and Sustainable Waters Research Program (National Water Quality Benefits: Economic Case Studies of Water Quality Benefits). Because of the complementarity between the two projects, this Supporting Statement describes and requests hours for focus groups and interviews for both of these research efforts. Our initial

  9. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  10. A study of the economic benefits of meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B. A.; Hinton, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite data, while most useful in data poor areas, serves to fine tune forecasts in data rich areas. It consequently has a resulting significant economic benefit because, as previously stated, even one improved forecast per client per year can save each client thousands of dollars. Multiply this by several hundred clients and the dollar savings are sizeable. The great educational value which experience with satellite data gives undoubtedly leads to improved forecasts. Any type of future satellite data delivery system should take into account the needs and facilities of the user community to make it most useful.

  11. Economic Benefits of Achieving Realistic Smoking Cessation Targets in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cadilhac, Dominique; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby; Pearce, Dora; Carter, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the economic impact of reductions in the prevalence of tobacco smoking on health, production, and leisure in the 2008 Australian population. Methods. We selected a prevalence target of 15%. Cohort lifetime health benefits were modeled as fewer incident cases of tobacco-related diseases, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years. We estimated production gains by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of adult smokers and ex-smokers valued according to the human capital and friction cost approaches. We estimated household production and leisure gains from time use surveys and valued these gains with the appropriate proxy. Results. In the 2008 Australian population, an absolute reduction in smoking prevalence of 8% would result in 158 000 fewer incident cases of disease, 5000 fewer deaths, 2.2 million fewer lost working days, and 3000 fewer early retirements and would reduce health sector costs by AUD 491 million. The gain in workforce production was AUD 415 million (friction cost) or AUD 863 million (human capital), along with gains of 373 000 days of household production and 23 000 days of leisure time. Conclusions. Lowering smoking prevalence rates can lead to substantial economic savings and health benefits. PMID:21164092

  12. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential

  13. Maximizing the Economic Benefits of a Multi-Spectral Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, P.; Martimort, Ph.

    Several multi-spectral Space missions have been proposed worldwide to meet the requirements of various applications with hopes of substantial return on investment. However experience has shown that up till today, with very few exceptions, most have not reached expectations and several multi-spectral projects are even staying only at the prospective stage. In this paper the results of a thorough analysis of the requirements of several key thematic domains will be presented ( in particular vegetation monitoring, geology, oceanography, urbanism, ... ). This analysis will be followed by the identification of optimum system specifications to establish a commercially viable system. A description of the technical characteristcs of the optimum system in terms of mission, satellite, platform, instrument and ground segment will then be given. Finally a treatment of the business case will be shown and its economic benefits will be qualitatively and quantitatively indicated. The relationship between such a program and its counterparts worldwide will be explored to identify redundancies or synergies.

  14. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  15. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  16. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  17. Optimal scale of China's cities under the maximization of economic benefits and environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Wu, Sanmang; He, Chunyan; Chen, Jiabin; Yan, Dan

    2017-07-09

    The cities are the consumption concentration of energy, resources, and the concentration of CO2 emissions. The cities' area only accounted for 2% in the world's surface; however, their population accounted for about 50% of the total population, and CO2 emissions accounted for about 80% of the total emissions. The cities lie in a key position in solving the global climate change. China's urbanization level was just exceeding by 50%, which was in the intermediate stage of urbanization. The rapid development of the urbanization process and the expansion of city scale have brought economic growth and all kinds of environmental issues. Therefore, is there an optimal city scale which can make cities maintain economic growth and can also reduce or even avoid the environmental problems in the meantime? The question deserves deep research. Based on the background, the data from 1998 to 2014, and the goals of the cities' economic and environmental benefits, this paper builds the optimal scale model for the cities, and obtain two conclusions: (1) in a certain period and range, the cities have the optimal scale; (2) for the cities in China, the optimal scale is about 1.78 million people.

  18. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Washington, DC Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  20. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  1. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Oakland, California, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Nashville, Tennessee, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  3. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  4. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  5. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Oakland, California, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  6. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Washington, DC Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  7. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Nashville, Tennessee, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  8. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

  9. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  10. Utilization of waste carbon dioxide for environmental and economic benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, R.D.; Twomey, D.W.; Gasem, K.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The burning of fossil fuels has contributed significantly to an increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) content. Recent studies indicate that this increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} could lead to global warming with possibly catastrophic results to the planet`s ecological balance. So far, efforts to control the greenhouse effect have centered on strategies for reducing and limiting global emissions of CO{sub 2} and other contributing gases and on strategies for compensating for and adjusting to the effects of global warming. The purpose of this study is to explore an alternative strategy for controlling the greenhouse effect. We are addressing the issue of whether or not it is possible to utilize waste carbon dioxide for both environmental and economic benefits. Five general criteria have been established to aid in determining the qualities that a process must have to be considered a beneficial process. Three specific processes have been investigated (reforestation, production of methanol and production of urea) to demonstrate the application of the five criteria. The reforestation project was found to meet all five criteria in limited respects. However, the shear magnitude of planting effort required to make a significant contribution to CO{sub 2} emission reduction efforts makes it unrealistic. The production of methanol using waste CO{sub 2} results in essentially the same emission of CO{sub 2} as traditional methanol plants with negligible increases in costs. The production of urea from waste CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} fails to meet the first and most important criteria of a net reduction Of CO{sub 2} emission by a very large margin. Although neither of the industrial processes investigated was found to satisfy the established criteria, valuable information has been gained which should aid in future endeavors for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and some practical limitations of what can be expected by such efforts have been revealed.

  11. The Economic Benefits of International Environmental Investments Establishing a Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    effects (i.e., jobs, increased productivity, etc.) of environmental projects are seldom considered in terms of economic returns. Moreover, as is the...case for economic investments, the effects of environmental investments on the economies of those nations are unknown: the environmental effects of...environmental considerations and economic consid- erations could be integrated to demonstrate the cost- effectiveness of environ- mental investments. We

  12. Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Lancaster PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines technical assistance for demonstrating how accounting for the multiple benefits of green infrastructure can provide a more complete assessment of infrastructure and community investments.

  13. Widows Waiting to Wed?: (Re)Marriage and Economic Incentives in Social Security Widow Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien Michael J.; Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Weaver, David A.

    2004-01-01

    A widow(er) is only entitled to get the economic incentives benefits only after she/he attains the age of 60. The rate of remarriages before 60 for widow(er) is gradually going down resulting in marriages after the age of 60 to gain the economic benefits.

  14. The Costs and Benefits of SNOMED CT Implementation: An Economic Assessment Model.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Birov, Strahil; Piesche, Klaus; Højen, Anne Randorff; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Dewenter, Heike; Nejad, Reza Fathollah; Thun, Sylvia; Volkert, Pim; Kufrin, Vesna Kronstein; Stroetmann, Veli

    2016-01-01

    As part of its investigations, the EU-funded ASSESS CT project developed an Economic Assessment Model for assessing SNOMED CT's and other terminologies' socio-economic impact in a systematic approach. Methodology and key elements of the model are presented: cost and benefit indicators for assessing deployment, and a cost-benefit analysis tool to collect, estimate, and evaluate data.

  15. An Attempt to Quantify the Economic Benefits of Scientific Research, Science Policy Studies No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byatt, I. C. R.; Cohen, A. V.

    This paper presents a possible methodology for measuring and predicting the future course of the long-range economic benefits of "curiosity-oriented" research. The basic premise is that much pure research tends to give rise to major industries in about one generation. Each industry will have some total economic benefit which can be…

  16. Economic Costs and Benefits Associated with a Community Pharmacy Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selander, Linda Krypel; Larson, Lon N.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated costs and benefits to five pharmacists serving as preceptors of community pharmacy rotations by examining student work activities, cost of preceptor's time, and time saved by student work. When student work output was assigned a value of 50% of a pharmacist's salary, costs to benefits were balanced. (MSE)

  17. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.

  18. Rising Economy of India: How Can Nepal Draw Economic Benefit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Nepal’s history , Indo-Nepal Relations, Impact of Indian Economic Growth to Nepal’s Economy. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal has a glorious history of being independent and sovereign since its beginnings. The country lies...Problem Statement Nepal has a proud history of never being conquered nor colonized. When it comes to economic development, the country does not have an

  19. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  20. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  1. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  3. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  4. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  5. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  6. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  7. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  8. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  9. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  10. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  11. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  12. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  13. Economic Benefits and Impacts from Public Libraries in the State of Florida. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; Fraser, Bruce T.; Nelson, Timothy W.; Robbins, Jane B.

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the economic impacts and benefits of Florida public libraries. The study objectives were to: describe the role of public libraries in economic development; identify and describe the range of specific activities and programs engaged in to support economic development; identify factors that…

  14. The economic benefits of health information exchange interoperability for Australia.

    PubMed

    Sprivulis, Peter; Walker, Jan; Johnston, Douglas; Pan, Eric; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Middleton, Blackford; Bates, David W

    2007-11-01

    To estimate costs and benefits for Australia of implementing health information exchange interoperability among health care providers and other health care stakeholders. A cost-benefit model considering four levels of interoperability (Level 1, paper based; Level 2, machine transportable; Level 3, machine readable; and Level 4, machine interpretable) was developed for Government-funded health services, then validated by expert review. Roll-out costs for Level 3 and Level 4 interoperability were projected to be $21.5 billion and $14.2 billion, respectively, and steady-state costs, $1470 million and $933 million per annum, respectively. Level 3 interoperability would achieve steady-state savings of $1820 million, and Level 4 interoperability, $2990 million, comprising transactions of: laboratory $1180 million (39%); other providers, $893 million (30%); imaging centre, $680 million (23%); pharmacy, $213 million (7%) and public health, $27 million (1%). Net steady-state Level 4 benefits are projected to be $2050 million: $1710 million more than Level 3 benefits of $348 million, reflecting reduced interface costs for Level 4 interoperability due to standardisation of the semantic content of Level 4 messages. Benefits to both providers and society will accrue from the implementation of interoperability. Standards are needed for the semantic content of clinical messages, in addition to message exchange standards, for the full benefits of interoperability to be realised. An Australian Government policy position supporting such standards is recommended.

  15. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    One of the dominant contributory factors to a country's long-run productivity and economic growth is the education, training and skills possessed by its working-age population. Higher education qualifications are one of the key mechanisms in generating wealth for the students who attain them. The provision of education and skills also produces…

  16. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, soil has fueled the availability of abundant and safe food supplies, thus underpinning economic growth and development. In the future more vigilance will be needed in managing and renewing this precious resource by replacing the nutrients and life-sustaining matter that is rem...

  17. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  18. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  19. [Geriatric fracture centers. Improved patient care and economic benefits].

    PubMed

    Kates, S L

    2016-01-01

    The world's population is aging resulting in changes in the way we manage geriatric care. Furthermore, this population has a considerable risk of fragility fractures, most notably hip fractures. Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have large economic consequences. It is due to these factors that the concept of an elderly trauma center was developed. These trauma centers utilize the expertise in orthopedic and geriatric disciplines to provide coordinated care to the elderly hip fracture patient. As a result, studies have demonstrated improvements in clinical outcomes within the hospital stay, a reduction in iatrogenic complications, and improvements in 1-year mortality rates compared to the usual care given at a similar facility. Furthermore, economic models have demonstrated that there is a role for regionalized hip fracture centers that can be both profitable and provide more efficient care to these patients.

  20. The potential economic benefits of improvements in weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was initiated as a consequence of the increased use of weather satellites, electronic computers and other technological developments which have become a virtual necessity for solving the complex problems of the earth's atmosphere. Neither the economic emphasis, nor the monetary results of the study, are intended to imply their sole use as criteria for making decisions concerning the intrinsic value of technological improvements in meteorology.

  1. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  2. Economic valuation of urban forest benefits in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tyrväinen, L

    2001-05-01

    Urban development projects may cause loss of amenity values of green areas, which should be taken into consideration in planning. Therefore, quantitative information on residents' valuation concerning urban forests is needed for assessing urban land use. The purpose of this investigation was to study the valuation of urban forests in two different urban environments Joensuu and Salo, Finland. The aims were to study the attitudes towards and benefits related to the use of urban forests and, in particular, to measure the valuations in monetary terms using contingent valuation, i.e. measure the residents' willingness-to-pay for larger wooded recreation areas and for small forested parks. Urban forests were seen in both towns as clearly producing positive benefits rather than causing negative effects. The negative features of forests were related to the management of the areas rather than their existence. The main values were related to nature and social functions of forests. In contrast, timber production achieved a distinctively low priority in both study towns. The results stress the importance of defining urban forest policies for municipalities in Finland. More than two-thirds of the respondents were willing to pay for the use of recreation areas. Good location and active management raised the average WTP. Moreover, approximately half of the respondents were willing to pay for preventing construction in urban forests. The results also show that the monetary value of amenity benefits in recreation areas is much higher than the present maintenance costs. The examples concerning the advantageousness of construction on green areas suggest that a limit could be found where the infill of housing areas is not worthwhile from the point of view of society, if the losses of green space benefits are taken into account.

  3. Xylooligosaccharides: an economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.

  4. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  5. Economic impact of blood transfusions: balancing cost and benefits.

    PubMed

    Oge, Tufan; Kilic, Cemil Hakan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami

    2014-02-01

    Blood transfusions may be lifesaving, but they inherit their own risks. Risk of transfusion to benefit is a delicate balance. In addition, blood product transfusions purchases are one of the largest line items among the hospital and laboratory charges. In this review, we aimed to discuss the transfusion strategies and share our transfusion protocol as well as the steps for hospitals to build-up a blood management program while all these factors weight in. Moreover, we evaluate the financial burden to the health care system.

  6. Economic benefits of midseason reordering in apparel retailing

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.; Elayat, H.

    1995-09-27

    This report presents a method for determining the value of reordering, explores factors that affect its value, and provides an estimate of the value under a range of conditions. The method is based on a stochastic process model of the demands the retailer faces. It uses a dynamic programming model to determine the optimal quantities to order and the expected profits. The analysis shows that the benefits of reordering are quite sensitive to the uncertainties in the demand and to the assumptions about the markdown of unsold merchandise at the end of the season.

  7. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  8. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N.; Swift, Gregory William; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon; Tschudi, William; Glover, Steven; Starke, Michael; Wang, Jianhui; Yue, Meng; Hammerstrom, Donald

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  9. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  10. A plan for the economic assessment of the benefits of improved meteorological forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    Benefit-cost relationships for the development of meteorological satellites are outlined. The weather forecast capabilities of the various weather satellites (Tiros, SEOS, Nimbus) are discussed, and the development of additional satellite systems is examined. A rational approach is development that leads to the establishment of the economic benefits which may result from the utilization of meteorological satellite data. The economic and social impacts of improved weather forecasting for industries and resources management are discussed, and significant weather sensitive industries are listed.

  11. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  12. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  13. Global economic and health benefits of tobacco control: part 2.

    PubMed

    Wipfli, H; Samet, J M

    2009-09-01

    Although the risks of tobacco smoking have been known for decades, the pandemic of tobacco use continues. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, along with millions more using various oral tobacco products. Recent global estimates place the mortality burden from tobacco use at over 6 million annually, with nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurring in developing countries. If current patterns persist, there will be an estimated 1 billion deaths from tobacco during the twenty-first century. Part 1 of this two-part paper provides an overview of the tobacco pandemic, the scope of the pandemic, and its economic and health consequences. Part 2 reviews the history of tobacco control to date and addresses the current global strategy, based on the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package of interventions. Part 2 ends with a consideration of scenarios for the future of the pandemic.

  14. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  15. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  16. Determining the Economic Benefits of Attending Community College. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jorge R., Ed.; Laanan, Frankie Santos, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This volume addresses the efforts in several states, including California, Florida, North Carolina, and Washington, to determine the economic gains of community college graduates by measuring their post-college earnings. Articles include: (1) "Economic Benefits of a Community College Education: Issues of Accountability and Performance Measures"…

  17. Forecasting the Economic Benefits of Training. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    Analysis of the economics of training has become one of the most important issues of the decade for business and industry. Unfortunately, managers typically digress to a simple cost analysis and ignore the realities of cost-benefit analysis and the potential of large financial benefits to the organization. A proposed model to forecast training…

  18. Environmental and economic benefits of preserving forests within urban areas: air and water quality. Chapter 4.

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Jun Wang; Ted Endreny

    2007-01-01

    Forests and trees in urban areas provide many environmental and economic benefits that can lead to improved environmental quality and human health. These benefits include improvements in air and water quality, richer terrestrial and aquatic habitat, cooler air temperatures, and reductions in building energy use, ultraviolet radiation levels, and noise. As urbanization...

  19. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Marcus K. Measells; Stephen C. Grado; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    tThe presence of metro nature enables daily environmental interactions, and a substantial body of evi-dence now demonstrates that nature contact generates extensive psychosocial, cognitive, and physicalhealth and well-being benefits. Estimates of the economic values of such benefits have lagged similarvaluation efforts for environmental services (such as improved air...

  20. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  1. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  2. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits.

  3. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Ander, G.D.

    1992-06-01

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  4. Effects of Special Use Airspace on Economic Benefits of Direct Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Barrington, Craig; Foster, John D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of Special Use Airspace (SUA) on direct route flights is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on evaluating operating costs of aircraft and analyzing the different ground-track distances traveled by flights under different air traffic scenarios. Using this methodology the following objectives are evaluated: optimistic bias of studies that assume accessible SUAs the maximum economic benefit of dynamic use of SUAs and the marginal economic benefit of the dynamic use of individual SUAs.

  5. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  6. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Demographic and employment shifts: implications for benefits and economic security.

    PubMed

    Anzick, M

    1993-08-01

    This Issue Brief examines factors affecting the population's age distribution and composition, such as mortality rates, fertility rates, and immigration. In addition, it examines factors affecting labor force composition, such as immigration, increased labor force participation of women, and retirement trends, and discusses the potential impact of these changes on publicly financed programs: Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and federal employee retirement systems. The discussion also highlights the implications of these population and labor force changes on employers, employees, and retirees. The elderly population--now 31.8 million, representing 12.6 percent of the population--is projected to experience tremendous growth between 2010 and 2030, when the baby boom generation reaches age 65, rising from 39.7 million, or 13.3 percent of the population, to 69.8 million, or 20.2 percent of the population. Growth in the elderly population has implications for retirement and health care systems. Population projections suggest that the traditionally pyramid-shaped work force, with a proportionately greater number of younger workers than older workers, will be replaced with a more even age distribution. Consequently, significant and continued modifications to benefit packages, such as changes in compensation structures in which earnings automatically rise with age, are likely to occur. Women's labor force participation began to accelerate in the mid-1950s, rising 75 percent among women aged 25-44 in 1991, although there is some indication that this growth may be flattening. With women comprising a greater part of the labor force, employers will be encouraged to develop and implement programs to better accommodate their needs. Increased life expectancy, a decreased percentage of entry level workers, changes in Social Security's normal retirement age from 65 to 67, and employer plans to raise the normal age of retirement or provide incentives to delay retirement, could

  8. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  9. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-11-01

    Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990-1992 to 2007-2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7-8% and sorghum prices by 19-20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 10(9) annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 10(9) annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000-390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990–1992 to 2007–2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. RESULTS Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7–8% and sorghum prices by 19–20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 109 annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 109 annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000–390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSION Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. PestManagement Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24318916

  11. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects.

  12. Understanding proximal-distal economic projections of the benefits of childhood preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Becker, Kimberly D

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the steps and decisions involved in proximal-distal economic modeling, in which social, behavioral, and academic outcomes data for children may be used to inform projections of the economic consequences of interventions. Economic projections based on proximal-distal modeling techniques may be used in cost-benefit analyses when information is unavailable for certain long-term outcomes data in adulthood or to build entire cost-benefit analyses. Although examples of proximal-distal economic analyses of preventive interventions exist in policy reports prepared for governmental agencies, such analyses have rarely been completed in conjunction with research trials. The modeling decisions on which these prediction models are based are often opaque to policymakers and other end-users. This paper aims to illuminate some of the key steps and considerations involved in constructing proximal-distal prediction models and to provide examples and suggestions that may help guide future proximal-distal analyses.

  13. Understanding Proximal-Distal Economic Projections of the Benefits of Childhood Preventive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Eric P.; Becker, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the steps and decisions involved in proximal-distal economic modeling, in which social, behavioral, and academic outcomes data for children may be used to inform projections of the economic consequences of interventions. Economic projections based on proximal-distal modeling techniques may be used in cost-benefit analyses when information is unavailable for certain long term outcomes data in adulthood or to build entire cost-benefit analyses. Although examples of proximal-distal economic analyses of preventive interventions exist in policy reports prepared for governmental agencies, such analyses have rarely been completed in conjunction with research trials. The modeling decisions on which these prediction models are based are often opaque to policymakers and other end-users. This paper aims to illuminate some of the key steps and considerations involved in constructing proximal-distal prediction models and to provide examples and suggestions that may help guide future proximal-distal analyses. PMID:24337979

  14. NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING – AN ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC AND NONPROLIFERATION BENEFITS

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Phillips, Jon R.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2009-06-11

    To enable the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes while discouraging the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology to additional countries, existing front- and back-end supplier States are considering a variety of approaches to encourage the establishment of Reliable Fuel Service & Supply (RFS&S) arrangements for providing fresh fuel and taking back of spent fuel. Important aspects of such a trade regime are the economic basis, the product offerings, and alternative business models for RFS&S arrangements. This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic and nonproliferation benefits of one type of RFS&S trade regime currently under active consideration: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Several different fuel leasing implementation models are evaluated to develop an understanding of the range of potential economic benefit to the lessee and, conversely, the economic liability to the lessor. Results suggest that while economic benefits are potentially substantial, these benefits also vary substantially depending on how a fuel leasing arrangement is implemented.

  15. Recreation economic values for estimating outdoor recreation economic benefits from the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; Claire. Cvitanovich

    2017-01-01

    Natural resource professionals are often tasked with weighing the benefits and costs of changes in ecosystem services associated with land management alternatives and decisions. In many cases, federal regulations even require land managers and planners to account for these values explicitly. Outdoor recreation is a key ecosystem service provided by national forests and...

  16. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 4: Ocean mining case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the weather sensitive features of near shore and deep water ocean mining industries are described. Problems with the evaluation of economic benefits for the deep water ocean mining industry are attributed to the relative immaturity and highly proprietary nature of the industry. Case studies on the gold industry, diamond industry, tin industry and sand and gravel industry are cited.

  17. Applications of cost-benefit analysis to health care. Departures from welfare economic theory.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Donaldson, C

    1987-09-01

    In applying the principles of cost-benefit analysis to real world problems of resource allocation particular care must be taken to ensure that the welfare economic theory which underlies the cost-benefit technique is adhered to. Major problems arise where costs and benefits are used interchangeably to represent the good and bad attributes of a programme. Furthermore, in the presence of mutually exclusive projects, focussing attention upon the net benefits (or cost-benefit ratios) of individual projects as opposed to the net benefits of the use of budgeted resources can lead to biased estimates of the shadow price of projects and, consequently, errors in analysts' conclusions. As a result, economic appraisals of individual projects are not directly relevant for choosing between mutually exclusive projects of different sizes. Both types of problem are illustrated by reference to both simple examples and published economic appraisals of health care techniques. Integer programming is proposed and demonstrated as a method of selecting between mutually exclusive projects.

  18. The Estimated Health and Economic Benefits of Three Decades of Polio Elimination Efforts in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Barter, Devra M; Prinja, Shankar; John, T Jacob

    2016-08-07

    In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program. We measure health benefits as averted polio incidence, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We consider two methods to measure economic benefits: the value of statistical life approach, and equating one DALY to the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. We estimate that the National Program against Polio averted 3.94 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.89-3.99 million) paralytic polio cases, 393,918 polio deaths (95% CI: 388,897- 398,939), and 1.48 billion DALYs (95% CI: 1.46-1.50 billion). We also estimate that the program contributed to a $1.71 trillion (INR 76.91 trillion) gain (95% CI: $1.69-$1.73 trillion [INR 75.93-77.89 trillion]) in economic productivity between 1982 and 2012 in our base case analysis. Using the GNI and DALY method, the economic gain from the program is estimated to be $1.11 trillion (INR 50.13 trillion) (95% CI: $1.10-$1.13 trillion [INR 49.50-50.76 trillion]) over the same period. India accrued large health and economic benefits from investing in polio elimination efforts. Other programs to control/eliminate more vaccine-preventable diseases are likely to contribute to large health and economic benefits in India.

  19. 78 FR 15355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pilot Project Assessing Economic Benefits of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Project Assessing Economic Benefits of Marine Debris Removal AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for a new information collection. Under the authority of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (Marine Debris Act of 2012, 33 U.S.C. 1951 et seq., as amended by Title VI of Public Law...

  20. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for…

  1. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  2. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  3. Economic benefit of back titration in the treatment of hypertension in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, Basil N; Adeniyi, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of hypertension is expensive and cost is one of the reasons for inadequate blood pressure control. Where there are no social cost cushions, the burden is borne by patients. With pervasive poverty and inadequate control, complications are unchecked. Back titration in appropriate circumstances should, therefore, translate to economic benefit. This is an attempt to compute, in economic terms, the benefit of back titration. Thirty-nine patients who entered an antihypertensive back titration program for 12 months and who had been earlier reported on, form the subject of this study. A survey of the cost of antihypertensives in pharmacy outlets in Jos, Nigeria was undertaken. Regimens of antihypertensives that patients were on at the onset and end of the 12 months of back titration were costed in Nigerian currency and compared. Back titration translated to economic benefit in all patients with a cost reduction varying from 2.3% to 100%. This reflected in reduction in mean daily cost of treatment of N107.09-N54.61. The benefit of antihypertensive back titration apart from psychological relief of lower pill burden and side effect profile is in pharmacoeconomics. This permits greater adherence and prevents morbi-mortality consequences of hypertension. In this study, back titration over 12 months translated to average cost reduction of >50%, making treatment more affordable. In appropriate circumstances, back titration of antihypertensives results in economic relief for patients. This should improve adherence, reduce morbi-mortality and is recommended for wider application.

  4. Who Benefits Most from College? Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Jennie E.; Yu Xie,

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, scholars commonly presume that positive selection is at work, that is, individuals who are most likely to select into college also benefit most from college. Net of observed…

  5. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis framework to link ecological change to economic benefits for multiple stakeholders requires several key components. First, since we aim to support policy decisions, the framework should link a factor that can be controlled or influenced by policy (discharge limit, ca...

