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Sample records for economic growth theory

  1. Teaching Economic Growth Theory with Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmslie, Bruce T.; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Many instructors in subjects such as economics are frequently concerned with how to teach technical material to undergraduate students with limited mathematical backgrounds. One method that has proven successful for the authors is to connect theoretically sophisticated material with actual data. This enables students to see how the theory relates…

  2. Teaching Economic Growth Theory with Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmslie, Bruce T.; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Many instructors in subjects such as economics are frequently concerned with how to teach technical material to undergraduate students with limited mathematical backgrounds. One method that has proven successful for the authors is to connect theoretically sophisticated material with actual data. This enables students to see how the theory relates…

  3. Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual introduction for teachers explains economic growth and how it is measured. Four instructional units follow, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit which offers young students an opportunity to interview puppet workers, set up a classroom corner store, and learn the importance of capital resources for increasing productivity…

  4. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  5. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  6. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  7. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  8. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    PubMed

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Fertility, income distribution, and economic growth: theory and cross-country evidence.

    PubMed

    Galor, O; Zang, H

    1997-05-01

    The authors perform discriminatory, empirical tests of a theoretical model that predicts that family size adversely affects output per capita and nonsteady state growth rates. Neoclassical models posit that adverse output and nonsteady growth rates are affected by labor force growth (LFG) or population growth (PG). This study tests whether family size (FS) will be more significant than LFG or PG in explaining differences in economic growth (EG) rates across countries during 1960-88. A proxy variable for the public education system was used to separate government interventions on human capital formation from market forces. Data were obtained for 73 countries, which exclude centrally planned economies, oil-producing countries, and those with less than 1 million population. The empirical test is run with 58-country, 45-country, and 96-country samples to test for robustness and reliability. The empirical test supports the theoretical model. It demonstrates that equal distribution of income and smaller FS enhance EG. With income inequality, the effect of FS was significant, and the effect of the LFG rate or PG rate was insignificant. With a given FS, LFG was positively correlated with EG. A reduction of the net fertility rate by one point would increase the worker output growth rate by 0.25%, and the differences in growth rates between high- and low-fertility countries would be 1%. An increase in the income share of the bottom 60% would increase the growth rate of worker output by about 1%. Higher investments in public or private education would be conducive to growth.

  10. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Treesearch

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    that will determine how rapidly we can eliminate poverty in the United States will be the rate of increase in average incomes . And one of the key...The problems of poverty in the United States, and their resolution, are inextricably connected with the nature of the economic growth process and its...economic deprivation, but the adjustments required by growth have left in their wake new pockets of poverty . In the future, one of the key variables

  12. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paradoxical existence of poverty amidst rapid economic growth in the United States is discussed. The problem is considered in terms of average... income levels; adjustments required in view of technological progrrress, production raates, and supply aand demand; and prospects for the future educational needs of skilled and unskilled laborers.

  13. Economic growth and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Shu-hen

    2017-02-01

    Over the past few decades, shift-share (SS) analysis is widely applied to explore the sources of local economic growth; however, it leaves unanswered the inequality question. The purpose of this paper is to exclude these biases caused by inequalities to generate a new identity, which fully shows the concept of externalities and comparative advantage, the nation-industry-region interactions and the structural change of local industry in a timely manner

  14. [Economic Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  15. [Economic theory and the environment].

    PubMed

    Yachir, F

    1992-01-01

    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  16. Water reuse fuels economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Filteau, G. )

    1995-03-01

    Water reuse is a building block of economic growth in Harlingen, Texas (population 52,000). The city's wastewater reclamation project, incorporating reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology, has operated since 1990 and will soon be expanded. As a result of the successful project, the city has provided an affordable, reliable process water supply for new industry and has helped to create more than 3,000 jobs in the area.

  17. Stabilization and Economic Growth Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    compete against one another, sometimes at cross purposes. Since there is a need for buy-in by all stakeholders, the slogan should be: “Be modest... modalities of trade (most of which are inefficient and not growth-enhancing) remain prominent in economic activity. Integrating informal market...short-term job targets. While projects like market access road construction corresponded to the long-term job creation goals of the program, the

  18. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demographic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  19. Malnutrition, poverty, and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2009-04-01

    This paper argues that indicators of anthropometric shortfall - especially low height and low weight-for-age - are uniquely suited for assessing absolute deprivation in developing countries. Anthropometric indicators are relatively precise, readily available for most countries, reflect the preferences and concerns of many poor people, consistent with reckoning the phenomenon directly in the space of functionings, intuitive, easy to use for advocacy, and consistent over time and across subgroups. Anthropometric indicators can therefore complement (but not replace) standard indicators of income/consumption poverty, especially for comparisons across subgroups, within households, across countries, and in the long run. In addition, the paper analyses spells of change in malnutrition over time, finding that the association between economic growth and chronic child malnutrition is very small (but statistically significant) and much lower than the elasticity of growth on poverty. The policy implication of this finding is that direct interventions aimed at reducing infant malnutrition are required.

  20. Immigration and the evolution of economic theory.

    PubMed

    Passaris, C

    1989-12-01

    This is a review of "the limited and scant contributions made to immigration theory in the context of the evolution of economic thought over a protracted historical time span." The economic theories considered include those of the mercantilists, Adam Smith, the classical economists, and J. M. Keynes. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  1. Economic theory and international migration.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J

    1989-01-01

    The modern literature on the economics of immigration focuses on 3 related issues: 1) what determines the size and skill composition of immigrants flows to any particular host country; 2) how do the immigrants adapt to the host country's economy; and 3) what is the impact of immigrants on the host country's economy? This article reviews the theoretical framework and empirical evidence provided by the economics literature on these questions. It demonstrates that the economic approach, using the assumption that migration behavior is guided by the search for better economic opportunities and that the exchanges among the various players are regulated by an immigration market, leads to substantial insights in to these issues.

  2. Wildland economics: theory and practice

    Treesearch

    Pete Morton

    2000-01-01

    Since passage of the Wilderness Act, economists have derived the total economic valuation framework for estimating wildland benefits. Over the same time period, policies adopted by public land management agencies have been slow to internalize wilderness economics into management decisions. The lack of spatial resolution and modeler bias associated with the FORPLAN...

  3. Linking Investment in Education to Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Brian H.

    The relationship between investment in education and economic growth in Alberta, Canada, is explored in this paper, which examines the value of education to the individual in terms of rate of employment and salary. Assuming earning differentials to be a measure of the contribution of education to economic growth, the lifetime earnings of high…

  4. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOULOURIANOS, DIMITRI TH.

    THE PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION AS AN ECONOMIC GOOD ARE EXAMINED. THE LITERATURE ON THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF EDUCATION, THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING, AND THE MATHEMATICAL MODELS PROPOSED FOR THIS PURPOSE ARE ANALYZED. THESE APPROACHES ARE SYNTHESIZED TO OBTAIN A COMPREHENSIVE ESTIMATE OF THE DEMAND FOR EDUCATION. THE…

  5. Stokes integral of economic growth. Calculus and the Solow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Economic growth depends on capital and labor and two-dimensional calculus has been applied to economic theory. This leads to Riemann and Stokes integrals and to the first and second laws of production and growth. The mathematical structure is the same as in thermodynamics, economic properties may be related to physical terms: capital to energy, production to physical work, GDP per capita to temperature, production function to entropy. This is called econophysics. Production, trade and banking may be compared to motors, heat pumps or refrigerators. The Carnot process of the first law creates two levels in each system: cold and hot in physics; buyer and seller, investor and saver, rich and poor in economics. The efficiency rises with the income difference of rich and poor. The results of econophysics are compared to neoclassical theory.

  6. Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Maeler, K.G.; Holling, C.S.; Jansson, B.O.; Levin, S.; Perrings, C.

    1995-04-28

    National and international economic policy has usually ignored the environment. In areas where the environment is beginning to impinge on policy, as in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), it remains a tangential concern, and the presumption is often made that economic growth and economic liberalization (including the liberalization of international trade) are, in some sense, good for the environment. This notion has meant that economy-wide policy reforms designed to promote growth and liberalization have been encouraged with little regard to their environmental consequences, presumably on the assumption that these consequences would either take care of themselves or could be dealt with separately. In this article, we discuss the relation between economic growth and environmental quality, and the link between economic activity and the carrying capacity and resilience of the environment.

  7. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  8. The role of energy in economic growth.

    PubMed

    Stern, David I

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the mainstream, resource economics, and ecological economics models of growth. A possible synthesis of energy-based and mainstream models is presented. This shows that when energy is scarce it imposes a strong constraint on the growth of the economy; however, when energy is abundant, its effect on economic growth is much reduced. The industrial revolution released the constraints on economic growth by the development of new methods of using coal and the discovery of new fossil fuel resources. Time-series analysis shows that energy and GDP cointegrate, and energy use Granger causes GDP when capital and other production inputs are included in the vector autoregression model. However, various mechanisms can weaken the links between energy and growth. Energy used per unit of economic output has declined in developed and some developing countries, owing to both technological change and a shift from poorer quality fuels, such as coal, to the use of higher quality fuels, especially electricity. Substitution of other inputs for energy and sectoral shifts in economic activity play smaller roles.

  9. Theory of Stochastic Laplacian Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Oleg; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the diffusion-limited aggregation by issuing many randomly-walking particles, which stick to a cluster at the discrete time unit providing its growth. Using simple combinatorial arguments we determine probabilities of different growth scenarios and prove that the most probable evolution is governed by the deterministic Laplacian growth equation. A potential-theoretical analysis of the growth probabilities reveals connections with the tau-function of the integrable dispersionless limit of the two-dimensional Toda hierarchy, normal matrix ensembles, and the two-dimensional Dyson gas confined in a non-uniform magnetic field. We introduce the time-dependent Hamiltonian, which generates transitions between different classes of equivalence of closed curves, and prove the Hamiltonian structure of the interface dynamics. Finally, we propose a relation between probabilities of growth scenarios and the semi-classical limit of certain correlation functions of "light" exponential operators in the Liouville conformal field theory on a pseudosphere.

  10. The biology and economics of coral growth.

    PubMed

    Osinga, Ronald; Schutter, Miriam; Griffioen, Ben; Wijffels, René H; Verreth, Johan A J; Shafir, Shai; Henard, Stéphane; Taruffi, Maura; Gili, Claudia; Lavorano, Silvia

    2011-08-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of factors that can influence the growth of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals, with particular emphasis on interactions between these factors. Furthermore, the kinetic principles underlying coral growth are discussed. The reviewed information is put into an economic perspective by making an estimation of the costs of coral aquaculture.

  11. Are cardiovascular diseases bad for economic growth?

    PubMed

    Suhrcke, Marc; Urban, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    We assess the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality on economic growth, using a dynamic panel growth regression framework taking into account potential endogeneity problems. In the worldwide sample we detect a non-linear influence of working age CVD mortality rates on growth across the per capita income scale. Splitting the sample (according to the resulting income threshold) into low- and middle-income countries, and high-income countries, we find a robust negative contribution of increasing CVD mortality rates on subsequent five-year growth rates in the latter sample. Not too surprisingly, we find no significant impact in the low- and middle-income country sample.

  12. Role of vaccination in economic growth.

    PubMed

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes.

  13. Role of vaccination in economic growth

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123174

  14. Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

  15. Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

  16. Economic Growth, Climate Change, and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Minos, Dimitrios; Butzlaff, Iris; Demmler, Kathrin Maria; Rischke, Ramona

    2016-12-01

    Human and planetary health as well as economic growth are firmly interlinked and subject to complex interaction effects. In this paper, we provide an overview of interlinkages between economic growth, climate change, and obesity focusing on recent advances in the literature. In addition to empirical findings, we discuss different theoretical frameworks used to conceptualize these complex links and highlight policy options and challenges. We conclude that policies addressing both climate change and obesity simultaneously are particularly promising and often suitable for ensuring sustainable development.

  17. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  18. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  19. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  1. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  2. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  3. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  4. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  5. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  6. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Economic Limits to Corporate Growth in America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    R.H. (2001). Expectations of equity risk premia, volatility and asymmetry from a corporate finance perspective. National Bureau of Economic Research...and Cohn (1979) and Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) explore the effects of inflation on stock prices and expected returns. Almost any corporate ... finance textbook explores the basic theory underlying stock pricing and forecasting earnings. Brealy, Myers and Allen (2006) provide thorough coverage of

  8. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  9. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    PubMed

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-07

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.

  10. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Weyl, E. Glen; Frederickson, Megan E.; Yu, Douglas W.; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host–symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume–rhizobia and yucca–moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature. PMID:20733067

  11. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  12. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  13. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  14. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  15. Natural Hazards, Poverty Traps versus Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netti, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Governments, even in developed countries, devote too scarce resources to coping (ex-ante) with natural hazards; as a consequence of this short-sightedness, (ex-post) direct and indirect effects of catastrophic events deeply compromise the economic growth. Protective measures against natural hazards mean complex choices involving the opinions of multidisciplinary groups of experts in the fields of ecology, civic and geotechnical engineering, geology, meteorology, law and economics. Moreover, tools and choices affect different stakeholders: politicians, producers, consumers, taxpayers and voters. Complementarity between informed rationality and democracy need to be recognized and guaranteed as too often the perceptions of the majority of the stakeholders involved about natural hazards are not consistent with any objective information about the catastrophic event. The interaction between strict budget constraints, extremely high degrees of uncertainty, risk-aversion and credit rationing, trade-off between democracy and rationality, are the main causes of potential 'poverty traps'. First of all we believe that the 'reconstruction output' to be included in GDP as an ex-post effect of a natural hazard is a forced investment much more effective in crowding-out other consumption and investment and less effective for growth than investments aiming at increasing, ex-ante, the resiliency of the economy. Keynes' 'Animal Spirits' are embedded in positive expectation for future gains especially if not concentrated in reconstruction procurement sectors but spread across different sectors of the economy. The increased demand for reconstruction goods and services may act in both directions depending on the phase of the business cycles in which the economy is. Risk premiums for risk-averter investors increase in consequence of a natural hazard event; this restrict budget constraints and strengthen credit rationing. A mere replacement effect of the destroyed capital by a more

  16. Sustainable energy, economic growth and public health.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2001-01-01

    Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources.

  17. Mineral resources, economic growth, and world populatic.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D B; Andrews, P W

    1974-07-05

    World population and world income can grow at any likely rate for the next 50 to 75 years, probably for longer, and mineral supplies will continue to keep pace with demand. Not, however, without environmental costs, without affecting Third World development, and, perhaps most important, without ignoring critical questions of power. In what might be termed the revisionist form of the limits to growth thesis, Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, cofounders of the Club of Rome, seem to be saying that the forecasts of doom themselves are unimportant but they symbolize critical problems of the nature and uses of power in the modern world (30): . . . the Club of Rome is questioning the quality of growth and its distribution around the world. . . . We know that the present structure of the world is obsolete. . . . Both private and state capitalism are stale . . . we have to develop something else. Surely, continually increasing rates of mineral production are symptoms of this obsolete power structure, a result of the fact that, ultimately, population growth and monetary income growth lead to demands for natural resources that necessitate their being found and produced regardless of the implications. Since such higher rates of production are geologically and economically sustainable, we should choose among alternative paths of growth, and hence among alternative rates of mineral resource development, according to what we like or dislike about these implications. The key information will not be found in tables comparing reserves and consumption but in preferences and ethics.

  18. Energy return on investment: Theory and application to biophysical economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David J.

    This dissertation is comprised of an introduction and five manuscripts split into two main sections: theory and application. Manuscripts one and four have been published, manuscript three has been accepted for publication, and manuscripts two and five are currently in review for publication. The theory sections contains the first two manuscripts. The first manuscript is a review of the literature on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) analysis. I cover five areas in this manuscript, including: (1) EROI and corn ethanol, (2) EROI for most major fuels, (3) alternative EROI applications, (4) EROI and the economy, and (5) the minimum EROI for society. The second manuscript provides a methodological framework for performing EROI analysis. I cover the following areas in this manuscript: (1) boundaries of analysis, (2) energy quality corrections, (3) energy intensity values, and lastly (4) alternative EROI statistics. The applications section contains manuscripts three through five. The third manuscript provides a biophysical model of economic growth indicating that the feedback mechanisms between oil supply and oil price have created a growth paradox: maintaining business as usual economic growth will require the production of new sources of oil, yet the only sources of oil remaining require high oil prices, thus hampering economic growth. The fourth manuscript is a study on the geographic variability of corn ethanol production. The main conclusions of this study were: (1) the statistical error associated with calculating the EROI of corn ethanol was enough to cast doubt as to whether corn ethanol yields net energy, and (2) failure to account for the geographic variation in corn yields and fertilizer inputs artificially inflated previous estimates of the EROI or corn ethanol. In the fifth manuscript I measure the impact of the Urban Heat Island within the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on the electricity demand within the city. I calculated that the UHI

  19. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  20. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  1. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  2. Endogenous longevity, biological deterioration and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sanso, Marcos; Aísa, Rosa M

    2006-05-01

    The identification of the types of bidirectional interactions that take place between longevity and economic growth in the long-run is carried out by means of the integration of human capital accumulation, innovation in medical technology, a health goods sector, and individual decisions on health and longevity in a dynamic general equilibrium set-up. In this context, in which individual agents decide not only on their "quality" of life but also on its "quantity", the mere process of biological deterioration, that is to say, the continuous loss of health goods effectiveness in maintaining a given level of health as individuals age, provides the reason for an additional, and new, engine of growth.

  3. Technology, enterprise, and American economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.

    1982-03-05

    America may have once led the world in economic development based on technology, but US firms are no longer matching foreign competitors in either the domestic or world markets. Mr. Lewis feels that much of the US supremacy was a post-war phenomenon due to European refugee scientists. Economic and technological strength are more fundamental than deregulation, low expenditures for research and development, lack of capital and long-range planning, and other arguments that, if reversed, would revitalize American industry. The author reviews the relationship of technology and economic growth, pointing out that Japanese industry has faced many of the same problems with different behavior patterns. The variations in behavior due to differences in social values, priorities, and attitudes affect individual performance and response to innovation. Inflation increases the pressure for short-term gains and encourages analytical management. Mr. Lewis thinks that, for international competition to move Americans to develop a sense of common interest between labor and management and producer and consumer, industry must lead the effort to unmask the adversarial barriers to mutual trust. 52 references, 1 figure, 3 tables. (DCK)

  4. The Analysis of the Relation between Education and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteils, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    The debate concerning the various determinants of economic growth has attracted considerable attention. The argument according to which endogenous growth models explain long-term economic growth is often put forward. Particularly, it is held that the production of knowledge by education induces self-sustained growth. In spite of numerous…

  5. A Model of the Economic Theory of Regulation for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brooks

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model of the economic theory of regulation and recommends its use in undergraduate economics classes. Describes the use of computer-assisted instruction to teach the theory. Maintains that the approach enables students to gain access to graphs and tables that they produce themselves. (CFR)

  6. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  7. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  8. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  9. Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-22

    Mankiw , Principles of Economics (Ft. Worth, Dryden Press, 1998), p556, and Robert J. Barro, “Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?” Journal of Political...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post

  10. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Geng; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are trying to link mortality dynamics with observable factors. This serves as an intermediate step between the two methods. We perform a comprehensive analysis on the relationship between the latent trend in mortality dynamics and the trend in economic growth represented by gross domestic product (GDP). Subsequently, the Lee-Carter framework is extended through the introduction of GDP as an additional factor next to the latent factor, which provides a better fit and better interpretable forecasts.

  11. Economic growth rate management by soft computing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimović, Goran; Jović, Srđan; Jovanović, Radomir

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth rate management is very important process in order to improve the economic stability of any country. The main goal of the study was to manage the impact of agriculture, manufacturing, industry and services on the economic growth rate prediction. Soft computing methodology was used in order to select the inputs influence on the economic growth rate prediction. It is known that the economic growth may be developed on the basis of combination of different factors. Gross domestic product (GDP) was used as economic growth indicator. It was found services have the highest impact on the GDP growth rate. On the contrary, the manufacturing has the smallest impact on the GDP growth rate.

  12. International Organizations, the "Education-Economic Growth" Black Box, and the Development of World Education Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…

  13. International Organizations, the "Education-Economic Growth" Black Box, and the Development of World Education Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…

  14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND BUSINESS FIRM STRATEGIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    characteristic economic patterns also provide a basis for business firms to plan their policies for investment and other international business activities in relation to opportunities in different kinds of environments. (Author)

  15. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  16. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  17. To Save or to Consume: Linking Growth Theory with the Keynesian Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Yun-kwong

    2007-01-01

    In the neoclassical growth theory, higher saving rate gives rise to higher output per capita. However, in the Keynesian model, higher saving rate causes lower consumption, which may lead to a recession. Students may ask, "Should we save or should we consume?" In most of the macroeconomics textbooks, economic growth and Keynesian economics are in…

  18. To Save or to Consume: Linking Growth Theory with the Keynesian Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Yun-kwong

    2007-01-01

    In the neoclassical growth theory, higher saving rate gives rise to higher output per capita. However, in the Keynesian model, higher saving rate causes lower consumption, which may lead to a recession. Students may ask, "Should we save or should we consume?" In most of the macroeconomics textbooks, economic growth and Keynesian economics are in…

  19. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in

  20. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  1. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  2. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  3. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  4. Using Wmatrix to Explore Discourse of Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a concept of particular interest for economic discourse. This paper sets out to explore a small corpus of economic growth, which consists of articles from "The Economist". The corpus software used in this study is a web-based tool Wmatrix, an automatic tagging software able to assign semantic field (domain) tags, and to permit…

  5. Education and Economic Growth in Iowa; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendening, Richard N.

    To study the relationship of education to economic growth for the state of Iowa, the hypothesis that increasing the level of education for the labor force would lead to higher levels of income or economic growth was tested for the period from 1950-1967. The Cobb-Douglas production was used to evaluate the relationship. The function used labor…

  6. Keynes on population and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Toye, J

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of Keynes's thinking on population based on an unpublished paper from 1914, "Is the Problem of Population a Pressing and Important One Now?" The paper is reported to have 39 pages, but in fact there are many missing page numbers. Keynes's "Essays in Biography" (1933) follows the basic structure and much of the verbal detail of the first 16 pages of "Population." Chapter 2 of the "Economic Consequences of the Peace" discusses the key ideas of "Population." The passages in "Population" and Chapter 2 were probably the sources of a fierce controversy in 1923-24 between Keynes and W.H. Beveridge over Keynes' neo-Malthusianism. "Population" was the basis for the three themes that were central to Keynes's writing on population. Keynes's framework shifted from a global perspective in "Population" to a progressively narrower focus in the 1930s on England and Wales. Keynes was stronger in his advocacy of birth control in "Population" compared to later writings. Keynes was concerned about the quality of population but disagreed on the methods of achieving this. Keynes argued that 75% of the world was not subject to Malthusian dynamics, and the other 25% had developed technology to relieve population pressure. "Population" sketches out the rudiments of the welfare implications of the great divide between North and South population growth rates. Keynes assumes that overpopulation in the South will be compensated for by the international market without consideration of income deficits. Keynes argues against pronatalism. The 1933 essay shows Keynes shift away from Malthus as population expert to Malthus as political economist. By 1937, Keynes had recanted and was very aware of the uncertainty of the economy. The author believes that it is unfortunate that this 1913-14 manuscript remains unknown and, if known, misunderstood.