  6. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis framework to link ecological change to economic benefits for multiple stakeholders requires several key components. First, since we aim to support policy decisions, the framework should link a factor that can be controlled or influenced by policy (discharge limit, ca...

  7. The intangible benefits of vaccination - what is the true economic value of vaccination?

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Picazo, Juan José; Rémy, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Previous economic evaluations of new vaccines largely focussed on a narrow set of benefit categories, including primarily health gains and disease-related medical cost-savings, which probably resulted in underestimates of the true value of these vaccines. Other economic benefits of vaccines could be considered to assess the full economic value of vaccination, such as, for example, impact of the human papillomavirus vaccine on women's fertility through the decrease in precancerous lesions and, therefore, in the number of diagnostic and treatment interventions, which can be associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy complications. Vaccines' impact on resource allocation at hospital level or on antimicrobial resistance, such as pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that have substantially reduced infections due to antimicrobial non-susceptible strains, thereby rendering the residual disease easier to treat, are other examples of intangible benefits of vaccination. These benefits are generally not considered in economic evaluations because they may not be immediately visible and are difficult to quantify. However, they should be taken into consideration in health technology assessments to enable those responsible for healthcare policies to make well-informed decisions on vaccination.

  8. The economic costs of partner violence and the cost-benefit of civil protective orders.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-04-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of costs of partner violence to be considered. This study is one of the first to examine a wide range of economic costs of partner violence and to examine the economic costs and cost-benefits of civil protective orders. Overall, including changes in quality of life, protective orders were estimated to have saved taxpayers in one small state US$85 million in a 1-year period. More generally, this study provides a framework to address more specific complexities associated with cost-benefit analyses of partner violence and the impact of justice system interventions.

  9. Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Windsor, R H; Teran, M

    1992-06-16

    A trial was carried out in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) to determine the economic benefits of controlling both external and internal parasites by the use of ivermectin ("Ivomec," Merck Sharp & Dohme). After four months the treated male alpacas gained on average 3.1 kg more than the untreated males, and their fleece weighed 0.36 kg more. The treated female alpacas gained 1.9 kg more than the controls, but their fleece weighed 0.03 kg less. This treatment gave a net financial benefit to the farmer of U.S. $3.54 for each of his male alpacas and U.S. $1.36 for each of his female alpacas. The results for the llamas were not significant because there was great variation in the weight gains (and losses). Because the value of llama fleece is less, the economic benefits were also less.

  10. Economic benefits of less restrictive regulation of advanced practice nurses in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Conover, Chris; Richards, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With looming provider shortages and increased demand for health care, many states are looking for low-cost ways to alleviate the shortages. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of less restrictive regulations for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in North Carolina. We use economic impact analysis to demonstrate the economic impacts of making state scope-of-practice regulations on APRNs less restrictive in North Carolina. Outcomes include economic output, value-added, payroll compensation, employment, and tax revenue for North Carolina and for various subregions. If North Carolina adopted the same approach to APRN regulation as the least restrictive states, its economy will benefit from substantial increases in economic output and employment. The state will also see increases in tax revenue. In addition to substantially shrinking the size of projected physician shortages, allowing full scope-of-practice for APRNs will bring significant economic benefits to the state of North Carolina. Our analysis should be helpful to policy makers considering ways to deal with provider shortages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  12. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  13. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  14. The economic benefit for family/general medicine practices employing physician assistants.

    PubMed

    Grzybicki, Dana M; Sullivan, Paul J; Oppy, J Miller; Bethke, Anne-Marie; Raab, Stephen S

    2002-07-01

    To measure the economic benefit of a family/general medicine physician assistant (PA) practice. Qualitative description of a model PA practice in a family/general medicine practice office setting, and comparison of the financial productivity of a PA practice with that of a non-PA (physician-only) practice. The study site was a family/general medicine practice office in southwestern Pennsylvania. The description of PA practice was obtained through direct observation and semistructured interviews during site visits in 1998. Comparison of site practice characteristics with published national statistics was performed to confirm the site's usefulness as a model practice. Data used for PA productivity analyses were obtained from site visits, interviews, office billing records, office appointment logs, and national organizations. The PA in the model practice had a same-task substitution ratio of 0.86 compared with the supervising physician. The PA was economically beneficial for the practice, with a compensation-to-production ratio of 0.36. Compared with a practice employing a full-time physician, the annual financial differential of a practice employing a full-time PA was $52,592. Sensitivity analyses illustrated the economic benefit of a PA practice in a variety of theoretical family/general medicine practice office settings. Family/general medicine PAs are of significant economic benefit to practices that employ them.

  15. Community-based school feeding during Indonesia's economic crisis: implementation, benefits, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Studdert, Lisa J; Soekirman; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    The Indonesian Government initiated a community-based national school-feeding program in 1996. Implementation was decentralized and involved multiple participants. In 1998 we evaluated the implementation of the program and the perceived benefits for community stakeholders using a survey of principals in 143 randomly selected schools and follow-up with in-depth interviews and observations in a subsample of 16 communities. The evaluation covered the period of the 1998 Asian economic crisis, affording the opportunity to assess its impact on the program. The program was implemented in all targeted schools, with excellent community participation. Feeding was sustained through the crisis, in spite of a dramatic escalation in food costs. The families of schoolchildren, farmers, and those who prepared food received economic benefits. The snacks replaced those sold at schools and were of better nutritional value. The children benefited because the snacks compensated for losses in the home diet resulting from the economic crisis. Characteristics of the program that may be important in explaining its success include the involvement of a range of community stakeholders, engagement with existing village administrative structures, scope for local community adaptation and innovation, and the use of local foods that dispersed benefits and ensured sustained implementation during the crisis.

  16. [Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Augusto; Mendieta, Juan Carlos; Perdomo, Jorge Andrés; Aparicio, María Leonor; Marín, Lina Marcela; García, Juan Manuel; Barón, Clemencia

    2012-04-01

    Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group) and 38 belonging to the control group who used hearing aids to treat profound sensorineural hearing loss. An economic cost differential was found-to the advantage of the cochlear implant-of close to US$ 204,000 between the implant and the use of hearing aids over the expected life span of the patients analyzed. This amount refers to the greater expenses that hearing-aid patients will have. With this adjusted figure, the cost-benefit indicator shows that for each dollar invested to treat the cochlear-implant patient, there is a return on the investment of US$ 2.07. The cochlear implant produces economic benefits for the patient. It also produces health utilities since positive cost-utility (gain in decibels) and cost-effectiveness (gain in language discrimination) ratios were found.

  17. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  18. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Asiatic cotton can generate similar economic benefits to Bt cotton under rainfed conditions.

    PubMed

    Romeu-Dalmau, Carla; Bonsall, Michael B; Willis, Katherine J; Dolan, Liam

    2015-06-01

    American cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry genes (Bt G. hirsutum) that confer resistance to lepidopteran pests, is extensively cultivated worldwide. In India, transgenic Bt G. hirsutum was commercially released in 2002 and by 2014 95% of farmers had adopted Bt G. hirsutum(1). The economic benefits of Bt G. hirsutum over non-Bt G. hirsutum are well documented and include increase in yields, increase in farmers' net revenue and reduction in pesticide application against lepidopteran pests(2-9). However, it is unclear to what extent irrigation influences the performance of Bt G. hirsutum on smallholder farming in India, and if, in the absence of irrigation, growing Bt G. hirsutum provides greater economic benefits for Indian smallholder farmers compared with growing the Asiatic cotton Gossypium arboreum L. Here, we compare the economic impact of growing Bt G. hirsutum with growing G. arboreum under rainfed conditions in the Indian state of Maharashtra, and show that G. arboreum can generate similar net revenue, and thus similar economic benefits for smallholder farmers compared with growing Bt G. hirsutum. We also compare the economic impact of growing Bt G. hirsutum under rainfed conditions with growing Bt G. hirsutum under irrigated conditions and show that even though Bt G. hirsutum yields increase with irrigation, the net revenue does not significantly increase because farmers using irrigation spend significantly more than farmers growing Bt G. hirsutum without irrigation. We conclude that our data provide a broader insight into how socio-economic data needs to be incorporated into agro-ecological data when planning strategies to improve cotton farming in India.

  20. The economic costs of smoking and benefits of quitting for individual smokers.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Colditz, G A; Kelly, N L

    1984-07-01

    The results of a study that estimated the expected lifetime economic consequences of cigarette smoking for individual smokers are reported herein. The estimates were obtained by combining age- and sex-specific estimates of the incidence-based costs of three smoking-related diseases (lung cancer, coronary heart disease, and emphysema) with estimates of smokers' increased likelihood of developing these illnesses in each remaining year of life relative to nonsmokers. Estimates of the economic consequences of quitting based on these disease cost estimates and on estimates of exsmokers' probability of future disease relative to continuing smokers are also reported. Both the estimates of the economic costs of smoking and the benefits of quitting were calculated separately for men and women between the ages of 35 and 79 who were light, moderate, or heavy cigarette smokers. While the economic costs of smoking varied considerably by sex, age, and amount smoked, they were significant for all groups of smokers. Costs for a 40-year-old man, for example, ranged from $20,000 for a smoker of less than one pack of cigarettes per day to over $56,000 for a smoker of more than two packs of cigarettes per day. The economic benefits of quitting also were found to be sizable for all groups of smokers.

  1. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  2. Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

    2007-08-01

    Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may

  3. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Recreation. Volume 1. Recreation Use and Benefit Estimation Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 86-R-4 7. AUTHOR(a) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Mary K. Vincent David A. Moser, Ph.D. William J. Hansen 9. PERFORMING...recreation evaluation procedures recommeded in thne Water Resources Council’s "Economic and Environmental Principles a:d Guidelines for Water and... or reduces the cost of producing these goods and services. These benefits are measured as the dollar value of the increased output or the dollar value

  4. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  5. Prefrontal connections express individual differences in intrinsic resistance to trading off honesty values against economic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Azade; Morishima, Yosuke; Heise, Felix; Tanner, Carmen; Gibson, Rajna; Wagner, Alexander F.; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ profoundly when they decide whether to tell the truth or to be dishonest, particularly in situations where moral motives clash with economic motives, i.e., when truthfulness comes at a monetary cost. These differences should be expressed in the decision network, particularly in prefrontal cortex. However, the interactions between the core players of the decision network during honesty-related decisions involving trade-offs with economic costs remain poorly understood. To investigate brain connectivity patterns associated with individual differences in responding to economic costs of truthfulness, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and measured brain activations, while participants made decisions concerning honesty. We found that in participants who valued honesty highly, dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of prefrontal cortex were more tightly coupled with the inferior frontal cortex when economic costs were high compared to when they were low. Finer-grained analysis revealed that information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bidirectional information flow between the inferior frontal cortex and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with a reduced tendency to trade off honesty for economic benefits. Our findings provide a novel account of the neural circuitry that underlies honest decisions in the face of economic temptations. PMID:27646044

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  7. Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    2005-01-01

    Economic research on biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystems; however, no study has simultaneously considered the costs and benefits of species diversity, a fundamental component of biodiversity. We quantified the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. Our results show that revising entrance fees and redistributing ecotourism revenues would protect 114 of 143 forest bird species (80%) under current market conditions. This total would increase to 131 species (≈90%) if entrance fees were optimized to capture the tourist's willingness to pay for forest visits and the chance of seeing increased numbers of bird species. In contrast, the cost of purchasing agricultural land for ecological rehabilitation of the avian habitat would be economically prohibitive. These results suggest that local biodiversity markets could play a positive role in tropical conservation strategies if the appropriate institutions for redistribution can be developed. PMID:16267131

  8. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA.

  9. Effects of initial aquifer conditions on economic benefits from groundwater conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, there is growing recognition of the need to reduce agricultural groundwater use in response to rapid rates of aquifer depletion. To date, however, few studies have evaluated how benefits of conservation vary along an aquifer's depletion pathway. To address this question, we develop an integrated modeling framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a borehole-scale groundwater flow model. Unique to this framework is the explicit consideration of the dynamic reductions in well yields that occur as an aquifer is depleted, and how these changes in intraseasonal groundwater supply affect farmers' ability to manage production risks caused by climate variability and, in particular, drought. For an illustrative case study in the High Plains region of the U.S., we apply our model to analyze the value of groundwater conservation activities for different initial aquifer conditions. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of initial conditions for which reducing pumping will have long-term economic benefits for farmers by slowing reductions in well yields and prolonging the usable lifetime of an aquifer for high-value irrigated agriculture. In contrast, restrictions on pumping that are applied too early or too late will provide limited welfare benefits. We suggest, therefore, that there are "windows of opportunity" to implement groundwater conservation, which will depend on complex feedbacks between local hydrology, climate, crop growth, and economics.

  10. Economic benefits of the unconventional-gas program at GRI (Gas Research Institute). Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis shows that, using a five percent real discount rate, the value of overall economic benefits if unconventional gas succeeds rather than fails is 175.47 billion dollars (constant 1982 dollars). The benefits specifically attribute to GRI's activities at existing funding comprise 34.26 billion dollars of the total. Under the assumptions of the study, the magnitude of the economic benefits from GRI's unconventional gas R D are hundreds of times GRI's annual R D expenditures.

  11. Describing the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Florida Public Libraries: Findings and Methodological Applications for Future Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Bruce T.; Nelson, Timothy W.; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the economic impacts and benefits received from public libraries in Florida, indicating that public libraries make a significant contribution to the economic development of the state. Discusses taxpayer funding, budget cuts, and determining economic impacts from taxpayer investments; and presents a framework for further studies.…

  12. A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.

    PubMed

    Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A

    2012-02-01

    Sound therapy coupled with appropriate counseling has gained widespread acceptance in the audiological management of tinnitus. For many years, ear level sound generators (SGs) have been used to provide masking relief and to promote tinnitus habituation. More recently, an alternative treatment device was introduced, the Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which employs spectrally-modified music in an acoustic desensitization approach in order to help patients overcome the disturbing consequences of tinnitus. It is unknown, however, if one treatment plan is more efficacious and cost-effective in comparison to the other. In today's economic climate, it has become critical that clinicians justify the value of tinnitus treatment devices in relation to observed benefit. To determine perceived benefit from, and economic value associated with, two forms of sound therapy, namely, SGs and NTT. Retrospective between-subject clinical study. A sample of convenience comprised of 56 patients drawn from the Tinnitus Management Clinic at the Cleveland Clinic participated. Twenty-three patients selected SGs, and 33 patients selected NTT as their preferred sound therapy treatment option. Sound therapy benefit was quantified using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The questionnaire was administered before and 6 mo after initiation of tinnitus treatment. Prior to device fitting, all patients participated in a 1.5 hr group education session about tinnitus and its management. Economic value comparisons between sound therapy options were made using a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). THI scores indicated a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in tinnitus reduction for both treatment types between a pre- and 6 mo postfitting interval, yet there were no differences (p > 0.05) between the treatment alternatives at baseline or 6 mo postfitting. The magnitude of improvement for both SGs and NTT was dependent on initial perceived tinnitus handicap. Based

  13. Economic benefits of the marine biomass program at GRI (Gas Research Institute. ) Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The overall economic benefits that will occur if marine biomass is successful are substantial; however the probability of achieving those benefits is assumed by GRI to be relatively small. Using a five percent real discount rate, the value of overall economic benefits if marine biomass succeeds rather than fails is 42.69 billion dollars. The benefits specifically attributable to GRI, using a five percent real discount rate and GRI's existing activities in marine biomass, is 7.88 billion dollars. GRI's R D activities can achieve roughly 18 percent of the maximum possible expected benefits.

  14. The economic costs and benefits of dog guides for the blind.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Rein, David B

    2008-01-01

    To document the economic costs and benefits associated with providing dog guide services for blind individuals able to benefit from them. This study estimates the annual cost of dog guide services accounting for cost offsets associated with reduced informal and formal care costs over the working life of the animal (8 years). We estimated the cost per dog guide trained using previously unpublished survey data from dog guide training schools in the United States. We also estimated the incremental economic benefits as the reduction in costs associated with formal and informal care using published studies and a set of reasonable assumptions. Costs were discounted to 2006$ using a 3% discount rate. We found the average total cost per dog guide over its working life was $40,598, of which $21,568 were off-set by reductions in other costs. The costs associated with dog guides included $35,536 in dog acquisition costs and $5,061 for annual maintenance over the animal's working life. The economic benefits included $16,324 and $5,244 in reduced formal and informal care costs, respectively. The average net cost of dog guide ownership per year over the working life of the animal was $2,379. Using available information and reasonable assumptions, this study documents the costs of dog guides accounting for a limited number of cost off-setting elements. However, given limited available evidence, further study of the impact of guide dogs on the lives of blind individuals who use them should be conducted to validate this study's results.

  15. Emergency use of groundwater as a backup supply: Quantifying hydraulic impacts and economic benefits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Li, Zhen; Hermans, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater can play an important role in water-supply emergency planning. A framework is presented for assessing the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using groundwater as a backup supply when imported-water deliveries are disrupted, and for quantifying the emergency benefits of groundwater management strategies that enable better response to such disruptions. Response functions are derived, which relate additional groundwater pumpage during water-supply emergencies to impacts such as increased pumping costs, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. Monte Carlo analysis is employed to estimate the incremental costs of using groundwater as a backup supply. The emergency benefits of alternative groundwater management strategies are computed for different expected durations of imported water disruption, percentages of imported water replaced by groundwater, and threshold drawdowns for subsidence impacts. The methodology is applied to the coastal Los Angeles Basin. For this case study, emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies are dominated by reduction of potential subsidence costs. The variance of the results also is primarily due to subsidence effects. Incorporation of probability distributions reflecting a larger expected use of groundwater during the imported-water disruption results in higher estimated emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies. The framework presented for quantifying incremental costs and economic benefits of using groundwater as a backup supply could be applied to a broad range of water emergency planning decisions.

  16. The health and economic benefits of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (2000-2014).

    PubMed

    Turner, Hugo C; Bettis, Alison A; Chu, Brian K; McFarland, Deborah A; Hooper, Pamela J; Ottesen, Eric A; Bradley, Mark H

    2016-05-24

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), also known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) targeted for elimination through a Global Programme to Eliminate LF (GPELF). Between 2000 and 2014, the GPELF has delivered 5.6 billion treatments to over 763 million people. Updating the estimated health and economic benefits of this significant achievement is important in justifying the resources and investment needed for eliminating LF. We combined previously established models to estimate the number of clinical manifestations and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted from three benefit cohorts (those protected from acquiring infection, those with subclinical morbidity prevented from progressing and those with clinical disease alleviated). The economic savings associated with this disease prevention was then analysed in the context of prevented medical expenses incurred by LF clinical patients, potential income loss through lost-labour, and prevented costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. The indirect cost estimates were calculated using the human capital approach. A combination of four wage sources was used to estimate the fair market value of time for an agricultural worker with LF infection (to ensure a conservative estimate, the lowest wage value was used). We projected that due to the first 15 years of the GPELF 36 million clinical cases and 175 (116-250) million DALYs will potentially be averted. It was estimated that due to this notable health impact, US$100.5 billion will potentially be saved over the lifetimes of the benefit cohorts. This total amount results from summing the medical expenses incurred by LF patients (US$3 billion), potential income loss (US$94 billion), and costs to the health system (US$3.5 billion) that were projected to be prevented. The results were subjected to sensitivity analysis and were most sensitive to the assumed percentage of work hours lost for those suffering from chronic disease (changing the

  17. [Optimal chemical fertilizer application rate accorded with local economic and ecological benefits].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping'an; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Yan, Huimin; Huang, Huang; Huang, Qingyun

    2006-11-01

    This paper studied the exterior cost of applying chemical fertilizer on the farmland in Dongting Lake area, one of the main foodstuff production regions in China, aimed to search for an optimal chemical fertilizer application rate accorded with local economic and ecological benefits. The exterior cost was estimated by the method of economic and environmental evaluation, while the optimal application rate was calculated based on Exterior Diseconomy Theory and by using production function model, with both ecological and farmers' economic benefits considered. The results showed that in 2002, the exterior cost of inappropriately applying chemical fertilizer was about 1.35 x 10(8) yuan, equivalent to 0.3 yuan x kg(-1) fertilizer N. Under current situation of test area, the optimal application rate of chemical fertilizer should be 208.26 - 210.65 kg x hm(-2), and the corresponding foodstuff supply would be 5528 - 5539 kg x hm(-2). However, the actual fertilizer application rate in 2002 exceeded the optimal one. A suggestion was made to impose tax for the environmental pollution of over-using chemical fertilizer.

  18. Who benefits most from college? Evidence for negative selection in heterogeneous economic returns to higher education *

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Xie, Yu

    2009-01-01

    We consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, positive selection is commonly presumed, i.e., individuals who are most likely to select into college benefit most from college. Net of observed economic and non-economic factors influencing college attendance, we conjecture that individuals who are least likely to obtain a college education benefit most from college. We call this theory the negative selection hypothesis. To adjudicate between the two hypotheses, we study the effects of completing college on earnings by propensity score strata using an innovative hierarchical linear model with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. For both data sources, for men and for women, and for every observed stage of the life course, we find evidence suggesting negative selection. Results from auxiliary analyses lend further support to the negative selection interpretation of the results. PMID:20454549

  19. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    PubMed

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  20. The economic costs and benefits of dental education: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Gary L; Nourzad, Farrokh; Lobb, William K; Beall, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The rising costs associated with obtaining a dental education have caused some to question the financial benefit of pursuing a dental degree. There is a concern that recent graduates may have difficulty finding professional opportunities that provide the income necessary to service their accumulated educational debt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in educational costs to aid in making an accurate appraisal of the financial benefit of a dental education. Adjusted into constant dollar terms, data from a variety of sources were collected for economic variables such as tuition, fees, student indebtedness, and dentists' earnings. These variables were then analyzed to determine the true costs and benefits of obtaining a dental education. The results showed that, over the course of the last decade, educational costs increased faster than the real net income of practicing dentists, which led to a decline in the return on investment in dental education. However, regardless of an applicant's choice of public or private dental school, there continues to be a positive economic return on students' commitment of both financial resources and time to receive a dental education.

  1. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. Methods This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978–1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998–2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. Results While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. Conclusions This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level. PMID:22839351

  2. Economic evaluation of vaccination: capturing the full benefits, with an application to human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, T; Bloom, D E; Cafiero, E T; O'Brien, J C

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination has been among the greatest contributors to the past century's dramatic improvements in health and life expectancy. Recent advances in vaccinology have resulted in new vaccines that will likely lead to substantial future health gains. However, the high cost of these new vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, poses an obstacle to their widespread adoption in many countries. Economic evaluation can help to determine if investment in vaccine introduction is worthwhile. However, existing economic evaluations usually focus on a narrow set of vaccination-mediated benefits-most notably avoided medical-care costs-and fail to account for several categories of potentially important gains. We consider three sources of such benefit and discuss them with respect to HPV vaccination: (i) outcome-related productivity gains, (ii) behaviour-related productivity gains, and (iii) externalities. We also highlight that HPV vaccination protects against more than just cervical cancer and that these other health gains should be taken into account. Failing to account for these broader benefits of HPV vaccination could result in substantial underestimation of the value of HPV vaccination, thereby leading to ill-founded decisions regarding its introduction into national immunization programmes. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  4. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  5. Capitation and fee-for-service dental benefit plans: economic incentives, utilization, and service-mix.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, T J; Guay, A H; Heffley, D R

    1988-04-01

    Insurance carriers, corporations, and labor groups are actively developing and marketing dental capitation benefit plans. Incentives to both dentists and patients in these plans differ from those in the traditional fee-for-service system used with conventional benefit plans. This paper describes the likely effects of these incentive differences on utilization and service-mix patterns in both systems. Data for a large (approximately 10,000), homogenous group of subscribers are presented and discussed. Faced with a dual option, at no cost to the employee, 60% of the subscribers chose the fee-for-service plan, and 40% chose the capitation plan. Observed differences in the utilization and mix of services between the two plans cannot be explained solely in terms of dentists' responses. Employee response to altered economic incentives appears to be strong.

  6. Determining economic benefits of satellite data in short-range forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.; Hinton, B.

    1981-01-01

    The chances of enhanced short term weather predictions and economic benefits from the use of GOES satellite data were examined. Results for a meteorological consulting firm before and after the introduction of GOES data were chosen as the method, and monetary benefits were selected as the measure. Services were provided for use by road and street departments, commodities dealers, and marine clients of the consulting firm. The Man-computer Interactive Data Access Program (McIDAS) was employed to furnish 1/2 hour visual or IR imagery for remote access. The commodities clients reconnected the GOES real-time imagery once the study was completed, while the consulting firm, which was personnel and not equipment intensive, did not. Further development of the flexibility of access to the GOES data and improvements in the projected grids are indicated.

  7. Determining economic benefits of satellite data in short-range forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.; Hinton, B.

    1981-01-01

    The chances of enhanced short term weather predictions and economic benefits from the use of GOES satellite data were examined. Results for a meteorological consulting firm before and after the introduction of GOES data were chosen as the method, and monetary benefits were selected as the measure. Services were provided for use by road and street departments, commodities dealers, and marine clients of the consulting firm. The Man-computer Interactive Data Access Program (McIDAS) was employed to furnish 1/2 hour visual or IR imagery for remote access. The commodities clients reconnected the GOES real-time imagery once the study was completed, while the consulting firm, which was personnel and not equipment intensive, did not. Further development of the flexibility of access to the GOES data and improvements in the projected grids are indicated.

  8. The Economics of Information: A Guide to Economic and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Information Professionals. Library and Information Science Text Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Bruce R.

    This book provides readers with an introduction to economics and cost-benefit analysis and will be particularly valuable to individuals who are, or plan to be, managers of information services in academic, public, or special libraries. Part 1 provides a rational for economic studies in librarianship, specifically, gaining understanding of consumer…

  9. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  10. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  11. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  12. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Cairns, John

    2009-06-24

    Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is euro11.6 billion. This value ranges from euro5.4 to euro20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both reclaiming the land contaminated with hazardous

  13. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both

  14. Report: EPA Needs to Assess Environmental and Economic Benefits of Completed Clean Water State Revolving Fund Green Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0162, May 2, 2016. The EPA needs to collect and evaluate data on the environmental and economic benefits of over $3.24 billion in public funds invested in green projects from 2009 through 2014.

  15. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  16. The Long-Term Economic Benefits of Natural Mentoring Relationships for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Timpe, Zach C.; Lunkenheimer, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Natural mentors have been shown to help improve psychological and educational outcomes of youth, and may serve an important role for youth experiencing risk in the home. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we investigated the associations between natural mentors during youth and income during early adulthood, including how these relations were moderated by the absence of a father figure and race. We also estimated the lifetime economic benefits to having a natural mentor. The presence of a natural mentor alone did not have a significant impact on annual earnings during adulthood. However, youth without a father but who had a male mentor earned significantly more, on average, than those without a male mentor. These effects were more pronounced in a sub-sample of African American youth. The net present value of total lifetime benefits to having a male natural mentor was approximately $190,000 for all fatherless youth and $458,000 for African American fatherless youth. These results suggest that natural mentors play a crucial role in economic outcomes for youth, which may vary by sociodemographic factors. PMID:26148978

  17. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa; Mazzotta, Marisa

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly government agencies are seeking to quantify the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits, yet conflicting definitions and ad hoc approaches to measuring ecosystem services have created confusion regarding how to rigorously link ecological change to changes in human well-being. Here, we describe a step-by-step framework for producing ecological models and metrics that can effectively serve an economic-benefits assessment of a proposed change in policy or management. A focus of the framework is developing comparable units of ecosystem goods and services to support decision-making, even if outcomes cannot be monetized. Because the challenges to translating ecological changes to outcomes appropriate for economic analyses are many, we discuss examples that demonstrate practical methods and approaches to overcoming data limitations. The numerous difficult decisions that government agencies must make to fairly use and allocate natural resources provides ample opportunity for interdisciplinary teams of natural and social scientists to improve methods for quantifying changes in ecosystem services and their effects on human well-being. This framework is offered with the intent of promoting the success of such teams as they support managers in evaluating the equivalency of ecosystem service offsets and trades, establishing restoration and preservation priorities, and more generally, in developing environmental policy that effectively balances multiple perspectives.

  18. Realizing the potential of ecosystem services: a framework for relating ecological changes to economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Wainger, Lisa; Mazzotta, Marisa

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly government agencies are seeking to quantify the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits, yet conflicting definitions and ad hoc approaches to measuring ecosystem services have created confusion regarding how to rigorously link ecological change to changes in human well-being. Here, we describe a step-by-step framework for producing ecological models and metrics that can effectively serve an economic-benefits assessment of a proposed change in policy or management. A focus of the framework is developing comparable units of ecosystem goods and services to support decision-making, even if outcomes cannot be monetized. Because the challenges to translating ecological changes to outcomes appropriate for economic analyses are many, we discuss examples that demonstrate practical methods and approaches to overcoming data limitations. The numerous difficult decisions that government agencies must make to fairly use and allocate natural resources provides ample opportunity for interdisciplinary teams of natural and social scientists to improve methods for quantifying changes in ecosystem services and their effects on human well-being. This framework is offered with the intent of promoting the success of such teams as they support managers in evaluating the equivalency of ecosystem service offsets and trades, establishing restoration and preservation priorities, and more generally, in developing environmental policy that effectively balances multiple perspectives.

  19. Economic costs and benefits associated with investments in pollution prevention structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    Both fertilizers and pesticides are primary sources of surface and groundwater contamination in the US. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. The general objective of these programs is to provide research, development, and application of pollution prevention technologies and strategies for industries which market or use fertilizers, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals. From an economic perspective, the installation of pollution prevention structures, as well as adherence to other regulatory requirements carries a real cost to the agrichemical retailer. However, there may also be benefits tied to the adoption of new technology that would offset some or all of the additional operating costs accrued as a result of investment in the environmental technology. This paper attempts to document the economic costs associated with investments in pollution prevention technologies and adherence to environmental regulations at TVA demonstrator sites; as well as the potential benefits an agribusiness dealer may accrue as a result of the environmental investment.

  20. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  1. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Wang, Y

    2008-03-01

    Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQI(j,k)), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQI(j,k) through PBFP and PBDQ. Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994-96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4356 US adults aged 20-65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQI(j,k) were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ and DQI(j,k) varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQI(j) indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion >10%), but not PBDQ. SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQI(j,k) may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating.

  2. Economic benefits of hepatitis B vaccination at sexually transmitted disease clinics in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Miriti, M'Kiaira K; Billah, Kaafee; Weinbaum, Cindy; Subiadur, Julie; Zimmerman, Richard; Murray, Paula; Gunn, Robert; Buffington, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term economic implications of a national program to vaccinate all adults treated at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in a single year. A model was developed to track the long-term disease outcomes and costs among a hypothetical cohort of 2 million STD clinic clients accessing services in one year, using data from published sources and demonstration projects at STD clinics in San Diego (California), Illinois, and Denver (Colorado). The model estimated net economic benefits of a routine hepatitis B vaccination policy at STD clinics nationwide compared with no vaccination. Without a vaccination program, an estimated 237,021 new hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections would occur over the lifetimes of the 2 million STD clinic clients seen in a single year. HBV-related medical costs and productivity losses would be $1.6 billion. In a national program for routine vaccination at STD clinics, 1.3 million adults would be expected to receive at least one vaccine dose, and an estimated 45% of the new HBV infections expected without vaccination would be prevented. The vaccination program would cost $138 million, HBV infections occurring despite the program would cost $878 million, and clients' time and travel would cost $45 million. The net economic benefit (savings) of routine vaccination would be $526 million. If the indirect costs of lost productivity due to HBV infection are not considered, routine vaccination would have a net cost of $28 million. Estimates from this model suggest a national program for routine hepatitis B vaccination of adults at STD clinics would be a cost saving to society.

  3. Public health and economic benefits of new pediatric influenza vaccination programs in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Angela; Lees, Lydia; Micone, Paula; Armoni, Judith; Reygrobellet, Camille; Crépey, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    Argentina's population was heavily affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic, particularly children, in whom incidence of seasonal influenza is consistently high. Following the pandemic, Argentinean national recommendations for pediatric vaccination against A/H1N1 influenza were defined for all children aged up to five years, in line with programs implemented by national authorities elsewhere. Economic evaluations have found that vaccination programs for this population against seasonal influenza are cost-effective, if not cost-saving in many countries. Recently, Argentina decided to routinely vaccinate against influenza children aged 6-23 mo-old. But, the economic value of such strategies for the country has never been assessed. A model was developed to assess the value of four different vaccination strategies: (1) no pediatric vaccination; (2) vaccination of 6-23 mo-old children; (3) vaccination of 6-36 mo-old children; (4) vaccination of 6 mo-5 y-old children. We first estimated community health benefits of vaccination then we evaluated the economic and quality-of-life impact of these strategies on the population. Data used in the model come from surveillance networks, published literature, national databases and retrospective hospital-based data. Pediatric influenza vaccination benefited not only children but also the overall community, due to decreased disease transmission. Our results showed that the recent decision by Argentina to vaccinate 6-23 mo-old children is cost-effective as would be the incremental vaccination of broader age groups. Results from this study are consistent with previous analyses in other countries confirming that implementing influenza pediatric vaccination programs can be highly cost-effective through individual- and community protection against the disease.

  4. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Revision of the EU Bathing Water Directive: economic costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Stavros; Bateman, Ian J

    2005-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Bathing Water Directive of 1976 ([Commission of the European Communities, 1976. Council Directive of 8th December 1975 Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water (76/160/EEC). Official Journal of the European Community. 5th February 1976, L31/1, Brussels]) sets out standards for designated bathing waters which should be complied with by all member states. Intervening advances in pollution science, related technology and managerial expertise have allowed the European Commission to consider revision of EU environmental legislation where appropriate. As a result, a number of revisions to the 1976 Directive have been proposed ([Commission of the European Communities, 1994. Commission Proposal for a Council Directive Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, COM (94) 36 Final, Brussels; Commission of the European Communities, 2000. Developing a New Bathing Water Policy, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, COM (2000) 860 Final, 21/12/200, Brussels; Commission of the European Communities, 2002. Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning the Quality of Bathing Water, COM (2002) 581 Final, 24/10/2002, Brussels]). This paper considers these revisions in terms of the economic costs and benefits associated with any change in policy. The focus is on the public's willingness to pay for a revised Directive and the consequent public health benefits afforded to individuals and society. These economic benefits are compared to the costs of implementing changes to bring bathing waters up to the required standard.

  6. A Survey of Residents' Perceptions of the Effect of Large-Scale Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Anthony; Geller, Ruth; Bazaco, Michael; Bear, Todd M; Foulds, Abigail L; Duell, Jessica; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents' perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  7. A Survey of Residents' Perceptions of the Effect of Large-Scale Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Anthony; Geller, Ruth; Bazaco, Michael; Bear, Todd M.; Foulds, Abigail L.; Duell, Jessica; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents' perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates. PMID:26273310

  8. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Background This study is a cost–benefit analysis that quantifies the social and economic benefits to household lead paint hazard control compared with the investments needed to minimize exposure to these hazards. Objectives This research updates estimates of elevated blood lead levels among a cohort of children ≤ 6 years of age and compiles recent research to determine a range of the costs of lead paint hazard control ($1–$11 billion) and the benefits of reduction attributed to each cohort for health care ($11–$53 billion), lifetime earnings ($165–$233 billion), tax revenue ($25–$35 billion), special education ($30–$146 million), attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder ($267 million), and the direct costs of crime ($1.7 billion). Results Each dollar invested in lead paint hazard control results in a return of $17–$221 or a net savings of $181–269 billion. Conclusions There are substantial returns to investing in lead hazard control, particularly targeted at early intervention in communities most likely at risk. Given the high societal costs of inaction, lead hazard control appears to be well worth the price. PMID:19654928

  9. Economic benefits of the coal-gasification program at GRI (Gas Research Institute). Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis shows that the value through 2025 at a five percent real discount rate of the overall economic benefit that would result from the technical success of coal gasification under GRI funding compared to failure is 33 billion dollars. The portion of that expected benefit specifically attributable to GRI funding is computed to be 6 billion dollars. The analysis concludes that despite the different time frames toward which coal gasification and other key supply programs are directed, their benefits are highly linked.

  10. Persuasion and economic efficiency. The cost-benefit analysis of banning abortion.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J

    1993-10-01

    A simple cost-benefit approach to the abortion debate is unlikely to be persuasive if efficiency arguments conflict with widely held concepts of justice or rely on improbable notions of consent. Illustrative of the limitations of economic analyses are the models proposed by Meeks and Posner to make a case against abortion on demand. Meeks posits a tradeoff between the consumer surplus women gain from access to abortion and the expected loss of earnings that would have accrued to the aborted conceptuses. From here, Meeks derives the critical price elasticity that equates welfare gains and losses and argues that a ban on abortion represents a Kaldor-Hicks improvement in welfare if the price elasticity of demand falls above the critical level. Basic to his model are several questionable assumptions: an independence of ability to pay for an abortion and income, all women who select abortion have the same linear demand for the procedure, an abortion ban would eliminate the practice of abortion, economic efficiency generally requires slavery, and the morally relevant population includes the unborn. Posner, on the other hand, argues that an abortion ban would be efficient if the average surplus lost by a woman who chooses not to break the law is less than half the average value of the fetus saved. He assumes that it takes 1.83 abortions avoided to increase the population by 1 individual and favors reducing the current abortion rate by 30% rather than banning the procedure. Although Posner's model does not require specification of any particular value for the fetus, it neglects the increased health risk for pregnant women of illegal abortion. Moreover, Posner assumes that all women obey the law if it is in their economic interest to do so. Detrimental to both models is an assumption that sound normative judgments can be made on the basis of average values for observable data and the goal of maximizing wealth is logically prior to the specification of individual rights. It

  11. New evidence on the economic benefits of controlling salinity in domestic water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Guy E.; Young, Robert A.; Makela, Carole J.

    2000-04-01

    To study the economic benefits of controlling salinity in residential water supplies, we surveyed households and appliance repair shops along the Arkansas River Basin in Colorado, where salinity ranges from 100 to 3600 mg/L. To avoid a downward bias on estimated appliance lives, we obtained and used data on both ages of in-service appliances and ages at failure of failed appliances. We adapted the accelerated testing method to model the effect of salinity on appliance lives. Dishwashers, water heaters, garbage disposers, water softeners, and evaporative coolers showed statistically significant reductions in service life with increasing salinity. In comparison with the most cited previous study, we found no statistically significant effects for some appliances; for appliances common to both studies our estimates of salinity damages are one third or less as high. These differences may originate from inclusion of in-service appliances or reduced damage due to technological improvements.

  12. Conditions for economic benefit by using lunar oxygen for earth-moon transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, M.; Lingner, S.; Seboldt, W.

    1992-08-01

    The paper considers the use of MOONLOX, lunar oxygen, for an earth-moon transportation system consisting of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle and a lunar bus for lunar descent/ascent. Conditions for economic benefit are discussed, and the processing concept of a lunar oxygen plant based on fluorination is presented. It is contended that the necessary supply rate from earth from MOONLOX production must be smaller than a critical number for each considered MOONLOX-utilization scenario to yield a saving of mass launched into LEO (compared to a 'reference scenario' with an earth-derived propellant. The MOONLOX production costs must fall below the calculated upper limits (parametrically dependent of launch costs). It is inferred that for the MOONLOX production process by fluorination, fluorine recycling is highly desirable.

  13. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  14. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  15. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. |; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D.

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. The authors use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3% and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  16. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  18. The clinical and economic benefits of school-based quadrivalent HPV vaccination in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Sun Kuie; Hsu, Tun-Ying; Shcheprov, Andrei; Walia, Anuj; Kulkarni, Amit S

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the clinical and economic impacts of school-based administration of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. A retrospective health-economic analysis was conducted using data collected in Singapore between 2004 and 2005. A dynamic transmission model was adapted for universal vaccination that provided 80% coverage among students aged 11-12 years. Strategy 1 involved only girls, with a 5-year catch-up vaccination to provide 50% coverage among those aged 13-17 years. Strategy 2 included both girls and boys with no catch-up vaccination. Outcomes included the predicted incidence of HPV-related disease over 100 years. Current coverage was assumed to be 5%. Strategy 1 would reduce cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1) by 63.8%, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 (CIN2-3) by 62.9%, cervical cancer by 50.9%, and genital warts by 78.0% (female individuals) and 73.6% (male individuals). Strategy 2 would reduce CIN1 by 64.0%, CIN2-3 by 63.1%, cervical cancer by 50.7%, and genital warts by 79.9% (female individuals) and 80.1% (male individuals). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was S$12 464 for strategy 1 and $27 837 for Strategy 2. These values decreased to $7477 and $22 574, respectively, if a two-dose regimen was adapted. School-based quadrivalent HPV vaccination offered clinical and economic benefits, and is cost-effective in Singapore. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  19. The health and economic benefits of reducing intimate partner violence: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby B; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2015-07-09

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has important impacts on the health of women in society. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of IPV in the 2008 Australian female adult population. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 5 percentage point absolute feasible reduction target in the prevalence of IPV from current Australian levels (27%). IPV is not measured in national surveys. Levels of psychological distress were used as a proxy for exposure to IPV since psychological conditions represent three-quarters of the disease burden from IPV. Lifetime cohort health benefits for females were estimated as fewer incident cases of violence-related disease and injury; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Opportunity cost savings were estimated for the health sector, paid and unpaid production and leisure from reduced incidence of IPV-related disease and deaths. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of females with moderate psychological distress (lifetime IPV exposure) against high or very high distress (current IPV exposure), and valued using the friction cost approach (FCA). The impact of improved health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modelled from time use survey data. Potential costs associated with interventions to reduce IPV were not considered. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariable sensitivity analyses were undertaken. A 5 percentage point absolute reduction in the lifetime prevalence of IPV in the 2008 Australian female population was estimated to produce 6000 fewer incident cases of disease/injury, 74 fewer deaths, 5000 fewer DALYs lost and provide gains of 926,000 working days, 371,000 days of home-based production and 428,000 leisure days. Overall, AUD371 million in opportunity cost savings could be achievable. The greatest economic savings would be home-based production (AUD147 million

  20. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New York. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New York to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,230 million gallons.

  1. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Virginia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Virginia to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,600 million gallons.

  2. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Kansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Kansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Kansas to be $1.08 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,816 million gallons.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Ohio (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Ohio. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Ohio to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,343 million gallons.

  5. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

  6. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Michigan to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,542 million gallons.

  7. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maryland to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,581 million gallons.

  8. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Utah (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Utah. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Utah to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 828 million gallons.

  9. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nebraska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nebraska. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nebraska to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.1 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,840 million gallons.

  10. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  11. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nevada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nevada. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nevada to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 944 million gallons.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Idaho (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Idaho. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Idaho to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 906 million gallons.

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Indiana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Indiana to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,684 million gallons.

  14. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  15. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  16. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  17. [Economic benefits of overlapping induction: investigation using a computer simulation model].

    PubMed

    Hunziker, S; Baumgart, A; Denz, C; Schüpfer, G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential economic benefit of overlapping anaesthesia induction given that all patient diagnosis-related groups (AP DRG) are used as the model for hospital reimbursement. A computer simulation model was used for this purpose. Due to the resource-intensive production process, the operating room (OR) environment is the most expensive part of the supply chain for surgical disciplines. The economical benefit of a parallel production process (additional personnel, adaptation of the process) as compared to a conventional serial layout was assessed. A computer-based simulation method was used with commercially available simulation software. Assumptions for revenues were made by reimbursement based on AP DRG. Based on a system analysis a model for the computer simulation was designed on a step-by-step abstraction process. In the model two operating rooms were used for parallel processing and two operating rooms for a serial production process. Six different types of surgical procedures based on historical case durations were investigated. The contribution margin was calculated based on the increased revenues minus the cost for the additional anaesthesia personnel. Over a period of 5 weeks 41 additional surgical cases were operated under the assumption of duration of surgery of 89+/-4 min (mean+/-SD). The additional contribution margin was CHF 104,588. In the case of longer surgical procedures with 103+/-25 min duration (mean+/-SD), an increase of 36 cases was possible in the same time period and the contribution margin was increased by CHF 384,836. When surgical cases with a mean procedural time of 243+/-55 min were simulated, 15 additional cases were possible. Therefore, the additional contribution margin was CHF 321,278. Although costs increased in this simulation when a serial production process was changed to a parallel system layout due to more personnel, an increase of the contribution margin was possible, especially with

  18. An economic benefit deriving from space activities: Integration between science institutions and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; D'Amore, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    1993-09-01

    A lively debate is taking place in Italy on the assessment of the economic benefits deriving from the national expenditure in space programmes. Specific studies have been recently committed by the Italian Space Agency on this subject. This paper aims at providing an original insight in this debate by focusing on the often underestimated effect that the development of space programmes has on the process of integration of university, research centres and industry. In fact, the economic analysis of the technology innovation evidences that the integration of research institutions and industry represents a key issue in the establishment of an effective national innovation system towards a higher industrial competitiveness. It is widely recognized that the initiation and promotion of the process of integration of industry and research institutions is primarily dependent on their cooperation within large public funded programmes in the field of high technology. Do space programmes show any peculiarity which make them especially suitable to generate an effective cooperation between industry and science institutions? The major goal of this paper will be to give an answer to this question through the analysis of the main characteristics of space programmes as far as the integration process is concerned. Space programmes will then be analysed identifying the critical aspects related to the process of research and technology development. Following, it will be demonstrated to which extent cooperation between industry and science institutions has been helpful in solving the identified critical aspects. The analysis will also address the organizational issues in order to identify the cooperation modes. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to assess the benefits deriving from the identified forms of cooperation in view of an increasing integration between industry and science institutions. The analysis will then be focused on the microgravity field; in fact, on the basis of the

  19. On the evaluation of economic benefits of Japanese telemedicine and factors for its promotion.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Shoichi; Tsuji, Masatsugu; Iizuka, Chikako; Hasegawa, Takashi; Taoka, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    This paper attempts to estimate economic values of telemedicine and to extract factors that promote telemedicine through the use of survey data. This is the first analysis aimed at evaluating telemedicine in Japan. We utilized the Contingent Valuation Method and estimated demand functions of telemedicine. Because the number of institutions replying with willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to undertake (WTU) is relatively small, the Kernel Estimation Method was applied. After estimating WTP and WTU, by multiplying the number of medical institutions currently implementing telemedicine, the whole value in Japan was obtained. By using the Tobit Model, factors that influence WTP and WTU were extracted. Estimated WTP was 35.23 dollars for teleradiology and 162.89 dollars for telepathology. WTU estimated was 39.81 dollars for teleradiology and 86.59 dollars for telepathology. Estimated economic benefits in Japan for 1 year were 1.27 million dollars for WTP of teleradiology and 278,600 dollars for telepathology. WTU is 10 million dollars for teleradiology and 393,400 dollars for telepathology. Medical institutions with the following characteristics tend to reply larger WTP: (1) university hospitals, (2) internal medicine, (3) radiology, and (4) use of video conference systems. Regarding WTU, the following characteristics influence WTU: (1) use of a personal computer, (2) use of telepathology equipment, (3) high satisfaction with the quality of telemedicine, and (4) experience base of telemedicine. Based on the nationwide survey on telemedicine, the total value of telemedicine in Japan was estimated. In addition to the evaluation, quantitative aspects of implementation of telemedicine, such as factors to promote telemedicine, are analyzed. These can provide useful information for further implementation of telemedicine not only in Japan but in other countries as well.

  20. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M.H.; Jones, Jason P.H.; Jones, Peter J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. Design A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1) identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2) assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3) impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Results Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0–62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the ‘very-pessimistic’ through ‘ideal’ scenarios. Conclusions Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world. PMID:26111965

  1. Cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Mirelman, Andrew; Stack, Meghan L; Walker, Damian G; Levine, Orin S

    2012-12-17

    Public health interventions that prevent mortality and morbidity have greatly increased over the past decade. Immunization is one of these preventive interventions, with a potential to bring economic benefits beyond just health benefits. While vaccines are considered to be a cost-effective public health intervention, implementation has become increasingly challenging. As vaccine costs rise and competing priorities increase, economic evidence is likely to play an increasingly important role in vaccination decisions. To assist policy decisions today and potential investments in the future, we provide a systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2010. The review identified 108 relevant articles from 51 countries spanning 23 vaccines from three major electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase and Econlit). Among the 44 articles that reported costs per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, vaccines cost less than or equal to $100 per DALY averted in 23 articles (52%). Vaccines cost less than $500 per DALY averted in 34 articles (77%), and less than $1000 per DALY averted in 38 articles (86%) in one of the scenarios. 24 articles (22%) examined broad level economic benefits of vaccines such as greater future wage-earning capacity and cost savings from averting disease outbreaks. 60 articles (56%) gathered data from a primary source. There were little data on long-term and societal economic benefits such as morbidity-related productivity gains, averting catastrophic health expenditures, growth in gross domestic product (GDP), and economic implications of demographic changes resulting from vaccination. This review documents the available evidence and shows that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits. The cost-effectiveness studies reviewed suggest to policy makers that vaccines are an efficient investment. This review further

  2. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  3. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  4. Assessing the production and economic benefits from preventing cows grazing on wet soils in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Seth; Houlbrooke, David J; Beukes, Pierre C

    2016-10-01

    Intensive grazing by cattle on wet pasture can have a negative effect on soil physical quality and future pasture production. On a North Otago dairy farm in New Zealand, experimental plots were monitored for four years to assess whether preventing cow grazing of wet pastures during the milking season would improve soil structure and pasture production compared with unrestricted access to pastures. The DairyNZ Whole Farm Model was used to scale up results to a farm system level and ascertain the cost benefit of deferred grazing management. Soils under deferred grazing management had significantly higher total porosity, yet no significant improvement in macroporosity (values ranging between 0.112 and 0.146 m(3)  m(-3) ). Annual pasture production did not differ between the control and deferred grazing treatments, averaging 17.0 ± 3.8 and 17.9 ± 4.1 t DM ha(-1) year(-1) respectively (P > 0.05). Furthermore, whole farm modelling indicated that farm operating profit was reduced by NZ$1683 ha(-1) year(-1) (four-year average) under deferred grazing management. Deferring dairy cow grazing from wet Pallic soils in North Otago was effective in improving soil structure (measured as total soil porosity), yet did not lead to a significant increase in pasture production. Whole farm modelling indicated no economic benefit of removing cows from wet soils during the milking season. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. PMID:16837571

  6. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  7. Economic benefits of prophylaxis with diclazuril against subclinical coccidiosis in lambs reared indoors.

    PubMed

    Alzieu, J P; Mage, C; Maes, L; de Mûelenaere, C

    1999-04-17

    One hundred and twenty weaned male lambs, naturally infected with Eimeria species, were used to assess the economic benefits of the prophylactic administration of diclazuril. They were randomly divided into four groups of 30 lambs on the basis of their bodyweight and output of oocysts. The groups were either left untreated (group 1), treated orally with a simple dose of diclazuril at 1 mg/kg (group 2), with two doses two weeks apart (group 3), or with sulphadimethoxine at 50 mg/kg for five consecutive days (group 4). No clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the groups. The output of oocysts was significantly reduced on day 7 after treatment in group 2, on days 7, 14 and 28 in group 3 and on days 7 and 14 in group 4. No significant differences were found between the treated and untreated groups for bodyweight, carcase weight and carcase classification. The mean fattening period was shorter for the treated lambs (52 and 55 days) than for the untreated controls (60 days). The average growth rate of the lambs treated twice with diclazuril and with sulphadimethoxine was improved and the feed conversion rates of the lambs treated once or twice with diclazuril were 7 per cent and 16 per cent better than that of the untreated lambs.

  8. Economic benefits of treating high-risk hypertension with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (blockers).

    PubMed

    Coca, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease and represents a major health and economic burden. Most patients with high- or very high-risk hypertension have multiple cardiovascular risk factors with or without accompanying subclinical organ damage or established cardiovascular or renal disease. Patients with severe hypertension or with moderate hypertension and one to two additional risk factors have absolute 10-year risks of cardiovascular disease of 21-30% and 15-20%, respectively. Current European treatment guidelines recommend that antihypertensive therapy be initiated rapidly and aggressively in patients with high-risk hypertension. Most patients require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve the strict blood pressure target of <130/80 mmHg. This article reviews the existing cost-effectiveness data on the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (blockers) [ARBs] in patients with high-risk hypertension. Aggressive ARB treatment of patients in the early (microalbuminuric) stages of diabetic nephropathy has a significant renoprotective effect, delaying the onset of overt (proteinuric) nephropathy. By slowing the progression of these patients to end-stage renal disease, substantial cost savings can be made. There is a paucity of cost-effectiveness data regarding the use of fixed-dose ARB plus thiazide diuretic combination therapies. Longitudinal cost-benefit studies of this attractive and efficacious first-line treatment option are needed.