  7. Is income relevant for health expenditure and economic growth nexus?

    PubMed

    Halıcı-Tülüce, Nadide Sevil; Doğan, İbrahim; Dumrul, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between health expenditure and economic growth using panel data consisting low and high-income countries. Using dynamic panel data methodology, we analyze twenty five high-income and nineteen low-income economies for the periods of 1995-2012 and 1997-2009, respectively. We find reciprocal relationship between health expenditure and economic growth in the short run and one-way causality from economic growth to public health expenditure in the long-run. In high-income countries, there is a two-way causality for both private and public health expenditures in the short-run, while in the long-run there is a one-way causality between economic growth and private health expenditures. The crucial finding of this study is that private health expenditures have negative influence on economic growth while public health expenditures have both negative and statistically significant effect.

  8. Road infrastructure, spatial spillover and county economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Luo, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial spillover effect of road infrastructure on the economic growth of poverty-stricken counties, based on the spatial Durbin model, by using the panel data of 37 poor counties in Hunan province from 2006 to 2015. The results showed that there is a significant spatial dependence of economic growth in Poor Counties. Road infrastructure has a positive impact on economic growth, and the results will be overestimated without considering spatial factors. Considering the spatial factors, the road infrastructure will promote the economic growth of the surrounding areas through the spillover effect, but the spillover effect is restricted by the distance factor. Capital investment is the biggest factor of economic growth in poor counties, followed by urbanization, labor force and regional openness.

  9. Practical Theory: Teaching Political and Economic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    How can philosophical instruction inform practical analysis and decision making among college students in a way that demonstrably benefits them as individual members of our polity and economy? I pose this question because each year, I introduce classic political theory to first- and second-year college students who simultaneously confront a fiscal…

  10. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  11. Exploring the middle ground between environmental protection and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Michael D; Lupi, Frank; Yeboah, Felix K; Thorp, Laurie G

    2013-05-01

    Public preference concerning the environment and the economy typically has been characterized as either pro-environmental protection or pro-economic development. Researchers and policymakers increasingly suggest that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive. However, use of dichotomous-choice policy preference questions persists. This note empirically examines an alternative response format for the typical dichotomous-choice environmental/economic policy preference question and explores respondents' stated policy preferences in light of their support for recycling. We find that most respondents do not view environmental protection and economic development policy goals to be mutually exclusive. Most respondents view economic growth and environmental protection as compatible suggesting a more heterogeneous view of the environment-economic relationship than oft reported. Hence excluding a middle response choice to the standard environment/economic policy preference question may add measurement error, increase item nonresponse, and fail to account for the views of respondents who view these goals as complementary.

  12. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  13. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  14. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  15. Population growth and economic development revisited with reference to Asia.

    PubMed

    Jha, S C; Deolalikar, A B; Pernia, E M

    1993-01-01

    "This article takes another look at the old issue of population growth and economic development in the context of recent developments and with the benefit of the increasing stock of knowledge on the subject. It first presents a demographic perspective; then it analyzes the implications of population growth with respect to such integral aspects of economic development as human capital accumulation, income distribution and poverty, the environment, and sustainable economic growth. The approach in each case is to review the theoretical considerations, survey the empirical evidence, and then draw policy implications. An overall conclusion with implications for policy caps the paper." The geographical focus is on Asia.

  16. MEASURING ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM OUTER SPACE

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David N.

    2013-01-01

    GDP growth is often measured poorly for countries and rarely measured at all for cities or subnational regions. We propose a readily available proxy: satellite data on lights at night. We develop a statistical framework that uses lights growth to augment existing income growth measures, under the assumption that measurement error in using observed light as an indicator of income is uncorrelated with measurement error in national income accounts. For countries with good national income accounts data, information on growth of lights is of marginal value in estimating the true growth rate of income, while for countries with the worst national income accounts, the optimal estimate of true income growth is a composite with roughly equal weights. Among poor-data countries, our new estimate of average annual growth differs by as much as 3 percentage points from official data. Lights data also allow for measurement of income growth in sub- and supranational regions. As an application, we examine growth in Sub Saharan African regions over the last 17 years. We find that real incomes in non-coastal areas have grown faster by 1/3 of an annual percentage point than coastal areas; non-malarial areas have grown faster than malarial ones by 1/3 to 2/3 annual percent points; and primate city regions have grown no faster than hinterland areas. Such applications point toward a research program in which “empirical growth” need no longer be synonymous with “national income accounts.” PMID:25067841

  17. Population Growth and Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Because evidence is clear that in many developing countries development will be postponed indefinitely unless slower population growth can be achieved soon, the international community must work together in a renewed effort to slow population growth. Assistance can be accomplished in three ways: (1) encouraging dialog aimed at forging…

  18. Framework for Creating a Smart Growth Economic Development Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This step-by-step guide can help small and mid-sized cities, particularly those that have limited population growth, areas of disinvestment, and/or a struggling economy, build a place-based economic development strategy.

  19. Internationalisation and Economic Growth: The Portuguese Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Renato J. Lopes; António, Nélson J. Santos; Miguel, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Historically, a policy of enforcement in internationalisation processes is still seen by many as an approach to solve certain economic crises. However, Portugal's solution for this problem is part of a greater problem, namely trying to solve a European problem that has recently worsened and is largely uncontrolled. This paper aims to contribute,…

  20. Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafn, H. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

  1. Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafn, H. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

  2. What every conservation biologist should know about economic theory.

    PubMed

    Gowdy, John; Hall, Charles; Klitgaard, Kent; Krall, Lisi

    2010-12-01

    The last century has seen the ascendance of a core economic model, which we will refer to as Walrasian economics. This model is driven by the psychological assumptions that humans act only in a self-referential and narrowly rational way and that production can be described as a self-contained circular flow between firms and households. These assumptions have critical implications for the way economics is used to inform conservation biology. Yet the Walrasian model is inconsistent with a large body of empirical evidence about actual human behavior, and it violates a number of basic physical laws. Research in behavioral science and neuroscience shows that humans are uniquely social animals and not self-centered rational economic beings. Economic production is subject to physical laws including the laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. In addition, some contemporary economic theory, spurred by exciting new research in human behavior and a wealth of data about the negative global impact of the human economy on natural systems, is moving toward a world view that places consumption and production squarely in its behavioral and biophysical context. We argue that abandoning the straightjacket of the Walrasian core is essential to further progress in understanding the complex, coupled interactions between the human economy and the natural world. We call for a new framework for economic theory and policy that is consistent with observed human behavior, recognizes the complex and frequently irreversible interaction between human and natural systems, and directly confronts the cumulative negative effects of the human economy on the Earth's life support systems. Biophysical economics and ecological economics are two emerging economic frameworks in this movement.

  3. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  4. Education and Technology Accelerate Economic Growth for Newly Emerging Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Economics Trends, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Technology provides a new and effective tool for accelerating economic growth, and developing countries are embracing technology and education as the means toward attaining economic parity with the United States and other developed nations. Evidence suggests that this strategy is paying off. Developing countries are building a technology…

  5. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  6. Information and Communication Technology Use and Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use. PMID:23152817

  7. New Directions in the Economic Theory of the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Carlo; Siniscalco, Domenico

    1998-01-01

    This volume provides a broad survey of the recent developments in the new economics of the environment and reports the state of the art on a new set of environmental problems, analytical tools and economic policies. Throughout the volume environmental problems are analyzed in an open, generally noncompetitive economy with transnational or global externalities. The first part deals with the relationship between the environment, economic growth and technological innovation. The second part analyzes the optimal design of environmental taxation, while the third part considers the international dimension of environmental policy.

  8. Biochemomechanical poroelastic theory of avascular tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth is a complex process involving genetic mutations, biochemical regulations, and mechanical deformations. In this paper, a thermodynamics-based nonlinear poroelastic theory is established to model the coupling among the mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms governing avascular tumor growth. A volumetric growth law accounting for mechano-chemo-biological coupled effects is proposed to describe the development of solid tumors. The regulating roles of stresses and nutrient transport in the tumor growth are revealed under different environmental constraints. We show that the mechano-chemo-biological coupling triggers anisotropic and heterogeneous growth, leading to the formation of layered structures in a growing tumor. There exists a steady state in which tumor growth is balanced by resorption. The influence of external confinements on tumor growth is also examined. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate how the elastic modulus and thickness of the confinements jointly dictate the steady state of tumor volume. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with experimental observations indicate the developed model is capable of capturing the essential features of avascular tumor growth in various environments.

  9. Outward foreign direct investments and home country's economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielska, Dorota; Kołtuniak, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    The study examines the time stability of the causality direction and cross-correlations between the home country's economic growth and pace of growth of its outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) stocks within the complex system of the Polish national economy. The research has been performed in order to verify, using both the time and frequency domains time series analyses, if economic agents' long term decisions on outward foreign direct investments, leading to cross-border value chains and production fragmentation processes, are of adaptive or predictive character. Consequently, the aim was to check if the home country's economic growth leads the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises, which stays in line with Dunning's Investment Development Path (IDP) paradigm, or if these complex processes, thanks to entrepreneurs' ability to formulate relevant rational expectations, precede the home country's economic growth, which would be supported with the introduction of the policy on reinforcing the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises. The presence of the unidirectional economic growth-led internationalization, consistent with the IDP concept's base assumptions, has been ascertained by the results of the short term Granger causality tests. Nevertheless, the results of the wavelet analyses, supported with the results of the econometric block exogeneity long term causality Wald tests, have revealed that in the long term the OFDI stocks' growth permanently precedes the home country's economic growth, which stays in the unequivocal contrast with the IDP paradigm's premises, as well as with the indicated above short term Granger causality tests' outcomes and indicates that economic agents' choices are not strictly of adaptive but also of predictive character, which influences the current state of knowledge on economic complex systems' characteristics. Such a result is of a great importance in the light of the existence of the significant

  10. Technology for America's Economic Growth, a New Direction To Build Economic Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, William J.; Gore, Albert, Jr.

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future. U.S. technology must move in a new direction to build economic strength and spur economic growth. The traditional roles of support of basic science and mission-oriented technological research must be expanded, so that the federal government plays a key role in helping private firms develop…

  11. Population Growth and Educational Policies: An Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Tray, Dennis N.

    A micro-economic model of population growth is presented to assess the relationship between education and fertility. On the basis of population growth evidence, the author presents the following opinions: (1) the potential of education as a policy instrument to influence family size is great but ignorance of the mechanisms through which education…

  12. Population growth, economic security, and cultural change in wilderness counties

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Lorah

    2000-01-01

    A familiar version of the “jobs versus the environment” argument asserts that wilderness areas limit economic growth by locking up potentially productive natural resources. Analysis of the development paths of rural Western counties shows that this is unlikely: the presence of Wilderness is correlated with income, employment and population growth. Similarly, Wilderness...

  13. Health, "illth," and economic growth: medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Egger, Garry

    2009-07-01

    Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.

  14. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    PubMed

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective.

  15. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  16. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-04-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ~ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency.

  17. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008–2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ∝ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency. PMID:23563321

  18. Growth versus government management improvement during economic downturn.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I is proportional to GCI(α). We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency.

  19. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  20. Putting Some Mustard into Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    On September 27, 2012, the University of Toronto launched the Fraser Mustard Institute for Human Development – an appropriate recognition of an extraordinary individual. Fraser was a keen student of the science of human development and, most particularly, of early child development (ECD). He was also a powerful and tireless advocate for translating science into action. His institute must do both. Action is needed also because 25% of Canadians lack the competencies to function effectively in a modern economy. Other countries do much better. Facing a low-growth future, we cannot afford to waste this untapped potential. Although Prime Minister Harper's personal ideology has no place for ECD, the Mustard Institute can help keep the flame alive. PMID:23968611

  1. Putting some mustard into economic growth.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-11-01

    On September 27, 2012, the University of Toronto launched the Fraser Mustard Institute for Human Development - an appropriate recognition of an extraordinary individual. Fraser was a keen student of the science of human development and, most particularly, of early child development (ECD). He was also a powerful and tireless advocate for translating science into action. His institute must do both. Action is needed also because 25% of Canadians lack the competencies to function effectively in a modern economy. Other countries do much better. Facing a low-growth future, we cannot afford to waste this untapped potential. Although Prime Minister Harper's personal ideology has no place for ECD, the Mustard Institute can help keep the flame alive.

  2. Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

  3. An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Benigno

    2003-01-01

    Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

  4. An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Benigno

    2003-01-01

    Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

  5. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  6. World oil prices and economic growth in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, H.D.; Paddock, J.L.

    1983-04-01

    The world oil market is a forecaster's nightmare. The authors' approach is to use an analytical model that rules out certain combinations of possible events, thus forming a window to the future based on assumptions about demand and supply responses, OPEC behavior, price conditions, and the effects of oil price on world economic growth. 18 references, 5 figures.

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  9. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  10. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  11. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  12. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  15. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  16. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  17. Support for Economic Growth and Environmental Protection 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, C. Paul; Christenson, James A.

    This study investigates preferences of public support for allocation of expenditures toward environmental controls or toward economic growth from 1973-1975. The author considered four previously noted correlates of environmental support--education, family income, place of residence, and political orientation. Two state-wide surveys were conducted…

  18. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Economic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia

  19. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  20. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  1. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  2. The economic approach to ‘theory of mind’

    PubMed Central

    Robalino, Nikolaus; Robson, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is a great evolutionary achievement. It is a special intelligence that can assess not only one's own desires and beliefs, but also those of others. Whether it is uniquely human or not is controversial, but it is clear that humans are, at least, significantly better at ToM than any other animal. Economists and game theorists have developed sophisticated and powerful models of ToM and we provide a detailed summary of this here. This economic ToM entails a hierarchy of beliefs. I know my preferences, and I have beliefs (a probabilistic distribution) about your preferences, beliefs about your beliefs about my preferences, and so on. We then contrast this economic ToM with the theoretical approaches of neuroscience and with empirical data in general. Although this economic view provides a benchmark and makes useful suggestions about empirical tendencies, it does not always generate a close fit with the data. This provides an opportunity for a synergistic interdisciplinary production of a falsifiable theory of bounded rationality. In particular, a ToM that is founded on evolutionary biology might well be sufficiently structured to have predictive power, while remaining quite general. We sketch two papers that represent preliminary steps in this direction. PMID:22734065

  3. Driving Economic Growth: Higher Education--A Core Strategic Asset to the UK. Higher Education in Focus: Driving Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…

  4. Driving Economic Growth: Higher Education--A Core Strategic Asset to the UK. Higher Education in Focus: Driving Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…

  5. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Prskawetz, A.; Grass, D.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy and water. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre et al., 2013; Viglione et al., 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. In order to build this first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events, we transform an existing descriptive stochastic model into an optimal deterministic model. The intermediate step is to formulate and simulate a descriptive deterministic model. We develop a periodic water function to approximate the former discrete stochastic time series of rainfall events. Due to the non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function the long-term path of consumption and investment will be periodic.

  6. Study on the China regional economic growth and energy consumption intensity difference convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mei; Wu, Lu

    2017-04-01

    Based on theory of convergence, firstly, per-capita GDP difference convergence model of underdeveloped regions and developing regions compared with developed regions are established, then, convergence model of energy consumption intensity difference compared with per-capita GDP difference is built, from which, it is found that China's regional per-capita GDP growth shows convergence trend, and convergence rate of energy consumption intensity is slightly slower than the per-capita GDP. So, it is suggested that the local government should fully consider the convergence characteristics of regional energy consumption difference to guarantee not only economic growth but also energy saving and emission reduction in order to ensure sustained economic growth in the implementation of energy-saving emission reduction strategies.

  7. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  8. Economic theory and nursing administration research--is this a good combination?

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry L; Yoder, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Economic theory is used to describe and explain decision making in the context of scarce resources. This paper presents two applications of economic theory to the delivery of nursing services in acute care hospitals and evaluates its usefulness in guiding nursing administration research. The description of economic theory and the proposed applications for nursing are based on current nursing, healthcare, and economic literature. Evaluation of the potential usefulness of economic theory in guiding nursing administration research is based on the criteria of significance and testability as described by Fawcett and Downs. While economic theory can be very useful in explaining how decisions about nursing time allocation and nursing care production are made, it will not address the issue of how they should be made. Normative theories and ethical frameworks also must be incorporated in the decision-making process around these issues. Economic theory and nursing administration are a good fit when balanced with the values and goals of nursing.

  9. Health care prices, the federal budget, and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Monaco, R M; Phelps, J H

    1995-01-01

    Rising health care spending, led by rising prices, has had an enormous impact on the economy, especially on the federal budget. Our work shows that if rapid growth in health care prices continues, under current institutional arrangements, real economic growth and employment will be lower during the next two decades than if health price inflation were somehow reduced. How big the losses are and which sectors bear the brunt of the costs vary depending on how society chooses to fund the federal budget deficit that stems from the rising cost of federal health care programs.

  10. [Economic growth and changes in the structure of the population].

    PubMed

    Conroy, M E

    1980-01-01

    A reevaluation of classic works by Simon Kuznets and Wassily Leontief suggests that their conclusions concerning the interrelationships between economic growth and population structure correspond to relatively highly specialized characteristics of present forms of capitalist development or underdevelopment and not necessarily to capitalist development within a new international economic order or to socialist development. Kuznets' work seems to offer conclusive proof of the negative effects of rapid population growth on economic development for 3 reasons: 1) requirements for capital are greater, 2) total production and per capita consumption are greatly reduced with high dependency ratios, and 3) rapid growth in consumption is more difficult when the population is growing more rapidly. However, at least 4 problems are noted when Kuznets' ideas are applied to the 3rd world. Kuznets assumes that growth of physical capital is the only source of growth, so that only increased investment can increase returns. Secondly, assuming the same ratio of capital/output for all cases assumes that no substitution of labor for capital is possible. Third, the assumption that participation rates remain the same regardless of dependency ratios may be incorrect. And finally, the difference in per capita consumption that Kuznets attributes to differences in rates of population growth represents a tiny proportion of the total gap in the standard of living of rich countries with slow population growth and poor countries with rapid growth. Kuznets' argument has considerable validity in Third World countries which relay on traditional patterns of capitalist accumulation, but the problems represent the effects of rapid population growth only under the current modes of capitalist expansion. The negative effect of high fertility on savings has probably been greatly exaggerated, and the problems of providing educational facilities and health care for ever larger numbers of persons have been

  11. The Long-term Impacts of Earthquakes on Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, S.

    2016-12-01

    The social science literature has so far not reached a consensus on whether and how earthquakes actually impact economic growth in the long-run. Several hypotheses have been suggested and some even argue for a positive impact. A general weakness in the literature, however, is the predominant use of inadequate measures for the exogenous natural hazard of an earthquake. The most common problems are the lack of individual event size (e.g. earthquake dummy or number of events), the use of magnitude instead of a measure for surface shaking, and endogeneity issues when traditional qualitative intensity scales or actual impact data is used. Here we use peak ground acceleration (PGA) as the ground motion intensity measure and investigate the impacts of earthquake shaking on long-run economic growth. We construct a data set from USGS ShakeMaps that can be considered the universe of global relevant earthquake ground shaking from 1973 to 2014. This data set is then combined with World Bank GDP data to conduct a regression analysis. Furthermore, the impacts of PGA on different industries and other economic variables such as employment and education are also investigated. This will on one hand help to identify the mechanism of how earthquakes impact long-run growth and also show potential impacts on other welfare indicators that are not captured by GDP. This is the first application of global earthquake shaking data to investigate long-term earthquake impacts.

  12. Application of energy stability theory to problems in crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Jankowski, D. F.

    1990-01-01

    The use of energy stability theory to study problems in crystal growth is outlined and justified in terms of convection mechanisms. An application to the float zone process of crystal growth is given as an illustration.

  13. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  14. The Study of Relationship and Strategy Between New Energy and Economic Development Based on Decoupling Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yaping; Xu, Yang

    With the increasing pressure in energy conservation and emissions reduction, the new energy revolution in China is imminent. The implementation of electric energy substitution and cleaner alternatives is an important way to resolve the contradiction among economic growth, energy saving and emission reduction. This article demonstrates that China is in the second stage which energy consumption and GDP is increasing together with the reducing of energy consumption intensity based on the theory of decoupling. At the same time, new energy revolution needs to be realized through the increasing of the carbon productivity and the proportion of new energy.

  15. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, Johanna; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Grass, Dieter; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This interdisciplinary approach matches with the goals of Panta Rhei i.e. to understand feedbacks between hydrology and society. It enables new perspectives but also shows limitations of each discipline. Young scientists need mentors from various scientific backgrounds to learn their different research approaches and how to best combine them such that interdisciplinary scientific work is also accepted by different science communities. In our socio-hydrology model we apply a macro-economic decision framework to a long-term flood-scenario. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model where agents derive utility from consumption and output depends on physical capital that can be accumulated through investment. To this framework we add the occurrence of flooding events which will destroy part of the capital. We identify two specific periodic long term solutions and denote them rich and poor economies. Whereas rich economies can afford to invest in flood defense and therefore avoid flood damage and develop high living standards, poor economies prefer consumption instead of investing in flood defense capital and end up facing flood damages every time the water level rises. Nevertheless, they manage to sustain at least a low level of physical capital. We identify optimal investment strategies and compare simulations with more frequent and more intense high water level events.

  16. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  17. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    PubMed

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

  18. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country’s productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country’s productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  19. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  20. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  1. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity–quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters. PMID:20495605

  2. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity-quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters.

  3. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  4. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  5. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  6. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, Johanna; Grass, Dieter; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günther

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy, water and population dynamics. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre, 2013, Viglione, 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This is the first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events: Investments in defense capital can avoid floods even when the water level is high, but on the other hand such investment competes with investment in productive capital and hence may reduce the level of consumption. When floods occur, the flood damage therefore depends on the existing defense capital. The aim is to find an optimal tradeoff between investments in productive versus defense capital such as to optimize the stream of consumption in the long-term. We assume a non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function (Yevjevich et.al. 1990, Zakaria 2001) which implies that the long-term equilibrium will be periodic . With our model we aim to derive mechanisms that allow consumption smoothing in the long term, and at the same time allow for optimal investment in flood defense to maximize economic output. We choose an aggregate welfare function that depends on the consumption level of the society as the objective function. I.e. we assume a social planer with perfect foresight that maximizes the aggregate welfare function. Within our model framework we can also study whether the path and level of defense capital (that protects people from floods) is related to the time preference rate of the social planner. Our model also allows to investigate how the frequency

  7. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    PubMed

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be

  8. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture.

  9. Oil in the economic development of Nigeria (optimum utilization of oil revenues in economic growth)

    SciTech Connect

    Nnaji, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general problems of managing oil income. Drawing from above experiences, it examines the general performance of Nigeria's economy in 1973-84 period. Evidences of retarded economic growth, rising inflation, unemployment, and massive imports, all suggest Nigeria's inability to expand its productive capacity, and inefficient utilization of oil income. To address the above problem, a dynamic optimization model is developed showing the optimal conditions for allocating oil revenues to different uses. Most of the findings are consistent with stylized facts about the economony, but specifically raise issues about the tight structure of production and its consequences, rising unemployment, low marginal propensity to save from non-oil income and dependence on oil revenues.

  10. Network theory and its applications in economic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing theoretical framework of complex networks; and ii) applying complex networks models to quantitatively analyze economics systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks, which includes two chapters: 1) We develop a mathematical framework to study the percolation of interdependent networks under targeted-attack and find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc = 0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. 2) We analytically demonstrates that clustering, which quantifies the propensity for two neighbors of the same vertex to also be neighbors of each other, significantly increases the vulnerability of the system. In part II, we apply the complex networks models to study economics systems, which also includes two chapters: 1) We study the US corporate governance network, in which nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards, and propose a quantitative measure of information and influence transformation in the network. Thus we are able to identify the most influential directors in the network. 2) We propose a bipartite networks model to simulate the risk propagation process among commercial banks during financial crisis. With empirical bank's balance sheet data in 2007 as input to the model, we find that our model efficiently identifies a significant portion of the actual failed banks reported by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation during the financial crisis between 2008 and 2011. The results suggest that complex networks model could be useful for systemic risk stress testing for financial systems. The model also identifies that commercial rather than residential real estate assets are major culprits for the

  11. Reproductive health, population growth, economic development and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, D W

    1993-01-01

    World population will increase by 1000 million, or by 20%, within 10 years. Ninety-five per cent of this increase will occur in the South, in areas that are already economically, environmentally and politically fragile. Morbidity and mortality associated with reproduction will be greater in the current decade than in any period in human history. Annually, 40-60 million pregnancies will be terminated and 5-10 million children will die within one year of birth. AIDS-related infections, e.g. tuberculosis, will undermine health care in Africa (and elsewhere) and in places AIDS-related deaths will decimate the work-force. The growth in population and associated morbidity will inhibit global economic development and spawn new problems. The key issues are migration, the spread of disease, the supply of water and the degradation of land, and fiscal policies with respect to family planning, pharmaceuticals and Third-World debt. Full education, particularly of women, and more effective family planning in the South have the power to unlock the problem. Failure will see the developed countries, with their 800 million population, swamped by the health, economic and environmental problems of the South, with its projected population of 5400 million people for the year 2000.

  12. Material growth in thermoelastic continua: Theory, algorithmics, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignes, Chet Monroe

    Within the medical community, there has been increasing interest in understanding material growth in biomaterials. Material growth is the capability of a biomaterial to gain or lose mass. This research interest is driven by the host of health implications and medical problems related to this unique biomaterial property. Health providers are keen to understand the role of growth in healing and recovery so that surgical techniques, medical procedures, and physical therapy may be designed and implemented to stimulate healing and minimize recovery time. With this motivation, research seeks to identify and model mechanisms of material growth as well as growth-inducing factors in biomaterials. To this end, a theoretical formulation of stress-induced volumetric material growth in thermoelastic continua is developed. The theory derives, without the classical continuum mechanics assumption of mass conservation, the balance laws governing the mechanics of solids capable of growth. Also, a proposed extension of classical thermodynamic theory provides a foundation for developing general constitutive relations. The theory is consistent in the sense that classical thermoelastic continuum theory is embedded as a special case. Two growth mechanisms, a kinematic and a constitutive contribution, coupled in the most general case of growth, are identified. This identification allows for the commonly employed special cases of density-preserving growth and volume-preserving growth to be easily recovered. In the theory, material growth is regulated by a three-surface activation criterion and corresponding flow rules. A simple model for rate-independent finite growth is proposed based on this formulation. The associated algorithmic implementation, including a method for solving the underlying differential/algebraic equations for growth, is examined in the context of an implicit finite element method. Selected numerical simulations are presented that showcase the predictive capacity of the

  13. Racial Segregation, Economic Growth, and Resilience to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.; Ganguly, A.

    2008-05-01

    Resilience to natural disasters is often defined as the ability of a community to recover from disaster disruption. Thus, resilience depends on various socioeconomic factors which influence the short- and long-term impacts of natural disasters as well as the resources that a community can bring to bear on the recovery process. One objective of this research is to tease out the determinants of resilience from a variety of possible indicators and data sources. A second objective is to test hypotheses which in turn are based on prior reports in the literature: Racial segregation has a negative impact, while economic growth has a positive impact, on resilience. We choose the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and New Orleans Metropolitan Area, for our case studies. The study areas included nine counties and parishes that are located in the Hurricane Katrina impact area. The nine counties and parishes were Hancock County, Harrison County, and Jackson County in Mississippi, and Jefferson Parish, Orleans Parish, Plaquemines Parish, St. Bernard Parish, St. Charles Parish, and St. Tammany Parish in Louisiana. The three counties make up the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and the six parishes are components of New Orleans Metropolitan Area. The determinants of resilience for this study were based on two considerations. First, we followed the political, military or security, economic, social, informational and infrastructural (PMESII) framework, which succinctly describes the resources available to a community. Second, we were pragmatically constrained by data availability. Five variables were selected as plausible determinants of resilience: (i) return of the original population, (ii) employment recovery, (iii) tax collected, (iv) building permit restoration, and (v) school re-opening information. The five variables were found to be highly correlated. We created three resilience indices, one by simple addition, another by addition of the

  14. A thermodynamic theory of microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-08-01

    Our ability to model the growth of microbes only relies on empirical laws, fundamentally restricting our understanding and predictive capacity in many environmental systems. In particular, the link between energy balances and growth dynamics is still not understood. Here we demonstrate a microbial growth equation relying on an explicit theoretical ground sustained by Boltzmann statistics, thus establishing a relationship between microbial growth rate and available energy. The validity of our equation was then questioned by analyzing the microbial isotopic fractionation phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kinetic consequence of the differences in energy contents of isotopic isomers used for growth. We illustrate how the associated theoretical predictions are actually consistent with recent experimental evidences. Our work links microbial population dynamics to the thermodynamic driving forces of the ecosystem, which opens the door to many biotechnological and ecological developments.

  15. A thermodynamic theory of microbial growth

    PubMed Central

    Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to model the growth of microbes only relies on empirical laws, fundamentally restricting our understanding and predictive capacity in many environmental systems. In particular, the link between energy balances and growth dynamics is still not understood. Here we demonstrate a microbial growth equation relying on an explicit theoretical ground sustained by Boltzmann statistics, thus establishing a relationship between microbial growth rate and available energy. The validity of our equation was then questioned by analyzing the microbial isotopic fractionation phenomenon, which can be viewed as a kinetic consequence of the differences in energy contents of isotopic isomers used for growth. We illustrate how the associated theoretical predictions are actually consistent with recent experimental evidences. Our work links microbial population dynamics to the thermodynamic driving forces of the ecosystem, which opens the door to many biotechnological and ecological developments. PMID:24522260

  16. Economics of forest tract size: Theory and literature

    Treesearch

    Fred Cubbage

    1983-01-01

    This report reviews worldwide literature and theoretical bases on economics of forest tract size and examines means of reducing the diseconomies of small size. Economics of size will become more important as forestry becomes more mechanized.

  17. IDGE - A test of dendritic growth theory using space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Hahn, R. C.; Herbach, B. A.; Winsa, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    The isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), to be performed on three of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) flights, starting with USMP-2, is designed to provide microgravity data on dendritic growth for a critical test of theory. Ground based test data using succinonitrile (SCN), from both a flight growth chamber and a laboratory growth chamber, are compared to theoretical calculations of dendritic tip velocities and radii. The comparison shows that the data from the flight chamber are consistent with the historical data and that dendritic growth in a microgravity environment should exhibit significant differences from the dendritic growth of SCN at g sub 0.

  18. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  19. Information as Property and as a Public Good: Perspectives from the Economic Theory of Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the economic theory of property rights and explores four applications of the transaction cost theory of property rights and free distribution in the economics of information: (1) copying technology; (2) computer software and copy protection; (3) satellite television and encryption; and (4) public libraries. (56 references) (MES)

  20. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  1. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  2. Theory of dendritic growth in the presence of lattice strain.

    PubMed

    Pilipenko, D; Brener, E A; Hüter, C

    2008-12-01

    We discuss elastic effects due to lattice strain which are a new key ingredient in the theory of dendritic growth for solid-solid transformations. Both thermal and elastic fields are eliminated by Green's function techniques, and a closed nonlinear integro-differential equation for the evolution of the interface is derived. We find dendritic patterns even without the anisotropy of the surface energy required by classical dendritic growth theory. In this sense, elastic effects serve as a new selection mechanism.

  3. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  4. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.

  5. Analyzing of economic growth based on electricity consumption from different sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimović, Goran; Milosavljević, Valentina; Ćirković, Bratislav; Milošević, Božidar; Jović, Srđan; Alizamir, Meysam

    2017-10-01

    Economic growth could be influenced by different factors. In this study was analyzed the economic growth based on the electricity consumption form different sources. As economic growth indicator gross domestic product (GDP) was used. ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) methodology was applied to determine the most important factors from the given set for the GDP growth prediction. Six inputs were used: electricity production from coal, hydroelectric, natural gas, nuclear, oil and renewable sources. Results shown that the electricity consumption from renewable sources has the highest impact on the economic or GDP growth prediction.

  6. New theories of root growth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landl, Magdalena; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan; Huber, Katrin; Javaux, Mathieu; Bengough, A. Glyn; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    In dynamic root architecture models, root growth is represented by moving root tips whose line trajectory results in the creation of new root segments. Typically, the direction of root growth is calculated as the vector sum of various direction-affecting components. However, in our simulations this did not reproduce experimental observations of root growth in structured soil. We therefore developed a new approach to predict the root growth direction. In this approach we distinguish between, firstly, driving forces for root growth, i.e. the force exerted by the root which points in the direction of the previous root segment and gravitropism, and, secondly, the soil mechanical resistance to root growth or penetration resistance. The latter can be anisotropic, i.e. depending on the direction of growth, which leads to a difference between the direction of the driving force and the direction of the root tip movement. Anisotropy of penetration resistance can be caused either by microscale differences in soil structure or by macroscale features, including macropores. Anisotropy at the microscale is neglected in our model. To allow for this, we include a normally distributed random deflection angle α to the force which points in the direction of the previous root segment with zero mean and a standard deviation σ. The standard deviation σ is scaled, so that the deflection from the original root tip location does not depend on the spatial resolution of the root system model. Similarly to the water flow equation, the direction of the root tip movement corresponds to the water flux vector while the driving forces are related to the water potential gradient. The analogue of the hydraulic conductivity tensor is the root penetrability tensor. It is determined by the inverse of soil penetration resistance and describes the ease with which a root can penetrate the soil. By adapting the three dimensional soil and root water uptake model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) in this way

  7. The Growth Illusion: How Economic Growth Has Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many, and Endangered the Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Richard

    The premise of this book is that economic growth has made life considerably worse for people in Britain since 1955 and that, even if growth were beneficial at one stage in human history, it is now damaging. The book presents evidence of social and environmental damage caused by growth and several reasons for a persistence of growth in the face of…

  8. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  9. Growth rate, population entropy, and perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1989-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the connection between two classes of population variables: measures of population growth rate--the Malthusian parameter, the net reproduction rate, the gross reproduction rate, and the mean life expectancy; and measures of demographic heterogeneity--population entropy. It is shown that the entropy functions predict the response of the growth rate parameters to perturbations in the age-specific fecundity and mortality schedule. These results are invoked to introduce the notion of environmental intensity. The intensity function, expressed in terms of the entropy parameters, is applied to give a comparative study of the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of Swedish and French populations.

  10. Adoption of multivariate copulae in prognostication of economic growth by means of interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Dewi Tanasia; Indratno, Sapto Wahyu, Dr.

    2015-12-01

    Inflation, at a healthy rate, is a sign of growing economy. Nonetheless, when inflation rate grows uncontrollably, it will negatively influence economic growth. Many tackle this problem by increasing interest rate to help protecting the value of money which is detained by inflation. There are few, however, who study the effects of interest rate in economic growth. The main purposes of this paper are to find how the change of interest rate affects economic growth and to use the relationship in prognostication of economic growth. By using expenditure model, a linear relationship between economic growth and interest rate is developed. The result is then used for prediction by normal copula and Vine Archimedean copula. It is shown that increasing interest rate to tackle inflation is a poor solution. Whereas implementation of copula in predicting economic growth yields an accurate result, with not more than 0.5% difference.

  11. Determination of Fares: Pricing Theory and Economic Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. C., III

    1972-01-01

    The concept of economic efficiency is described, its application to the pricing of air transport services, and its relevance as a policy objective are outlined. The first two sections discuss economic efficiency in general terms, whereas the third applies this norm to several airline pricing problems. The final section emphasizes the importance of industry behavior as a parameter in policy analysis.

  12. Functional Modularity in the Fundamentals of Economic Theory:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Chie, Bin-Tzong

    No matter how commonly the term innovation has been used in economics, a concrete analytical or computational model of innovation is not yet available. This paper argues that a breakthrough can be made with genetic programming, and proposes a functional-modularity approach to an agent-based computational economic model of innovation.

  13. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…

  14. When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Keller, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not…

  15. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  16. Economic Theory and Nursing Administration Research—Is This a Good Combination?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Terry L.; Yoder, Linda

    2017-01-01

    TOPIC Economic theory is used to describe and explain decision making in the context of scarce resources. PURPOSE This paper presents two applications of economic theory to the delivery of nursing services in acute care hospitals and evaluates its usefulness in guiding nursing administration research. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The description of economic theory and the proposed applications for nursing are based on current nursing, healthcare, and economic literature. Evaluation of the potential usefulness of economic theory in guiding nursing administration research is based on the criteria of significance and testability as described by Fawcett and Downs. CONCLUSIONS While economic theory can be very useful in explaining how decisions about nursing time allocation and nursing care production are made, it will not address the issue of how they should be made. Normative theories and ethical frameworks also must be incorporated in the decision-making process around these issues. Economic theory and nursing administration are a good fit when balanced with the values and goals of nursing. PMID:20137023

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING: BALANCING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern industrial economies depend on the environment to support economic production and a high standard of living. Economic production, in turn, impacts the productivity of ecosystems through waste production and resource use or diversion. Human activities control many energy an...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING: BALANCING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern industrial economies depend on the environment to support economic production and a high standard of living. Economic production, in turn, impacts the productivity of ecosystems through waste production and resource use or diversion. Human activities control many energy an...

  19. Fundamental insights into ontogenetic growth from theory and fish

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Baker, Joanna; Grady, John M.; Luna, Susan M.; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental features of growth may be universal, because growth trajectories of most animals are very similar, but a unified mechanistic theory of growth remains elusive. Still needed is a synthetic explanation for how and why growth rates vary as body size changes, both within individuals over their ontogeny and between populations and species over their evolution. Here, we use Bertalanffy growth equations to characterize growth of ray-finned fishes in terms of two parameters, the growth rate coefficient, K, and final body mass, m∞. We derive two alternative empirically testable hypotheses and test them by analyzing data from FishBase. Across 576 species, which vary in size at maturity by almost nine orders of magnitude, K scaled as m∞−0.23. This supports our first hypothesis that growth rate scales as m∞−0.25 as predicted by metabolic scaling theory; it implies that species that grow to larger mature sizes grow faster as juveniles. Within fish species, however, K scaled as m∞−0.35. This supports our second hypothesis, which predicts that growth rate scales as m∞−0.33 when all juveniles grow at the same rate. The unexpected disparity between across- and within-species scaling challenges existing theoretical interpretations. We suggest that the similar ontogenetic programs of closely related populations constrain growth to m∞−0.33 scaling, but as species diverge over evolutionary time they evolve the near-optimal m∞−0.25 scaling predicted by metabolic scaling theory. Our findings have important practical implications because fish supply essential protein in human diets, and sustainable yields from wild harvests and aquaculture depend on growth rates. PMID:26508641

  20. Fundamental insights into ontogenetic growth from theory and fish.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Baker, Joanna; Grady, John M; Luna, Susan M; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H

    2015-11-10

    The fundamental features of growth may be universal, because growth trajectories of most animals are very similar, but a unified mechanistic theory of growth remains elusive. Still needed is a synthetic explanation for how and why growth rates vary as body size changes, both within individuals over their ontogeny and between populations and species over their evolution. Here, we use Bertalanffy growth equations to characterize growth of ray-finned fishes in terms of two parameters, the growth rate coefficient, K, and final body mass, m∞. We derive two alternative empirically testable hypotheses and test them by analyzing data from FishBase. Across 576 species, which vary in size at maturity by almost nine orders of magnitude, K scaled as [Formula: see text]. This supports our first hypothesis that growth rate scales as [Formula: see text] as predicted by metabolic scaling theory; it implies that species that grow to larger mature sizes grow faster as juveniles. Within fish species, however, K scaled as [Formula: see text]. This supports our second hypothesis, which predicts that growth rate scales as [Formula: see text] when all juveniles grow at the same rate. The unexpected disparity between across- and within-species scaling challenges existing theoretical interpretations. We suggest that the similar ontogenetic programs of closely related populations constrain growth to [Formula: see text] scaling, but as species diverge over evolutionary time they evolve the near-optimal [Formula: see text] scaling predicted by metabolic scaling theory. Our findings have important practical implications because fish supply essential protein in human diets, and sustainable yields from wild harvests and aquaculture depend on growth rates.

  1. Biomedical progress rates as new parameters for models of economic growth in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Litovchenko, Maria

    2013-11-08

    While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan) and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative). While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG) growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm.

  2. Biomedical Progress Rates as New Parameters for Models of Economic Growth in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Litovchenko, Maria

    2013-01-01

    While the doubling of life expectancy in developed countries during the 20th century can be attributed mostly to decreases in child mortality, the trillions of dollars spent on biomedical research by governments, foundations and corporations over the past sixty years are also yielding longevity dividends in both working and retired population. Biomedical progress will likely increase the healthy productive lifespan and the number of years of government support in the old age. In this paper we introduce several new parameters that can be applied to established models of economic growth: the biomedical progress rate, the rate of clinical adoption and the rate of change in retirement age. The biomedical progress rate is comprised of the rejuvenation rate (extending the productive lifespan) and the non-rejuvenating rate (extending the lifespan beyond the age at which the net contribution to the economy becomes negative). While staying within the neoclassical economics framework and extending the overlapping generations (OLG) growth model and assumptions from the life cycle theory of saving behavior, we provide an example of the relations between these new parameters in the context of demographics, labor, households and the firm. PMID:24217179

  3. Role of Educational Investment on Economic Growth and Development in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Ojala Daphen

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Kenya spends 30% of its budget on education. It is commonly assumed that education has an important positive effect on economic growth, but to date the evidence for this assumption has been surprisingly weak. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between the amount of investments in education and economic growth. It was…

  4. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  5. An Empirical Analysis of Social Capital and Economic Growth in Europe (1980-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neira, Isabel; Vazquez, Emilia; Portela, Marta

    2009-01-01

    It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine economic growth and social development. In recent years a new field of investigation has come to the fore in which social capital is analysed in order to determine its effect on economic growth. Along these lines the work presented here examines the relationships that…

  6. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  7. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? Chicago Fed Letter. Number 229

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Not all observers agree that higher education and economic growth are obvious or necessary complements to each other. The controversy may be exacerbated because of the difficulty of measuring the exact contribution of colleges and universities to economic growth. Recognizing that a model based on local conditions and higher education's response…

  8. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  9. Can Education Equality Trickle-Down to Economic Growth? The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilon, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Education equality is generally neglected in the literature that investigates education's contribution to economic growth. This paper examines the case of Korea where economic growth, education equality (as measured by years of schooling), and educational quality have all been on the rise for many decades. Using time series data on schooling for…

  10. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  11. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  12. Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History. PEPG/07-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sascha O.; Wohmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Max Weber attributed the higher economic prosperity of Protestant regions to a Protestant work ethic. We provide an alternative theory, where Protestant economies prospered because instruction in reading the Bible generated the human capital crucial to economic prosperity. County-level data from late 19th-century Prussia reveal that Protestantism…

  13. Effect of heifer frame score on growth, fertility, and economics.

    PubMed

    Şentürklü, S; Landblom, D G; Perry, G A; Petry, T

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  14. Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Şentürklü, S.; Landblom, D. G.; Perry, G. A.; Petry, T.

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  15. Measuring Student Scholastic Effort: An Economic Theory of Learning Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, James N.