  9. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  10. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 2, technical. Book 3: Economic benefits, costs and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The economic benefits, cost analysis, and industrial uses of the manned space station are investigated. Mission payload costs are examined in relation to alternative architectures and projected technological evolution. Various approaches to industrial involvement for financing, development, and marketing of space station resources are described.

  11. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  12. The Dilemma of the Contribution of African Women Toward and the Benefits They Derive from Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuge, Immaculate Mary

    1986-01-01

    Africa and Third World countries do not include women in economic development projects. Women have benefited little from the minimum development done so far. These governments' lack of recognition and expansion of women's critical activities in producing and distributing food and cash crops will perpetuate underdevelopment and poverty. (PS)

  13. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  14. Tiny stowaways: analyzing the economic benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit regulating ballast water discharges.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Sabrina J; Drake, Lisa A

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges--a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately $706,000 (2006$). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships' ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  15. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  16. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007).

    PubMed

    Chu, Brian K; Hooper, Pamela J; Bradley, Mark H; McFarland, Deborah A; Ottesen, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained

  17. Assessment of clinical and economic benefits of weight management with sibutramine in general practice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Ara, Roberta; Sterz, Raimund; Matiba, Bernd; Bergemann, Rito

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is associated with major health risks and a high economic burden impacting on health care systems. This study utilises the latest evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to explore and to assess the cost effectiveness of sibutramine in combination with diet and lifestyle advice compared to diet and lifestyle advice alone for the treatment of obese subjects without comorbidities at baseline in Germany. New evidence from recently published RCTs and post-marketing surveillance studies, including health economic data as well as quality of life (QoL) data, were used to model the long-term outcomes of weight management with sibutramine in German practice. German healthcare costs and new data from over 8,000 patients were analysed based on a recently published model. These new RCT data were used to model weight losses, proportion of responders to treatment, utilities by weight loss and variability in weight regain post-treatment. Costs and QoL benefits associated with weight loss (using SF-36 data from sibutramine trials), reduced incidence of coronary heart disease (using Framingham equations) and diabetes were used to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life year of sibutramine treatment. For 1,000 patients treated with sibutramine for 1 year, extrapolating outcomes over 4 further years, sibutramine is estimated to save 4.18 CHD events, 2.58 diabetes incident cases and give 51.5 more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The cost-utility analysis (CUA) estimates 13,706 euro per QALY gained. Results are sensitive to changes in weight loss, rate of weight regain and discounting rate. Although the non-pharmacological weight management programme in the comparator arm yielded higher weight losses than generally observed in clinical practice, these results demonstrate that additional sibutramine treatment is a cost effective therapy for an obese population without comorbidities in Germany. The CUA results are within the range generally accepted as cost

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Annual public health and economic benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination: a European estimate.

    PubMed

    Preaud, Emmanuelle; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère; Farkas, Norbert; Sloesen, Brigitte; Palache, Abraham; Shupo, Francis; Samson, Sandrine I

    2014-08-07

    Vaccination is currently the most effective means of preventing influenza infection. Yet evidence of vaccine performance, and the impact and value of seasonal influenza vaccination across risk groups and between seasons, continue to generate much discussion. Moreover, vaccination coverage is below recommended levels. A model was generated to assess the annual public health benefits and economic importance of influenza vaccination in 5 WHO recommended vaccination target groups (children 6 - 23 months of age; persons with underlying chronic health conditions; pregnant women; health care workers; and, the elderly, 65 years of age) in 27 countries of the European Union. Model estimations were based on standard calculation methods, conservative assumptions, age-based and country-specific data. Out of approximately 180 million Europeans for whom influenza vaccination is recommended, only about 80 million persons are vaccinated. Seasonal influenza vaccination currently prevents an annual average of between 1.6 million and 2.1 million cases of influenza, 45,300 to 65,600 hospitalizations, and 25,200 to 37,200 deaths. To reach the 75% vaccination coverage target set by the EU Council Recommendation in 2009, an additional 57.4 million person would need to be vaccinated in the elderly and other risk groups. By achieving the 75% target rate set in EU-27 countries, average annual influenza- related events averted would increase from current levels to an additional +1.6 to +1.7 million cases, +23,800 to +31,400 hospitalization, +9,800 to +14,300 deaths, +678,500 to +767,800 physician visits, and +883,800 to +1,015,100 lost days of work yearly. Influenza-related costs averted because of vaccination would increase by an additional + €190 to + €226 million yearly, in vaccination target groups. Full implementation of current influenza vaccination recommendations of 75% vaccination coverage rate (VCR) in Europe by the 2014-2015 influenza season could immediately reduce an

  20. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and

  1. Nutritional and economic benefits of Leucaena and Gliricidia as feed supplements for small ruminants in humid West Africa.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, M A; Reynolds, L; Larbi, A; Smith, J

    1997-02-01

    Considering leguminous trees Leucaena and Gliricidia as good sources of quality food, on-station and on-farm studies were conducted in the humid zone of West Africa to establish animal responses to levels, times and forms of browse supplementation, to develop alternative feeding strategies for utilising limited feed supply and to assess the economic benefits of feed supplements as against the use of tree foliage as mulch for crop production. Results indicate that at any level of supplement, sheep grew twice as fast as goats. The main benefits of supplementation came through increased growth and survival. Form and level of supplementation had significant effect on intake. Economic analyses showed that crop response to mulching was the principal competing determinant of whether the use of tree foliage as feed supplement was economic.

  2. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Methods Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method), household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Results Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector) were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia); 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Conclusions Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our findings contribute important

  3. A fuzzy cost-benefit function to select economical products for processing in a closed-loop supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Cullinane, Thomas P.

    2004-02-01

    The cost-benefit analysis of data associated with re-processing of used products often involves the uncertainty feature of cash-flow modeling. The data is not objective because of uncertainties in supply, quality and disassembly times of used products. Hence, decision-makers must rely on "fuzzy" data for analysis. The same parties that are involved in the forward supply chain often carry out the collection and re-processing of used products. It is therefore important that the cost-benefit analysis takes the data of both new products and used products into account. In this paper, a fuzzy cost-benefit function is proposed that is used to perform a multi-criteria economic analysis to select the most economical products to process in a closed-loop supply chain. Application of the function is detailed through an illustrative example.

  4. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  5. Public health impact and economic benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jamotte, Aurélien; Clay, Emilie; Macabeo, Bérengère; Caicedo, Andrès; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bricks, Lucia; Romero Prada, Martín; Marrugo, Rubén; Alfonso, Pamela; Moreno Arévalo, Brechla; Franco, Danilo; Garcia Diaz, Lourdes; Isaza de Molto, Yadira

    2017-01-24

    Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries. We used a static model over the seasons 2010-2014 in Brazil, 2007-2014 in Colombia and 2006-2014 in Panama, focusing on population groups targeted by local vaccination recommendations: young children, adults with risk factors and the elderly. In Brazil, between 2010 and 2014, using QIV instead of TIV would have avoided US$ 6,200 per 100,000 person-years in societal costs, based on 168 influenza cases, 89 consultations, 3.2 hospitalizations and 0.38 deaths per 100,000 person-years. In Colombia and Panama, these would have ranged from US$ 1,000 to 12,700 (based on 34 cases, 13-25 consultations, 0.6-8.9 hospitalizations and 0.04-1.74 deaths) and from US$ 3,000 to 33,700 (based on 113 cases, 55-82 consultations, 0.5-27.8 hospitalizations and 0.08-6.87 deaths) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Overall, the broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the influenza humanistic and economic burden in the 3 countries. Despite the lack of local data leading to several extrapolations, this study is the first to give quantitative estimates of the potential benefits of QIV in Latin America.

  6. Long-term economic benefits attributed to IVF-conceived children: a lifetime tax calculation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Pollard, Michael S; Hoorens, Stijn; Kaplan, Brian R; Oskowitz, Selwyn P; Silber, Sherman J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate whether lifetime future net tax revenues from an in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived child are substantial enough to warrant public subsidy relative to the mean IVF treatment costs required to obtain 1 live birth. Mathematical generational accounting model. The model estimates direct financial interactions between the IVF-conceived child and the government during the child's projected lifetime. In the model, we accrue IVF costs required to conceive the child to the government, and then we estimate future net tax revenue to the federal and state governments from this individual, offset by direct financial transfers from the government (eg, child allowances, education, Medicare, and Social Security). We discount lifetime costs and gross tax payments at Treasury Department rates to establish the present value of investing in IVF. We applied US Congressional Budget Office projected changes in tax rates over the course of the model. An IVF-conceived child, average in every respect (eg, future earnings, healthcare consumption, and life expectancy), represents a net positive return to the government. Based on an average employed individual born in 2005, the projected net lifetime tax contribution is US $606,200. Taking into consideration IVF costs and all direct financial interactions, the net present value is US $155,870. Lifetime net taxes paid from a child relative to the child's initial IVF investment represent a 700% net return to the government in discounted US dollars from fully employed individuals. This suggests that removing barriers to IVF would have positive tax benefits for the government, notwithstanding its beneficial effect on overall economic growth.

  7. Public health impact and economic benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccine in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Jamotte, Aurélien; Clay, Emilie; Macabeo, Bérengère; Caicedo, Andrès; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bricks, Lucia; Romero Prada, Martín; Marrugo, Rubén; Alfonso, Pamela; Moreno Arévalo, Brechla; Franco, Danilo; Garcia Diaz, Lourdes; Isaza de Molto, Yadira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) containing 2 A strains and one B lineage have been recommended for the prevention of influenza in most of Latin American countries. However, the circulation of 2 B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) and difficulties in predicting the predominating lineage have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV), including both B lineages. Thus, the objective was to estimate the public health impact and influenza-related costs if QIV would have been used instead of TIV in 3 Latin American countries. We used a static model over the seasons 2010–2014 in Brazil, 2007–2014 in Colombia and 2006–2014 in Panama, focusing on population groups targeted by local vaccination recommendations: young children, adults with risk factors and the elderly. In Brazil, between 2010 and 2014, using QIV instead of TIV would have avoided US$ 6,200 per 100,000 person-years in societal costs, based on 168 influenza cases, 89 consultations, 3.2 hospitalizations and 0.38 deaths per 100,000 person-years. In Colombia and Panama, these would have ranged from US$ 1,000 to 12,700 (based on 34 cases, 13–25 consultations, 0.6–8.9 hospitalizations and 0.04–1.74 deaths) and from US$ 3,000 to 33,700 (based on 113 cases, 55–82 consultations, 0.5–27.8 hospitalizations and 0.08–6.87 deaths) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Overall, the broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the influenza humanistic and economic burden in the 3 countries. Despite the lack of local data leading to several extrapolations, this study is the first to give quantitative estimates of the potential benefits of QIV in Latin America. PMID:28118092

  8. Does robotic assistance confer an economic benefit during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy?

    PubMed

    Yang, David Y; Monn, M Francesca; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2014-09-01

    While robotic assisted radical nephrectomy is safe with outcomes and complication rates comparable to those of the pure laparoscopic approach, there is little evidence of an economic or clinical benefit. From the 2009 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database we identified patients 18 years old or older who underwent radical nephrectomy for primary renal malignancy. Robotic assisted and laparoscopic techniques were noted. Patients treated with the open technique and those with evidence of metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and the Student t-test. Multiple linear regression was done to examine factors associated with increased hospital costs and charges. We identified 24,312 radical nephrectomy cases for study inclusion, of which 7,787 (32%) were performed robotically. There was no demographic difference between robotic assisted and pure laparoscopic radical nephrectomy cases. Median total charges were $47,036 vs $38,068 for robotic assisted vs laparoscopic surgery (p <0.001). Median total hospital costs for robotic assisted surgery were $15,149 compared to $11,735 for laparoscopic surgery (p <0.001). There was no difference in perioperative complications or the incidence of death. Compared to the laparoscopic approach robotic assistance conferred an estimated $4,565 and $11,267 increase in hospital costs and charges, respectively, when adjusted for adapted Charlson comorbidity index score, perioperative complications and length of stay (p <0.001). Robotic assisted radical nephrectomy results in increased medical expense without improving patient morbidity. Assuming surgeon proficiency with pure laparoscopy, robotic technology should be reserved primarily for complex surgeries requiring reconstruction. Traditional laparoscopic techniques should continue to be used for routine radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research

  9. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  10. Biobankonomics: a taxonomy for evaluating the economic benefits of standardized centralized human biobanking for translational research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Joyce; Carolin, Todd; Vaught, Jimmie; Compton, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Investments in medical research and development enable the scientific progress that influences our society's body of knowledge about disease, the quality of health care, and our quality of life. Critical components of these investments include the technological and human capital factors rooted in human specimen biobanking, which can be considered foundational to driving post genomic scientific and medical research. Their importance to cancer research, information-based medicine, and quality of health care are becoming increasingly recognized by pharmaceutical companies, non profit foundations, academic researchers, and government research agencies. However, the failure to standardize tissue collection, handling, processing, and preservation so that data can be directly compared between specimen sets, as well as insufficient leveraging of the highest quality tissue samples and associated data across an array of research needs, have strained economies of scale for the biobanking field. Although existing biobanks for private research contribute economic benefits to stakeholders that can be easily substantiated, little has been published to demonstrate the positive outcomes generated from the use, application, and dissemination of their resources more broadly. Through the use of analogous examples, this article presents a rationale for how standardization and consolidation of biobanking resources would contribute to the realization of budget savings, cost avoidances, process efficiencies, and other financial impacts to both the research community and the public. A number of areas are examined, including laboratory analysis efficiencies, data modeling accuracy, infrastructure cost savings, reduced clinical trials evaluation costs, improvements in patient diagnosis, and the potential impact on industry professionalization and job creation. Areas for further study are also outlined.

  11. Environmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone.

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin; Cammarano, Davide; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Marinello, Francesco; Sartori, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005-2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha(-1) applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha(-1) applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching.

  12. Lesson Learned from Technical and Economic Performance Assessment and Benefit Evaluation of CHP-FCS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Brooks, Kriston P.; Srivastava, Viraj; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-22

    Recent efforts and interest in combined heat and power (CHP) have increased with the momentum provided by the federal government support for penetration of CHP systems. Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and utilize the heat normally wasted in power generation for useful heating or cooling with lower emissions compared to alternative sources. A recent study investigated the utilization of CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50KWe in various commercial building types and geographic locations. Electricity, heating, and water heating demands were obtained from simulation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial reference building models for various building types. Utility rates, cost of equipment, and system efficiency were used to examine economic payback in different scenarios. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, CHP-FCSs are more expensive than alternative technologies, and the high capital cost of the CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than is typically acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, the installation of these units as on-site power generators also provide several other benefits that make them attractive to building owners and operators. The business case for CHP-FCSs can be made more financially attractive through the provision of government incentives and when installed to support strategic infrastructure, such as military installations or data centers. The results presented in this paper intend to provide policy makers with information to define more customized incentives and tax credits based on a sample of building types and geographic locations in order to attract more business investment in this new technology.

  13. The economic impact of multisystemic therapy through midlife: a cost-benefit analysis with serious juvenile offenders and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Dopp, Alex R; Borduin, Charles M; Wagner, David V; Sawyer, Aaron M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the economic benefits of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus individual therapy (IT) using arrest data from 176 serious juvenile offenders and 129 of their closest-in-age siblings who participated, on average, 25 years earlier in a randomized clinical trial (Borduin et al., 1995). Two types of benefits of MST were evaluated: (a) The value to taxpayers was derived from measures of criminal justice system expenses (e.g., police and sheriffs' offices, court processing, community supervision), and (b) the value to crime victims was derived from measures of both tangible (e.g., property damage and loss, health care, lost productivity) and intangible (e.g., pain, suffering, reduced quality of life) losses. Reductions in criminality in the MST versus IT conditions were associated with lasting benefits to both taxpayers and crime victims, with cumulative benefits of MST estimated at $35,582 per juvenile offender and $7,798 per sibling. Overall, every dollar spent on MST recovered $5.04 in savings to taxpayers and crime victims in the 25 years following treatment. This study represents the most comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of an MST clinical trial to date and demonstrates that an evidence-based treatment such as MST can produce modest economic benefits well into adulthood. Implications of the authors' findings for policymakers and public service agencies are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  15. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  16. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Massachusetts. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Massachusetts to be $1.4 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,293 million gallons.

  18. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  19. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Tennessee (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Tennessee. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Tennessee to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,321 million gallons.

  20. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Montana (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Montana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Montana to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,207 million gallons.

  1. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Pennsylvania. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Pennsylvania to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,837 million gallons.

  2. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Wisconsin (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Wisconsin. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Wisconsin to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,476 million gallons.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

  5. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New Mexico. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New Mexico to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,117 million gallons.

  6. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

  7. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  8. [Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Uc Coyoc, Rocío Ofelia; Pérez-Reynaud, Ana Gabriela; Coello-Reyes, Luis Arturo

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish) according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  9. Proposal of Economic Assessment of Hard Coal Mines Operation Conducted in Polish Conditions with the Use of Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr; Majer, Marzena; Krzemień, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents possibilities of an economic evaluation of hard coal mines, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Suggested methodology for CBA applied to the economic evaluation of a mine allows to conduct a complex evaluation of mine's functionality in connection to Polish conditions. Additionally to financial aspects, significant from the point of view of the mine's owner, the paper includes social and environmental effects as a result of mining activities. Proposed methodology has undergone tests which used averaged data obtained from two selected hard coal mines located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Presented results confirm the validity of social costs and benefits, and environmental losses resulting from mining operation, which were included in analysis comprehensively evaluating the efficiency of hard coal mines.

  10. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit.

  11. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Economic Benefits of Mobile Apps for Mental Health and Telepsychiatry Services When Used by Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam C; Chen, Milton; Thammachart, Chanida

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the benefits resulting from the use of mobile applications for mental health and telepsychiatry. Potential direct benefits include substitution for other forms of care, prevention of higher-acuity illness, higher rate of psychiatrist use, increased competition of services driving lower treatment costs, lower operating costs for psychiatrists, fewer missed appointments, and revenue for application developers. Potential indirect benefits include improved physical health, enhanced current and future productivity, and reduced demands on caregivers. A return on investment analysis framework is then presented as a generalized means for evaluating the return on investment of specific health care interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: The case of London.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Chatzidiakou, Lia; Cairns, John; Mumovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    Providing a healthy school environment is a priority for child health. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that allows quantification of the potential economic benefit of reducing indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in children attending primary schools. Using environmental and health data collected in primary schools in London, this study estimates that, on average, 82 asthma exacerbations per school can be averted each year by reducing outdoor NO2 concentrations. The study expands upon previous analyses in two ways: first it assesses the health benefits of reducing children's exposure to indoor NO2 while at school, second it considers the children's perspective in the economic evaluation. Using a willingness to pay approach, the study quantifies that the monetary benefits of reducing children's indoor NO2 exposure while at school would range between £2.5 k per school if a child's perspective based on child's budget is adopted up to £60 k if a parent's perspective is considered. This study highlights that designers, engineers, policymakers and stakeholders need to consider the reduction of outdoor pollution, and particularly NO2 levels, near primary schools as there may be substantial health and monetary benefits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multifunctional benefits of SuDS: techno-economic evaluation of decentralised solutions for urban water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, Ana; Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Smith, Karl M.

    2016-04-01

    The increased frequency of extreme weather events associated with climate change poses a significant threat to the integrity and function of critical urban infrastructure - rail, road, telecommunications, power and water supply/sewerage networks. A key threat within the United Kingdom (UK) is the increased risk of pluvial flooding; the conventional approach of channeling runoff to an outfall has proven to be unsustainable during severe storm events. Green infrastructure, in the form of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS), has been proposed as a means of minimising the risk of pluvial flooding. However, despite their technical performance, SuDS uptake in the UK has not reached its full capacity yet, mostly due to reasons that go beyong the engineering realm. This work investigated the strategic role of SuDS retrofit in managing environmental risks to urban infrastructure in London at a catchment level, through an economic appraisal of multifunctional benefits. It was found that by including the multifunctional benefits of SuDS, the economic feasibility of the project improves considerably. The case study has also shown a mechanism towards achieving wider-scale SuDS retrofit, whereby the investments are split amongst multiple stakeholder groups by highlighting the additional benefits each group derives. Groups include water utilities and their users, local government and critical infrastructure owners. Finally, limitations to the existing cost-benefit methdology in the UK were identified, and recommendations made regarding incentives and governmental regulations to enhance the uptake of SuDS in London. The proposed methodology provides compelling and robust, cost-benefit based evidence of SUDS' effectiveness within the flood risk management planning framework, but also with regard to the additional benefits of Nature Based Solutions in urban environments.

  15. Scaling of economic benefits from Green Roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, H.; Clark, C. E.; Zhou, J.; Adriaens, P.; Environmental Science Division; Dalian Univ. of Technology; Univ. of Michigan

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft{sup 2} by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NOx uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  16. Scaling of economic benefits from green roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hao; Clark, Corrie; Zhou, Jiti; Adriaens, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft(2) by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NO(x) uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  17. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  18. Potential Economic Benefits of Forward Deployment in East Asia and the Pacific: A Preliminary Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    of ethnic Chinese. See Far Eastern Economic Review, October 8, 1992, p. 22. 3 See Dennis J. Incarntion, Rivals Beyond Trade. Cornell University Press ...Taiwan. In retaliation, Taiwan anounced a complete withdrawal of bade preferences and an ending of rights for South Korea’s airlines. See Far Eastern...Johns Hopkins University Press , 1989, P. 100. 23 The U.S.-Japan Economic Relationship, pp. 194,210. 11-13 I U.S. is that, during a period in which U.S

  19. Instream flow assessment and economic valuation: a survey of nonmarket benefits research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Instream flow benefits for United States streams and rivers have recently been investigated by a number of resource economists. These valuation efforts differ in scope, method, and quantitative results. An assessment and review of these valuation efforts is presented. The various sources of differences in non‐market values produced by these studies are explored in some detail. The considerable difficulty of producing estimates of instream flow benefits values that consider all of the pertinent policy and technical issues is delineated in various policy contexts. Evidence is presented that indicates that the considerable policy impact of recent research on this topic is justified despite considerable variation in the magnitude of the estimates.

  20. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive.

  1. Career Guidance in Unstable Times: Linking Economic, Social and Individual Benefits. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that peaked in 2009 sent shockwaves that will be felt for years to come. It affected businesses, increased social risk for many and destabilised job and career prospects. Young people, particularly, have been badly affected. They are suffering the highest unemployment rates and their prospects have been damaged most. But,…

  2. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  3. The Potential Economic Benefits of Education of Migrants in the EU. EENEE Analytical Report No. 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonin, Holger

    2017-01-01

    While international mobility has developed into a major driver of population change in the European Union, people with immigrant background in the Member States continue to be placed in disadvantaged socio-economic positions. They are often hampered by a lack of host country specific skills and knowledge. Many native-born children of…

  4. The Economic Costs of Partner Violence and the Cost-Benefit of Civil Protective Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-01-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of…

  5. Role of nonmarket economic values in benefit-cost analysis of public forest management.

    Treesearch

    Cindy Sorg Swanson; John B. Loomis

    1996-01-01

    Recreation in the Pacific Northwest is a valuable resource. A method is described that translates recreation on USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management lands in northern California, western Oregon, and western Washington into economic value. By assigning recreation to land use type (using the Forest Service recreation opportunity...

  6. The Economic Costs of Partner Violence and the Cost-Benefit of Civil Protective Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-01-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of…

  7. Economic Evaluation as a Component of Quality Effectiveness Research: Methodological and Practical Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As research moves from questions of efficacy (can an intervention work) to questions of effectiveness (does an intervention work in practice), questions of efficiency (what are the costs and consequences of the intervention) become increasingly important. The incorporation of economic evaluation into the planning and execution of…

  8. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  9. Economic Evaluation as a Component of Quality Effectiveness Research: Methodological and Practical Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As research moves from questions of efficacy (can an intervention work) to questions of effectiveness (does an intervention work in practice), questions of efficiency (what are the costs and consequences of the intervention) become increasingly important. The incorporation of economic evaluation into the planning and execution of…

  10. Economics of forest fire management: Spatial accounting of costs and benefits

    Treesearch

    José J. Sánchez; Ken Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Kurt Schwabe

    2013-01-01

    To better evaluate the potential impacts of wildland fire in the San Bernardino National Forest, we developed a geographic information system (GIS) data layer containing nonmarket economic values for the San Jacinto Ranger District. Each pixel in the data layer contains an estimate of the most prominent nonmarket values at that location. This information can be used by...

  11. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  12. Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. Occasional pub

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The expected future benefits of advanced supply technologies are identified using a competitive market model of gas supply and demand. The results show the relative value of the major components of GRI's supply R D program and the sensitivity of the results to changes in key technology and market assumptions.

  13. Costs and Benefits of Education: Annual Volume of the Department of Economics. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Robert D., Ed.

    Cost and benefits of education are studied by this collection of eight papers by economists in relation to issues of the genetic component of variation in intelligence, differences between integration and desegregation, and diminishing returns in educational expenditures. Silver's paper challenges the idea that better schools cannot be obtained by…

  14. Costs and Benefits of Education: Annual Volume of the Department of Economics. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Robert D., Ed.

    Cost and benefits of education are studied by this collection of eight papers by economists in relation to issues of the genetic component of variation in intelligence, differences between integration and desegregation, and diminishing returns in educational expenditures. Silver's paper challenges the idea that better schools cannot be obtained by…

  15. Navajo Electrification for Sustainable Development: The Potential Economic and Social Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballentine, Crystal; DeSouza, Anil; Bain, Craig; Majure, Lisa; Smith, Dean Howard; Turek, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The concomitant secondary consequences of an electrification program and the potential long-term benefits of such a program are described. An electrification program can stimulate a move toward true self-determination and self-sufficiency for the Navajo nation.