    Many research studies which deal with the teaching of economics at the college level conclude that different teaching methods do not lead to very different results in terms of student achievement. This paper suggests that one reason student achievement may fail to demonstrate the superiority of one teaching method over another is that achievement…

  16. The Economic Behavior of Academic Research Libraries: Toward a Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the economic behavior of academic research libraries, arguing that academic research libraries seek to maximize universities' utility by expanding library collections. Findings are consistent with those from a previous study using a different ranking system and sample data and reconfirm that library collections contribute significantly to…

  17. Evaluation of trade influence on economic growth rate by computational intelligence approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Milovančević, Milos; Mladenović, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this study was analyzed the influence of trade parameters on the economic growth forecasting accuracy. Computational intelligence method was used for the analyzing since the method can handle highly nonlinear data. It is known that the economic growth could be modeled based on the different trade parameters. In this study five input parameters were considered. These input parameters were: trade in services, exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services, trade and merchandise trade. All these parameters were calculated as added percentages in gross domestic product (GDP). The main goal was to select which parameters are the most impactful on the economic growth percentage. GDP was used as economic growth indicator. Results show that the imports of goods and services has the highest influence on the economic growth forecasting accuracy.

  18. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  19. Association between economic growth and injury mortality among seniors in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Hyder, Adnan A; Ruiz, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Injuries among seniors are recognised as an important public health problem not only in developed countries but also in middle-income countries. There is ample epidemiological literature that relates economic growth to the reduction of infectious and childhood diseases. Less evidence exists to document if economic growth alone is enough to reverse the increasing trends of injury mortality and morbidity among seniors in a middle-income country. To investigate the association between economic growth and injury deaths among older people in Colombia. Using data from Colombia, 1979-2006 (n=28), time-series models were used to ascertain if the variation over time in injury mortality among seniors is related to short-term oscillations in economic performance. Four empirical specifications usually used in the analysis of such data were implemented. Models were run by type of injury and gender. A negative but moderate effect of economic growth was found on injury deaths among older people. The reported elasticity was between -0.98 and -1.26. Men benefit from economic growth more than women. Economic growth seems to reduce traffic injuries, suicides and homicides. A positive association was also found between falls and growth in gross domestic product. The results indicate a non-homogeneous association between economic growth and injury deaths among seniors in Colombia. This association is usually stronger in a negative direction among children and younger adults. Although more research is needed to understand the causal relationship between economic growth and injury, the association found may suggest that economic growth may not be sufficient to reverse injury deaths among older people; therefore, additional health policies need to be in place to reduce mortality due to preventable injuries in seniors.

  20. The Economic Importance of Financial Literacy: Theory and Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper undertakes an assessment of a rapidly growing body of economic research on financial literacy. We start with an overview of theoretical research which casts financial knowledge as a form of investment in human capital. Endogenizing financial knowledge has important implications for welfare as well as policies intended to enhance levels of financial knowledge in the larger population. Next, we draw on recent surveys to establish how much (or how little) people know and identify the least financially savvy population subgroups. This is followed by an examination of the impact of financial literacy on economic decision-making in the United States and elsewhere. While the literature is still young, conclusions may be drawn about the effects and consequences of financial illiteracy and what works to remedy these gaps. A final section offers thoughts on what remains to be learned if researchers are to better inform theoretical and empirical models as well as public policy. PMID:28579637

  1. Economic Decision Making: Application of the Theory of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Robert

    In this chapter the complex systems are discussed in the context of economic and business policy and decision making. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic, non-linear and/or non-equilibrium and therefore complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change in global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in business and management. For policy making under complexity, following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The chapter contains four applications that build on the theoretical motivation of complexity in social systems. The first application demonstrates that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate production flexibility, reliable business ethics and good risk management. The second application elaborates on and discusses the opportunities and challenges in decision making under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. In this environment, the challenges for corporate management are being also permanently changed: the balance between short term noise and long term chaos whose attractor includes customers, shareholders and employees must be found. The emergence of chaos in economic relationships is demonstrated by a simple system of differential equations that relate the stakeholders described above. The chapter concludes with two financial applications: about debt and risk management. The non-equilibrium economic establishment leads to additional problems by using excessive borrowing; unexpected downturns in economy can more easily kill companies. Finally, the demand for quantitative improvements in risk management is postulated. Development of the financial markets has triggered non-linearity to spike in prices of various production articles such as agricultural and other commodities that has added market

  2. ICT in Education: Catalyst for Economic Growth in the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2010-01-01

    The correlation between ICT-supported education system and economic development of a developing country has been documented by several studies (Anderson, 2009; Selwood et al, 2003; and Unwin, 2009). Today's Information and Communication Technology can significantly and positively impact the educational and economic landscape of the Democratic…

  3. The Growth of Economic Studies at Cambridge: 1776-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Salim

    1980-01-01

    Traces the resistance toward establishing an economics curriculum at Cambridge University from 1776 to 1860. Complex reasons include inertia, low intellectual standards, fear of being considered partisan, and avoidance of change during good times. The eventual introduction of economics was achieved only when wholesale reforms were enacted within…

  4. High-Growth Firms and the Future of the American Economy. Kauffman Foundation Research Series: Firm Formation and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangler, Dane

    2010-01-01

    Into early 2010, more than two years after the recession began, the American economy continues to send out mixed signals with respect to economic recovery: GDP (gross domestic product) growth looks set to recover, while unemployment is projected to remain high for many more years. The most important economic matter facing the country is job…

  5. Strain Theory Revisited: Economic Goals, Educational Means, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Margaret; Leiber, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Defends Merton's theory of strain and crime against recent criticism on the grounds that conceptual reinterpretations have differed from Merton's original statement. Through the analysis of data reported by 1614 juveniles, examines the empirical and theoretical implications of the reconciliation of strain implied in its current use. (Author/BJV)

  6. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    PubMed

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  7. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA region 1 - northeast area (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  8. The impact of economic growth on health care utilization: a longitudinal study in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2013-03-16

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, out-of-pocket payment is the principal source of health financing. The economic growth is widening the gap between rich and poor people in many aspects, including health care utilization. While inequities in health between high- and low-income groups have been well investigated, this study aims to investigate how the health care utilization changes when the economic condition is changing at a household level. We analysed a panel data of 11,260 households in a rural district of Vietnam. Of the sample, 74.4% having an income increase between 2003 and 2007 were defined as households with economic growth. We used a double-differences propensity score matching technique to compare the changes in health care expenditure as percentage of total expenditure and health care utilization from 2003 to 2005, from 2003 to 2007, and from 2005 to 2007, between households with and without economic growth. Households with economic growth spent less percentage of their expenditure for health care, but used more provincial/central hospitals (higher quality health care services) than households without economic growth. The differences were statistically significant. The results suggest that households with economic growth are better off also in terms of health services utilization. Efforts for reducing inequalities in health should therefore consider the inequality in income growth over time.

  9. Economic growth, climate change, biodiversity loss: distributive justice for the global north and south.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Jon

    2008-12-01

    Economic growth-the increase in production and consumption of goods and services-must be considered within its biophysical context. Economic growth is fueled by biophysical inputs and its outputs degrade ecological processes, such as the global climate system. Economic growth is currently the principal cause of increased climate change, and climate change is a primary mechanism of biodiversity loss. Therefore, economic growth is a prime catalyst of biodiversity loss. Because people desire economic growth for dissimilar reasons-some for the increased accumulation of wealth, others for basic needs-how we limit economic growth becomes an ethical problem. Principles of distributive justice can help construct an international climate-change regime based on principles of equity. An equity-based framework that caps economic growth in the most polluting economies will lessen human impact on biodiversity. When coupled with a cap-and-trade mechanism, the framework can also provide a powerful tool for redistribution of wealth. Such an equity-based framework promises to be more inclusive and therefore more effective because it accounts for the disparate developmental conditions of the global north and south.

  10. Smart Growth and Economic Success: The Business Case

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report discusses how locations with housing and transportation options, a mix of uses close together, and a high quality of life can improve environmental outcomes while providing economic advantages for businesses.

  11. Income Inequality Explains Why Economic Growth Does Not Always Translate to an Increase in Happiness.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin

    2015-10-01

    One of the most puzzling social science findings in the past half century is the Easterlin paradox: Economic growth within a country does not always translate into an increase in happiness. We provide evidence that this paradox can be partly explained by income inequality. In two different data sets covering 34 countries, economic growth was not associated with increases in happiness when it was accompanied by growing income inequality. Earlier instances of the Easterlin paradox (i.e., economic growth not being associated with increasing happiness) can thus be explained by the frequent concurrence of economic growth and growing income inequality. These findings suggest that a more even distribution of growth in national wealth may be a precondition for raising nationwide happiness.

  12. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-03

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  13. Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  14. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed Central

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-01-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

  15. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-06-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values.

  16. An economic theory of patient decision-making.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    Patient autonomy, as exercised in the informed consent process, is a central concern in bioethics. The typical bioethicist's analysis of autonomy centers on decisional capacity--finding the line between autonomy and its absence. This approach leaves unexplored the structure of reasoning behind patient treatment decisions. To counter that approach, we present a microeconomic theory of patient decision-making regarding the acceptable level of medical treatment from the patient's perspective. We show that a rational patient's desired treatment level typically departs from the level yielding an absence of symptoms, the level we call ideal. This microeconomic theory demonstrates why patients have good reason not to pursue treatment to the point of absence of physical symptoms. We defend our view against possible objections that it is unrealistic and that it fails to adequately consider harm a patient may suffer by curtailing treatment. Our analysis is fruitful in various ways. It shows why decisions often considered unreasonable might be fully reasonable. It offers a theoretical account of how physician misinformation may adversely affect a patient's decision. It shows how billing costs influence patient decision-making. It indicates that health care professionals' beliefs about the 'unreasonable' attitudes of patients might often be wrong. It provides a better understanding of patient rationality that should help to ensure fuller information as well as increased respect for patient decision-making.

  17. Economic growth, income equality, and population health among the Asian Tigers.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, A; Hertzman, C

    2001-01-01

    The "Tiger" economies of Southeast Asia provide examples of developing nations where economic growth and increasing income equality are compatible and, when occurring together, are associated with superior health trends over time. The degree of income inequality in the Asian Tigers declined during the period of rapid economic growth. Traditionally, economists have viewed economic growth and relative parity in income distribution as incompatible, or trade-offs. This poses a public policy dilemma, since a reasonable propensity to increase a nation's overall economic well-being would mean forsaking measures that increase income parity. The Asian Tigers, however, have shown that this need not be viewed as a trade-off. Economic growth and a simultaneous increase in income equality are possible and, with respect to health outcomes, desirable. The authors propose a variety of mechanisms through which income inequality can enhance economic growth, and discuss policies in education, agricultural land reform, and housing that influence the simultaneous attainment of income equality and economic growth.

  18. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    PubMed

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  19. TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The phenomenological theory of world population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitza, Sergei P.

    1996-01-01

    Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant. Demographic data describe this process in a concise and quantitative way in its past and present. Analysing this development it is possible by applying the concepts of systems analysis and synergetics, to work out a mathematical model for a phenomenological description of the global demographic process and to project its trends into the future. Assuming self-similarity as the dynamic principle of development, growth can be described practically over the whole of human history, assuming the growth rate to be proportional to the square of the number of people. The large parameter of the theory and the effective size of a coherent population group is of the order of 105 and the microscopic parameter of the phenomenology is the human lifespan. The demographic transition — a transition to a stabilised world population of some 14 billion in a foreseeable future — is a systemic singularity and is determined by the inherent pattern of growth of an open system, rather than by the lack of resources. The development of a quantitative nonlinear theory of the world population is of interest for interdisciplinary research in anthropology and demography, history and sociology, for population genetics and epidemiology, for studies in evolution of humankind and the origin of man. The model also provides insight into the stability of growth and the present predicament of humankind, and provides a setting for discussing the main global problems.

  20. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  1. Old growth revisited: integrating social, economic, and ecological perspectives

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Thomas Spies; Sally.   Duncan

    2009-01-01

    How should old-growth forests be managed? Should they be managed? Stakeholders with differing values and agendas have debated these questions for years. Over time, the debate has evolved: now there is greater awareness about the complexity of old-growth ecosystems and different ways humans value them. A scientist at the Pacific Northwest Research Station has co-edited...

  2. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  3. Hydrodynamic theory of freezing: Nucleation and polycrystalline growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podmaniczky, Frigyes; Tóth, Gyula I.; Tegze, György; Gránásy, László

    2017-05-01

    Structural aspects of crystal nucleation in undercooled liquids are explored using a nonlinear hydrodynamic theory of crystallization proposed recently [G. I. Tóth et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 055001 (2014), 10.1088/0953-8984/26/5/055001], which is based on combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with the phase-field crystal theory. We show that in this hydrodynamic approach not only homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes are accessible, but also growth front nucleation, which leads to the formation of new (differently oriented) grains at the solid-liquid front in highly undercooled systems. Formation of dislocations at the solid-liquid interface and interference of density waves ahead of the crystallization front are responsible for the appearance of the new orientations at the growth front that lead to spherulite-like nanostructures.

  4. Hydrodynamic theory of freezing: Nucleation and polycrystalline growth.

    PubMed

    Podmaniczky, Frigyes; Tóth, Gyula I; Tegze, György; Gránásy, László

    2017-05-01

    Structural aspects of crystal nucleation in undercooled liquids are explored using a nonlinear hydrodynamic theory of crystallization proposed recently [G. I. Tóth et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 055001 (2014)JCOMEL0953-898410.1088/0953-8984/26/5/055001], which is based on combining fluctuating hydrodynamics with the phase-field crystal theory. We show that in this hydrodynamic approach not only homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes are accessible, but also growth front nucleation, which leads to the formation of new (differently oriented) grains at the solid-liquid front in highly undercooled systems. Formation of dislocations at the solid-liquid interface and interference of density waves ahead of the crystallization front are responsible for the appearance of the new orientations at the growth front that lead to spherulite-like nanostructures.

  5. Knowledge Based Economic Areas and Flagship Universities: A Look at the New Growth Ecosystems in the US and California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    The acceptance of new growth theory relates, in part, to a number of highly touted regional success stories--or what I term "Knowledge Based Economic Areas" (KBEAs) in this and past essays. The United States, and California in particular, is viewed as perhaps the most robust creators of KBEAs, providing an influential model that is…

  6. Evaluating Impacts of Economic Growth Proposals: An Analytical Framework for Use with Community Decision-Makers. Publication 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Filmore E., Ed.; Cunnings, Lucy M., Ed.

    The nine in this publication are based on the assumption that communities must develop a framework for analyzing economic growth if they are to make responsible decisions relative to rate and form of economic growth. Divided into two parts, this document presents: (1) papers relative to general perspectives on economic growth and development, and…

  7. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-11-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge.

  8. Can high technology stimulate economic growth in the midwest: an examination of midwest location attributes. [Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Hill, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    This study has indicated that the link between biotechnology industries and economic growth in the Midwest could be very strong. All the important variables for biotechnology growth exist in the Midwest. The Midwest has strong and respected R and D laboratories, fine academic institutions, better than average expenditures on pre-college education, the availability of venture capital, a strong employment base, many of the principal industries that would benefit from biotechnology, and many other factors which are key to biotechnology growth. These factors combined with state incentive programs and innovative consortium ventures should lead to Midwest to higher economic growth based on biotechnology.

  9. New Limits to Growth. Economic Transformation and Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.

    The roles played by occupational education in the U.S. economy are changing. Because of the growing demand for and shrinking supply of skilled workers, economic success--of the nation and of individual members of the work force--is increasingly tied to educational and occupational attainments. Unless the nation increases its investment in…

  10. Higher Education and Economic Growth in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapingkae, Amnuay, Ed.

    This research project, which was originally mounted in five countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam--is concerned with four key questions. They are: (1) What are the social and economic forces that contribute to the rapid expansion of universities in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore? (2) What are the monetary…

  11. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  12. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  13. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  14. Structural change and economic growth in modern Russia: The role of “resource-type” regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, SN; Kislitsyn, DV; Sablin, KS

    2017-02-01

    Authors carry out comparative analysis of economic growth of the subjects of the Russian Federation and highlight their three types: predominance of manufacturing, predominance of services and predominance of mining industries. Based on the results of the research authors make a number of assumptions about the potential of the resource sector and “resource-type” subjects of the Federation as the engines of economic growth.

  15. Implicit theories about intelligence and growth (personal best) goals: Exploring reciprocal relationships.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in growth approaches to students' academic development, including value-added models, modelling of academic trajectories, growth motivation orientations, growth mindsets, and growth goals. This study sought to investigate the relationships between implicit theories about intelligence (incremental and entity theories) and growth (personal best, PB) goals - with particular interest in the ordering of factors across time. The study focused on longitudinal data of 969 Australian high school students. The classic cross-lagged panel design (using structural equation modelling) was employed to shed light on the ordering of Time 1 growth goals, incremental theories, and entity theories relative to Time 2 (1 year later) growth goals, incremental theories, and entity theories. Findings showed that Time 1 growth goals predicted Time 2 incremental theories (positively) and entity theories (negatively); Time 1 entity and incremental theories negatively predicted Time 2 incremental and entity theories respectively; but, Time 1 incremental theories and entity theories did not predict growth goals at Time 2. This suggests that entity and incremental theories are negatively reciprocally related across time, but growth goals seem to be directionally salient over incremental and entity theories. Implications for promoting growth goals and growth mindsets are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Socio-economic fertility theories and their relevance to population policy.

    PubMed

    Leibenstein, H

    1974-01-01

    A theory of fertility is necessary to assess the justification for family planning and to understand the effectiveness of the programs. 3 possibilities for uses of a theory of fertility are discussed: 1) assessment of population projections, 2) indications of what can be expected from family planning, and 3) assessment of population control projects. Birthrates are high, but fertility rates in developing countries are between 40% and 60% below the maximum possible. Social and cultural elements and economic incentives and constraints play a role in keeping the birthrates high. Economic development is frequently accompanied by a drop in fertility, but economic development implies other simultaneous changes which influence fertility rates. Gary Becker's fertility theory holds that with higher income people would purchase more children, the people behaving as they would in purchasing consumer durables. However, higher income groups frequently have fewer children. Becker says that higher income families want high-quality children who are more expensive. A pure economic theory does not explain all of the fertility variations; it is necessary to take account of the socioeconomic processes that result from economic development. Family planning policies that influence people's motivations should be developed.

  17. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  18. The New Economy: Beyond the Hype. The OECD Growth Project. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Rory; Durand, Martine; Pilat, Dirk; Torres, Raymond

    Shifts that have taken place in growth patterns of the economies of Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in recent years are examined. The key factor to examine is productivity, since its increase allows the achievement of faster rates of noninflationary economic expansion. By the end of the 1990s, evidence of…

  19. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  20. Resource Limitations, the Demand for Education and Economic Growth--A Macroeconomic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.

    To develop a theoretical framework for explaining the observed change in demand for human skill and knowledge that occurs with economic growth, a macroeconomic analysis was made of economic variables which are influenced by political, social, and cultural factors. In the three-dimensional framework, total output (Y) of all final goods and services…

  1. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  2. Taking Action for America: A CEO Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2012

    2012-01-01

    America faces many challenges in working together to restore the promise of economic growth and security for the country, U.S. families and the American worker. The challenges are both real and serious. Despite hopeful signs of economic recovery, America remains mired in the deepest jobs crisis since the 1930s. One out of every 12 Americans who…

  3. Economic growth and biodiversity loss in an age of tradable permits.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Jon

    2006-08-01

    Tradable permits are increasingly becoming part of environmental policy and conservation programs. The efficacy of tradable permit schemes in addressing the root cause of environmental decline-economic growth--will not be achieved unless the schemes cap economic activity based on ecological thresholds. Lessons can be learned from the largest tradable permit scheme to date, emissions trading now being implemented with the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol caps neither greenhouse gas emissions at a level that will achieve climate stability nor economic growth. If patterned after the Kyoto Protocol, cap-and-trade schemes for conservation will not ameliorate biodiversity loss either because they will not address economic growth. In response to these failures to cap economic growth, professional organizations concerned about biodiversity conservation should release position statements on economic growth and ecological thresholds. The statements can then be used by policy makers to infuse these positions into the local, national, and international environmental science-policy process when these schemes are being developed. Infusing language into the science-policy process that calls for capping economic activity based on ecological thresholds represents sound conservation science. Most importantly, position statements have a greater potential to ameliorate biodiversity loss if they are created and released than if this information remains within professional organizations because there is the potential for these ideas to be enacted into law and policy.

  4. Energy return on investment, peak oil, and the end of economic growth.

    PubMed

    Murphy, David J; Hall, Charles A S

    2011-02-01

    Economic growth over the past 40 years has used increasing quantities of fossil energy, and most importantly oil. Yet, our ability to increase the global supply of conventional crude oil much beyond current levels is doubtful, which may pose a problem for continued economic growth. Our research indicates that, due to the depletion of conventional, and hence cheap, crude oil supplies (i.e., peak oil), increasing the supply of oil in the future would require exploiting lower quality resources (i.e., expensive), and thus could occur only at high prices. This situation creates a system of feedbacks that can be aptly described as an economic growth paradox: increasing the oil supply to support economic growth will require high oil prices that will undermine that economic growth. From this we conclude that the economic growth of the past 40 years is unlikely to continue in the long term unless there is some remarkable change in how we manage our economy. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    PubMed

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  6. Growth of children living in the outskirts of Ankara: impact of low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Timur; Hauspie, Roland; Susanne, Charles; Güleç, Erksin

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the growth of Turkish schoolchildren are limited to large cities and to subjects from high socio-economic background. Very little is known about growth and development of rural, suburban and low socio-economic children in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to compare height and weight of school-aged children of low socio-economic background with available growth data from high socio-economic strata, and to verify the possible influences of three socio-demographic parameters on their growth. The sample consisted of 1,052 girls and 1,223 boys, aged between 7-17 years, living in the outskirts of Ankara, a suburban area of poor socio-economic background. Centile distributions for height and weight were estimated by the LMS-method. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to compare mean z-scores for height and weight among the various categories of the socio-demographic parameters. Children living in the outskirts of Ankara have lower mean values for height and weight when compared with growth data of upper socio-economic strata children. The differences were most pronounced during adolescence. Skinfolds were higher in girls than in boys at all ages (largest p = 0.007). There was no clear relationship between growth and the number of siblings, the number of rooms in the house, the mother's and father's education, and the father's professional status (p > 0.05), except for the height of girls (p < 0.05). It is suggested that the lower growth status of children living in the outskirts of Ankara is attributable to the poor socio-economic status of this suburban population, which has not changed over the past decades. It is postulated that the growth impairment during adolescence might be due to a reduced tempo of growth in these children.