  16. Mapping the economic benefits to livestock keepers from intervening against bovine trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A P M; Cecchi, G; Wint, G R W; Mattioli, R C; Robinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Endemic animal diseases such as tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis are a constant drain on the financial resources of African livestock keepers and on the productivity of their livestock. Knowing where the potential benefits of removing animal trypanosomosis are distributed geographically would provide crucial evidence for prioritising and targeting cost-effective interventions as well as a powerful tool for advocacy. To this end, a study was conducted on six tsetse-infested countries in Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. First, a map of cattle production systems was generated, with particular attention to the presence of draught and dairy animals. Second, herd models for each production system were developed for two scenarios: with or without trypanosomosis. The herd models were based on publications and reports on cattle productivity (fertility, mortality, yields, sales), from which the income from, and growth of cattle populations were estimated over a twenty-year period. Third, a step-wise spatial expansion model was used to estimate how cattle populations might migrate to new areas when maximum stocking rates are exceeded. Last, differences in income between the two scenarios were mapped, thus providing a measure of the maximum benefits that could be obtained from intervening against tsetse and trypanosomosis. For this information to be readily mappable, benefits were calculated per bovine and converted to US$ per square kilometre. Results indicate that the potential benefits from dealing with trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa are both very high and geographically highly variable. The estimated total maximum benefit to livestock keepers for the whole of the study area amounts to nearly US$ 2.5 billion, discounted at 10% over twenty years--an average of approximately US$ 3300 per square kilometre of tsetse-infested area--but with great regional variation from less than US$ 500 per square kilometre to well over US$ 10,000. The

  17. Evaluating ecological and economic benefits of a low-carbon industrial park based on millennium ecosystem assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 10(8) RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction.

  18. Evaluating Ecological and Economic Benefits of a Low-Carbon Industrial Park Based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; He, Guoxuan; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jieru; Su, Meirong; Qi, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37 × 108 RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction. PMID:23365537

  19. Research on the technology and economic calculation model of power transmission line considering environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yiqun; Sun, Chenjun; Zeng, Ming

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of the modern energy supply system, power grid has a very important influence on the regional energy system, especially in the context of large-scale development of new energy sources, cross transmission line planning is the key to optimize the energy supply system. First of all, this paper starts from the typical regional energy problem analysis, proposes the thought of relying on cross transmission to solve the problems of energy supply; Secondly, this paper analyzes the external environment and the effect of cross transmission, establishes the technical and economic model of transmission planning based on cost effectiveness; Finally, according to the example of China's energy system in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei region, to carry out technical and economic analysis of transmission line technology, and give the relevant recommendations.

  20. User benefits and funding strategies. [technology assessment and economic analysis of the space shuttles and NASA Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.; Day, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The justification, economic and technological benefits of NASA Space Programs (aside from pure scientific objectives), in improving the quality of life in the United States is discussed and outlined. Specifically, a three-step, systematic method is described for selecting relevant and highly beneficial payloads and instruments for the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) that will be used with the space shuttle until the space tug becomes available. Viable Government and private industry cost-sharing strategies which would maximize the number of IUS payloads, and the benefits obtainable under a limited NASA budget were also determined. Charts are shown which list the payload instruments, and their relevance in contributing to such areas as earth resources management, agriculture, weather forecasting, and many others.

  1. Economic Development Benefits from Wind Energy in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on the economic development impacts estimated from building and operating 7,800 MW of new wind power in Nebraska. This level of development is on the scale envisioned in the Department of Energy (DOE) report 20% Wind Energy by 2030. A practical first step to building 7,800 of wind is completing 1,000 MW. We also include the estimated economic impacts to Nebraska from building 1,000 MW of wind power. Our primary analysis indicates that the development and construction of approximately 7,800 MW of wind energy in Nebraska by 2030 will support 20,600 to 36,500 annual full-time equivalents (AFTE). In addition, operating the full 7,800 MW of wind energy could support roughly 2,000 to 4,000 full-time workers throughout the operating life of the wind facilities (LFTE). Nebraska's economy is estimated to see an average annual boost in economic activity ranging from $140 million to $260 million solely from construction and development related activities between 2011 and 2030. An additional boost of $250 - $442 million annually is estimated from operating 7,800 MW of wind capacity.

  2. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period.

  3. Economic Costs and Benefits of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Sawers, Larry; Rout, Jonathan; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis afflicts 68 million people in 73 countries, including 17 million persons living with chronic lymphedema. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to stop new infections and to provide care for persons already affected, but morbidity management programs have been initiated in only 24 endemic countries. We examine the economic costs and benefits of alleviating chronic lymphedema and its effects through a simple limb-care program. For Khurda District, Odisha State, India, we estimated lifetime medical costs and earnings losses due to chronic lymphedema and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) with and without a community-based limb-care program. The program would reduce economic costs of lymphedema and ADLA over 60 years by 55%. Savings of US$1,648 for each affected person in the workforce are equivalent to 1,258 days of labor. Per-person savings are more than 130 times the per-person cost of the program. Chronic lymphedema and ADLA impose a substantial physical and economic burden on the population in filariasis-endemic areas. Low-cost programs for lymphedema management based on limb washing and topical medication for infection are effective in reducing the number of ADLA episodes and stopping progression of disabling and disfiguring lymphedema. With reduced disability, people are able to work longer hours, more days per year, and in more strenuous, higher-paying jobs, resulting in an important economic benefit to themselves, their families, and their communities. Mitigating the severity of lymphedema and ADLA also reduces out-of-pocket medical expense. PMID:27573626

  4. Economic evaluation of iodine deficiency disorder control program in Sikkim: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are the most common cause of preventable brain damage globally. The strategy of prevention and control of iodine deficiency is based on iodine supplementation. Edible salt iodization and iodized oil injections are the two most commonly used vehicles for iodine supplementation. The objective of the study was to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the two programs of iodine supplementation, i.e., iodized salt program (ISP) and iodized oil program (IOP) against no preventive program (NPP) option. The study was conducted in 1990 in the state of Sikkim in India. The costs were calculated on the assumption of universal coverage of ISP and coverage of IOP among all children aged 0-14 years and women in the age group of 15-44 years. Direct and indirect cost of ISP and direct cost of IOP was computed based on the costs of year 1991. The discount rate taken was 10% and all the costs were converted to the year 2010 using wholesale price index (WPI) data. Consequences in terms of health effects, Social/emotional effects, and resource use were included. The discounted cost of ISP and IOP was Rs. 59,225,964 and Rs. 46,145,491, respectively. In ISP, 64.1% of the total cost was required for salt iodization, 17.6% for monitoring, and 18.3% for communication. In IOP, 50.9% of the costs were required for iodized oil; rest was for syringes and needles, manpower expenses, travel, and communication. Total resource saving was Rs. 95,566,220 for ISP and Rs. 92,177,548 for IOP. Incremental benefit for ISP was Rs. 36,340,256 and Rs. 46,032,057 for IOP. The cost-benefit ratio for ISP was 1.61 and 2.00 for IOP. IOP has a higher cost-benefit ratio for prevention of IDDs than ISP in the state of Sikkim, India.

  5. The grain of spatially referenced economic cost and biodiversity benefit data and the effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy.

    PubMed

    Sutton, N J; Armsworth, P R

    2014-12-01

    Facing tight resource constraints, conservation organizations must allocate funds available for habitat protection as effectively as possible. Often, they combine spatially referenced economic and biodiversity data to prioritize land for protection. We tested how sensitive these prioritizations could be to differences in the spatial grain of these data by demonstrating how the conclusion of a classic debate in conservation planning between cost and benefit targeting was altered based on the available information. As a case study, we determined parcel-level acquisition costs and biodiversity benefits of land transactions recently undertaken by a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to protect forests in the eastern United States. Then, we used hypothetical conservation plans to simulate the types of ex ante priorities that an organization could use to prioritize areas for protection. We found the apparent effectiveness of cost and benefit targeting depended on the spatial grain of the data used when prioritizing parcels based on local species richness. However, when accounting for complementarity, benefit targeting consistently was more efficient than a cost targeting strategy regardless of the spatial grain of the data involved. More pertinently for other studies, we found that combining data collected over different spatial grains inflated the apparent effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy and led to overestimation of the efficiency gain offered by adopting a more integrative return-on-investment approach. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Economic and Quality of Life Benefits of Anti-VEGF Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nickisa; Wu, Frances; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Wenqui; Ferreyra, Henry; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Jiawei

    2016-09-06

    Vision impairment and blindness create a significant impact on quality of life and loss of productivity. Health care expenditures for vision problems, including direct medical costs and indirect costs for support services and loss of productivity, amount to $139 billion annually. It is projected that by 2020, five million people will have visual impairment due to age related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. VEGF inhibitor therapy has been shown to be a cost-effective treatment for age related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema that has reduced the incidence of vision loss and can reduce the associated economic and societal cost.

  7. Container recycling: Environmental and economic benefits. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning efforts to reduce solid waste generation through the used glass or plastics recycling. Topics include the design of refillable containers, recycling processes which convert post-consumer glass or plastic into useful products, and potential markets for these products. The citations compare the economics of recycling with the costs of waste collection and landfill disposal. Successful municipal and industrial recycling programs are detailed, and the relative merits of voluntary and mandatory recycling programs are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 169 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Economic evaluation of the benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Stieb, David M; De Civita, Paul; Johnson, F Reed; Manary, Matthew P; Anis, Aslam H; Beveridge, Robert C; Judek, Stan

    2002-01-01

    Background Few assessments of the costs and benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity related to air pollution have employed a comprehensive, explicit approach to capturing the full societal value of reduced morbidity. Methods We used empirical data on the duration and severity of episodes of cardiorespiratory disease as inputs to complementary models of cost of treatment, lost productivity, and willingness to pay to avoid acute cardiorespiratory morbidity outcomes linked to air pollution in epidemiological studies. A Monte Carlo estimation procedure was utilized to propagate uncertainty in key inputs and model parameters. Results Valuation estimates ranged from $13 (1997, Canadian) (95% confidence interval, $0–28) for avoidance of an acute respiratory symptom day to $5,200 ($4,000–$6,400) for avoidance of a cardiac hospital admission. Cost of treatment accounted for the majority of the overall value of cardiac and respiratory hospital admissions as well as cardiac emergency department visits, while lost productivity generally represented a small proportion of overall value. Valuation estimates for days of restricted activity, asthma symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms were sensitive to alternative assumptions about level of activity restriction. As an example of the application of these values, we estimated that the observed decrease in particulate sulfate concentrations in Toronto between 1984 and 1999 resulted in annual benefits of $1.4 million (95% confidence interval $0.91–1.8 million) in relation to reduced emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory disease. Conclusion Our approach to estimating the value of avoiding a range of acute morbidity effects of air pollution addresses a number of limitations of the current literature, and is applicable to future assessments of the benefits of improving air quality. PMID:12537591

  9. External benefits of biomass-e in Spain: an economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario

    2010-03-01

    This article analyses the willingness to pay for a program that promotes the production of electricity from forest biomass, instead of that based on fossil fuels. The program decreases greenhouse gas emissions, reduces the pressure on non-renewable resources, lowers the risk of summer forest fires, creates employment in rural areas. Results from a choice experiment show that consumers are willing to pay a higher price for electricity in order to obtain the external benefits of the substitution. Respondents attach a higher value to programs that decrease the pressure of non-renewable resources and the risk of forest fires.

  10. The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

    2006-11-30

    The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases.

  11. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed. PMID:27757043

  12. Cooperators benefit through reputation-based partner choice in economic games.

    PubMed

    Sylwester, Karolina; Roberts, Gilbert

    2010-10-23

    Explaining unconditional cooperation, such as donations to charities or contributions to public goods, continues to present a problem. One possibility is that cooperation can pay through developing a reputation that makes one more likely to be chosen for a profitable cooperative partnership, a process termed competitive altruism (CA) or reputation-based partner choice. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that investing in a cooperative reputation can bring net benefits through access to more cooperative partners. Participants played a public goods game (PGG) followed by an opportunity to select a partner for a second cooperative game. We found that those who gave more in the PGG were more often selected as desired partners and received more in the paired cooperative game. Reputational competition was even stronger when it was possible for participants to receive a higher payoff from partner choice. The benefits of being selected by a more cooperative partner outweighed the costs of cooperation in the reputation building phase. CA therefore provides an alternative to indirect reciprocity as an explanation for reputation-building behaviour. Furthermore, while indirect reciprocity depends upon individuals giving preference to those of good standing, CA can explain unconditional cooperation.

  13. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed.

  14. The economics of vocational and technical education: Do the benefits outweigh the costs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Walter J.

    1988-06-01

    This is an economic analysis of education that is specific to a particular profession or vocation, but not to a particular firm. It is therefore new in relation to Becker's analysis, which distinguished only between firm-specific training and general training without addressing this in-between case. The basic issue is the optimum degree of vocationalization of the curriculum. The evidence is that a properblance between vocational and general curricula is efficient. But there are growthrelated criteria for different rates of expansion for each. Criteria for the most efficient mixture of vocational schooling and on-the-job training are considered, as are the implications for policy and equity of overexpanding separately tracked schools.

  15. The economic benefits of disease triggered early harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Norway.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Rich, K M; Jensen, B Bang; Aunsmo, A

    2015-10-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is an important viral disease in Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture causing biological losses in terms of reduced growth, mortality, increased feed conversion ratio, and carcass downgrading. We developed a bio-economic model to investigate the economic benefits of a disease triggered early harvesting strategy to control PD losses. In this strategy, the salmon farm adopts a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic screening program to monitor the virus levels in stocks. Virus levels are used to forecast a clinical outbreak of pancreas disease, which then initiates a prescheduled harvest of the stock to avoid disease losses. The model is based on data inputs from national statistics, literature, company data, and an expert panel, and use stochastic simulations to account for the variation and/or uncertainty associated with disease effects and selected production expenditures. With the model, we compared the impacts of a salmon farm undergoing prescheduled harvest versus the salmon farm going through a PD outbreak. We also estimated the direct costs of a PD outbreak as the sum of biological losses, treatment costs, prevention costs, and other additional costs, less the costs of insurance pay-outs. Simulation results suggests that the economic benefit from a prescheduled harvest is positive once the average salmon weight at the farm has reached 3.2kg or more for an average Norwegian salmon farm stocked with 1,000,000smolts and using average salmon sales prices for 2013. The direct costs from a PD outbreak occurring nine months (average salmon weight 1.91kg) after sea transfer and using 2013 sales prices was on average estimated at NOK 55.4 million (5%, 50% and 90% percentile: 38.0, 55.8 and 72.4) (NOK=€0.128 in 2013). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the losses from a PD outbreak are sensitive to feed- and salmon sales prices, and that high 2013 sales prices contributed to substantial losses associated with a PD outbreak.

  16. The economic benefits of fertility control: a critical analysis of the investment approach.

    PubMed

    Badari, V S

    1977-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries.

  17. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs. PMID:21463527

  18. Understanding the distribution of economic benefits from improving coastal and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pakalniete, Kristine; Aigars, Juris; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Strake, Solvita; Zawojska, Ewa; Hanley, Nick

    2017-04-15

    The ecological status of coastal and marine waterbodies world-wide is threatened by multiple stressors, including nutrient inputs from various sources and increasing occurrences of invasive alien species. These stressors impact the environmental quality of the Baltic Sea. Each Baltic Sea country contributes to the stressors and, at the same time, is affected by their negative impacts on water quality. Knowledge about benefits from improvements in coastal and marine waters is key to assessing public support for policies aimed at achieving such changes. We propose a new approach to account for variability in benefits related to differences in socio-demographics of respondents, by using a structural model of discrete choice. Our method allows to incorporate a wide range of socio-demographics as explanatory variables in conditional multinomial logit models without the risk of collinearity; the model is estimated jointly and hence more statistically efficient than the alternative, typically used approaches. We apply this new technique to a study of the preferences of Latvian citizens towards improvements of the coastal and marine environment quality. We find that overall, Latvians are willing to pay for reducing losses of biodiversity, for improving water quality for recreation by reduced eutrophication, and for reducing new occurrences of invasive alien species. However a significant group within the sample seems not to value environmental improvements in the Baltic Sea, and, thus, is unwilling to support costly measures for achieving such improvements. The structural model of discrete choice reveals substantial heterogeneity among Latvians towards changes in the quality of coastal and marine waters of Latvia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  20. Economic benefits of adequate molecular monitoring in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Annie; Chen, Lei; Dea, Katherine; Wu, Eric Q; Goldberg, Stuart L

    2014-02-01

    Molecular monitoring of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been associated with improved clinical outcomes during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy (TKI), yet recent studies have demonstrated its use is far below published guidelines. This study sought to determine frequencies of molecular monitoring and its impact on resource utilization and medical costs. A retrospective US claims administrative database (IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims and Truven Health Analytics MarketScan databases, 11/2007-06/2012) was used to analyze the economic impact of qPCR testing in CML patients on first-line TKIs during the initial 12-months of treatment. One thousand two hundred and five adult CML patients met the sample selection criteria. Among these, 41.0% had no qPCR tests, 31.9% had 1-2 tests, and 27.1% had 3-4 tests; 88.9% were initiated on imatinib; 47.7% were female. Patients in the 3-4 tests cohort incurred 44% (p < 0.001) fewer in-patient (IP) admissions than patients in the 0-tests cohort. Adjusted all-cause IP cost was $5663 (p = 0.005) lower for the 3-4 tests cohort than the 0-tests cohort. Adjusted progression-related IP cost was $4132 (p = 0.013) lower for the 3-4 tests cohort than the 0-tests cohort. Adjusted medical service cost was $5997 (p = 0.049) lower for the 3-4 tests cohort than the 0-tests cohort. Claims databases did not include information on the primary cause of hospitalizations. Among CML patients in two large claims databases, nearly three-quarters did not receive adequate molecular monitoring per published guidelines. Those who were more frequently monitored incurred lower medical service costs, with the majority of the difference in costs being related to disease progression. These findings underscore the clinical and economic values of molecular monitoring in CML.

  1. Health and economic benefits of reducing the number of students per classroom in US primary schools.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Woolf, Steven H

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the costs associated with reducing class sizes in kindergarten through grade 3 as well as the effects of small class sizes on selected outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years and future earnings. We used multiple data sets to predict changes in the outcomes assessed according to level of educational attainment. We then used a Markov model to estimate future costs and benefits incurred and quality-adjusted life-years gained per additional high school graduate produced over time. From a societal perspective (incorporating earnings and health outcomes), class-size reductions would generate a net cost savings of approximately $168,000 and a net gain of 1.7 quality-adjusted life-years for each high school graduate produced by small classes. When targeted to low-income students, the estimated savings would increase to $196,000 per additional graduate. From a governmental perspective (incorporating public expenditures and revenues), the results of reducing class sizes ranged from savings in costs to an additional cost of $15000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Reducing class sizes may be more cost-effective than most public health and medical interventions.

  2. Health and Economic Benefits of Reducing the Number of Students per Classroom in US Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, Peter; Woolf, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the costs associated with reducing class sizes in kindergarten through grade 3 as well as the effects of small class sizes on selected outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years and future earnings. Methods. We used multiple data sets to predict changes in the outcomes assessed according to level of educational attainment. We then used a Markov model to estimate future costs and benefits incurred and quality-adjusted life-years gained per additional high school graduate produced over time. Results. From a societal perspective (incorporating earnings and health outcomes), class-size reductions would generate a net cost savings of approximately $168 000 and a net gain of 1.7 quality-adjusted life-years for each high school graduate produced by small classes. When targeted to low-income students, the estimated savings would increase to $196 000 per additional graduate. From a governmental perspective (incorporating public expenditures and revenues), the results of reducing class sizes ranged from savings in costs to an additional cost of $15000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Conclusions. Reducing class sizes may be more cost-effective than most public health and medical interventions. PMID:17901430

  3. Economic Benefits and Treatment Progress as Determinants of the Sustainability of Vietnamese Voluntary Co-Located Patients Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the past 15 years or so, in Vietnam, a phenomenon has steadily grown more and more widespread: the forming of co-located patients communities. Poor patients choose to live together, seeking/lending supports from/to one another. Despite the undeniable existence of these communities, little is researched or known about how co-located patients perceive the value of what they receive as cluster members, or how they assess their future connection to the communities they are living in. Materials and Methods The study employs multiple logistic regressions method to investigate relationships between factors such as perceived satisfaction from community-provided financial means, reported health improvements, along with patients’ short-and longer-term commitments to these communities. Results The results suggest meaningful empirical relationships: 1) between, on one hand, gender, perceived values and sustainability of patients communities, financial stress faced by patients and the financial benefits they received from the community, and, on the other hand, their propensity to stay connected to it; and 2) between economic conditions, length of stay with a community, general level of satisfaction, health improvements on one hand and long-term commitment to these communities on the other hand. Conclusions Patients who choose to stick to co-location clusters do so for an economic reason: finding means to fight their financial hardship. This may suggest a degree of complication higher than one would have thought in dealing with poor patients from a social point of view. Concretely, the majority of the public only focuses on charity programs and in-king donations, while ignoring the more sustainable – and, at the same time, more complicated – alternative which is to create suitable income-generating jobs for patient. In addition, patients are not only those who seek to ask for supports but can potentially be the donors contributing to the sustainability of

  4. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management (“no ban”, n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown (“ban”, n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. Fishery Income in Implementing Villages In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing

  5. Economic benefits or drivers of a 'One Health' approach: why should anyone invest?

    PubMed

    Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara; De Haan, Nicoline; Rushton, Ruth

    2012-06-20

    One Health concepts and ideas are some of the oldest in the health discipline, yet they have not become main stream. Recent discussions of the need for One Health approaches require some reflection on how to present a case for greater investments. The paper approaches this problem from the perspective of the control and management of resources for health in general. It poses the following questions, (1) where do we need extra resources for One Health, (2) where can we save resources through a One Health approach and (3) who has control of the resources that do exist for One Health? In answering these questions three broad areas are explored, (1) The management and resources allocated for diseases, (2) The isolation of parts of the society that require human and animal health services and (3) The use of resources and skills that are easily transferable between human and animal health.The paper concludes that One Health approaches are applicable in many scenarios. However, the costs of getting people from different disciplines to work together in order to achieve a true One Health approach can be large. To generate tangible benefits requires careful management of specialist skills, knowledge and equipment, which can only be achieved by a greater openness of the human and animal health disciplines. Without this openness, policy makers will continue to doubt the real value of One Health. In summary the future success of One Health is about people working in the research, education and provision of health systems around the world embracing and managing change more effectively.

  6. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  7. Potential Economic Benefits of Adapting Agricultural Production Systems to Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs to

  8. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    PubMed

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  9. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, lingxue

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.

  10. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management ("no ban", n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown ("ban", n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  11. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  12. The economic benefits of negative pressure wound therapy in community-based wound care in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Caroline; Davis, Lynn; Henderson, Valerie; Searle, Richard

    2012-10-01

    The human and economic costs of wounds are of major concern within today's National Health Service. Advances in wound care technology have been shown to be beneficial both in healing and in relation to patient quality of life. Negative pressure has often been associated with high-cost care and restricted to use in the secondary care setting. There is growing use of negative pressure within the community, and this has the potential to benefit the patient and the service by providing quality care in the patient's home setting. Three community sites were chosen to monitor their use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) over a period of 2 years, and this paper presents some of the key findings of this work. The data generated has been used to help target resources and prevent misuse of therapy. Cost per patient episode has been calculated, and this can be compared to similar costs in secondary care, showing significant savings if patients are discharged earlier from secondary care. There is also an increased demand for more patients with complex wounds to be cared for in the community, and in the future, it is likely that community initiated NPWT may become more common. Early analysis of the data showed that the average cost of dressing complex wounds would be significantly less than using traditional dressings, where increased nursing visits could increase costs. There is a compelling argument for more negative pressure to be used and initiated in the community, based not only on improved quality of life for patients but also on the economic benefits of the therapy.

  13. [Study on clinical efficacy of zhennaoning capsules in treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis and analysis on its economic benefits].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-Chao; Zhang, Hong-Feng; Wang, Le; Chen, Chen; Li, Hui; Li, Qian; Huo, Hao-Li; Bai, Min

    2013-04-01

    To study clinical efficacy of Zhennaoning capsules in treating cases with cerebral arteriosclerosis, and analyze its economic benefits. Totally 254 cases with cerebral arteriosclerosis were randomly divided into two groups according to their doctor-consulting sequence: the test group (n = 128) that was administered with Zhennaoning capsules, and the control group (n = 126) that was administered with Yangxueqingnao granules. A double-blind parallel-controlled study was conducted for four weeks, in order to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of the two groups, and evaluate their pharmacoeconomics. Additionally, the clinical efficacy and safety of Zhennaoning capsules in treating cerebral arteriosclerosis, as well as its pharmacoeconomics were also discussed. This study showed that Zhennaoning capsules had a better efficacy than its control drug Yangxueqingnao granules in relieving traditional Chinese medicinal syndromes (according to traditional Chinese medicinal syndrome coring, efficacy and cure rate), suggesting a statistical significance (P < 0.01). Despite statistical significance showed from the differences in the remaining indexes and the occurrence rate of adverse effects, the test group displayed a lower cost effectives than the control group (P < 0.01). Zhennaoning capsules have a better clinical efficacy in treating cases with cerebral arteriosclerosis than Yangxueqingnao granules, demonstrating safe clinical application and better economic advantages.

  14. Economic Effects of Legislations and Policies to Expand Mental Health and Substance Abuse Benefits in Health Insurance Plans: A Community Guide Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. Aims of the Study This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. Methods The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. Results The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. Discussion and Limitations This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expand MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when

  15. Legislations and policies to expand mental health and substance abuse benefits in health insurance plans: a community guide systematic economic review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A; Goetzel, Ron Z; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B

    2015-03-01

    Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expanded MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when long-term MH/SA patient-level data becomes available to researchers. A

  16. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation.