  7. The growth of filaments under macromolecular confinement using scaling theory.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Lu, Xi; Li, Desheng; Zhao, Jiang; Liang, Dehai

    2015-11-14

    Quantitatively describing macromolecular confinement is still a challenge. Using the assembly of DNA tiles in a polyacrylamide network as a model, we studied the effect of macromolecular confinement on the growth of the filament by scaling theory. The results show that the confinement regulates the morphology, the initial growth rate v, and the eventual length of the filament Nm. The initial growth rate is dependent on the medium viscosity η as ν∝η(-0.94), and the filament adjusts its length in the given confined space as Nm∝ (ξ/Rg)(1.8), with ξ being the mesh size of the polyacrylamide solution and Rg being the radius of gyration of polyacrylamide.

  8. Soviet Central Decisionmaking and Economic Growth: A Summing Up.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    by three, while the latter decreased by four. 31 2 8Leslie Dienes, "Regional Economic Development," in Abram Bergson and Herbert S. Levine, The Soviet...inside the curve are inferior to those on the curve. Abram Bergson suggested that the systemic inefficiencies of the Soviet economy precluded... Bergson , Soviet National Income and Product n 1937. Columbia University Press, New York, 1953. Whether FF should be parallel to PP is an interesting

  9. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  10. Economic Growth Evens Out Happiness: Evidence from Six Surveys.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew E; Flèche, Sarah; Senik, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    In spite of the great U-turn that saw income inequality rise in Western countries in the 1980s, happiness inequality has fallen in countries that have experienced income growth (but not in those that did not). Modern growth has reduced the share of both the "very unhappy" and the "perfectly happy". Lower happiness inequality is found both between and within countries, and between and within individuals. Our cross-country regression results argue that the extension of various public goods helps to explain this greater happiness homogeneity. This new stylised fact arguably comes as a bonus to the Easterlin paradox, offering a somewhat brighter perspective for developing countries.

  11. Scaling behavior in economics: The problem of quantifying company growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Eugene Stanley, H.; Stanley, Michael H. R.

    1997-02-01

    Inspired by work of both Widom and Mandelbrot, we analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies in the years 1974-1993. We find that the distribution of company size remains stable for the 20 years we study, i.e., the mean value and standard deviation remain approximately constant. We study the distribution of sizes of the “new” companies in each year and find it to be well approximated by a log- normal. We find (i) the distribution of the logarithm of the growth rates, for a fixed growth period of T years, and for companies with approximately the same size S displays an exponential “tent-shaped” form rather than the bell-shaped Gaussian, one would expect for a log-normal distribution, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates - measured by the width of this distribution σT - decrease with company size and increase with time T. We find that for annual growth rates ( T = 1), σT ∼ S- β, and that the exponent β takes the same value, within the error bars, for several measures of the size of a company. In particular, we obtain β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for sales, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for number of employees, β = 0.18±0.03 for assets, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for cost of goods sold, and β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for propert, plant, and equipment. We propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. First, we study a model in which the growth rate of a company is affected by a tendency to retain an “optimal” size. That model leads to an exponential distribution of the logarithm of growth rate in agreement with the empirical results. Then, we study a hierarchical tree-like model of a company that enables us to relate β to parameters of a company structure. We find that β = -1n Π/1n z, where z defines the mean branching ratio of the hierarchical tree and Π is the probability that the lower levels follow the policy of higher levels in the hierarchy. We also study the output distribution of growth

  12. The Development Triangle: Community College Assistance for Economic Growth. Education-Economic Development Series, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNett, Ian

    Designed for public policy makers and their counterparts in business and education, this monograph focuses on the role of community colleges in the economic development process. This study shows two-year community, junior, and technical colleges can play a greater active role in this process than ever before. Section 1 argues that economic…

  13. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and…

  14. Dynamics of Population and Economic Growth: A Computer-Based Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Chaisung; Handler, Paul

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program at the University of Illinois is used to teach the dynamics of population growth. Socio-economic models are also developed to show the consequences of population growth upon variables such as income, productivity, and the demand for food. A one-sex population projection model allows students to…

  15. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  16. Globalization and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Complementarities

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country’s level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms. PMID:24721896

  17. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  18. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  19. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  20. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from Economic Theory and Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The finance of higher education faces a clash between technological advance, driving up the demand for skills, and fiscal constraints, given competing imperatives for public spending. Paying for universities is also immensely politically sensitive. This paper sets out core lessons for financing higher education deriving from economic theory,…

  1. Socio-Economic Bias in Piaget's Theory and Its Implications for Cross-Culture Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck-Morss, Susan

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a time lag discovered in the cross-cultural application of Piagetian tests may result from a socio-economic bias in Piaget's theory. Abstract, formal cognition may reflect a particular social structure, embodying the principles of exchange value, reification, and alienation which govern production and exchange in the…

  2. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  3. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  4. An Empirical Verification of the McKenzie-Staaf Model of an Economic Theory of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipps, Paul H.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of a study designed to provide an empirical test of a learning theory proposed by McKenzie and Staaf in which the student effort enters as an argument in the learning achievement function. The model states that final achievement in economics is equal to the initial stock of knowledge plus improvement, where…

  5. Nonlinear growth in modified gravity theories of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, Istvan; Bean, Rachel

    2008-01-15

    Theoretical differences in the growth of structure offer the possibility that we might distinguish between modified gravity theories of dark energy and {lambda}CDM. A significant impediment to applying current and prospective large scale galaxy and weak lensing surveys to this problem is that, while the mildly nonlinear regime is important, there is a lack of numerical simulations of nonlinear growth in modified gravity theories. A major question exists as to whether existing analytical fits, created using simulations of standard gravity, can be confidently applied. In this paper we address this, presenting results of N-body simulations of a variety of models where gravity is altered including the Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati model. We consider modifications that alter the Poisson equation and also consider the presence of anisotropic shear stress that alters how particles respond to the gravitational potential gradient. We establish how well analytical fits of the matter power spectrum by Peacock and Dodds and Smith et al. are able to predict the nonlinear growth found in the simulations from z=50 up to today, and also consider implications for the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. We find that the analytical fits provide good agreement with the simulations, being within 1{sigma} of the simulation results for cases with and without anisotropic stress and for scale-dependent and independent modifications of the Poisson equation. No strong preference for either analytical fit is found.

  6. Microeconomic Surplus in Health Care: Applied Economic Theory in Health Care in Four European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, S.; Nuijten, M.; Wiesner, C.; Kaier, K.; Johansson, P-O.; Oertel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care “convenience” could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. Conclusion: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: “Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings.” Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept. PMID:23423475

  7. Microeconomic surplus in health care: applied economic theory in health care in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Walzer, S; Nuijten, M; Wiesner, C; Kaier, K; Johansson, P-O; Oertel, S

    2013-01-01

    In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care "convenience" could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: "Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings." Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.

  8. Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, G; Komlos, J

    1988-08-01

    The authors propose an economic model capable of simulating the 4 main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical process is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run.

  9. Economic Growth Evens Out Happiness: Evidence from Six Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew E.; Flèche, Sarah; Senik, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the great U-turn that saw income inequality rise in Western countries in the 1980s, happiness inequality has fallen in countries that have experienced income growth (but not in those that did not). Modern growth has reduced the share of both the “very unhappy” and the “perfectly happy”. Lower happiness inequality is found both between and within countries, and between and within individuals. Our cross-country regression results argue that the extension of various public goods helps to explain this greater happiness homogeneity. This new stylised fact arguably comes as a bonus to the Easterlin paradox, offering a somewhat brighter perspective for developing countries. PMID:27616797

  10. [Population development and economic growth. A simulation analysis for Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "A simulation exercise of a general equilibrium model for Switzerland makes clear that the macroeconomic impacts of aging populations are not very strong. There is no need for urgent policy actions to avoid severe negative economic consequences....However, the aging of population affects negatively the net income of the active labor force. An increasing share of their gross salaries goes to the retirement system to finance the pension payments of a growing number of pensioners. Attempts to moderate the elderly dependency ratio would lower this burden for the active labor force. Options are an increase of the female participation rate, an increase of the labor participation rate of the elderly--[which] also means a higher retirement age--and an increasing flow of immigrants. But socioeconomic problems might probably generate practical limits on the extent to which immigration can be increased." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  11. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huiping; Fernandez, Steven J.; Ganguly, Auroop

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  12. Hierarchical structure of the countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Aslan, Alper; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the hierarchical structures of countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth by using the real amounts of their consumption over a certain time period. We use electricity consumption data to detect the topological properties of 64 countries from 1971 to 2008. These countries are divided into three clusters: low income group, middle income group and high income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth is investigated by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). Secondly, we perform bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MST. Finally, we use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure more clearly. The results of the structural topologies of these trees are as follows: (i) we identified different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic growth, (ii) we found a strong relation between energy consumption and economic growth for all the income groups considered in this study and (iii) the results are in good agreement with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth.

  13. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  14. The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Quamrul H.; Weil, David N.; Wilde, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous reductions in fertility on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for effects that run through schooling, the size and age structure of the population, capital accumulation, parental time input into child-rearing, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We apply the model to examine the effect of a change in fertility from the UN medium-variant to the UN low-variant projection, using Nigerian vital rates as a baseline. For a base case set of parameters, we find that such a change would raise output per capita by 5.6 percent at a horizon of 20 years, and by 11.9 percent at a horizon of 50 years. PMID:25525283

  15. The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Quamrul H; Weil, David N; Wilde, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous reductions in fertility on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for effects that run through schooling, the size and age structure of the population, capital accumulation, parental time input into child-rearing, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We apply the model to examine the effect of a change in fertility from the UN medium-variant to the UN low-variant projection, using Nigerian vital rates as a baseline. For a base case set of parameters, we find that such a change would raise output per capita by 5.6 percent at a horizon of 20 years, and by 11.9 percent at a horizon of 50 years.

  16. Thailand's responses to transnational migration during economic growth and economic downturn.

    PubMed

    Chantavanich, S

    1999-04-01

    This paper gives an historical overview of immigration to Thailand since the 1970s and emigration since the 1960s. It describes migration policies since the 1930s. Final discussion focuses on the impact of economic contraction on migration. Immigration to Thailand dates back to the 1760s when a huge wave of Chinese emigrated to Thailand. The flow continued until about 1850 and resumed during 1905-17. The next big waves of immigrants were after 1975, when refugees fled Indochina, and in the 1990s, when migrants flocked from neighboring countries drawn to the booming economy. Thai professionals left in the 1960s for the USA. During the 1980s, many left for work in the Middle East. During the 1990s, Thai migrants moved within the East and Southeastern Asian countries and the USA or Europe, and they included many women and illegal migrants. Emigrants leave as arranged by the government, by employers, by recruitment agencies, and as trainees. The first official act was in 1950 and revised in 1979. Many work permits were approved in the 1990s, especially for unskilled labor. There are supports for Thai migrants abroad, but little is offered to foreigners at home. By 1997, the country's recession led to nonrenewal of many work permits. The 1998 economic crisis led to a new labor policy that deported illegal and unskilled migrant workers in order to create jobs for Thais. Policy encouraged Thais to seek work overseas.

  17. Economic impact of extreme events: An approach based on extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Much attention has been devoted to the statistics of extreme geophysical phenomena, especially concerning the behavior of the upper tail of their probability distributions. However, at least in part because of a dearth of data, not much is known about the precise form of the distribution of economic damage from extreme events. Here the statistical theory of extreme values is applied to suggest an explanation for how the apparent upper tail behavior of the distribution of economic damage might well be consistent with that for the underlying geophysical phenomenon. Rather than standard asymptotic (or "ultimate") theory, it turns out that a "penultimate" approximation is required. For the most part, we focus on the economic damage from hurricanes and its relationship to storm intensity (i.e., as measured by maximum wind velocity). If this relationship is in the form of a power transformation (as suggested by physical considerations), then penultimate extreme value theory would imply (at least under a wide range of plausible conditions) that the distribution of economic damage would have an apparent heavy tail, notwithstanding storm intensity having a bounded upper tail.

  18. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  19. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  20. Economic growth, CO2 emissions, renewable waste and FDI relation in Pakistan: New evidences from 3SLS.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Khuda; Rose, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad Faisal; Ahmad, Najid; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-03-28

    First attempt has been made to find the effects of foreign direct investment on environmental pollution and economic growth, in addition to finding the determinants of foreign direct investment inflows in Pakistan using the annual data set for the period of 1980-2014. Simultaneous equation model has been used to find relation between the variables of concern. Results from technique and composition effects show that increase in economic growth leads towards more pollution emissions. Scale effect shows stock of capital and labor have positive effect on the economic growth of Pakistan while pollution has negative effect on growth. In case of capital accumulation effect, economic growth and foreign direct investment have positive and significant effect on stock of capital. Although increase in economic growth increases pollution, however, economic growth declines as pollution crosses a certain limit. Foreign direct investment is also found positively related with pollution.

  1. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  2. On the relationship between health, education and economic growth: Time series evidence from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Habib Nawaz; Razali, Radzuan B.; Shafei, Afza Bt.

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this paper is two-fold: First, to empirically investigate the effects of an enlarged number of healthy and well-educated people on economic growth in Malaysia within the Endogeneous Growth Model framework. Second, to examine the causal links between education, health and economic growth using annual time series data from 1981 to 2014 for Malaysia. Data series were checked for the time series properties by using ADF and KPSS tests. Long run co-integration relationship was investigated with the help of vector autoregressive (VAR) method. For short and long run dynamic relationship investigation vector error correction model (VECM) was applied. Causality analysis was performed through Engle-Granger technique. The study results showed long run co-integration relation and positively significant effects of education and health on economic growth in Malaysia. The reported results also confirmed a feedback hypothesis between the variables in the case of Malaysia. The study results have policy relevance of the importance of human capital (health and education) to the growth process of the Malaysia. Thus, it is suggested that policy makers focus on education and health sectors for sustainable economic growth in Malaysia.

  3. Using Satellite Data for Environmental Impact Analysis in Economic Growth: the Case of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungalag, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Ochirkhuyag, L.; Oyunjargal, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Mongolian economy is based on the primary and secondary economic sectors of agriculture and industry. In addition, minerals and mining become a key sector of its economy. The main mining resources are gold, copper, coal, fluorspar and steel. However, the environment and green economy is one of the big problems among most of the countries and especially for countries like Mongolia where the mining is major part of economy; it is a number one problem. The research of the work tested how environmental elements effect to current Mongolian economic growth, which is growing economy because of mining sector. The study of economic growth but the starting point for any study of economic growth is the neoclassical growth model emphasizing the role of capital accumulation. The growth is analysed either in terms of models with exogenous saving rates (the Solow-Swan model), or models where consumption and hence savings are determined by optimizing individuals. These are the so-called optimal growth or Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans. The study extends the Solow model and the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, including environmental elements which are satellite data determine to degraded land and vegetation value from 1995 to 2013. In contrast, we can see the degraded land area increases from 1995 (4856 m2) to 2013 (10478 m2) and vegetation value decrease at same time. A description of the methodology of the study conducted follows together with the data collected and econometric estimations and calibration with environmental elements.

  4. Decoupling of oil use from economic growth in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Jia, Fengrui; Fu, Xin; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Research for the decoupling of oil use from GDP growth has significance meaning to promotion and implementation of energy conservation in Northeast China. According to the calculation formula of decoupling index (Dr), the Dr of Northeast China are calculated respectively in 2000-2012, respectively. Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network forecasting model is established, and the accuracy of the model is verified. Using the model to predict the Dr value 2013 - 2020. The results show that: the values of Dr are greater than 0 in Northeast China, where the Jilin average annual Dr is the maximum value about 0.97. RBF neural network forecasting results shows that Dr is greater than 0 in 2013-2020, and no-decoupling state doesn’t appear.

  5. Climate Constraints on the Carbon Intensity of Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Narloch, U.

    2015-12-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO2 emissions (i.e. those embedded in installed capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2oC target which allow for continued GDP growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2oC target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO2/ - much lower than the carbon intensities of the best performing countries today. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2°C carbon budget by 1 to 1.5 g CO2/, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO2 intensity of new production by 20 to 50 gCO2/$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3°C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2°C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. Figure Caption: The relationship between GDP per capita growth, lifetime of energy and industry capital and the required carbon intensity of new production 2013-2050 under a 2°C target.

  6. Approaches based on behavioral economics could help nudge patients and providers toward lower health spending growth.

    PubMed

    King, Dominic; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara

    2013-04-01

    Policies that change the environment or context in which decisions are made and "nudge" people toward particular choices have been relatively ignored in health care. This article examines the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in "nudging" providers and patients in ways that could slow health care spending growth. The basic insight of behavioral economics is that behavior is guided by the very fallible human brain and greatly influenced by the environment or context in which choices are made. In policy arenas such as pensions and personal savings, approaches based on behavioral economics have provided notable results. In health care, such approaches have been used successfully but in limited ways, as in the use of surgical checklists that have increased patient safety and reduced costs. With health care spending climbing at unsustainable rates, we review the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in offering policy makers a potential set of new tools to slow spending growth.

  7. Matrix models and stochastic growth in Donaldson-Thomas theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Richard J.; Tierz, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    We show that the partition functions which enumerate Donaldson-Thomas invariants of local toric Calabi-Yau threefolds without compact divisors can be expressed in terms of specializations of the Schur measure. We also discuss the relevance of the Hall-Littlewood and Jack measures in the context of BPS state counting and study the partition functions at arbitrary points of the Kähler moduli space. This rewriting in terms of symmetric functions leads to a unitary one-matrix model representation for Donaldson-Thomas theory. We describe explicitly how this result is related to the unitary matrix model description of Chern-Simons gauge theory. This representation is used to show that the generating functions for Donaldson-Thomas invariants are related to tau-functions of the integrable Toda and Toeplitz lattice hierarchies. The matrix model also leads to an interpretation of Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of non-intersecting paths in the lock-step model of vicious walkers. We further show that these generating functions can be interpreted as normalization constants of a corner growth/last-passage stochastic model.

  8. Matrix models and stochastic growth in Donaldson-Thomas theory

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Richard J.; Tierz, Miguel

    2012-10-15

    We show that the partition functions which enumerate Donaldson-Thomas invariants of local toric Calabi-Yau threefolds without compact divisors can be expressed in terms of specializations of the Schur measure. We also discuss the relevance of the Hall-Littlewood and Jack measures in the context of BPS state counting and study the partition functions at arbitrary points of the Kaehler moduli space. This rewriting in terms of symmetric functions leads to a unitary one-matrix model representation for Donaldson-Thomas theory. We describe explicitly how this result is related to the unitary matrix model description of Chern-Simons gauge theory. This representation is used to show that the generating functions for Donaldson-Thomas invariants are related to tau-functions of the integrable Toda and Toeplitz lattice hierarchies. The matrix model also leads to an interpretation of Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of non-intersecting paths in the lock-step model of vicious walkers. We further show that these generating functions can be interpreted as normalization constants of a corner growth/last-passage stochastic model.

  9. Physicists and Economic Growth: Preparing the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    For many years it has been recognized that many physicists are ``hidden'' -- deep in the industrial world or holding positions not named ``physicist.'' In parallel with this phenomenon is the recognition that many new and innovative product ideas are, in fact, generated by physicists. There are many more ideas that could be brought to market to the benefit of both society and the inventor, but physicists don't often see themselves as the innovators and inventors that they actually are. A number of education programs have arisen to try to address this issue and to engender a greater entrepreneurial spirit in the scientific community. The ScienceWorks program at Carthage College was one of the first to do so, and has for nearly twenty years prepared undergraduate science majors to understand and practice innovation and value creation. Other programs, such as professional masters degrees, also serve to bridge the technical and business universes. As it is no doubt easier to teach a scientist the world of business than it is to teach a businessperson the world of physics, providing educational experiences in innovation and commercialization to physics students can have tremendous economic impact, and will also better prepare them for whatever career direction they may ultimately pursue, even if it is the traditional tenure-track university position. This talk will discuss education programs that have been effective at preparing physics students for the professional work environment, and some of the positive outcomes that have resulted. Also discussed will be the variety of opportunities and resources that exist for faculty and students to develop the skills, knowledge and abilities to recognize and successfully commercialize innovations.

  10. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  11. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  12. Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?-A Comment.

    PubMed

    Schober, Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-08-01

    Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth-on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for growth. Standing up for more gender equality-also in terms of wages-is good for equity considerations and at least not negative for growth.

  13. Fibrous tissues growth and remodeling: Evolutionary micro-mechanical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanir, Yoram

    2017-10-01

    Living fibrous tissues are composite materials having the unique ability to adapt their size, shape, structure and mechanical properties in response to external loading. This adaptation, termed growth and remodeling (G&R), occurs throughout life and is achieved via cell-induced turnover of tissue constituents where some are degraded and new ones are produced. Realistic mathematical modeling of G&R provides insight into the basic processes, allows for hypotheses testing, and constitutes an essential tool for establishing clinical thresholds of pathological remodeling and for the production of tissue substitutes aimed to achieve target structure and properties. In this study, a general 3D micro-mechanical multi-scale theory of G&R in fibrous tissue was developed which connects between the evolution of the tissue structure and properties, and the underlying mechano-biological turnover events of its constituents. This structural approach circumvents a fundamental obstacle in modeling growth mechanics since the growth motion is not bijective. The model was realized for a flat tissue under two biaxial external loadings using data-based parameter values. The predictions show close similarity to characteristics of remodeled adult tissue including its structure, anisotropic and non-linear mechanical properties, and the onset of in situ pre-strain and pre-stress. The results suggest that these important features of living fibrous tissues evolve as they grow.

  14. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  15. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  16. [Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC.