  17. [Does telemonitoring lead to health and economic benefits in patients with chronic heart failure? - a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Augustin, U; Henschke, C

    2012-12-01

    Chronic heart failure is a severe and common disease combined with high costs for the German health care system. Deficiencies in standard therapy and limited financial capacities of the German health care system necessitate new approaches in the care of chronic heart failure patients.The present study aims to analyse the scientific level of knowledge of clinical, economic and other outcomes of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. Results should provide an evidence base for health-care decision makers.To determine the outcomes, a systematic review was carried out by using the database MEDLINE. In accordance with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 randomized controlled trials remained. Furthermore, 4 studies of a hand research and the recently published results of one of the largest national studies were included.As a result of the systematic review, there is currently no evidence for the benefits of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy. National studies identified significant improvements or a tendency for improvements in terms of quality of life and costs/cost-effectiveness as well as partly in mortality, hospital duration and medication adherence. International studies diverged in their results. The comparability and validity of the investigated studies are limited due to a low number of national studies, different settings of the telemonitoring programmes, the inclusion of different NYHA classes, the heterogeneity of study endpoints and endpoint-related causes, short observation periods of some studies as well as questionable transferability of international cost-results to the German health care system. Furthermore, differences in standard therapy between national and international studies were identified. None of the international studies performed a comparison between clinical and economic outcomes.With regard to the future prospects of telemonitoring in Germany there is still a need for

  18. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  19. User-tailored seasonal forecasts for agriculture - creating socio-economic benefit through climate services in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ventura, Sara; Avalos, Grinia; Rossa, Andrea; Flubacher, Moritz; Gubler, Stefanie; Sedlmeier, Katrin; Dapozzo, Marlene; Garcia, Teresa; Quevedo, Karim; Liniger, Mark; Spirig, Christoph; Rosas, Gabriela; Schwierz, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    The project Climandes is a twinning project between the Peruvian National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology of Switzerland (MeteoSwiss) aiming at improving climate services for the Andean Region. It was launched in 2012 as a pilot project of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of WMO. In 2016 a second phase of the project has started. Until now, Peru as all the Andean countries has had only a limited access to climate services, and the few instruments already in place have mostly not been developed in concordance with the user needs. Due to this mismatch, the opportunity to achieve veritable socio-economic benefits (SEB) has been overlooked so far. An additional difficulty is the lack of trained and experienced climatology and meteorology professionals able to develop and provide high quality climate services. Furthermore, the importance of climate information and its far-reaching benefits has not yet been fully acknowledged and embraced by the political decision-makers. The overall goals of the Climandes project are the following:. • Provision of user-tailored climate services for the Andean Region to improve socio- economic benefits for the agricultural sector and for society at large. • Improvement of the capacities of the meteorological service of Peru to generate user-tailored climate services in the agricultural sector. These goals are elaborated within three mutually dependent modules: The first one comprises user-tailored climate products for the agricultural sector in the Peruvian Andes. This includes drought and precipitation monitoring as well as the development of a prototype seasonal prediction system for the region including indices tailored to the agricultural sector. The second module focuses on capacity building, enabling climatology-related professionals and students to develop high-quality climate services for Peru and the Andean Region. Training courses as

  20. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2004-06-01

    's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

  1. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  2. Health and economic benefits of public financing of epilepsy treatment in India: An agent-based simulation model.

    PubMed

    Megiddo, Itamar; Colson, Abigail; Chisholm, Dan; Dua, Tarun; Nandi, Arindam; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-03-01

    An estimated 6-10 million people in India live with active epilepsy, and less than half are treated. We analyze the health and economic benefits of three scenarios of publicly financed national epilepsy programs that provide: (1) first-line antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs), (2) first- and second-line AEDs, and (3) first- and second-line AEDs and surgery. We model the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in India using IndiaSim, an agent-based, simulation model of the Indian population. Agents in the model are disease-free or in one of three disease states: untreated with seizures, treated with seizures, and treated without seizures. Outcome measures include the proportion of the population that has epilepsy and is untreated, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, and cost per DALY averted. Economic benefit measures estimated include out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure averted and money-metric value of insurance. All three scenarios represent a cost-effective use of resources and would avert 800,000-1 million DALYs per year in India relative to the current scenario. However, especially in poor regions and populations, scenario 1 (which publicly finances only first-line therapy) does not decrease the OOP expenditure or provide financial risk protection if we include care-seeking costs. The OOP expenditure averted increases from scenarios 1 through 3, and the money-metric value of insurance follows a similar trend between scenarios and typically decreases with wealth. In the first 10 years of scenarios 2 and 3, households avert on average over US$80 million per year in medical expenditure. Expanding and publicly financing epilepsy treatment in India averts substantial disease burden. A universal public finance policy that covers only first-line AEDs may not provide significant financial risk protection. Covering costs for both first- and second-line therapy and other medical costs alleviates the financial burden from epilepsy and is cost-effective across wealth

  3. Quantifying the economic benefits of prevention in a healthcare setting with severe financial constraints: the case of hypertension control.

    PubMed

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Stergiou, George S; Kyriopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension significantly contributes to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, thus leading to rising healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefits of optimal systolic blood pressure (SBP), in a setting under severe financial constraints, as in the case of Greece. Hence, a Markov model projecting 10-year outcomes and costs was adopted, in order to compare two scenarios. The first one depicted the "current setting", where all hypertensives in Greece presented an average SBP of 164 mmHg, while the second scenario namely "optimal SBP control" represented a hypothesis in which the whole population of hypertensives would achieve optimal SBP (i.e. <140 mmHg). Cardiovascular events' occurrence was estimated for four sub-models (according to gender and smoking status). Costs were calculated from the Greek healthcare system's perspective (discounted at a 3% annual rate). Findings showed that compared to the "current setting", universal "optimal SBP control" could, within a 10-year period, reduce the occurrence of non-fatal events and deaths, by 80 and 61 cases/1000 male smokers; 59 and 37 cases/1000 men non-smokers; whereas the respective figures for women were 69 and 57 cases/1000 women smokers; and accordingly, 52 and 28 cases/1000 women non-smokers. Considering health expenditures, they could be reduced by approximately €83 million per year. Therefore, prevention of cardiovascular events through BP control could result in reduced morbidity, thereby in substantial cost savings. Based on clinical and economic outcomes, interventions that promote BP control should be a health policy priority.

  4. The private sector economic and employment benefits to the nation and to each state of proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The private sector economic and employment benefits (disaggregated among 80 industries and 475 occupations) of the proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures to the nation and to each state are estimated. Nationwide, it is found that FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures of $11.3 billion will have an economic multiplier of 2.1 and will create, directly and indirectly, 237,000 jobs, $23.2 billion in total industry sales, $2.4 billion in corporate profits, and $7.4 billion in Federal, state, and local government tax revenues. These benefits are widely dispersed throughout the United States and are significant in many states not normally considered to be major beneficiaries of NASA spending. The indirect economic benefits are identified for each state resulting from the second-, third-, and fourth rounds of industry purchases generated by NASA procurement expenditures. Each state is ranked on the basis of several criteria, including the total benefits, indirect benefits, and per capita benefits received from NASA spending. The estimates developed are important for maintaining a viable U.S. Space Program through the remainder of this century.

  5. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  6. Economic and ecological costs and benefits of streamflow augmentation using recycled water in a California coastal stream.

    PubMed

    Halaburka, Brian J; Lawrence, Justin E; Bischel, Heather N; Hsiao, Janet; Plumlee, Megan H; Resh, Vincent H; Luthy, Richard G

    2013-10-01

    Streamflow augmentation has the potential to become an important application of recycled water in water scarce areas. We assessed the economic and ecological merits of a recycled water project that opted for an inland release of tertiary-treated recycled water in a small stream and wetland compared to an ocean outfall discharge. Costs for the status-quo scenario of discharging secondary-treated effluent to the ocean were compared to those of the implemented scenario of inland streamflow augmentation using recycled water. The benefits of the inland-discharge scenario were greater than the increase in associated costs by US$1.8M, with recreational value and scenic amenity generating the greatest value. We also compared physical habitat quality, water quality, and benthic macroinvertebrate community upstream and downstream of the recycled water discharge to estimate the effect of streamflow augmentation on the ecosystem. The physical-habitat quality was higher downstream of the discharge, although streamflow came in unnatural diurnal pulses. Water quality remained relatively unchanged with respect to dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia-nitrogen, although temperatures were elevated. Benthic macroinvertebrates were present in higher abundances, although the diversity was relatively low. A federally listed species, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), was present. Our results may support decision-making for wastewater treatment alternatives and recycled water applications in Mediterranean climates.

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  8. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  9. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  10. 26 CFR 53.4958-5 - Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transaction in which the amount of the economic benefit is determined in whole or in part by the revenues of one or more activities of the organization. 53.4958-5 Section 53.4958-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES...

  11. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. B.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y.; Kwon, H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc) with an initial body weight (BW) 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% (3.07

  12. The Economic and Social Benefits of Early Childhood Education. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Health of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Testimony on economic and social benefits of early childhood education, and on legislation to amend the Head Start Act and provide funds to increase the number of spaces in Head Start was offered at a hearing in New York City. Testimony concerned: (1) the successes of Head Start, the unmet needs of disadvantaged youth, and the need to expand the…

  13. HEALTH AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF EARLY VACCINATION FOR A HUMAN INFLUENZA A (H7N9) PANDEMIC

    PubMed Central

    Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W; Collins, Ine; Garber, Alan M; Owens, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Background 2009 pandemic vaccination occurred late, limiting its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing high morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified A (H5N1) to transmit via aerosol, again heightening concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness. Objective We sought to determine how much more quickly a vaccination program should be implemented to reduce infections, deaths, and healthcare costs in a pandemic with characteristics similar to influenza A (H7N9) and A (H5N1). Design We used a dynamic transmission model to estimate health and economic consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in a large metropolitan city. Data Sources Literature and expert opinion. Target Population Residents of a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City. Perspective Societal. Time Horizon Lifetime. Interventions Vaccination of 30% of the population at 4 or 6 months. Outcome Measures Infections and deaths averted, cost-effectiveness. Results of Base Case Analysis 48,254 would die in 12 months; vaccinating at 9 months would avert 2,365 of these deaths. Vaccinating at 6 months would save 5,775 additional lives and $51 million at a city level. Further accelerating delivery to 4 months would save an additional 5,633 lives and $50 million. Results of Sensitivity Analysis In the event of a vaccine delay to 9 months, increasing reductions in contacts via non-pharmaceutical interventions by 8% would yield a similar reduction in infections and deaths as vaccination at 4 months. Limitations The model is not designed to evaluate programs targeting specific populations such as children or individuals with comorbidities. Conclusions Vaccination in an influenza A (H7N9) pandemic would need to be performed far more rapidly than in 2009 to substantially reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Maximizing non-pharmacological interventions can substantially mitigate the pandemic until matched vaccine becomes available. PMID:24842415

  14. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  16. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  17. Planning water supply under uncertainty - benefits and limitations of RDM, Info-Gap, economic optimization and many-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, E.; Padula, S.; Huskova, I.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    companies and generates the least-economic cost annual plan. The RDM application uses stochastic simulation under a weekly time-step and regret analysis to choose a candidate strategy. We then use a statistical cluster algorithm to identify future states of the world under which the strategy is vulnerable. The method explicitly considers the effects of uncertainty in supply, demands and energy price on multiple performance criteria. The Info-gap approach produces robustness and opportuneness plots that show the performance of different plans under the most dire and favorable sets of future conditions. The same simulator, supply and demand options and uncertainties are considered as in the RDM application. The MOEO application considers many more combinations of supply and demand options while still employing a simulator that enables a more realistic representation of the physical system and operating rules. A computer cluster is employed to ease the computational burden. Visualization software allows decision makers to interactively view tradeoffs in many dimensions. Benefits and limitations of each framework are discussed and recommendations for future planning in the basin are provided.

  18. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P < 0.05). Grazing animals suffered serious live-weight loss, while TMR, OS and OH significantly (P < 0.05) improved total live-weight gain and gain rate in both Tibetan sheep and yaks during the entire experiment. TMR worked better in animal performance and feed efficiency, obtained the highest breeding profit in both Tibetan sheep and yaks among four treatments (P < 0.05). When expressed on net economic benefit, TMR shared the highest net economic benefit in Tibetan sheep, OH shared the highest net economic benefit in yaks, but, no significant difference of net economic benefit in yaks fed TMR and OH diets was determined (P > 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season

  19. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianwei; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P < 0.05). Grazing animals suffered serious live-weight loss, while TMR, OS and OH significantly (P < 0.05) improved total live-weight gain and gain rate in both Tibetan sheep and yaks during the entire experiment. TMR worked better in animal performance and feed efficiency, obtained the highest breeding profit in both Tibetan sheep and yaks among four treatments (P < 0.05). When expressed on net economic benefit, TMR shared the highest net economic benefit in Tibetan sheep, OH shared the highest net economic benefit in yaks, but, no significant difference of net economic benefit in yaks fed TMR and OH diets was determined (P > 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season.

  20. Assessing the economic benefits of vaccines based on the health investment life course framework: a review of a broader approach to evaluate malaria vaccination.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna

    2015-03-24

    Economic evaluations have routinely understated the net benefits of vaccination by not including the full range of economic benefits that accrue over the lifetime of a vaccinated person. Broader approaches for evaluating benefits of vaccination can be used to more accurately calculate the value of vaccination. This paper reflects on the methodology of one such approach - the health investment life course approach - that looks at the impact of vaccine investment on lifetime returns. The role of this approach on vaccine decision-making will be assessed using the malaria health investment life course model example. We describe a framework that measures the impact of a health policy decision on government accounts over many generations. The methodological issues emerging from this approach are illustrated with an example from a recently completed health investment life course analysis of malaria vaccination in Ghana. Beyond the results, various conceptual and practical challenges of applying this framework to Ghana are discussed in this paper. The current framework seeks to understand how disease and available technologies can impact a range of economic parameters such as labour force participation, education, healthcare consumption, productivity, wages or economic growth, and taxation following their introduction. The framework is unique amongst previous economic models in malaria because it considers future tax revenue for governments. The framework is complementary to cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis. The intent of this paper is to stimulate discussion on how existing and new methodology can add to knowledge regarding the benefits from investing in new and underutilized vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An interactive model for the assessment of the economic costs and benefits of different rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Lubell, Yoel; Hopkins, Heidi; Whitty, Christopher J M; Staedke, Sarah G; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-28

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being considered for routine use in Africa. However, many RDTs are available and selecting the ideal test for a particular setting is challenging. The appropriateness of RDT choice depends in part on patient population and epidemiological setting, and on decision makers' priorities. The model presented (available online) can be used by decision makers to evaluate alternative RDTs and assess the circumstances under which their use is justified on economic grounds. An interactive model based on a decision-tree structure and a cost-benefit framework was designed to compare different diagnostic strategies. Variables included in the model can be modified by users, including RDT and treatment costs, test accuracies (sensitivity and specificity), probabilities for developing severe illness, case-fatality rates, and clinician response to negative test results. To illustrate how the model can be used, a comparison is made of presumptive treatment with two available RDTs, one detecting histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) and one detecting Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Data inputs were obtained from a study comparing the RDTs at seven sites in Uganda. Applying the model in the illustrative Ugandan context demonstrates that if only direct expenditures are considered, the pLDH test is the preferred option for adult patients except in high transmission settings, while young children are best treated presumptively in all settings. When health outcomes are considered, the HRP2 test gains an advantage in almost all settings and for all age groups. Introducing possible adverse consequences of using an antimalarial into the analysis, such as adverse drug reactions, or the development of resistance, considerably strengthens the case for using RDTs. When the model is adjusted to account for less than complete adherence to test results, the efficiency of using RDTs drops sharply. Model output demonstrates that which test

  2. An interactive model for the assessment of the economic costs and benefits of different rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lubell, Yoel; Hopkins, Heidi; Whitty, Christopher JM; Staedke, Sarah G; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being considered for routine use in Africa. However, many RDTs are available and selecting the ideal test for a particular setting is challenging. The appropriateness of RDT choice depends in part on patient population and epidemiological setting, and on decision makers' priorities. The model presented (available online) can be used by decision makers to evaluate alternative RDTs and assess the circumstances under which their use is justified on economic grounds. Methods An interactive model based on a decision-tree structure and a cost-benefit framework was designed to compare different diagnostic strategies. Variables included in the model can be modified by users, including RDT and treatment costs, test accuracies (sensitivity and specificity), probabilities for developing severe illness, case-fatality rates, and clinician response to negative test results. To illustrate how the model can be used, a comparison is made of presumptive treatment with two available RDTs, one detecting histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) and one detecting Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Data inputs were obtained from a study comparing the RDTs at seven sites in Uganda. Results Applying the model in the illustrative Ugandan context demonstrates that if only direct expenditures are considered, the pLDH test is the preferred option for adult patients except in high transmission settings, while young children are best treated presumptively in all settings. When health outcomes are considered, the HRP2 test gains an advantage in almost all settings and for all age groups. Introducing possible adverse consequences of using an antimalarial into the analysis, such as adverse drug reactions, or the development of resistance, considerably strengthens the case for using RDTs. When the model is adjusted to account for less than complete adherence to test results, the efficiency of using RDTs drops sharply. Conclusion

  3. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  4. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  5. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  6. Planning, Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA): Economic Considerations for Adult Education. Occasional Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    In adult education, program planning and administrative management are important areas within which economic analysis may contribute to effective and efficient decision making. The adult education administrator is faced with a dual economic task: (1) to prove beforehand that his programs will pay for the operating budget he is demanding; and (2)…

  7. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-14

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment.

  8. The economic benefits of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding in neonatal units: analysis of a pragmatic intervention in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Karin; Offer, Clare; Watson, Julie; McGuire, Bill; Renfrew, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    A number of significant recent research studies have used techniques of economic modelling to demonstrate the potential benefits of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK overall, and specifically in neonatal care. This paper complements this growing body of evidence by presenting an economic analysis of data from an actual intervention, the 'Getting It Right From the Start' programme, which took place in the north of the UK during 2011-12, with the aim of increasing breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care rates in neonatal units. 'Getting It Right from the Start' was a pragmatic, multifaceted programme of change delivered under the auspices of the regional Health Innovation and Education Cluster, of which 17 were established in the UK in 2010. It engaged with 18 neonatal units in two Neonatal Networks with the aim of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates. As part of the evaluation of the programme, we conducted an economic study comparing the overall costs and benefits of the intervention. Overall, the economic analysis demonstrated that for every £1 invested in the intervention to increase kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding rates, between £4.00 and £13.82 of benefit was generated. This was spread across different healthcare settings and the timescale for the realisation of benefits will vary. The increases in kangaroo skin-to-skin care generated the greatest cost savings, with potential cost savings ranging between £668,000 (minimum cost assumptions) to more than £2 m (maximum cost assumptions). Increases in breastfeeding associated with the project generated between £68,486 and £582,432. The majority of the cost savings generated were associated with reductions in cases of gastroenteritis and necrotising enterocolitis. This was one of the first economic evaluations of an actual intervention to increase breastfeeding and kangaroo skin-to-skin care in neonatal units. It complements the existing economic models by

  9. Investment in Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Associated with Mental Illness Yields Positive Economic Benefits to California

    PubMed Central

    Ashwood, J. Scott; Briscombe, Brian; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Cerully, Jennifer; May, Libby; Roth, Beth; Burnam, M. Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the potential impact of the California Mental Health Services Authority's stigma and discrimination reduction social marketing campaign on the use of adult behavioral health services, and it estimates the benefit-cost ratios. PMID:28845343

  10. Investment in Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Associated with Mental Illness Yields Positive Economic Benefits to California.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, J Scott; Briscombe, Brian; Collins, Rebecca L; Wong, Eunice C; Eberhart, Nicole K; Cerully, Jennifer; May, Libby; Roth, Beth; Burnam, M Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of the California Mental Health Services Authority's stigma and discrimination reduction social marketing campaign on the use of adult behavioral health services, and it estimates the benefit-cost ratios.

  11. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon

  12. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  13. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  14. Do health benefits outweigh the costs of mass recreational programs? An economic analysis of four Ciclovía programs.

    PubMed

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost-benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara in México, and San Francisco in the U.S.A. The data of the four programs were obtained from program directors and local surveys. The annual cost per capita of the programs was: U.S. $6.0 for Bogotá, U.S. $23.4 for Medellín, U.S. $6.5 for Guadalajara, and U.S. $70.5 for San Francisco. The cost-benefit ratio for health benefit from physical activity was 3.23-4.26 for Bogotá, 1.83 for Medellín, 1.02-1.23 for Guadalajara, and 2.32 for San Francisco. For the program of Bogotá, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to the prevalence of physically active bicyclists; for Guadalajara, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to user costs; and for the programs of Medellín and San Francisco, the cost-benefit ratios were more sensitive to operational costs. From a public health perspective for promoting physical activity, these Ciclovía programs are cost beneficial.

  15. Framework for Estimating National Economic Development Benefits and Other Beneficial Effects of Flood Warning and Preparedness Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    11 Figure 5 - Shifting Linear Damage Curve ....... .................... 12 Figure 6 - Linear 3- D Damage Function...14 Figure 7 - Non-Linear 3- D Damage Function ....... .................. 15 Figure 8 - Damage Contour in Stage - Warning Space...Studies (P& G ) (Water Resources Council, 1983) and the National Economic Development Procedures Manual-Urban Flood Damage (Davis, et. al., 1988). It further

  16. The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

  17. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  18. The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

  19. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  20. The Hidden Costs of California's Harsh School Discipline: And the Localized Economic Benefits from Suspending Fewer High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Losen, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    This California study focuses on the economic impact of school suspensions at the district level. Every 10th grade student in California was tracked for three years to determine the degree to which suspensions predicted lower graduation rates at the state and district level. This estimated impact on graduation was then used to calculate the…

  1. COST-RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Moores, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: [Formula: see text] This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. COST–RISK–BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT

    PubMed Central

    Moores, B. Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost–benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: B=V−(P+X+Y). This article presents a theoretical cost–risk–benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. PMID:26705358

  3. Estimated economic benefit of increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Canadians to or above 100 nmol/L

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Samantha M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51–69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L. The diseases affected by 25(OH)D concentration included cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, respiratory infections, and musculoskeletal disorders. We used 25(OH)D concentration–health outcome relations for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease and results of clinical trials with vitamin D for respiratory infections and musculoskeletal disorders to estimate the reductions in disease burden for increased 25(OH)D concentrations. If all Canadians attained 25(OH)D concentrations>100 nmol/L, the calculated reduction in annual economic burden of disease was $12.5 ± 6 billion on the basis of economic burdens for 2016 and a reduction in annual premature deaths by 23,000 (11,000–34,000) on the basis of rates for 2011. However, the effects on disease incidence, economic burden, and mortality rate would be phased in gradually over several years primarily because once a chronic disease is established, vitamin D affects its progression only modestly. Nevertheless, national policy changes are justified to improve vitamin D status of Canadians through promotion of safe sun exposure messages, vitamin D supplement use, and/or facilitation of food fortification. PMID:27942348

  4. Estimated economic benefit of increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Canadians to or above 100 nmol/L.

    PubMed

    Grant, William B; Whiting, Susan J; Schwalfenberg, Gerry K; Genuis, Stephen J; Kimball, Samantha M

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51-69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L. The diseases affected by 25(OH)D concentration included cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, respiratory infections, and musculoskeletal disorders. We used 25(OH)D concentration-health outcome relations for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease and results of clinical trials with vitamin D for respiratory infections and musculoskeletal disorders to estimate the reductions in disease burden for increased 25(OH)D concentrations. If all Canadians attained 25(OH)D concentrations>100 nmol/L, the calculated reduction in annual economic burden of disease was $12.5 ± 6 billion on the basis of economic burdens for 2016 and a reduction in annual premature deaths by 23,000 (11,000-34,000) on the basis of rates for 2011. However, the effects on disease incidence, economic burden, and mortality rate would be phased in gradually over several years primarily because once a chronic disease is established, vitamin D affects its progression only modestly. Nevertheless, national policy changes are justified to improve vitamin D status of Canadians through promotion of safe sun exposure messages, vitamin D supplement use, and/or facilitation of food fortification.

  5. Understanding the economic costs and benefits of catastrophes and their aftermath: a review and suggestions for the U.S. federal government.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael R; Lahr, Michael; Mantell, Nancy

    2007-02-01

    The number and magnitude of devastating natural and human events make it imperative that we actively and systematically estimate the costs and benefits of policy decisions in affected localities, regions, states, and nations. Such strategic risk management preparedness efforts should forecast well into the future and include scenarios with and without enhanced engineered structures; with reduced vulnerability through land-use planning and design; with the impact of resiliency and mitigation; with evacuation and relocation; and with the costs and benefits of recovery and restoration. We describe different kinds of regional economic models that can be used in these preparedness planning efforts, explore critical data needs, and advocate a shared federal-state-local strategic planning effort to accomplish the objective.

  6. [Effects of dicyandiamide combined with nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emission and economic benefit in winter wheat and summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-qun; Li, Ying-chun; Peng, Zheng-ping; Wang, Chao-dong; Liu, Ya-nan

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at the problems of excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application, lower nitrogen use efficiency, increasing N2O emission from soil and fertilizer in current intensified agricultural productions, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of dicyandiamide (DCD) combined with nitrogen fertilizer application at different levels, i.e., 150, 225, 300 kg . hm-2, on N20 emission and relevant economic benefit in a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China Plain. The results showed that DCD application decreased N2O emission fluxes and cumulative emissions by 25.6%-32.1% and 23.1%-31.1% in the year-round. There was a significant positive exponential correlation between N2O flux and soil surface temperature or soil moisture content. The effect of soil moisture on N2O emission was stronger in wheat season than in maize season, while the effect of temperature on N2O emission was on the contrary. The yields of winter wheat and summer maize with DCD addition were increased by 16.7%-24.6% and 29.8%-34.5%, respectively, and the average economic income of two seasons was increased by 7973.2 yuan . hm-2. Therefore, appropriate rate of N fertilizer combined with DCD could not only increase crop yield and economic income, but also reduce N2O emission. Considering environmental and economic benefit under this experimental condition, DCD combined with nitrogen of moderate level (total N amount 225 kg . hm-2) was a good nitrogen management mode in North China.

  7. Economic gains and health benefits from a new cigarette tax scheme in Taiwan: a simulation using the CGE model

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Jie-Min; Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings. Methods The multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. Results The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28,125 and 56,250 lives. This could save NT$1.222~2.445 billion (where US$1 = NT$34.6) annually in life-threatening, cigarette-related health insurance expenses which exceeds the projected decrease of NT$1.275 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) because of reduced consumption and therefore tax revenue. Conclusion Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole. PMID:16529653

  8. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Juan C; Lacey, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-06-01

    Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates seeking cost-effective cervical cancer screening

  9. Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, L.; Blake, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period.

  10. Economic benefits of keeping vaccines at ambient temperature during mass vaccination: the case of meningitis A vaccine in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Simona; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Gbedonou, Placide; Youssouf, Brahim Oumar; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the potential economic benefits of keeping a meningitis A vaccine at or near ambient temperature for up to 4 days during a mass vaccination campaign. Methods During a 10-day mass vaccination campaign against meningitis A in three regions of Chad in 2011, the costs associated with storage and transport of the vaccine in a traditional cold chain system were evaluated. A mathematical model was used to estimate the savings that could have been achieved if the vaccine had been stored at or near ambient temperature – in a “controlled temperature” chain – at the peripheral levels of the supply chain system. Findings The cost of the cold chain and associated logistics used in the campaign in Chad was 0.24 United States dollars (US$) per person vaccinated. In the modelled scenario for a controlled temperature chain, however, these costs dropped by 50% and were estimated to be only US$ 0.12 per person vaccinated. Conclusion The implementation of a “controlled temperature” chain at the most peripheral levels of the supply chain system – assuming no associated loss of vaccine potency, efficacy or safety – could result in major economic benefits and allow vaccine coverage to be extended in low-resource settings. PMID:24623901

  11. Economic benefits of keeping vaccines at ambient temperature during mass vaccination: the case of meningitis A vaccine in Chad.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Zipursky, Simona; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Gbedonou, Placide; Youssouf, Brahim Oumar; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the potential economic benefits of keeping a meningitis A vaccine at or near ambient temperature for up to 4 days during a mass vaccination campaign. During a 10-day mass vaccination campaign against meningitis A in three regions of Chad in 2011, the costs associated with storage and transport of the vaccine in a traditional cold chain system were evaluated. A mathematical model was used to estimate the savings that could have been achieved if the vaccine had been stored at or near ambient temperature--in a "controlled temperature" chain--at the peripheral levels of the supply chain system. The cost of the cold chain and associated logistics used in the campaign in Chad was 0.24 United States dollars (US$) per person vaccinated. In the modelled scenario for a controlled temperature chain, however, these costs dropped by 50% and were estimated to be only US$ 0.12 per person vaccinated. The implementation of a "controlled temperature" chain at the most peripheral levels of the supply chain system--assuming no associated loss of vaccine potency, efficacy or safety--could result in major economic benefits and allow vaccine coverage to be extended in low-resource settings.

  12. An estimation of the long-term clinical and economic benefits of insulin lispro in Type 1 diabetes in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Pratoomsoot, C; Smith, H T; Kalsekar, A; Boye, K S; Arellano, J; Valentine, W J

    2009-01-01

    Aims To determine the long-term health economic benefits associated with lispro vs. regular human insulin (RHI) in UK Type 1 diabetic (T1DM) patients using the previously published and validated CORE Diabetes Model. Methods A literature review designed to capture clinical benefits associated with lispro and T1DM cohort characteristics specific to UK was undertaken. Clinical benefits were derived from a Cochrane meta-analysis. The estimated difference (weighted mean) in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was −0.1% (95% confidence interval −0.2 to 0.0%) for lispro vs. RHI. Severe hypoglycaemia rates for lispro and RHI were 21.8 and 46.1 events per 100 patient years, respectively. Costs and disutilities were accounted for severe hypoglycaemia rates. All costs were accounted in 2007 £UK from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Future costs and clinical benefits were discounted at 3.5% annually. Results In the base-case analysis, lispro was projected to be dominant compared with RHI. Lispro was associated with improvements in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of approximately 0.10 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) vs. RHI (7.60 vs. 7.50 QALYs). Lifetime direct medical costs per patient were lower with lispro treatment, £70 576 vs. £72 529. Severe hypoglycaemia rates were the key driver in terms of differences in QALE and lifetime costs. Sensitivity analyses with assumptions around time horizon, discounting rates and benefits in terms of glycaemic control or hypoglycaemic event rates revealed that lispro remained dominant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that lispro is likely to improve QALE, reduce frequency of diabetes-related complications and lifetime medical costs compared with RHI. PMID:19709151

  13. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  14. The need for better evidence to evaluate the health & economic benefits of India's Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arindam; Holtzman, E. Phoebe; Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    In this review the existing evidence on the impact of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) is discussed in the context of international literature available on health insurance. We describe potential pathways through which health insurance can affect health and economic outcomes, discuss evidence from other developing countries, and identify potential biases and inconsistencies in existing studies on RSBY impact. Given the relatively recent introduction of RSBY, lack of quality, verifiable data on utilization patterns, and the absence of reliable evaluation studies, there is a need to exercise caution while assessing the merits of the programme. Considering the enormous potential and cost of the programme, we emphasize the need for a rigorous impact evaluation of RSBY. It will not only help capture the real impact of the scheme, but may also be able to estimate the extent of systemic inefficiencies at the level of the consumer. PMID:26609029

  15. Newborns health in the Danube Region: Environment, biomonitoring, interventions and economic benefits in a large prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Zorana J; Sram, Radim J; Ščasný, Milan; Gurzau, Eugen S; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gribaldo, Laura; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Kohlová, Markéta Braun; Máca, Vojtěch; Zvěřinová, Iva; Gajdosova, Dagmar; Moshammer, Hanns; Rudnai, Peter; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-03-01

    The EU strategy for the Danube Region addresses numerous challenges including environment, health and socioeconomic disparities. Many old environmental burdens and heavily polluted areas in Europe are located in the Danube Region, consisting of 14 countries, with over 100 million people. Estimating the burden of environmental exposures on early-life health is a growing research area in Europe which has major public health implications, but the data from the Danube Region are largely missing. This review presents an inventory of current environmental challenges, related early-life health risks, and knowledge gaps in the Danube Region, based on publicly available databases, registers, and literature, as a rationale and incentive for a new integrated project. The review also proposes the concept for the project aiming to characterize in utero exposures to multiple environmental factors and estimate their effect on early-life health, evaluate economic impact, as well as identify interventions with a potential to harness social norms to reduce emissions, exposures and health risks in the Danube Region. Experts in environmental epidemiology, human biomonitoring and social science in collaboration with clinicians propose to establish a new large multi-center birth cohort of mother-child pairs from Danube countries, measure biomarkers of exposure and health in biological samples at birth, collect centrally measured climate, air and water pollution data, conduct pre- and postnatal surveys on lifestyle, indoor exposures, noise, occupation, socio-economic status, risk-averting behavior, and preferences; and undertake clinical examinations of children at and after birth. Birth cohort will include at least 2000 newborns per site, and a subset of at least 200 mother-child pairs per site for biomonitoring. Novel biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect will be applied, to gain better mechanistic insight. Effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal and child

  16. Advantages of the net benefit regression framework for economic evaluations of interventions in the workplace: a case study of the cost-effectiveness of a collaborative mental health care program for people receiving short-term disability benefits for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-04-01

    Economic evaluations commonly accompany trials of new treatments or interventions; however, regression methods and their corresponding advantages for the analysis of cost-effectiveness data are not well known. To illustrate regression-based economic evaluation, we present a case study investigating the cost-effectiveness of a collaborative mental health care program for people receiving short-term disability benefits for psychiatric disorders. We implement net benefit regression to illustrate its strengths and limitations. Net benefit regression offers a simple option for cost-effectiveness analyses of person-level data. By placing economic evaluation in a regression framework, regression-based techniques can facilitate the analysis and provide simple solutions to commonly encountered challenges. Economic evaluations of person-level data (eg, from a clinical trial) should use net benefit regression to facilitate analysis and enhance results.

  17. The three-year economic benefits of a ceiling lift intervention aimed to reduce healthcare worker injuries.

    PubMed

    Chhokar, Rahul; Engst, Chris; Miller, Aaron; Robinson, Dan; Tate, Robert B; Yassi, Annalee

    2005-03-01

    Ceiling lifts are frequently advocated to mitigate risk of injury to healthcare workers when lifting, transferring, or repositioning patients. A longitudinal case-study was conducted in an extended care facility to evaluate the efficacy of overhead lifts in reducing the risk of injury beyond that previously reported for the first year post-intervention (Am. Assoc. Occup. 50 (3) (2002) 120-127, 128-134). Analysis of injury trends spanning 3 years pre-intervention and 3 years post-intervention, found a significant and sustained decrease in days lost, workers' compensation claims, and direct costs associated with patient handling injuries. The payback period was estimated assuming that pre-intervention injury costs would either continue to increase (0.82 years) or plateau (2.50 years) in the year immediately preceding intervention. The rapid economic gains and sustained reduction in the frequency and cost of patient handling injuries beyond the first year strongly advocate for ceiling lift programs as an intervention strategy.

  18. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  19. Oral health promotion: the economic benefits to the NHS of increased use of sugarfree gum in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L.; Taylor, M.; Kay, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of sugarfree gum (SFG) on the prevention of dental caries has been established for some time. With increased constraints placed on healthcare budgets, the importance of economic considerations in decision-making about oral health interventions has increased. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential cost savings in dental care associated with increased levels of SFG usage. Methods The analysis examined the amount of money which would hypothetically be saved if the UK 12-year-old population chewed more SFG. The number of sticks chewed per year and the caries risk reduction were modelled to create a dose response curve. The costs of tooth restoration, tooth extraction in primary care settings and under general anaesthetic were considered, and the effects of caries reduction on these costs calculated. Results If all members of the UK 12-year-old population chewed SFG frequently (twice a day), the potential cost savings for the cohort over the course of one year were estimated to range from £1.2 to £3.3 million and if they chewed three times a day, £8.2 million could be saved each year. Sensitivity analyses of the key parameters demonstrated that cost savings would still be likely to be observed even in scenarios with less significant increases in SFG use. Conclusion This study shows that if levels of SFG usage in the teenage population in the UK could be increased, substantial cost savings might be achieved. PMID:26868801

  20. [Nervous syndrome in sheep on the Ivory Coast. II. Economic impact, trials and cost-benefit analysis of preventive plans].

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Formenty, P

    1993-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the ovine nervous syndrome in Côte-d'Ivoire were presented in the first part of this paper and the disease was considered to be similar to the cerebrocortical necrosis as related to vitamin B1 deficiency. The economic losses by this disease being 1,500 to 2,000 F CFA (30-40 FF) per animal and per year, it seemed to be very important to consider its prophylaxis. A programme involving a daily injection of 100 mg of thiamine chlorhydrate throughout the dry season proved to be very efficient. In addition, if excluding the cost of the injection, this programme appeared to be beneficial to the farmer. When including only the price of the product, the profit to cost ratio of the programme was 4.8 (thiamine at 400 F CFA) to 30.6 (thiamine at 66 F CFA). The other profit earning criteria, i.e. the differential actualized net value and the induced gains, showed the same positive effect of this prophylaxis programme. However, it should be emphasized that the nervous syndrome in sheep mainly remains an accident due to a poor flock management. Hence, to prevent this disease the farmer should correctly adapt the rearing methods to the intensification of the production. Nevertheless, as the accurate etiopathogenesis of the syndrome remains to be elucidated and as the daily injection of the product to all animals of the flock represents an important constraint, research should be pursued to solve a problem which seems to affect the whole region.

  1. Clinical and economic benefits of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Orozco, John Jairo; Lynch, Peter Matthew; Prieto, Diana; Saunders, Rhodri; Roze, Stephane; Valencia, Juan Esteban

    2016-11-01

    To assess the long-term clinical and economic impact of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI), for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Colombia. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with T1D. Mean baseline characteristics were taken from a clinical study conducted in Colombia and a healthcare payer perspective was adopted, with a 5% annual discount rate applied to both costs and outcomes. The integrated pump/CGM improved mean life expectancy by 3.51 years compared with MDI. A similar increase occurred in mean quality-adjusted life expectancy with an additional 3.81 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Onset of diabetes-related complications was also delayed as compared to MDI, and mean survival time free of complication increased by 1.74 years with integrated pump/CGM. Although this increased treatment costs of diabetes as compared to MDI, savings were achieved thanks to reduced expenditure on diabetes-related complications. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for SAP was Colombian Pesos (COP) 44,893,950 (approximately USD$23,200) per QALY gained. Improved blood glucose control associated to integrated pump/CGM results in a decreased incidence of diabetes-related complications and improves life expectancy as compared to MDI. Using recommended thresholds from the World Health Organization and previous coverage decisions about health technologies in Colombia, it is a cost-effective alternative to MDI for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential.

    PubMed

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J

    2014-10-10

    Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley, Pakistan. Most of the people survive by farming small landholdings. Many earn additional income by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is collected from wild populations but the people involved have little appreciation of the potential value of the plant material they collect and the long term impact their collecting has on local plant populations. In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops from Swat District, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within Swat District and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements. It was observed that wild collection is almost the only source of medicinal plant raw material in the country, with virtually no cultivation. Gathering is mostly done by women and children of nomadic Middle Hill tribes who earn supplementary income through this activity, with the plants then brought into the market by collectors who are usually local farmers. The individuals involved in gathering and collecting are largely untrained regarding the pre-harvest and post-harvest treatment of collected material. Most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen. After that, the trade pattern is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District, but its market share has been declining. Reasons for the decline were

  3. Economic Benefits and Costs of Human Milk Feedings: A Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Prematurity-Related Morbidities in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tricia J.; Patel, Aloka L.; Bigger, Harold R.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Meier, Paula P.

    2014-01-01

    Infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) are at high risk of mortality and are some of the most expensive patients in the hospital. Additionally, VLBW infants are susceptible to prematurity-related morbidities, including late-onset sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity, which have short- and long-term economic consequences. The incremental cost of these morbidities during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is high, ranging from $10,055 (in 2009 US$) for late-onset sepsis to $31,565 for BPD. Human milk has been shown to reduce both the incidence and severity of some of these morbidities and, therefore, has an indirect impact on the cost of the NICU hospitalization. Furthermore, human milk may also directly reduce NICU hospitalization costs, independent of the indirect impact on the incidence and/or severity of these morbidities. Although there is an economic cost to both the mother and institution for providing human milk during the NICU hospitalization, these costs are relatively low. This review describes the total cost of the initial NICU hospitalization, the incremental cost associated with these prematurity-related morbidities, and the incremental benefits and costs of human milk feedings during critical periods of the NICU hospitalization as a strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of these morbidities. PMID:24618763

  4. Are socio-economically disadvantaged Australians making more or less use of the Enhanced Primary Care Medicare Benefit Schedule item numbers?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; McElroy, Heather; Beilby, Justin; Mott, Kathy; Price, Kay; Morey, Sue; Best, John

    2003-01-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between levels of socio-economic disadvantage (measured by the Socio Economic Indexes for Areas [SEIFA] used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) and uptake of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) item numbers on the Medicare Benefits Schedule. Health services are often less likely to reach those that most need them and so it is important to monitor whether disadvantaged communities are accessing EPC The rates of health assessments, care plans and case conferences are similar in each SEIFA quartile (from advantaged to disadvantaged populations), favouring the more disadvantaged quartiles in some cases. These national trends are not observed in each state and territory. For all EPC services combined, the lowest number of doctors that provide EPC services are found in the 2 most disadvantaged quartiles, yet more EPC services are provided in these quartiles, due to the higher mean and median number of services provided by general practitioners in these quartiles. Overall, populations living in the most disadvantaged quartiles have similar or higher levels of EPC uptake, apparently due, at least in part, to greater than average use of EPC services by general practitioners in these areas.

  5. Economic benefits and costs of human milk feedings: a strategy to reduce the risk of prematurity-related morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tricia J; Patel, Aloka L; Bigger, Harold R; Engstrom, Janet L; Meier, Paula P

    2014-03-01

    Infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) are at high risk of mortality and are some of the most expensive patients in the hospital. Additionally, VLBW infants are susceptible to prematurity-related morbidities, including late-onset sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity, which have short- and long-term economic consequences. The incremental cost of these morbidities during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization is high, ranging from $10,055 (in 2009 US$) for late-onset sepsis to $31,565 for BPD. Human milk has been shown to reduce both the incidence and severity of some of these morbidities and, therefore, has an indirect impact on the cost of the NICU hospitalization. Furthermore, human milk may also directly reduce NICU hospitalization costs, independent of the indirect impact on the incidence and/or severity of these morbidities. Although there is an economic cost to both the mother and institution for providing human milk during the NICU hospitalization, these costs are relatively low. This review describes the total cost of the initial NICU hospitalization, the incremental cost associated with these prematurity-related morbidities, and the incremental benefits and costs of human milk feedings during critical periods of the NICU hospitalization as a strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of these morbidities.

  6. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  7. Rectangular Spacing: An Economic Benefit?

    Treesearch

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; David B. South

    2004-01-01

    Many loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations are established at row spacings of 8 to 12 feet, but some compa-nies are now using rows spaced 14 to 18 feet apart. Wide rows reduce establishment costs when sites are bedded, ripped, or machine planted. The cost of chemicals is also reduced when treatments are applied in bands along the row. A growth...

  8. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    SECTION V BIBLIOGRAPHY American Petroleum Institute . Proceedings, 1979 Oil Spill Conference. Los Angeles, March 19- 22, 1979. -and the Tanker Council...To Tanker Accidents." Proceedings of Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D. C., 1973... Petroleum Institute and the Tanker Council, American Institute of Shipping. June 16, 1977. Anderson, David L., et al. Modal Traffic Impacts of Waterway User

  9. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    PubMed Central

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  10. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model.

    PubMed

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-08-03

    Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  11. Obesity-related costs and the economic impact of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures: benefits in the Texas Employees Retirement System.

    PubMed

    Perryman, M Ray; Gleghorn, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the return on investment (ROI) and economic impact of providing insurance coverage for the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) procedure in classes II and III obese members of the Texas Employees Retirement System (ERS) and their dependents from payer, employer, and societal perspectives. Classes II and III obese employee members and their adult dependents were identified in a Texas ERS database using self-reported health risk assessment (HRA) data. Direct health costs and related absenteeism and mortality losses were estimated using data from previous research. A dynamic input-output model was then used to calculate overall economic effects by incorporating direct, indirect, and induced impacts. Direct health costs were inflation-adjusted to 2008 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index for Medical Care and other spending categories were similarly adjusted using relevant consumer and industrial indices. The future cost savings and other monetary benefits were discounted to present value using a real rate of 4.00%. From the payer perspective (ERS), the payback period for direct health costs associated with the LAGB procedure was 23-24 months and the annual return (over 5 years) was 28.8%. From the employer perspective (State of Texas), the costs associated with the LAGB procedure were recouped within 17-19 months (in terms of direct, indirect, and induced gains as they translated into State revenue) and the annual return (over 5 years) was 45.5%. From a societal perspective, the impact on total business activity for Texas (over 5 years) included gains of $195.3 million in total expenditures, $93.8 million in gross product, and 1354 person-years of employment. The analysis was limited by the following: reliance on other studies for methodology and use of a control sample; restriction of cost savings to 2.5 years which required out-of-sample forecasting; conservative assumptions related to the cost of the procedure; exclusion of presenteeism

  12. Long-term clinical and economic benefits associated with the management of a nosocomial outbreak resulting from extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Piednoir, Emmanuel; Thibon, Pascal; Borderan, Guy-Claude; Godde, Frédéric; Borgey, France; Le Coutour, Xavier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, there was an epidemic of infections resulting from extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the intensive care department. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential long-term clinical and economic benefits resulting from the management of this epidemic and the resulting changes in practices. Two periods were defined: the period leading up to and including the epidemic (2003-2005; period I) and the postepidemic period (2006-2008; period II). We estimated the number of nosocomial infections prevented between these two periods in three ways: comparison of attack rates, incidence rates, and calculation of standardized infection ratios. A cost-benefit analysis was then carried out by multiplying the number of nosocomial infections prevented by their cost as estimated from a literature review. The characteristics of the populations hospitalized during these two periods were comparable in terms of age, sex, Simplified Acute Physiologic Scale II score, origin, and type of diagnosis. The death rate was similar in the two periods (21.8% vs. 23.3%; p = .63). The number of nosocomial infections prevented was 54.1 (95% confidence interval 25.8-83.1; 30.4, 95% confidence interval 5.3-54.9; 32.8, 95% confidence interval 6.0-63.7; and 30.1, 95% confidence interval 17.7-42.5) according to the methodology. The savings cost potentially associated with the infection control intervention ranged from €149,928 (USD $183,781) to €269,472 (USD $330,318). The management of this epidemic and the change in medical practices that it triggered were associated with a significant decrease in the number of infections acquired in the intensive care unit. There were substantial cost savings, highlighting the value of investment in the prevention of nosocomial infections.

  13. Economic analysis of the first 20 years of universal hepatitis B vaccination program in Italy: an a posteriori evaluation and forecast of future benefits.

    PubMed

    Boccalini, Sara; Taddei, Cristina; Ceccherini, Vega; Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Bartolozzi, Dario; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Italy was one of the first countries in the world to introduce a routine vaccination program against HBV for newborns and 12-y-old children. From a clinical point of view, such strategy was clearly successful. The objective of our study was to verify whether, at 20 y from its implementation, hepatitis B universal vaccination had positive effects also from an economic point of view. An a posteriori analysis evaluated the impact that the hepatitis B immunization program had up to the present day. The implementation of vaccination brought an extensive reduction of the burden of hepatitis B-related diseases in the Italian population. As a consequence, the past and future savings due to clinical costs avoided are particularly high. We obtained a return on investment nearly equal to 1 from the National Health Service perspective, and a benefit-to-cost ratio slightly less than 1 for the Societal perspective, considering only the first 20 y from the start of the program. In the longer-time horizon, ROI and BCR values were positive (2.78 and 2.46, respectively). The break-even point was already achieved few years ago for the NHS and for the Society, and since then more and more money is progressively saved. The implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination was very favorable during the first 20 y of adoption, and further benefits will be increasingly evident in the future. The hepatitis B vaccination program in Italy is a clear example of the great impact that universal immunization is able to provide in the medium-long-term when health care authorities are so wise as to invest in prevention.

  14. Gelatin-thrombin hemostatic matrix in neurosurgical procedures: hemostasis effectiveness and economic value of clinical and surgical procedure-related benefits.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Angileri, Filippo F; Cavallo, Luigi M; Priola, Stefano M; Crimi, Salvatore; Solari, Domenico; Germanò, Antonino F; Tomasello, Francesco

    2016-07-26

    procedures was associated with better intra- and post-operative parameters than conventional hemostasis methods, with these parameters having substantial economic benefits.

  15. Veteran Students Received Similar Amounts of Title IV Aid as Nonveterans but More Total Aid with GI Benefits. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives. GAO-08-741

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that veteran students were awarded similar amounts of Title IV aid as nonveteran students, and veterans' total federal aid was greater when Chapter 30 GI benefits were included. This report responds to request from the Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity, Committee on Veterans' Affairs…

  16. The Market Triumph of Ecotourism: An Economic Investigation of the Private and Social Benefits of Competing Land Uses in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Christopher A.; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×1012, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha−1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000–5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone. PMID:20927377

  17. Health and economic benefits of early vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions for a human influenza A (H7N9) pandemic: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W; Collins, Cassandra I F; Garber, Alan M; Owens, Douglas K

    2014-05-20

    Vaccination for the 2009 pandemic did not occur until late in the outbreak, which limited its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing increasing morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified the A (H5N1) virus to transmit via aerosol, which again heightens concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness. To determine how quickly vaccination should be completed to reduce infections, deaths, and health care costs in a pandemic with characteristics similar to influenza A (H7N9) and A (H5N1). Dynamic transmission model to estimate health and economic consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in a large metropolitan city. Literature and expert opinion. Residents of a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City. Lifetime. Societal. Vaccination of 30% of the population at 4 or 6 months. Infections and deaths averted and cost-effectiveness. In 12 months, 48 254 persons would die. Vaccinating at 9 months would avert 2365 of these deaths. Vaccinating at 6 months would save 5775 additional lives and $51 million at a city level. Accelerating delivery to 4 months would save an additional 5633 lives and $50 million. If vaccination were delayed for 9 months, reducing contacts by 8% through nonpharmaceutical interventions would yield a similar reduction in infections and deaths as vaccination at 4 months. The model is not designed to evaluate programs targeting specific populations, such as children or persons with comorbid conditions. Vaccination in an influenza A (H7N9) pandemic would need to be completed much faster than in 2009 to substantially reduce morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Maximizing non-pharmaceutical interventions can substantially mitigate the pandemic until a matched vaccine becomes available. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Veterans Affairs.

  18. Assessing the clinical or pharmaco-economical benefit of target controlled desflurane delivery in surgical patients using the Zeus anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Lortat-Jacob, B; Billard, V; Buschke, W; Servin, F

    2009-11-01

    The Zeus anaesthesia machine includes an auto-control mode which allows targeting of end-tidal volatile and inspired oxygen concentrations. We assessed the clinical benefits and economic impact of this target-controlled anaesthesia compared with conventional manually controlled anaesthesia. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive desflurane either with a fresh gas flow set by the anaesthetist or in auto-control mode. Drug delivery was adjusted to maintain bispectral index between 40-60 units and systolic arterial pressure under 15 mmHg above its pre-induction value (upper limit) and over 90 mmHg (lower limit). Blood pressure was maintained in the desired range for 89% and 91% of the maintenance period for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.49). Bispectral index was in the desired range for 82% and 79% of the maintenance period, for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.46). Oxygen consumption was more than halved by the use of auto-control mode, and mean (SD) desflurane consumption during surgery was 0.07 (0.04) vs 0.2 (0.07) ml.min(-1) in auto-control and manual control respectively (p < 0.0001). The number of drug delivery adjustments per hour was significantly lower in auto-control mode (mean (SD) 7 (2) vs 15 (12); p < 0.0001). Thus, the auto-control mode provided similar haemodynamic stability and bispectral control as did conventional manually controlled anaesthesia, but led to a reduction in gas and vapour consumption with a more clinically acceptable workload.

  19. Long-term health economic benefits of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion alone in type 1 diabetes: a U.K. perspective.