  17. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  18. Doves and hawks in economics revisited: An evolutionary quantum game theory based analysis of financial crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Kunz, Jennifer; Bernius, Steffen; König, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    The last financial and economic crisis demonstrated the dysfunctional long-term effects of aggressive behaviour in financial markets. Yet, evolutionary game theory predicts that under the condition of strategic dependence a certain degree of aggressive behaviour remains within a given population of agents. However, as a consequence of the financial crisis, it would be desirable to change the “rules of the game” in a way that prevents the occurrence of any aggressive behaviour and thereby also the danger of market crashes. The paper picks up this aspect. Through the extension of the well-known hawk-dove game by a quantum approach, we can show that dependent on entanglement, evolutionary stable strategies also can emerge, which are not predicted by the classical evolutionary game theory and where the total economic population uses a non-aggressive quantum strategy.

  19. Extended producer responsibility for consumer waste: the gap between economic theory and implementation.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Maarten

    2012-09-01

    Although economic theory supports the use of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to stimulate prevention and recycling of waste, EPR systems implemented in Europe are often criticized as a result of weak incentives for prevention and green product design. Using a stylized economic model, this article evaluates the efficiency of European EPR systems. The model reveals that the introduction of static collection targets creates a gap between theory and implementation. Static targets lead to inefficient market outcomes and weak incentives for prevention and green product design. The minimum collection targets should be complemented with a tax on producers for the non-collected waste fraction. Because such a tax internalizes the cost of waste disposal, more efficient price signals will lead to better incentives for waste management in a complex and dynamic market.

  20. The agency problem and medical acting: an example of applying economic theory to medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Langer, Andreas; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Brink, Alexander; Eurich, Johannes

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the authors attempt to build a bridge between economic theory and medical ethics to offer a new perspective to tackle ethical challenges in the physician-patient encounter. They apply elements of new institutional economics to the ethically relevant dimensions of the physician-patient relationship in a descriptive heuristic sense. The principal-agent theory can be used to analytically grasp existing action problems in the physician-patient relationship and as a basis for shaping recommendations at the institutional level. Furthermore, the patients' increased self-determination and modern opportunities for the medical laity to inform themselves lead to a less asymmetrical distribution of information between physician and patient and therefore require new interaction models. Based on the analysis presented here, the authors recommend that, apart from the physician's necessary individual ethics, greater consideration should be given to approaches of institutional ethics and hence to incentive systems within medical ethics.

  1. Economic effects of reduced forest growth on the United States' forest economy and on Canadian-US lumber trade

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Reductions in tree growth rates may be related to increases in acid deposition and other man-made air pollutants over the last three decades. We review the evidence regarding reductions in forest growth and, using economic theory, show how physical changes can impact the production and purchasing decisions of buyers and sellers in timber and primary wood product markets. We then show how standard willingness-to-pay principles can be used to place monetary values on the physical damages caused by air pollution. In the second part of the study, we describe how information about changes in tree growth can be used in conjunction with existing inventory projection and timber market models to simulate the potential economic effects of acid deposition/air pollution in the United States. Two sets of simulations are conducted. The final part of the study presents the results of the simulations, quantifying the potential economic effects of acid deposition in the United States and to a limited extent, Canada. Estimates of the effects of reduced tree growth on the welfare of timber owners and the buyers and sellers of lumber and plywood in the United States are presented, along with information about changes in the welfare of lumber producers in Canada. Results suggest that if increases in Canadian stumpage fees (as a government response to transboundary pollution damage) are not too great, Canadian lumber producers and exporters may actually earn higher profits because of increased demand from the United States for Canadian lumber exports. 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Handling Math Expressions in Economics: Recoding Spreadsheet Teaching Tool of Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-Egido, Ana I.; Pedauga, Luis E.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we develop a teaching methodology for economic theory. The main contribution of this paper relies on combining the interactive characteristics of spreadsheet programs such as Excel and Unicode plain-text linear format for mathematical expressions. The advantage of Unicode standard rests on its ease for writing and reading…

  3. Handling Math Expressions in Economics: Recoding Spreadsheet Teaching Tool of Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-Egido, Ana I.; Pedauga, Luis E.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we develop a teaching methodology for economic theory. The main contribution of this paper relies on combining the interactive characteristics of spreadsheet programs such as Excel and Unicode plain-text linear format for mathematical expressions. The advantage of Unicode standard rests on its ease for writing and reading…

  4. Extended inclusive fitness theory: synergy and assortment drives the evolutionary dynamics in biology and economics.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities. This formulation allows to estimate sustainable cost/benefit threshold ratios of cooperation among organisms and/or economic agents, using existent analytical tools, illuminating our understanding of the dynamic nature of society, the evolution of cooperation among kin and non-kin, inter-specific cooperation, co-evolution, symbioses, division of labor and social synergies. EIFT helps to promote an interdisciplinary cross fertilization of the understanding of synergy by, for example, allowing to describe the role for division of labor in the emergence of social synergies, providing an integrated framework for the study of both, biological evolution of social behavior and economic market dynamics. Another example is a bio-economic understanding of the motivations of terrorists, which identifies different forms of terrorism.

  5. Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

    2014-07-01

    This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study.

  6. Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…

  7. Funding in Higher Education and Economic Growth in France and the United Kingdom, 1921-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The UK 2004 Higher Education Act generated important debates about the relationships between higher education (HE), economic growth and social progress. The range of positions expressed in relation to the increase of annual tuition fees raises crucial questions about the public and private funding of higher education and its individual and social…

  8. Higher Education And Economic Growth: A Conference Report. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and…

  9. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  10. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  11. The role of amenities and quality of life in rural economic growth

    Treesearch

    Steven C. Deller; Tsung-Hsiu (Sue) Tsai; David W. Marcouiller; Donald B.K. English

    2001-01-01

    A structural model of regional economic growth is estimated using data for 2243 rural US. counties. Five indices designed to capture specific amenity and quality of life characteristics are constructed using 54 separate indicators. Results suggest that amenity characteristics can be organized into consistent and meaningful empirical measures that move beyond ad hoc...

  12. School Choice and Economic Growth: A Research Synthesis on How Market Forces Can Fuel Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth typically results when businesses, workers, investors, and entrepreneurs are free to compete, innovate, and work to better serve consumers by supplying new or improved goods and services. These incentives govern the marketplace, and when built upon a sound foundation of property rights, the rule of law, open trade, minimal…

  13. The Quality vs. the Quantity of Schooling: What Drives Economic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges Hanushek and Woessmann's (2008) contention that the quality and not the quantity of schooling determines a nation's rate of economic growth. I first show that their statistical analysis is flawed. I then show that when a nation's average test scores and average schooling attainment are included in a national income model,…

  14. Vocational Education and Training--An Engine for Economic Growth and a Vehicle for Social Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) has in recent years enjoyed a revival for two major reasons. Firstly, it is regarded as a suitable means of promoting economic growth. Secondly, it is seen as a potentially powerful tool for fostering social inclusion. In this review, these assumed effects are critically examined on the basis of the vastly…

  15. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of…

  16. The Quality vs. the Quantity of Schooling: What Drives Economic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges Hanushek and Woessmann's (2008) contention that the quality and not the quantity of schooling determines a nation's rate of economic growth. I first show that their statistical analysis is flawed. I then show that when a nation's average test scores and average schooling attainment are included in a national income model,…

  17. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  18. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  19. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of…

  20. Funding in Higher Education and Economic Growth in France and the United Kingdom, 1921-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The UK 2004 Higher Education Act generated important debates about the relationships between higher education (HE), economic growth and social progress. The range of positions expressed in relation to the increase of annual tuition fees raises crucial questions about the public and private funding of higher education and its individual and social…

  1. Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…

  2. Economic values for growth and grade changes of sugar maple in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; Joseph J. Mendel

    1978-01-01

    Current and expected rates of value increase over a 10-year period were developed for sawtimber-size sugar maple based on variable growth rates, expected merchantable height changes, and butt log grade improvement. These economic guides, along with silvicultural considerations, provide a value basis for selecting trees during thinning and determining final harvest...

  3. Analyzing Growth Policies of Developing Countries: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highsmith, Robert J.; And Others

    Background material for teachers and learning activities for secondary students dealing with the growth policies of developing countries are included in this guide, one in a series intended to help students learn to view society and its problems from both economic and political perspectives. Following the guide's introduction, which provides a…

  4. [Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].

    PubMed

    Dabo, K

    1999-12-01

    A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions.

  5. State Initiatives to Promote Technological Innovation and Economic Growth. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Activities undertaken by 43 states including Maryland to promote technological innovation and economic growth and the impact of these activities are identified. Implications for Maryland are also noted in a brief section of recommendations. State initiatives include: sponsoring research and development at colleges and companies, improving the…

  6. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  7. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  8. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  9. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union

    PubMed Central

    Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field. PMID:28301505

  10. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  11. An Economical Semi-Analytical Orbit Theory for Retarded Satellite Motion About an Oblate Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Brouwer and Brouwer-Lyddanes' use of the Von Zeipel-Delaunay method is employed to develop an efficient analytical orbit theory suitable for microcomputers. A succinctly simple pseudo-phenomenologically conceptualized algorithm is introduced which accurately and economically synthesizes modeling of drag effects. The method epitomizes and manifests effortless efficient computer mechanization. Simulated trajectory data is employed to illustrate the theory's ability to accurately accommodate oblateness and drag effects for microcomputer ground based or onboard predicted orbital representation. Real tracking data is used to demonstrate that the theory's orbit determination and orbit prediction capabilities are favorably adaptable to and are comparable with results obtained utilizing complex definitive Cowell method solutions on satellites experiencing significant drag effects.

  12. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  13. Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?—A Comment

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Summary Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth—on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for growth. Standing up for more gender equality—also in terms of wages—is good for equity considerations and at least not negative for growth. PMID:21857765

  14. The Analysis of a Mathematical Model Associated to an Economic Growth Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundǎu, O.; Pater, F.; Juratoni, A.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we consider a version of the Ramsey growth model in infinite and continuous time with logistic population growth, introduced by [2]. In this model, the consumer chooses at any moment in time the level of consumption so as to maximize the global utility given by exponential function. This economical growth model of Ramsey leads to an optimal control problem. We show that the optimal solution of our control problem is the solution of a four differential equation system. We prove that this system has a unique nontrivial steady state equilibrium which is a saddle point with a two dimensional stable manifold.

  15. Economic growth and health progress in England and Wales: 160 years of a changing relation.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A

    2012-03-01

    Using data for England and Wales during the years 1840-2000, a negative relation is found between economic growth--measured by the rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP)--and health progress--as indexed by the annual increase in life expectancy at birth (LEB). That is, the lower is the rate of growth of the economy, the greater is the annual increase in LEB for both males and females. This effect is much stronger, however, in 1900-1950 than in 1950-2000, and is very weak in the 19th century. It appears basically at lag zero, though some short-lag effects of the same negative sign are found. In the other direction of causality, there are very small effects of the change in LEB on economic growth. These results add to an emerging consensus that in the context of long-term declining trends, mortality oscillates procyclically during the business cycle, declining faster in recessions. Therefore, LEB increases faster during recessions than during expansions. The investigation also shows how the relation between economic growth and health progress changed in England and Wales during the study period. No evidence of cointegration between income--as indexed by GDP or GDP per capita--and health--as indexed by LEB--is found.

  16. Evaluating the impacts of human capital stocks and accumulation on economic growth: some new evidence.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, N

    1996-02-01

    "Various hypotheses have been put forward in recent years concerning the contribution of human capital to economic growth. This paper argues that school enrolment rates--by far the most commonly used human capital measure in growth regressions attempting to test these hypotheses--conflate human capital stock and accumulation effects and lead to misinterpretations of the role of labour force growth. An alternative education-related human capital measure is constructed which is capable of distinguishing between stocks and flows. Applying this measure to samples of developed and less developed countries during the 1960-85 period suggests not only that there are important growth effects associated both with 'initial' stocks of, and subsequent growth in, human capital, but also that this new measure out-performs the simple school enrolment rates used in previous analyses."

  17. Long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    2000-05-01

    The application of a lifespan perspective in human biology in recent years has shown that a number of early environmental factors influencing human growth and development have long-term biological or psycho-social consequences. Human growth is characterized by prolonged infancy, an extended childhood phase and high rates of growth during the adolescent growth spurt. It is unlikely that these characteristics would have evolved without having advantages, and curtailments have the potential for disadvantage. The present paper examines the evidence for long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents. The emphasis is the biological and economic imperatives of survival, subsistence, reproduction and production rather than aspects of metabolic competence. Many of the consequences of growth retardation are determined by the direct effect on body size, but many other consequences arise from the conditions that cause the growth retardation. Catch up of retarded growth can occur, but does not usually do so because of the continued presence of the retarding agents. Basal metabolism and physical work capacity are usually commensurate with the size of the individual; mechanical efficiency of physical work is unchanged, but falls in activity levels may occur along with a reduction in the pace of activity. Growth retardation in childhood is associated with a higher disease and mortality risk in adulthood, with decreased productivity and employment and promotion prospects. Studies are showing that relative deprivation and the accumulation of socially patterned exposures are important in some societies. Height and growth retardation have proved invaluable in reflecting these factors, but the next generation of studies may require more discriminating indices.

  18. The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process. PMID:25099392

  19. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.

  20. [Some fundamental problems concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z

    1983-05-29

    The population growth rate is closely related to the quality of economic life, available funds for individual and social consumption, national income to be used for reproduction, and the labor employment situation. Since liberation, socialism has not been able to show its superiority, mainly because of China's large population figure, low economic productivity, low national income, and poor management in the relationship between consumption and accumulation. In order to solve these problems, we need to adequately control the pace of the population growth and match the rate of population growth with the pace of economic development. A way to increase national income is through saving and avoiding unnecessary waste. Social expenditures on education, culture, science, health and medical care, social welfare, and investment in the promotion of people's wisdom should all be increased. Meanwhile, the living standard of the people needs to be raised, and capital accumulation should also be managed so that funds will be available for industrial and economic enterprises. Existing inefficient production enterprises should be properly reorganized so that full employment may be achieved. In this way, the national economy will have more prosperity, and the people will benefit more from the Socialist policy.

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  3. Implicit Theories about Intelligence and Growth (Personal Best) Goals: Exploring Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in growth approaches to students' academic development, including value-added models, modelling of academic trajectories, growth motivation orientations, growth mindsets, and growth goals. Aims: This study sought to investigate the relationships between implicit theories about intelligence…

  4. Implicit Theories about Intelligence and Growth (Personal Best) Goals: Exploring Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in growth approaches to students' academic development, including value-added models, modelling of academic trajectories, growth motivation orientations, growth mindsets, and growth goals. Aims: This study sought to investigate the relationships between implicit theories about intelligence…

  5. Manpower in Economic and Social Growth; Proceedings of International Manpower Seminar (6th, June 1-August 13, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sanford, Ed.

    Summaries of 62 papers presented at the Sixth International Manpower Seminar are given. Four major topics were emphasized: (1) "Human Resources in Economic and Social Growth" dealth with basic concepts of human resources, natural resources, and economic resources, (2) "Manpower Planning and Allocation in Economic Development"…

  6. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  7. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  8. Growth and Development among Infants and Preschoolers in Rural India: Economic Inequities and Caregiver Protective/Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M.; Tilton, Nicholas; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Harding, Kimberly B.; Reinhart, Greg; Radhakrishna, Kankipati Vijaya; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Economic inequities are common in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and are associated with poor growth and development among young children. The objectives are to examine whether maternal education and home environment quality: 1) protect children by attenuating the association between economic inequities and children's growth and…

  9. Growth and Development among Infants and Preschoolers in Rural India: Economic Inequities and Caregiver Protective/Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M.; Tilton, Nicholas; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Harding, Kimberly B.; Reinhart, Greg; Radhakrishna, Kankipati Vijaya; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Economic inequities are common in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and are associated with poor growth and development among young children. The objectives are to examine whether maternal education and home environment quality: 1) protect children by attenuating the association between economic inequities and children's growth and…

  10. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadson, Simon; Hall, Jim; Garrick, Dustin; Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Whittington, Dale

    2016-04-01

    Investments in the physical infrastructure, human capital, and institutions needed for water resources management have been a noteworthy feature in the development of most civilisations. These investments affect the economy in two distinct ways: (i) by improving the factor productivity of water in multiple sectors of the economy, especially those that are water intensive such as agriculture and energy; and (ii) by reducing the acute and chronic harmful effects of water-related hazards like floods, droughts, and water-related diseases. The need for capital investment to mitigate these risks in order to promote economic growth is widely acknowledged, but prior work to conceptualise the relationship between water-related risks and economic growth has focused on the productive and harmful roles of water in the economy independently. Here the two influences are combined using a simple, dynamical model of water-related investment, risk, and growth at the national level. The model suggests the existence of a context-specific threshold above which growth proceeds along an 'S'-curve. In many cases there is a requirement for initial investment in water-related assets to enable growth. Below the threshold it is possible for a poverty trap to arise. The presence and location of the poverty trap is context-specific and depends on the relative exposure of productive water-related assets to risk, compared with risks faced by assets in the wider economy. Exogenous changes in the level of water-related risk (through, for example, climate and land cover change) can potentially push an economy away from a growth path towards a poverty trap. These results illustrate the value of accounting for environmental risk in models of economic growth and may offer guidance in the design of robust policies for investment in water-related productive assets to manage risk, particularly in the face of global and regional environmental change.

  11. Stranski, Krastanov, and Kaischew, and their influence on the founding of crystal growth theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassev, Vladimir L.; Bliss, David F.

    2008-08-01

    A reconsideration of the events and people associated with the birth of modern crystal growth theory is presented. The foundation of the new theory was enabled by validation of Gibbs and Volmer's thermodynamic theory with the new molecular-kinetic theory. For the first time it became possible to rigorously explain crystal growth at the atomic level. The new two-dimensional growth model opened the door to understanding the mechanisms of self-assembly, crystal defect formation, and nano-structures. Molecular-kinetic theory eventually embraced a second major tenet based on the model of spiral growth at dislocations. All of these initial discoveries occurred between 1927 and 1949, a time when the world was being torn apart by war. This article recounts some thoughts and actions of three of the most illustrious founders of crystal growth theory.

  12. The impacts of gaming expansion on economic growth: a theoretical reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Siu, Ricardo Chi Sen

    2010-06-01

    This paper employs a general equilibrium framework to analyze the effects on economic growth of global expansions in casino gaming, which exports gambling services largely to non-residents. Both domestic and foreign investments in the gaming sector bring in not only substantial revenues but also positive spillover effects on related sectors and even on the entire local economy. However, an over-expansion of commercial gambling may lead to deterioration in the terms of trade with an adverse impact on real income. If this situation persists, it would not be impossible for immiserizing growth to occur. As a highly profitable sector, casino gaming may enable its operators to diversify out of this risk if they invest retained profits in non-gaming sectors to cash in on the spillover effects it has created. The gaming-dominant economy can then be directed on a more balanced and sustainable growth path, and will become less susceptible to business cycles. Indeed, economic experiences in the world's major casino resorts are consistent basically with this argument for diversification. We believe that after the current global crisis fades away, economic growth and resulting surges in global demand for gambling services can provide further opportunities for the expansion of existing casino resorts and the development of new gaming markets.

  13. Cross-National Evidence of the Effects of Foreign Investment and Aid on Economic Growth and Inequality: A Survey of Findings and a Reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornschier, Volker; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reviews foreign investment studies to discover relationships between investment, economic growth, and inequality. Direct foreign aid has (1) increased economic inequality within countries; (2) increased the relative rate of economic growth on a short-term basis; and (3) decreased the relative rate of economic growth on a long-term basis.…

  14. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  15. The Impact of Resource Wealth On Economic Growth, Governance, and Conflict in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    theory proposed by Catherine Andre and Jean-Philippe Platteau in 1998.32 While much has been written on the systemic corruption and patronage...and Bulte, “Fractionalization,” 1. 32 Catherine Andre and Jean-Philippe Platteau, “Land Relations Under Unbearable Stress: Rwanda Caught in a...quarterlyreports/2013-01-30qr.pdf. 81 Carl -Johan Dalgaard and Ola Olsson, “Windfall Gains, Political Economy, and Economic Development,” Working Paper

  16. The Development of a Distributive Interactive Computing Model in Consumer Economics, Utilizing Jerome S. Bruner's Theory of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    A computerized delivery system in consumer economics developed at the University of Delaware uses the PLATO system to provide a basis for analyzing consumer behavior in the marketplace. The 16 sequential lessons, part of the Consumer in the Marketplace Series (CMS), demonstrate consumer economic theory in layman's terms and are structured to focus…

  17. 'A Theory of the Allocation of Time' Turns Fifty: Its Impact on the Field of Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 is the 50th anniversary of the publication of 'A Theory of the Allocation of Time,' by Gary S. Becker in the 1965 volume of The Economic Journal. To mark that occasion, this editorial focuses on the importance of that paper in the history and evolution of the field of health economics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans.

  19. An economical semi-analytical orbit theory for micro-computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    An economical algorithm is presented for predicting the position of a satellite perturbed by drag and zonal harmonics J2 through J4. Simplicity being of the essence, drag is modeled as a secular decay rate in the semimajor axis (retarded motion) with the zonal perturbations modeled from a modified version of Brouwers formulas. The algorithm is developed as an alternative on-board orbit predictor; a back up propagator requiring low energy consumption; or a ground based propagator for microcomputer applications (e.g., at the foot of an antenna). An O(J2) secular retarded state partial matrix (matrizant) is also given to employ with state estimation. The theory has been implemented in BASIC on an inexpensive microcomputer, the program occupying under 8K bytes of memory. Simulated trajectory data and real tracking data are employed to illustrate the theory's ability to accurately accommodate oblateness and drag effects.

  20. An economical semi-analytical orbit theory for micro-computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    An economical algorithm is presented for predicting the position of a satellite perturbed by drag and zonal harmonics J sub 2 through J sub 4. Simplicity being of the essence, drag is modeled as a secular decay rate in the semi-axis (retarded motion); with the zonal perturbations modeled from a modified version of the Brouwers formulas. The algorithm is developed as: an alternative on-board orbit predictor; a back up propagator requiring low energy consumption; or a ground based propagator for microcomputer applications (e.g., at the foot of an antenna). An O(J sub 2) secular retarded state partial matrix (matrizant) is also given to employ with state estimation. The theory was implemented in BASIC on an inexpensive microcomputer, the program occupying under 8K bytes of memory. Simulated trajectory data and real tracking data are employed to illustrate the theory's ability to accurately accommodate oblateness and drag effects.