    PubMed

    Roze, Stéphane; Smith-Palmer, Jayne; Valentine, William J; Cook, Mark; Jethwa, Manisha; de Portu, Simona; Pickup, John C

    2016-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an important treatment option for type 1 diabetes patients unable to achieve adequate glycemic control with multiple daily injections (MDI). Combining CSII with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) with a low glucose-suspend (LGS) feature may further improve glycemic control and reduce the frequency of hypoglycemia. A cost-effectiveness analysis of SAP + LGS vs. CSII plus self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed to determine the health economic benefits of SAP + LGS in type 1 diabetes patients using CSII in the U.K. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the CORE diabetes model. Treatment effects were sourced from the literature, where SAP + LGS was associated with a projected HbA1c reduction of -1.49% vs. -0.62% for CSII, and a reduced frequency of severe hypoglycemia. The time horizon was that of patient lifetimes; future costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 3.5% and 1.5% per annum, respectively. Projected outcomes showed that SAP + LGS was associated with higher mean quality-adjusted life expectancy (17.9 vs. 14.9 quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], SAP + LGS vs. CSII), and higher life expectancy (23.8 vs. 21.9 years), but higher mean lifetime direct costs (GBP 125,559 vs. GBP 88,991), leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of GBP 12,233 per QALY gained for SAP + LGS vs. CSII. Findings of the base-case analysis remained robust in sensitivity analyses. For UK-based type 1 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control, the use of SAP + LGS is likely to be cost-effective compared with CSII plus SMBG.

  20. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-09-29

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  1. Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Multiple mid-Atlantic field experiments show no economic benefit to fungicide application when fungal disease is absent in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Randy; Cowger, Christina; Ambrose, Gaylon; Gardner, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Strobilurin fungicides produce intensified greening and delayed senescence in plants, and have been claimed to enhance yields of field crops in the absence of disease. To help evaluate this claim, available publicly sponsored tests of fungicides on soft red winter wheat in Virginia and North Carolina (n = 42) were analyzed for the period 1994 to 2010. All tests were replicated and had a randomized complete block, split-plot, or split-block design. Each test included 1 to 32 cultivars and one to five fungicides (two strobilurins, one triazole, and two strobilurin-triazole mixtures). There was a total of 311 test-cultivar-fungicide treatment comparisons, where a comparison was the reported yield difference between sprayed and unsprayed treatments of a given cultivar in a given test. Parameters used to calculate the economic benefit or loss associated with fungicide application included a grain price range of $73.49 to 257.21 Mg(-1) ($2 to 7 bu(-1)), a total fungicide application cost of $24.71 to 74.13 ha(-1) ($10 to 30 acre(-1)), and a 0.14 to 0.21 Mg ha(-1) (2.3 to 3.4 bu acre(-1)) loss in yield from driving over wheat during application (with a sprayer 27.4 or 18.3 m [90 or 60 feet] wide, respectively). The yield increase needed to pay for a fungicide application at each combination of cost and price was calculated, and the cumulative probability function for the fungicide yield-response data was modeled. The model was used to predict the probability of achieving a break-even yield, and the probabilities were graphed against each cost-price combination. Tests were categorized as "no-disease" or "diseased" based on reports of the researchers rating the tests. Subsets of the data were analyzed to assess the profitability of the triazole fungicide and the strobilurin-containing fungicides separately in no-disease versus diseased experiments. From the results, it was concluded that, with routine fungicide application based solely on wheat growth stage, total fungicide

  3. Educational Reform: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may…

  4. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  5. An economic model demonstrating the long-term cost benefits of incorporating fertility control into wild horse (Equus caballus) management programs on public lands in the United States.

    PubMed

    de Seve, Charles W; Griffin, Stephanie L Boyles

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Management program costs have increased dramatically due to a rise in the number of animals removed from public lands coupled with significantly decreased adoption rates. To assist with development and implementation of effective, cost-containing management programs, a robust economic model to project the costs and optimize outcomes of various management scenarios was created. For example, preliminary demonstration model runs show that by gradually replacing "removal-only" programs with contraception-and-removal programs on one hypothetical Herd Management Area (HMA), the BLM could save about US$8 million over 12 years while maintaining an area target population of 874 horses. Because the BLM estimates that more than 38,000 wild horses roam on 179 HMAs in the United States, the use of this economic model could result in a cost-savings of tens of millions of dollars if applied broadly across all HMAs.

  6. Conservation economics. Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    PubMed

    Finney, Christopher

    2015-02-13

    Banks-Leite et al. (Reports, 29 August 2014, p. 1041) conclude that a large-scale program to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest using payments for environmental services (PES) is economically feasible. They do not analyze transaction costs, which are quantified infrequently and incompletely in the literature. Transaction costs can exceed 20% of total project costs and should be included in future research. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Conservation economics. Response to Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    PubMed

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Tambosi, Leandro R; Pearse, William D; Bueno, Adriana A; Bruscagin, Roberta T; Condez, Thais H; Dixo, Marianna; Igari, Alexandre T; Martensen, Alexandre C; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-02-13

    Finney claims that we did not include transaction costs while assessing the economic costs of a set-aside program in Brazil and that accounting for them could potentially render large payments for environmental services (PES) projects unfeasible. We agree with the need for a better understanding of transaction costs but provide evidence that they do not alter the feasibility of the set-aside scheme we proposed. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Business benefits of wellhead protection. Case studies: Dayton, Ohio; Xenia, Ohio; and Pekin, Illinois. Source water protection business and economic series No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Job, C.A.

    1995-10-27

    Business participation is a critical factor for three succesful local wellhead and ground water protection programs in Dayton and Xenia, Ohio and Pekin, Illinois. They offer three different wellhead and ground water protection models but show common themes for business involvement and benefits. Bottom-line benefits highlighted by several companies include: process changes that saved operating costs not previously anticipated; maintaining water quality that keep industrial water treatment costs down; and knowing the exact storage location of chemicals which keep emergency response costs down and allowed better management of existing chemical stocks. All companies indicated that being within the wellhead protection area (WHPA) caused them to be conscious of chemical use and thereby reduced liability from releases through better chemical management. Early involvement by business minimized local regulatory burden and promoted education and protective activities at the same time.

  9. Benefits and costs of prevention: Case studies of community wellhead protection. Volume 2. Detailed case studies of seven communities. Source water protection business and economics series No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    In 1994, EPA initiated the study of the benefits and costs of wellhead protection (WHP). The purpose of the study was to compare the cost of local wellhead protection to the cost of contamination which could have potentially been avoided as a wellhead protection program is caried out. Additionally, the information in these case studies is intended to assist local decisionmakers assess the value, cost and feasibility of implementing wellhead protection in their communities. While the results reported below for the seven communities are neither exhaustive nor statistically representative of all communities, they do provide an indication and present the potential extent and range of benefits for a prevention program to protect community drinking water sources. EPA also was interested in collecting observations on the study communities` experiences in responding to contamination incidents and in developing and implementing WHPPs.

  10. Cost Benefit Model Development. Cost Benefit Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Arthur A.; And Others

    Through an analysis of the economic costs and benefits of five vocational-technical programs, it was shown that the benefits of a vocational-technical education outweigh the costs. Four programs showing greater benefits than costs were auto body (courses at two technical institutes), materials management, and electronic servicing. Clothing…

  11. External benefits of natural environments

    Treesearch

    Larry W. Tombaugh

    1971-01-01

    Existing methods of assessing economic benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external benefits. Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in question. A partial measure of the existence value of National Parks...

  12. Benefits and costs of prevention: Case studies of community wellhead protection. Volume 1. Source water protection business and economics series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    The benefits of avoiding contamination of community drinking water sources are greater than the costs of implementing a local prevention program for wellhead protection. Wellhead protection (WHP) offers community leaders a less expensive approach to protecting public health and avoiding the costs of remediating future contamination of their ground water sources of drinking water. This analysis of seven communities shows that, on average, dealing with contamination of their ground water supply may be 30 ro 40 times more costly than preventing it in the first place. The wellhead protection program is designed under the Safe Drinking Water Act (Section 1428) to prevent contamination from entering the ground waters supplying public water wells.

  13. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  14. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  15. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  16. Energy-environmental benefits and economic feasibility of anaerobic codigestion of Iberian pig slaughterhouse and tomato industry wastes in Extremadura (Spain).

    PubMed

    González-González, A; Cuadros, F; Ruiz-Celma, A; López-Rodríguez, F

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Iberian pig slaughterhouse and tomato industry wastes, as well as codigestion operations from such residues, are reported to achieve 54-80% reduction in Chemical Oxygen Demand and 6-19 N m(3)/m(3) substrate methane production. Furthermore, 0.79-0.88 m(3)water/m(3) substrate is seen to be recovered after the above mentioned operations, which might be used as irrigation water, and 0.12-0.21 m(3)agricultural amendment/m(3) substrate with 91-98% moisture content. The present paper also reports on the economic feasibility of both an anaerobic codigestion plant operating with 60% slaughterhouse wastes/40% tomato industry wastes (optimal ratio obtained in previous laboratory-scaled experiments), and an anaerobic digestion plant for Iberian pig slaughterhouse waste. Payback times are reported as 14.86 and 3.73 years, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economics and benefits of converting from anhydrous ammonia to ammonium hydroxide for NOx control at the Commerce Refuse to Energy Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smisko, J.; Eaton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Commerce Refuse to Energy Facility, which is operated by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Districts), first burned refuse in late 1986. This facility was the first US refuse plant to use anhydrous ammonia for NOx control. Although technically effective and economical, the system was converted from anhydrous ammonia (gaseous) to ammonium hydroxide (liquid or aqua ammonia) in May 1995. This change was made to eliminate the potential release of gaseous ammonia if an accidental leak occurred. This paper will include discussions on: (1) the design layout of the new system, (2) the capital cost of the conversion; (3) the change in operating cost; and (4) NOx emissions before and after the conversion.

  18. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  19. A multiple-domain framework of clinical, economic, and patient-reported outcomes for evaluating benefits of intervention in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Abramovits, William; Paller, Amy; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L; Prendergast, Mary; Cheng, J Wang; Wang, Patrick; Tong, Kuo B

    2007-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) increases health care utilization, affects patient quality of life, places a burden on caregivers, decreases patient/parent productivity, and adds to health care costs. Few studies have examined the effect of specific treatment modalities across a variety of AD-related outcomes. This prospective, multicenter, open-label longitudinal study of adult and pediatric patients with moderate to severe AD was conducted to evaluate the effect of a specific therapeutic intervention on AD-related outcomes over a period of 6 months. Surveys collected physician clinical assessments and patient- and caregiver-reported data across the following domains: clinical outcome, health care utilization/costs, quality of life, physical appearance, productivity/absenteeism, and medication compliance. This study is intended to help guide future research efforts on the net costs and benefits of different interventions across a diverse set of domains and in larger populations.

  20. [Role of economic studies in animal health decisions: Example of the cost-benefit ratio of eradication of bovine viral diarrhea in France].

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; Repiquet, D; Touratier, A

    1999-08-01

    To help livestock production groups to rationalise health decisions, and at the request of the Association for the certification of livestock health (Association pour la certification de la santé animale en élevage: ACERSA), an economic study was conducted to assess the possible cost-effectiveness of the eradication of bovine virus diarrhoea in France. The study was performed using a fictitious average region comprising 235,000 cattle belonging to 3,300 farms, which corresponds to one-eighty-fifth of the total cattle population of France. In the first phase of the study, the cost of the disease in this region was estimated to be approximately six million French francs (US$989,937) per year. Subsequently, the cost of an eradication strategy based on the inspection of all animals when introduced into a herd, the screening of permanently-infected immunotolerant animals (IPI) and the elimination of these animals, was evaluated at nearly eleven million francs (US$1,814,884) during the first year. Theories were then formulated regarding the time required to achieve eradication (twenty years) and to reduce the epidemiological parameters (development curve of the eradication of IPI animals and of animals which had given positive results to serological tests). The reduction in the cost of the disease as a result of the eradication policy was then simulated in accordance with the evolution of the epidemiological parameters. Finally, the cost of controlling the disease, together with the residual cost of the disease, were compared with the cost of the disease without control measures. This demonstrated that such an eradication policy would, in theory, only begin to become cost-effective after approximately fifteen years. In view of the long period required to achieve cost-effectiveness, the considerable complexity of implementing an eradication programme and imponderables (particularly concerning virus spread), the recommendation of such a course of action to cattle

  1. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase, use and disposal of electronics.The EEBC estimates the environmental and economic benefits of: Purchasing Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered products; Enabling power management features on computers and monitors above default percentages; Extending the life of equipment beyond baseline values; Reusing computers, monitors and cell phones; and Recycling computers, monitors, cell phones and loads of mixed electronic products.The EEBC may be downloaded as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.See https://www.federalelectronicschallenge.net/resources/bencalc.htm for more details.

  2. Longer-term clinical and economic benefits of offering acupuncture to patients with chronic low back pain assessed as suitable for primary care management.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K J; Fitter, M; Brazier, J; MacPherson, H; Campbell, M; Nicholl, J P; Roman, M

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the research protocol for a pragmatic study of the benefits of providing an acupuncture service to patients in primary care with chronic low back pain. The proposal was written in response to a call for bids from the NHS Executive's centrally funded research programme for Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The research question posed was 'Does acupuncture have long-term effectiveness in the management of pain in primary care?' The present study was designed as a collaboration between an interdisciplinary team drawn from health services researchers at the University of Sheffield, acupuncture researchers from the Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine in York, and practitioners from general practice and acupuncture in York. The proposal presented here was submitted in response to an invitation from the Commissioning Board following a successful outline bid. It is reproduced here, largely as submitted in January 1998, using the headings under which information was requested. We also present an appendix describing methodological alterations made to the design in response the Commissioning Board's comments on the proposal. We present it in this format to give an idea of the evolution of the design and the process by which the research proposal was shaped. The final working protocol comprises a combination of these two elements.

  3. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  4. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  5. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  6. SEASAT economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, K.; Steele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.

  7. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  8. Aircraft turbofans: new economic and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sampl, F.R.; Shank, M.E.

    1985-09-01

    This article describes turbofan and turboprop engines. Advanced turbofans and turboprop engines, by continuing to reduce the velocities of the jet exhaust and fan tip speed, can provide significant noise reductions. New combustors incorporated into these engines have reduced smoke, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to levels below the current requirements. The third generation of turbofans will continue to increase fuel efficiency and reduce aircraft operating costs. They are more modular in design and consist of half as many parts as the earlier engines, reducing maintenance time by half. Some of the key features of the new turbofan concept include: a very high bypass ratio/compression ratio cycle; swept fan blades; a thin, low-loss nacelle; low-loss reduction gearing; new materials; advanced compressor/turbine airfoils; and high-speed rotors with improved clearance control.

  9. Economic and environmental benefits of fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Maitland, J.

    1997-12-31

    The control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides within the process design, with little need for additional environmental controls external to the boiler, is a unique feature of the fluid bed technology. CFB`s unparalleled ability to achieve low NOx emissions is possible due to its low combustion temperature and by the careful design of air admission to the combustion zones. The addition of selected sorbents to capture sulfur dioxide within the boiler results in low SOx emissions and a dry waste product for ease of disposal. This paper will focus on the design and operating performance of CFBs from the environmental viewpoint. What factors affect emissions? What options are available? Case histories will be used to illustrate the proven track record of CFB in meeting specific emissions requirements for different plant sites.

  10. Infrared radiation industrial application and economic benefits.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IR heating has been accepted to be one of the important means for cooking, drying, roasting, baking, blanching and pasteurization of food and agricultural products. This chapter reviews the scientific developments in IR applications, demonstrates the status of selected industrial and pilot scale IR ...

  11. Potential health economic benefits of vitamin supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Bendich, A; Mallick, R; Leader, S

    1997-01-01

    This study used published relative risk estimates for birth defects, premature birth, and coronary heart disease associated with vitamin intake to project potential annual cost reductions in U.S. hospitalization charges. Epidemiological and intervention studies with relative risk estimates were identified via MEDLINE. Preventable fraction estimates were derived from data on the percentage of at-risk Americans with daily vitamin intake levels lower than those associated with disease risk reduction. Hospitalization rates were obtained from the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Charge data from the 1993 California Hospital Discharge Survey were adjusted to 1995 national charges using the medical component of the Consumer Price Index. Based on published risk reductions, annual hospital charges for birth defects, low-birth-weight premature births, and coronary heart disease could be reduced by about 40, 60, and 38%, respectively. For the conditions studied, nearly $20 billion in hospital charges were potentially avoidable with daily use of folic acid and zinc-containing multivitamins by all women of childbearing age and daily vitamin E supplementation by those over 50. PMID:9217432

  12. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities including materials processing in space and satellite communications. Spacehab, a commercially developed and manufactured pressurized metal cylinder which fits in the Shuttle payload bay and connects to the crew compartment is examined along with potential uses of the Shuttle external tank. Private sector upper stage development, the privatization of expendable launch vehicles, and the transfer of NASA technology are discussed.

  13. The economic benefits of wildfire prevention education

    Treesearch

    L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen

    2011-01-01

    While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...

  14. The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    placement, and to be able to use a terminology that permits the consideration of both unidimensional and multidimensional test and criterion sets for...largely random. The reason for the relatively low assignment efficiency is the reliance on low job standart - for a high quality recruit population

  15. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities including materials processing in space and satellite communications. Spacehab, a commercially developed and manufactured pressurized metal cylinder which fits in the Shuttle payload bay and connects to the crew compartment is examined along with potential uses of the Shuttle external tank. Private sector upper stage development, the privatization of expendable launch vehicles, and the transfer of NASA technology are discussed.

  16. Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  17. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  18. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  19. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  20. [Medical counseling of public health-insurances in questions of occupational diseases in regard to economical benefits--project of cooperation between AOK Hesse and the Medical Advisory and Expertising Service Hesse].

    PubMed

    Löffler, M; Glake, R; Hack, H P; Schaller, H

    2003-07-01

    Since September 1998 exists a project of cooperation and consultation between the AOK Hesse and the Medical Advisory and Expertising Service Hesse with the aim to identify occupational diseases and to survey decisions of the Employer's Liability Insurance Association. The procedure is based on a computer-added recognition-system, a profound preparation of the single cases by the employees of the health-insurance and a very intensively carried out deliberation by Medical Doctors of occupational medicine. In a period of four and a half year 8391 cases have been reviewed of which 4859 have already been determined. An approval as occupational disease by the Employer's Liability Insurance Association has been determined in 1954 cases, in 2905 cases the acknowledgement has not been determined. Regarding the determined cases a recourse of 10,078,922.27 EUR has been realized. In regard to the invested small resources of personnel the procedure has proved itself as highly effective to discover and to assert recourses. Beside the economical aspects for the public health-insurance, other results of the project were the assurance of the entitlement to benefits of people coming down with occupational diseases or their relatives. New insights about the actual development of occupational diseases in Germany als well as their prevention can be proceeded.

  1. Fringe Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  2. Disabilities, Benefits, and Disability Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    The study attempted to relate patterns of disabilities to amounts of money received in social security benefits. Findings from structured interviews with parents of 248 disabled young adults (ages 18-22) indicated that the United Kingdom social security system gives more recognition to costs arising from physical than from mental disability.…

  3. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  4. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  5. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Threfore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  6. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  7. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  8. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Miles

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people's minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called "bounded rationality"), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world.

  9. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  10. Green Economics: Counting the Earth In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Economics should be taught at the vital core of environmental education. Discusses common economic fallacies shared by educators. Presents activities on ecological limits and external cost or benefits not captured in market pricing. (YDS)

  11. A Realistic International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  12. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine.

  13. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: Full Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives.

  14. Non-monetary benefit indicators for prioritizing wetlands restoration projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration of wetlands can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Explicitly characterizing these benefits can help managers better allocate scarce resources among potential restoration projects. Economic valuation stud...

  15. Non-monetary benefit indicators for prioritizing wetlands restoration projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration of wetlands can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Explicitly characterizing these benefits can help managers better allocate scarce resources among potential restoration projects. Economic valuation stud...

  16. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Full Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives.

  17. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  18. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  19. Military Compensation: Balancing Cash and Noncash Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-16

    For greater detail, see N. Gregory Mankiw , Principles of Economics (Fort Worth, Tex.: Dryden Press, 1998), p. 469. 6 CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE E C...of it is provided through noncash benefits. Greater Choice. Cash pay is more efficient than non- cash compensation in an economic sense because cash...Pleeter, “The Personal Dis- count Rate: Evidence from Military Downsizing Programs,” American Economic Review, vol. 91, no. 1 (2001), pp. 33-53. 8

  20. Wildland economics: theory and practice

    Treesearch

    Pete Morton

    2000-01-01

    Since passage of the Wilderness Act, economists have derived the total economic valuation framework for estimating wildland benefits. Over the same time period, policies adopted by public land management agencies have been slow to internalize wilderness economics into management decisions. The lack of spatial resolution and modeler bias associated with the FORPLAN...

  1. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  2. Conservation through the economics lens.

    PubMed

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  3. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  4. The net economic value of wilderness

    Treesearch

    J. Michael Bowker; J.E. Harvard; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Donald B.K. English; John B. Loomis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to inventory and assess what is currently known about the economic or "dollar" values accruing to Americans from the National Wilderness Preservation System. This chapter identifies the benefits of Wilderness and the economic value of these benefits through an extensive review of published conceptual and empirical literature. It...

  5. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

  6. Introducing Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    The booklet outlines and presents examples of basic economics concepts. Objectives are to help elementary and secondary teachers introduce economic concepts in the classroom and to help teachers grasp some of the fundamentals of economics. The document is divided into seven sections. Each section presents concepts, offers three supporting…

  7. Economic Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armento, Beverly

    This paper identifies economic roles in terms of personal and social contexts and defines economic socialization as a life-long, complex, interactional, and multi-disciplinary set of processes that involve the development of ideological beliefs about economic systems and individual roles within an economy. Socialization is influenced by…

  8. Television Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

    Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

  9. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  10. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs--A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier; Bergmann, Pierre; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cooper, Cyrus; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Gielen, Evelien; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health.

  11. Postmarketing studies: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Garfield, F B; Caro, J J

    1999-01-01

    To consider the benefits and risks of large postmarketing outcomes studies, as demonstrated by studies of the statin drugs. Literature review. The risks were that the statin studies had a strong coat-tail effect. Each new study was beneficial to all statins as well as the one studied. Economic analyses based on the results of the postmarketing studies concluded that the drugs were not cost-effective. Long-term postmarketing studies were slow to be put into perspective and did not immediately influence other researchers or clinicians. During that time, the sponsoring companies shouldered opportunity costs as well as the actual costs of the studies. The risk that one drug company would use another company's results instead of investing in their own research did not materialize. The benefits were that the studies definitively showed that the drugs and the lowering of lipids were safe and efficacious. The studies also expanded the indications for the drugs, generated goodwill in the medical and research communities for the sponsors, allowed sponsors to include specific claims in their advertisements, generated follow-up studies, spawned economic analyses that sparked interest in the medical and lay press, and had a major impact on clinicians' use of the drug. The risks and benefits of postmarketing studies may depend on the company's time perspective. In the short term, the risks may outweigh the benefits. Only companies that have a longer perspective may find it beneficial to undertake large postmarketing studies.

  12. The Economic Benefits of Personnel Selection Using Ability Tests: A State of the Art Review Including a Detailed Analysis of the Dollar Benefit of U.S. Employment Service Placements and a Critique of the Low-Cutoff Method of Test Use. USES Test Research Report No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John E.

    The economic impact of optimal selection using ability tests is far higher than is commonly known. For small organizations, dollar savings from higher productivity can run into millions of dollars a year. This report estimates the potential savings to the Federal Government as an employer as being 15.61 billion dollars per year if tests were given…

  13. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clean energy provides multiple benefits. The Multiple Benefits Guide provides an overview of the environmental, energy system and economic benefits of clean energy, specifically energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean distributed generation, and why it is important to thin...

  14. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clean energy provides multiple benefits. The Multiple Benefits Guide provides an overview of the environmental, energy system and economic benefits of clean energy, specifically energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean distributed generation, and why it is important to thin...

  15. Conceptual Framework for Conducting Cost Benefit Studies in Wisconsin VTAE and Cost Benefit Studies--VTAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Robert I.; And Others

    The step-by-step cost benefit study, confined to measuring and comparing economic costs with economic benefits, is based on the 1971, 1972, and 1973 classes graduating from the Agribusiness-Machinery Partsman-Salesman Program at District One Technical Institute in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Numerous tables throughout the report contain cost benefit…

  16. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  17. Economics of Information in Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farid, Mona

    This digest on the economics of information in education argues that the production, organization, analysis, evaluation, and dissemination of information in education constitute major economic activities, with associated costs and benefits. The document comprises sections on: the value of information; information as an "economic good";…

  18. An early evaluation of clinical and economic costs and benefits of implementing point of care NAAT tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in genitourinary medicine clinics in England.

    PubMed

    Turner, Katherine M E; Round, Jeff; Horner, Patrick; Macleod, John; Goldenberg, Simon; Deol, Arminder; Adams, Elisabeth J

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the costs and benefits of clinical pathways incorporating a point of care (POC) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics compared with standard off-site laboratory testing. We simulated 1.2 million GUM clinic attendees in England. A simulation in Microsoft Excel was developed to compare existing standard pathways of management for chlamydia and gonorrhoea with a POC NAAT. We conducted scenario analyses to evaluate the robustness of the model findings. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Secondary outcomes included the number of inappropriate treatments, complications and transmissions averted. The baseline cost of using the point of POC NAAT was £103.9 million compared with £115.6 million for standard care. The POC NAAT was also associated with a small increase of 46 quality adjusted life years, making the new test both more effective and cheaper. Over 95 000 inappropriate treatments might be avoided by using a POC NAAT. Patients receive diagnosis and treatment on the same day as testing, which may also prevent 189 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease and 17 561 onward transmissions annually. Replacing standard laboratory tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea with a POC test could be cost saving and patients would benefit from more accurate diagnosis and less unnecessary treatment. Overtreatment currently accounts for about a tenth of the reported treatments for chlamydia and gonorrhoea and POC NAATs would effectively eliminate the need for presumptive treatment.

  19. Economic value of global weather measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.; Butterworth, J.

    1999-02-19

    Global sensor networks could support increased activity in a number of economic sectors. Potential benefits and the predicted time scales required to realize them are estimated. Benefits are particular compelling for fundamental reasons for aviation, hotels and restaurants, natural disasters, construction, agriculture, and apparel. These benefits can be captured by simple logistic approximations.

  20. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506