  1. Brazilian scientific funding agency budgets have not matched the country's economic growth.

    PubMed

    Helene, A F; Ribeiro, P L

    2013-02-01

    The growth of the Brazilian economy in recent years has created an atmosphere of optimism in various segments of Brazilian society, with several important international repercussions. In this paper, we analyze in detail how this economic growth is reflected in investments in science and technology made by major academic funding agencies. As a result, we observed a discrepancy in the growth of funding input and the growth of the Brazilian gross domestic product. This fact associated with an increased academic output entails negative consequences for the system. This may be a symptom of an academic community not fully understood by society and vice versa. Finally, we believe that a long-lasting important change in investment policy in science is necessary in order to ensure financial security for the academic system as a whole.

  2. Population growth and economic development: two new U.S. perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D; Klitsch, M

    1986-01-01

    This report compares the research paths of economic development reports by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the American Assembly of Columbia University. The NAS group, made up principally of economists and demographers, refrained from recommending population reduction targets, in contrast to the stronger terms of its 1971 report. A 1965 report by the Assembly spoke of population as a serious negative influence for economic development, political stability, and world peace, while the new report speaks of negative socioeconomic effects, and of the limiting of a person's right to control family size. The NAS agenda was established before the US delegation to the UN population conference in Mexico City retreated from declaring population growth to be a necessarily negative influencer of socioeconomic progress. The Assembly took the position that possible benefits of population growth would be far outweighed by factors such as resource depletion and women's health. The NAS maintained that growth might provide incentives for institutional adjustments (market development, investment in education) and control of growth should not be considered a substitute for such interventions. Both reports agree that control of fertility is a human right, but the NAS report examined the question of the acceptable degree of compulsion to be used to encourage couples. The Assembly objected to limiting access to family planning by defunding abortion programs oversease. Differences exist between the 2 reports in questins such as the negative impact of 1950's population growth, the synergistic effect of growth on many areas of human activity, the extent to which welfare of future generations is considered relevant today, and the adequacy of pure economic analysis in assessing need. Much study of population/development linkages is still required.

  3. Application of artificial neural network with extreme learning machine for economic growth estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milačić, Ljubiša; Jović, Srđan; Vujović, Tanja; Miljković, Jovica

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and apply the artificial neural network (ANN) with extreme learning machine (ELM) to forecast gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate. The economic growth forecasting was analyzed based on agriculture, manufacturing, industry and services value added in GDP. The results were compared with ANN with back propagation (BP) learning approach since BP could be considered as conventional learning methodology. The reliability of the computational models was accessed based on simulation results and using several statistical indicators. Based on results, it was shown that ANN with ELM learning methodology can be applied effectively in applications of GDP forecasting.

  4. The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

  5. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  6. Time costs, aspirations and the effect of economic growth on German fertility.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, J F

    1980-01-01

    Recent research has shown strong support for the model of reproductive behavior derived from the new home economics, and it is shown in this discussion that the evidence from the Federal Republic of Germany is consistent with the new home economics model. There is little support for Easterlin's relative economic hypothesis, but there is limited endorsement for model which adds the influence of experience based material aspirations to the new home economics model. Easterlin's relative income model is reviewed before directing attention to the new home economics model and an explanation of fertility movements in West Germany. The new home economics model focuses on the family division of labor between home activities and work outside the home. The marked decline in German fertility during the 1970s is mostly attributable to factors such as expanding women's earning capacities which increased the importance of 2 earner families, who have a different family division of labor and possibly preferences biased towards "quality" of children rather than numbers. Also, real wage growth lagged behind the growth in experience based aspirations, and this drop in relative income is more dramatic if it is presumed that material aspirations are based upon the family's income experienced by a young adult during his/her adolescence, rather than just the father's earnings. The mother's contribution to family income will contribute to her family's actual standard of living and the desired standard of living of her children. The labor force participation rates of married, middle-aged German women increased markedly during the 1st half of the 1950s, thus tending to enhance the increase in the standard of living desired by the young adults reaching marrying and childbearing ages in the mid-1960s. The analysis indicates that if there is not a substantial reduction in the proportion of young married women in the labor force, fertility will move countercyclically. In that there must be some

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  8. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  9. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  10. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  11. The contribution of microbial biotechnology to economic growth and employment creation.

    PubMed

    Timmis, Kenneth; de Lorenzo, Victor; Verstraete, Willy; Ramos, Juan Luis; Danchin, Antoine; Brüssow, Harald; Singh, Brajesh K; Timmis, James Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    Our communication discusses the profound impact of bio-based economies - in particular microbial biotechnologies - on SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. A bio-based economy provides significant potential for improving labour supply, education and investment, and thereby for substantially increasing the demographic dividend. This, in turn, improves the sustainable development of economies. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A model of economic growth with physical and human capital: The role of time delays.

    PubMed

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    This article aims at analysing a two-sector economic growth model with discrete delays. The focus is on the dynamic properties of the emerging system. In particular, this study concentrates on the stability properties of the stationary solution, characterised by analytical results and geometrical techniques (stability crossing curves), and the conditions under which oscillatory dynamics emerge (through Hopf bifurcations). In addition, this article proposes some numerical simulations to illustrate the behaviour of the system when the stationary equilibrium is unstable.

  13. A model of economic growth with physical and human capital: The role of time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    This article aims at analysing a two-sector economic growth model with discrete delays. The focus is on the dynamic properties of the emerging system. In particular, this study concentrates on the stability properties of the stationary solution, characterised by analytical results and geometrical techniques (stability crossing curves), and the conditions under which oscillatory dynamics emerge (through Hopf bifurcations). In addition, this article proposes some numerical simulations to illustrate the behaviour of the system when the stationary equilibrium is unstable.

  14. Australia is ‘free to choose’ economic growth and falling environmental pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D.; Baynes, Timothy M.; Brinsmead, Thomas S.; Bryan, Brett A.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Graham, Paul W.; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E.; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth’s ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  15. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-05

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  16. The Convergence Theory Reconsidered: Political and Economic Determinants of Social Welfare Effort, A Cross-National Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Joseph W.; Williamson, John B.

    The convergence theory asserts that industrial nations are becoming increasingly alike due to their economic and technological development. Most interpretations of the convergence theory either state or imply that political factors are unimportant in shaping the common welfare state toward which all industrial nations are converging. Using data on…

  17. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society.

  18. An investigation of cointegration and causality between energy consumption and economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reexamines the causality between energy consumption and economic growth with both bivariate and multivariate models by applying the recently developed methods of cointegration and Hsiao`s version of the Granger causality to transformed U.S. data for the period 1947-1990. The Phillips-Perron (PP) tests reveal that the original series are not stationary and, therefore, a first differencing is performed to secure stationarity. The study finds no causal linkages between energy consumption and economic growth. Energy and gross national product (GNP) each live a life of its own. The results of this article are consistent with some of the past studies that find no relationship between energy and GNP but are contrary to some other studies that find GNP unidirectionally causes energy consumption. Both the bivariate and trivariate models produce the similar results. We also find that there is no causal relationship between energy consumption and industrial production. The United States is basically a service-oriented economy and changes in energy consumption can cause little or no changes in GNP. In other words, an implementation of energy conservation policy may not impair economic growth. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  20. Applications of cost-benefit analysis to health care. Departures from welfare economic theory.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Donaldson, C

    1987-09-01

    In applying the principles of cost-benefit analysis to real world problems of resource allocation particular care must be taken to ensure that the welfare economic theory which underlies the cost-benefit technique is adhered to. Major problems arise where costs and benefits are used interchangeably to represent the good and bad attributes of a programme. Furthermore, in the presence of mutually exclusive projects, focussing attention upon the net benefits (or cost-benefit ratios) of individual projects as opposed to the net benefits of the use of budgeted resources can lead to biased estimates of the shadow price of projects and, consequently, errors in analysts' conclusions. As a result, economic appraisals of individual projects are not directly relevant for choosing between mutually exclusive projects of different sizes. Both types of problem are illustrated by reference to both simple examples and published economic appraisals of health care techniques. Integer programming is proposed and demonstrated as a method of selecting between mutually exclusive projects.

  1. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for EPA regions 2 and 3 - mid atlantic (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  2. Economic growth analysis system (E-GAS) for all EPA regions (1 through 10) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The E - Gas modeling system is a forecast model used to predict National and regional economic activity in order to estimate attainment of ozone and photochemical air quality standards. Since growth in source emissions largely depends on the amount of economic activity growth in an area, a consistent set of growth factors requires forecasts using consistent Gross National Product (GNP) forecasts and a consistent methodology for estimating economic activity in Urban Airshed Model (UAM) and Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) modeling regions. The need for consistent economic growth facts, however, must be satisfied in a way that allows States to use their own estimates of National and regional economic activity. The Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) is an economic and activity forecast model which satisfies both of these standards. The E-GAS modeling system contains three tiers. The first tier includes available national economic forecasts which are used to drive the regional economic models. The second tier includes regional economic models for the UAM modeling areas, as well as the States in the ROM modeling regions. The third tier estimates fuel consumption, physical output, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) based on the second tier`s regional economic forecasts. The tiers must be sequentially executed, since data are created by and passed from early tiers for transfers to later tiers. The three-tiered structure of E-GAS allows users flexibility in modeling. Although a tier must be run before preceding to later tiers, the system allows the models to be rerun at the user`s discretion. For example, users may run the National model using either BLS or WEFA forecasts before performing regional modeling on the last national model run. E-GAS is designed such that growth factor projection scenarios for each nonattainment area and attainment portion of States can be made using a common assumption about future U.S. economic activity.

  3. The relationship between population ageing and the economic growth in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendan, Lo Rick; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-08-01

    Asia has witnessed robust economic growth since the 1960s. Today, emerging markets in Asia have managed to maintain rapid growth even when the world's main economies suffer from debt and banking crises. However, declining total fertility rate, increasing life expectancy, continuous change of birth and death patterns, and increasing share of old age population in the age distribution in Asia exert significant pressure on its economies. This paper analyses the relationship between population ageing and economic growth using 2 different panels of countries; one Asian and another the from the oldest countries worldwide between 1970 and 2014. The analysis is based on the Auto Regression Distributed Lag models. The MG (Mean Group) and PMG (Pooled Mean Group) estimations are applied in this analysis. The Hausman Test is conducted to decide between the MG and PMG estimators. We find that ageing will negatively affect the economy in the long run. The growing number of youths will initially have a negative effect on the economy but would eventually lead to a positive growth in the future. The old age dependency ratio has yet to have affect the Asian economy but is expected eventually to impose a negative effect as seen in the oldest nations of the world.

  4. Social and economic factors of the natural risk growth: estimation of the Russian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E.

    2003-04-01

    Òhe vulnerability of the population and economy territorial complexes (PETC) to the influence of unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and events is determined not only by the physical parameters of natural hazards in the given region, but also by economic and social peculiarities of the PETC by itself. It depends on economy type, on PETC’s age, structure and dimensions as well as on degree of its participation in the territorial division of labor. PETC would be more vulnerable to the natural hazards impact if its population density, concentration of the industrial capacities (especially of the objects that additionally create the potential danger of the man-caused catastrophes such as nuclear-power stations, chemical enterprises, oil refineries and so on), concentration of transport and other means of communication, the technological complexity, the originality of the objects included in it as well as the originality of PETC by itself would be higher. The PETC with the unfavorable socio-political and ecological situation and underdeveloped management structures are more vulnerable. The estimation of regions by PETC vulnerability degree to the natural hazards were marked out on a base of data about the actual distribution of the natural hazards in Russia and analysis of the economic indices of the Russian Federation subjects. Among the economic indexes the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP), population density, road density, the degree of appraisal depreciation of the fixed assets, the land cultivation degree of the territory, forest share and so on were taken into account. As the analysis showed, the economic and social factors of the natural risk growth are active in the majority of the regions of the Russian Federation. Such a situation demands the increased attention of state and local authorities to this problem for lowering the economic and social constituents of the growth of natural hazards.

  5. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  6. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  8. Combined impact of global river-floods and tropical cyclones on long-term economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Tobias; Piontek, Franziska; Frieler, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide direct economic losses associated with the impact of river-floods and tropical cyclones have seen a rapid increase over time. Their nominal impact is projected to rise even further as the exposed population grows, per capita income increases, and anthropogenic climate change manifests. Beyond the immediate damage of each event, indirect economic impacts can affect growth trajectories of countries as a whole for many years after the disaster. Whether the cumulated indirect effects stimulate or hinder economic growth in the long-run is so far undecided as previous studies find contradicting results depending on the analysed hazard and the underlying methodology. We here combine two types of the costliest meteorological disasters worldwide in order to gain certainty on their joint impact in a comprehensive way. Relative affected population by country and year is determined based on historical tropical cyclone tracks (IBTrACS) and historical simulations of river-flood return periods forced by observed weather and used as a predictor for the disaster's impact on national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time series. Controlling for various non-disaster related effects, we find a cumulated GDP deficit that remains robust for more than a decade after the event.

  9. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement.

  10. Does investment in the health sector promote or inhibit economic growth?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Is existing provision of health services in Europe affordable during the recession or could cuts damage economic growth? This debate centres on whether government spending has positive or negative effects on economic growth. In this study, we evaluate the economic effects of alternative types of government spending by estimating “fiscal multipliers” (the return on investment for each $1 dollar of government spending). Methods Using cross-national fixed effects models covering 25 EU countries from 1995 to 2010, we quantified fiscal multipliers both before and during the recession that began in 2008. Results We found that the multiplier for total government spending was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.86), but there was marked heterogeneity across types of spending. The fiscal multipliers ranged from −9.8 for defence (95% CI: -16.7 to −3.0) to 4.3 for health (95% CI: 2.5 to 6.1). These differences appear to be explained by varying degrees of absorption of government spending into the domestic economy. Defence was linked to significantly greater trade deficits (β = −7.58, p=0.017), whereas health and education had no effect on trade deficits (peducation=0.62; phealth= 0.33). Conclusion Our findings indicate that government spending on health may have short-term effects that make recovery more likely. PMID:24059873

  11. Investigation on law and economics of listed companies’ financing preference based on complex network theory

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Bai, Shuying; Qu, Zhao; Chang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, complex network theory is used to make time-series analysis of key indicators of governance structure and financing data. We analyze scientific listed companies’ governance data from 2010 to 2014 and divide them into groups in accordance with the similarity they share. Then we select sample companies to analyze their financing data and explore the influence of governance structure on financing decision and the financing preference they display. This paper reviews relevant laws and regulations of financing from the perspective of law and economics, then proposes reasonable suggestions to consummate the law for the purpose of regulating listed companies’ financing. The research provides a reference for making qualitative analysis on companies’ financing. PMID:28301510

  12. Investigation on law and economics of listed companies' financing preference based on complex network theory.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Bai, Shuying; Qu, Zhao; Chang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, complex network theory is used to make time-series analysis of key indicators of governance structure and financing data. We analyze scientific listed companies' governance data from 2010 to 2014 and divide them into groups in accordance with the similarity they share. Then we select sample companies to analyze their financing data and explore the influence of governance structure on financing decision and the financing preference they display. This paper reviews relevant laws and regulations of financing from the perspective of law and economics, then proposes reasonable suggestions to consummate the law for the purpose of regulating listed companies' financing. The research provides a reference for making qualitative analysis on companies' financing.

  13. Long-term economic growth stimulus of human capital preservation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Manton, Kenneth G; Gu, Xi-Liang; Ullian, Arthur; Tolley, H Dennis; Headen, Alvin E; Lowrimore, Gene

    2009-12-15

    Health care is a crucial factor in US economic growth, because growing health care costs have made US corporations less competitive than their counterparts in countries where central governments assume most of those costs. In this paper we illustrate a second, possibly more powerful, effect of health care expenditures on the long term pace of US economic growth, i.e., that such investments in aging populations helps preserve human capital to later ages. In addition, as current investment in health care improves health and functional status, the future demand for health care as well as future health care costs will be constrained. These are crucial factors in countries experiencing rapid population aging. US labor force projections do not directly represent the effects of health care investment on the health of the future labor force, and federal health cost projections do not reflect the trajectory of health changes. Health dynamic projections suggest the effects of health care investment are large and growth stimulating. Projections done for the time period used by the Congressional Budget Office in budget mark-ups (2010-2020) are presented in the supporting information.

  14. Promoting sustainable economic growth and industrialisation: solution to mass unemployment and poverty.

    PubMed

    Ogbimi, F E

    2007-06-10

    This paper analysed the twin-problems of unemployment and poverty. The methodology adopted in the analyses was a combination of the historical and logico-mathematical research perspectives. The results showed that the technologically advanced nations (TANs) experienced mass unemployment, low productivity, high inflation and prevalent poverty problems for many centuries before they achieved industrial revolution (IR). When they achieved the modern IR, not only did the mass unemployment problem disappear, but also, there were not enough adults persons to fill the employment openings created by the industrialisation. Consequently, industrialists resorted to employing children who worked in factories for many hours everyday, and prevented them from receiving education. Unemployment and poverty, therefore are symptoms of stagnation and lack of industrialisation (the disease). The long-term solution to mass unemployment and poverty therefore is industrialisation, for there is no industrialised nation that is poor. The short-term solution is promoting sustainable economic growth and competence-building. However, because achieving sustainable economic growth, competence-building and industrialisation are learning processes, Nigeria and other developing nations need to develop good educational systems. They should also establish suitable frameworks for training university graduates, scientists and engineers in particular in a curriculum-based scheme to acquire complementary practical skills in the economy outside campuses. This is how the poor nations can achieve sustainable growth, build-up individual and national competence, promote industrialisation and eliminate unemployment and poverty problems, speedily.

  15. Long-term economic growth stimulus of human capital preservation in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Manton, Kenneth G.; Gu, Xi-Liang; Ullian, Arthur; Tolley, H. Dennis; Headen, Alvin E.; Lowrimore, Gene

    2009-01-01

    Health care is a crucial factor in US economic growth, because growing health care costs have made US corporations less competitive than their counterparts in countries where central governments assume most of those costs. In this paper we illustrate a second, possibly more powerful, effect of health care expenditures on the long term pace of US economic growth, i.e., that such investments in aging populations helps preserve human capital to later ages. In addition, as current investment in health care improves health and functional status, the future demand for health care as well as future health care costs will be constrained. These are crucial factors in countries experiencing rapid population aging. US labor force projections do not directly represent the effects of health care investment on the health of the future labor force, and federal health cost projections do not reflect the trajectory of health changes. Health dynamic projections suggest the effects of health care investment are large and growth stimulating. Projections done for the time period used by the Congressional Budget Office in budget mark-ups (2010–2020) are presented in the supporting information. PMID:19948950

  16. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  17. Relationship of Regional Economic Growth Patterns to Education Funding Alternatives. Selected Monographs in Educational Policy Research Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ronald

    Demographic and economic growth in the sunbelt states has been interpreted by some as a threat to the northern frostbelt states. Consequently, many have argued for the revision of policies affecting the distribution of federal funds among states. This paper examines the merits of such an argument by looking at concrete economic and demographic…

  18. Corridors to Economic Growth and Employment: 1994-95 Final Report to the Governor and the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Phoebe

    The Economic Development Network (ED>Net) of the California Community Colleges was designed to advance the state's economic growth and competitiveness by coordinating and facilitating workforce improvement, technology deployment, and business development initiatives. This report reviews outcomes for ED>Net for 1994-95 based on reports…

  19. Is Economic Growth Associated with Reduction in Child Undernutrition in India?

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa F.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic growth is widely perceived as a major policy instrument in reducing childhood undernutrition in India. We assessed the association between changes in state per capita income and the risk of undernutrition among children in India. Methods and Findings Data for this analysis came from three cross-sectional waves of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 in India. The sample sizes in the three waves were 33,816, 30,383, and 28,876 children, respectively. After excluding observations missing on the child anthropometric measures and the independent variables included in the study, the analytic sample size was 28,066, 26,121, and 23,139, respectively, with a pooled sample size of 77,326 children. The proportion of missing data was 12%–20%. The outcomes were underweight, stunting, and wasting, defined as more than two standard deviations below the World Health Organization–determined median scores by age and gender. We also examined severe underweight, severe stunting, and severe wasting. The main exposure of interest was per capita income at the state level at each survey period measured as per capita net state domestic product measured in 2008 prices. We estimated fixed and random effects logistic models that accounted for the clustering of the data. In models that did not account for survey-period effects, there appeared to be an inverse association between state economic growth and risk of undernutrition among children. However, in models accounting for data structure related to repeated cross-sectional design through survey period effects, state economic growth was not associated with the risk of underweight (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98, 1.04), stunting (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), and wasting (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96, 1.02). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates did not alter these estimates. Similar patterns were observed for severe undernutrition outcomes. Conclusions We failed to

  20. Is economic growth associated with reduction in child undernutrition in India?

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V

    2011-03-01

    Economic growth is widely perceived as a major policy instrument in reducing childhood undernutrition in India. We assessed the association between changes in state per capita income and the risk of undernutrition among children in India. Data for this analysis came from three cross-sectional waves of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 in India. The sample sizes in the three waves were 33,816, 30,383, and 28,876 children, respectively. After excluding observations missing on the child anthropometric measures and the independent variables included in the study, the analytic sample size was 28,066, 26,121, and 23,139, respectively, with a pooled sample size of 77,326 children. The proportion of missing data was 12%-20%. The outcomes were underweight, stunting, and wasting, defined as more than two standard deviations below the World Health Organization-determined median scores by age and gender. We also examined severe underweight, severe stunting, and severe wasting. The main exposure of interest was per capita income at the state level at each survey period measured as per capita net state domestic product measured in 2008 prices. We estimated fixed and random effects logistic models that accounted for the clustering of the data. In models that did not account for survey-period effects, there appeared to be an inverse association between state economic growth and risk of undernutrition among children. However, in models accounting for data structure related to repeated cross-sectional design through survey period effects, state economic growth was not associated with the risk of underweight (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98, 1.04), stunting (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), and wasting (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96, 1.02). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates did not alter these estimates. Similar patterns were observed for severe undernutrition outcomes. We failed to find consistent evidence that economic growth leads to

  1. Economic policy optimization based on both one stochastic model and the parametric control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashimov, Abdykappar; Borovskiy, Yuriy; Onalbekov, Mukhit

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinear dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with financial frictions is developed to describe two interacting national economies in the environment of the rest of the world. Parameters of nonlinear model are estimated based on its log-linearization by the Bayesian approach. The nonlinear model is verified by retroprognosis, estimation of stability indicators of mappings specified by the model, and estimation the degree of coincidence for results of internal and external shocks' effects on macroeconomic indicators on the basis of the estimated nonlinear model and its log-linearization. On the base of the nonlinear model, the parametric control problems of economic growth and volatility of macroeconomic indicators of Kazakhstan are formulated and solved for two exchange rate regimes (free floating and managed floating exchange rates)

  2. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    PubMed

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  3. Rethinking the relationship between socio-economic status and health: Making the case for sociological theory in health inequality research.

    PubMed

    Øversveen, Emil; Rydland, Håvard T; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse previous explanations of social inequality in health and argue for a closer integration of sociological theory into future empirical research. We examine cultural-behavioural, materialist, psychosocial and life-course approaches, in addition to fundamental cause theory. Giddens' structuration theory and a neo-materialist approach, inspired by Bruno Latour, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, are proposed as ways of rethinking the causal relationship between socio-economic status and health. Much of the empirical research on health inequalities has tended to rely on explanations with a static and unidirectional view of the association between socio-economic status and health, assuming a unidirectional causal relationship between largely static categories. We argue for the use of sociological theory to develop more dynamic models that enhance the understanding of the complex pathways and mechanisms linking social structures to health.

  4. Some problems of the theory of bubble growth and condensation in bubble chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkachev, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explain the reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental values of bubble growth rate in an overheated liquid, and to provide a brief formulation of the main premises of the theory on bubble growth in liquid before making a critical analysis. To simplify the problem, the floating upward of bubbles is not discussed; moreover, the study is based on the results of the theory of the behavior of fixed bubbles.

  5. Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sze-Bi; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-04-01

    We present the theory of a microfluidic bioreactor with a two-compartment growth chamber and periodic serial dilution. In the model, coexisting planktonic and biofilm populations exchange by adsorption and detachment. The criteria for coexistence and global extinction are determined by stability analysis of the global extinction state. Stability analysis yields the operating diagram in terms of the dilution and removal ratios, constrained by the plumbing action of the bioreactor. The special case of equal uptake function and logistic growth is analytically solved and explicit growth curves are plotted. The presented theory is applicable to generic microfluidic bioreactors with discrete growth chambers and periodic dilution at discrete time points. Therefore, the theory is expected to assist the design of microfluidic devices for investigating microbial competition and microbial biofilm growth under serial dilution conditions.

  6. Theory of growth and mechanical properties of nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernholc, J.; Brabec, C.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Maiti, A.; Roland, C.; Yakobson, B. I.

    We have investigated the growth and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes using a variety of complementary theoretical techniques. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations show that the high electric field present at the tube tips in an arc-discharge apparatus is not the critical factor responsible for open-ended growth. We then show by explicit molecular dynamics simulations of nanotube growth that tubes wider than a critical diameter of 3 nm, that are initially open, can continue to grow straight and maintain an all-hexagonal structure. Narrower tubes readily nucleate curved, pentagonal structures that lead to tube closure with further addition of atoms. However, if a nanotube is forced to remain open by the presence of a metal cluster, defect-free growth can continue. For growth catalyzed by metal particles, nanometer-sized protrusions on the particle surface lead to the nucleation of very narrow tubes. Wide bumps lead to a strained graphene sheet and no nanotube growth. We have also simulated the growth and properties of double-walled nanotubes with the aim of investigating the role of lip-lip interactions on nanotube growth. Surprisingly, the lip-lip interaction by itself does not stabilize open-ended growth, but rather facilitates tube closure by mediating the transfer of atoms between inner and outer shells. Furthermore, a simulation of growth on a wide double-wall nanotube leads to considerable deviations from the ideal structure, in contrast to corresponding simulations for single-wall tubes that result in nearly perfect structures. As regards mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes, when subjected to large deformations, reversibly switch into different morphological patterns. Each shape change corresponds to an abrupt release of energy and a singularity in the stress-strain curve. The transformations, observed in molecular dynamics simulations, are explained well by a continuum shell model. With properly chosen parameters, the model provides a

  7. The Notions of Science as human capital: An empirical analysis of economic growth and science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Russell D.

    This study was designed to determine the strength of the relationship between a nation's human capital in the form of the "Notions of Science" (NOS) and the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for 43 countries during the years 1988 through 1998. This relationship was studied from two perspectives: first, the study sought to determine if there was a significant relationship between a country's NOS and its growth rate in gross domestic per capita; second, the study sought to determine if the NOS had a greater relationship with the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita than a more commonly used measure of human capital, amount of schooling. The NOS for the participating countries were proxied by the percentage of a country's science curriculum devoted to teaching the NOS. The science curricula used in this study were obtained from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA) Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics and Science. These curricular frameworks were written as one part of the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). The NOS were extracted from the science curriculum frameworks through the construction of a content-by-cognitive-behavior-grid. The categories, or codes, for the NOS used in this grid were based on the work of Clarence Irving Lewis in Mind and the World Order. Holding several other explanatory variables constant, the NOS percentage for each country were regressed against each country's average growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for the period of 1988 through 1998. The results indicate that there was not a significant relationship between human capital, as proxied by the percentage of the curriculum devoted to the notions of science, and a country's economic growth rate. Because the regression coefficient for the NOS was not statistically significant, this study was not able to determine if the NOS had a stronger relationship with growth in GDP per capita than

  8. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world.

  9. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

  10. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  11. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  12. The Implications of Psychosocial Theory for Personal Growth in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Philip R.; Newman, Barbara M.

    Psychosocial theory, based on the ideas of Erik Erikson and Robert Havighurst, is proposed as a useful framework for conceptualizing the potential for growth within the family. Erikson's (1950) eight stage theory of psychosocial development and Havighurst's (1959) concept of developmental tasks are used to take account of the stages of development…

  13. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  14. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  15. The Impact on Growth of Higher Efficiency of Public Spending on Schools. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 547

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonand, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on economic growth of increased efficiency of public spending in primary and lower-secondary education. Higher efficiency in public spending in schools can bolster growth through two main channels. On the one hand, it can allow a transfer of labour from the public sector to the business sector at unchanged…

  16. The plant economics spectrum is structured by leaf habits and growth forms across subtropical species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Tao; Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong

    2017-02-01

    The plant economics spectrum that integrates the combination of leaf and wood syndromes provides a useful framework for the examination of species strategies at the whole-plant level. However, it remains unclear how species that differ in leaf habits and growth forms are integrated within the plant economics spectrum in subtropical forests. We measured five leaf and six wood traits across 58 subtropical plant species, which represented two leaf habits (evergreen vs deciduous) and two growth forms (tree vs shrub) in eastern China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed separately to construct the leaf (LES), wood (WES) and whole-plant (WPES) economics spectra. Leaf and wood traits are highly intra- and intercorrelated, thus defining not only the LES and WES, but also a WPES. Multi-trait variations in PCAs revealed that the traits which were representative of the acquisitive strategy, i.e., cheap tissue investment and rapid returns on that investment, were clustered at one end, while traits that represented the conservative strategy, i.e., expensive tissue investment and slower returns, were clustered at other end in each of the axes of the leaf and wood syndromes (PC1-axis) and the plant height strategy (PC2-axis). The local WPES, LES and WES were tightly correlated with each other. Evergreens shaped the conservative side, while deciduous species structured the acquisitive side of the WPES and LES. With respect to plant height strategies, trees formulated the acquisitive side and shrub species made up the conservative side of the WPES, LES and WES. In conclusion, our results suggested that the LES and WES were coordinated to a WPES for subtropical species. The finding of this local spectrum of plant form and function would be beneficial for modeling nutrient fluxes and species compositions in the changing climate, but also for understanding species strategies in an evolutionary context.

  17. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  18. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  19. Theory of surfactant-mediated growth on semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kandel, Daniel

    1996-08-01

    The surfactant effect, first demonstrated by Copel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 (1989) 632] by using As to promote epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(100), has now been studied in a wide variety of systems, thus making systematic studies possible. We present theoretical models that account for the observed behavior of various surfactants on semiconductor surfaces, including homo-epitaxial and hetero-epitaxial growth. The theoretical models include first-principles calculations of the relative energy of different structures associated with surfactant layers and the activation energies for diffusion and exchange mechanisms, as well as solid-on-solid Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Power Policy 21 Century: Growth of the Population, Economics, Ecology and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    but energy consumed by a man will be a limiting factor. Obtained values of changing in the quantity of population as well as of the consumed fuel quantity in the 21 century have been analysed. The period was defined (2005-2085) when energy hungry is possible due to a higher rate of a human reproduction comparing to the rates of energy consumption. From new position, the laws of the Earth population growth are analysed, based on the equality of the quantity of dying people to the quantity of those bornyears ago, whereis life expectancy. investigated on the base of Second law of thermodynamics. The equation of money exchange dY = (V/p)dM in going from quantity real GNP Y to consumption fuel equivalent E=pd Y takes the form: dE =VdM. General correlation between S and M is proposed: dS = (HV/T)dM, where H is enthalpy; V is velocity of money; T is temperature; p is total prices,is capacity of manufacture resources. This equation shows direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of general law Universe. The original equation of removing from information to matter equation enables to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control of activities for the restoration wrecked nature.This equation shows the direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of a general Universal law. into account value of expenditure on ecology as part of price and overstated price indexes. The criterions allow to discover numerical values of a stock of money, ecology part of price, velocity of money, value of the taxes, which ensure sustainable development. These equations enable to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control activities for the restoration of wrecked nature.

  1. Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics

    SciTech Connect

    Phung, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs.

  2. The relationship between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: a three-way linkage approach.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S

    2017-09-19

    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.

  3. Gastrointestinal Spatiotemporal mRNA Expression of Ghrelin vs Growth Hormone Receptor and New Growth Yield Machine Learning Model Based on Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Liu, Yong; Li, Hengzhi; Tang, Shaoxun; He, Zhixiong; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-07-27

    The management of ruminant growth yield has economic importance. The current work presents a study of the spatiotemporal dynamic expression of Ghrelin and GHR at mRNA levels throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of kid goats under housing and grazing systems. The experiments show that the feeding system and age affected the expression of either Ghrelin or GHR with different mechanisms. Furthermore, the experimental data are used to build new Machine Learning models based on the Perturbation Theory, which can predict the effects of perturbations of Ghrelin and GHR mRNA expression on the growth yield. The models consider eight longitudinal GIT segments (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum), seven time points (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 d) and two feeding systems (Supplemental and Grazing feeding) as perturbations from the expected values of the growth yield. The best regression model was obtained using Random Forest, with the coefficient of determination R(2) of 0.781 for the test subset. The current results indicate that the non-linear regression model can accurately predict the growth yield and the key nodes during gastrointestinal development, which is helpful to optimize the feeding management strategies in ruminant production system.

  4. The Provenances of Economic Theory's Impact on Education: French Educational Thought at the End of the Ancien Regime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    Today, the influence of economic thought on educational theory is evident. It seems to weaken, however, the further we travel back in history. In this article, Tal Gilead examines the historical origins of this influence. He shows that it first emerged in French educational thought during the second half of the eighteenth century. Through…

  5. The Provenances of Economic Theory's Impact on Education: French Educational Thought at the End of the Ancien Regime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    Today, the influence of economic thought on educational theory is evident. It seems to weaken, however, the further we travel back in history. In this article, Tal Gilead examines the historical origins of this influence. He shows that it first emerged in French educational thought during the second half of the eighteenth century. Through…

  6. Is the Unemployment Rate of Women Too Low? A Direct Test of the Economic Theory of Job Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.

    To test the economic theory of job search and the rationality of job search behavior by unemployed married women, the importance of reservation wages (or wages requested for employment) was studied for its effect on the duration of unemployment and its relationship to the subsequent rate of pay upon reemployment. Models were established to explain…

  7. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  8. Development after Disaster: Multidecadal Impacts of Tropical Cyclones upon Long-run Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather-related disasters lead to immediate costs in the billions of dollars each year, and this loss informs the strategies for disaster mitigation and recovery. However, the causal effect of natural disasters on long-run economic development remains unclear. We reconstruct every country's physical exposure to the universe of tropical cyclones (TCs) during 1950-2008 using the International Best Tracks Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and then exploit year-to-year variation in cyclone strikes to identify the effect of disasters on GDP growth. Linking this economic data to a physical model of TC hazard, we are the first analysis to deconvolve the long-run cumulative impact of year-to-year changes in TC incidence. We reject long-standing hypotheses that disasters stimulate growth via "creative destruction" or that losses disappear following transfers of wealth. Instead, we find robust evidence that national incomes decline, relative to their pre-disaster trend, and do not recover within twenty years. This result is consistent across income sources, regions, countries' geographic size, and income level. Global patterns of climate-based adaptation, in addition to similar long-run changes in consumption, investment, trade and international aid, further corroborate this finding. Consistent with the idea that long-term loans finance the replacement of lost capital, national income loss arises from a small reduction of annual growth rates spread across the decades following disaster. The cumulative effect of this persistently suppressed growth is significant and large: a 90th percentile event reduces per capita incomes by 7.4% two decades later (fig. A). The gradual nature of these losses render them inconspicuous to a casual observer, however simulations indicate that they have dramatic influence over the long-run development of countries that face regular exposure to TCs (fig. B). Our results indicate that the true cost of a disaster may not only be the

  9. An interest-group theory of population growth.

    PubMed

    Kimenyi, M S; Shughart, W F; Tollison, R D

    1988-10-01

    Conventional economic analyses of fertility overlook the impact of competition among various interest groups (racial, tribal, religious) in the political market for transfers of wealth. For example, a tribe or group may be motivated to increase its size in order to gain control of the society's instruments of wealth transfer. The model developed in this paper assumes that it is the size of an interest group that determines the extent of its influence on the legislature or a military government and that competition for transfers will be greatest in highly heterogeneous societies. Thus, it is hypothesized that, the more heterogeneous a given population, the higher will be that country's fertility rate. Variables included in the regression equations were: a heterogeneity index, per capita income, per capita expenditures on education as a percentage of per capita income, the female literacy rate, and the regression error term. The regression analyses of data from 130 countries for 1980 strongly suggested that the heterogeneity of a country's population is reflected in a higher birth or fertility rate. The income and literacy variables had a significant negative effect on the birth rate, while the educational expenditure variable had a negative but nonsignificant effect. These findings are consistent with Becker's economic analyses of fertility, but demonstrate the predictive value of the heterogeneity index. Since the characteristics that define heterogeneity--race, color, and tribal group--are generally fixed, the optimal strategy for interest groups to increase their relative wealth is to maximize group reproduction.

  10. Employer-Sponsored Insurance, Health Care Cost Growth, and the Economic Performance of U.S. Industries

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Ghosh, Arkadipta; Escarce, José J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of growth in health care costs that outpaces gross domestic product (GDP) growth (“excess” growth in health care costs) on employment, gross output, and value added to GDP of U.S. industries. Study Setting We analyzed data from 38 U.S. industries for the period 1987–2005. All data are publicly available from various government agencies. Study Design We estimated bivariate and multivariate regressions. To develop the regression models, we assumed that rapid growth in health care costs has a larger effect on economic performance for industries where large percentages of workers receive employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). We used the estimated regression coefficients to simulate economic outcomes under alternative scenarios of health care cost inflation. Results Faster growth in health care costs had greater adverse effects on economic outcomes for industries with larger percentages of workers who had ESI. We found that a 10 percent increase in excess growth in health care costs would have resulted in 120,803 fewer jobs, US$28,022 million in lost gross output, and US$14,082 million in lost value added in 2005. These declines represent 0.17 to 0.18 percent of employment, gross output, and value added in 2005. Conclusion Excess growth in health care costs is adversely affecting the economic performance of U.S. industries. PMID:19500165

  11. Tests of the theory of work adjustment with economically distressed African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heather Z; Velez, Brandon L; Mehta, Mansi; Neill, Natalie

    2014-07-01

    The present study tested 2 competing, extended models of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) with a sample of 100 economically distressed working African Americans receiving services at a nonprofit community center. Model 1 depicted a mediated model consistent with postulations of the TWA's original theorists. Model 2 depicted a moderated mediation model consistent with cultural critiques of the TWA. Bivariate correlations indicated that perceptions of person-organization (P-O) fit were positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions, and job satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions. Furthermore, perceptions of racial climate were positively related to perceptions of P-O fit and job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions. Moreover, results of the path analyses indicated stronger support for Model 2, the moderated mediation model, in which the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions through job satisfaction was conditional on levels of racial climate. Specifically, when racial climate was perceived as less supportive, the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions was nonsignificant, but when employees reported moderate and more supportive levels of racial climates, this indirect relation was significant. Research and career counseling implications of the present study's findings for financially distressed African American employees are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Dynamic Gloabal Modeling of Land Use, Energy and Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Jain, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Brian O'Neill, NCAR, Boulder, CO

    2009-10-14

    The overall objective of this collaborative project is to integrate an existing general equilibrium energy-economic growth model with a biogeochemical cycles and biophysical models in order to more fully explore the potential contribution of land use-related activities to future emissions scenarios. Land cover and land use change activities, including deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important source of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs. Therefore, contribution of land-use emissions to total emissions of GHGs is important, and consequently their future trends are relevant to the estimation of climate change and its mitigation. This final report covers the full project period of the award, beginning May 2006, which includes a sub-contract to Brown University later transferred to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) when Co-PI Brian O'Neill changed institutional affiliations.

  13. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  14. Morphological Similarities between DBM and an Economic Geography Model of City Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailhès, Jean; Frankhauser, Pierre; Caruso, Geoffrey; Peesters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Vuidel, Gilles

    An urban microeconomic model of households evolving in a 2D cellular automata allows to simulate the growth of a metropolitan area where land is devoted to housing, road network and agricultural/green areas. This system is self-organised: based on individualistic decisions of economic agents who compete on the land market, the model generates a metropolitan area with houses, roads, and agriculture. Several simulation are performed. The results show strong similarities with physical Dieletric breackdown models (DBM). In particular, phase transitions in the urban morphology occur when a control parameter reaches critical values. Population density in our model and the electric potential in DBM play similar roles, which can explain these resemblances.

  15. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  16. The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site`s assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it`s land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world.

  17. Techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of an attached growth algal biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jay; Sims, Ronald C; Quinn, Jason C

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the sustainability of generating renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass from a rotating algal biofilm reactor. Pilot-scale growth studies and laboratory-scale HTL experiments were used to validate an engineering system model. The engineering system model served as the foundation to evaluate the economic feasibility and environmental impact of the system at full scale. Techno-economic results indicate that biomass feedstock costs dominated the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), with a base case of $104.31per gallon. Life-cycle assessment results show a base-case global warming potential (GWP) of 80gCO2-eMJ(-1) and net energy ratio (NER) of 1.65 based on a well-to-product system boundary. Optimization of the system reduces MFSP, GWP and NER to $11.90Gal(-1), -44gCO2-eMJ(-1), and 0.33, respectively. The systems-level impacts of integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment were found to significantly reduce environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis showed that algal productivity most significantly affected fuel selling price, emphasizing the importance of optimizing biomass productivity.

  18. From the Model T to Theory Z: Teaching Economics in Vocational Education. A VES Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, Kerry; Pershing, James A.

    In a tight labor market, the whole educational system must help prepare students for work, and part of that preparation must be economics education. The goal of economics education is to help develop in young people an ability to understand and make reasoned judgments about major economic questions facing society and themselves as members of that…

  19. Mixture theory-based poroelasticity as a model of interstitial tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    This contribution presents an alternative approach to mixture theory-based poroelasticity by transferring some poroelastic concepts developed by Maurice Biot to mixture theory. These concepts are a larger RVE and the subRVE-RVE velocity average tensor, which Biot called the micro-macro velocity average tensor. This velocity average tensor is assumed here to depend upon the pore structure fabric. The formulation of mixture theory presented is directed toward the modeling of interstitial growth, that is to say changing mass and changing density of an organism. Traditional mixture theory considers constituents to be open systems, but the entire mixture is a closed system. In this development the mixture is also considered to be an open system as an alternative method of modeling growth. Growth is slow and accelerations are neglected in the applications. The velocity of a solid constituent is employed as the main reference velocity in preference to the mean velocity concept from the original formulation of mixture theory. The standard development of statements of the conservation principles and entropy inequality employed in mixture theory are modified to account for these kinematic changes and to allow for supplies of mass, momentum and energy to each constituent and to the mixture as a whole. The objective is to establish a basis for the development of constitutive equations for growth of tissues. PMID:22184481

  20. Mixture theory-based poroelasticity as a model of interstitial tissue growth.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents an alternative approach to mixture theory-based poroelasticity by transferring some poroelastic concepts developed by Maurice Biot to mixture theory. These concepts are a larger RVE and the subRVE-RVE velocity average tensor, which Biot called the micro-macro velocity average tensor. This velocity average tensor is assumed here to depend upon the pore structure fabric. The formulation of mixture theory presented is directed toward the modeling of interstitial growth, that is to say changing mass and changing density of an organism. Traditional mixture theory considers constituents to be open systems, but the entire mixture is a closed system. In this development the mixture is also considered to be an open system as an alternative method of modeling growth. Growth is slow and accelerations are neglected in the applications. The velocity of a solid constituent is employed as the main reference velocity in preference to the mean velocity concept from the original formulation of mixture theory. The standard development of statements of the conservation principles and entropy inequality employed in mixture theory are modified to account for these kinematic changes and to allow for supplies of mass, momentum and energy to each constituent and to the mixture as a whole. The objective is to establish a basis for the development of constitutive equations for growth of tissues.

  1. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  2. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market

  3. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth.

    PubMed

    Kalam, Adil; King, Abigail; Moret, Ellen; Weerasinghe, Upekha

    2012-04-23

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market dominated primarily by large-scale (and

  4. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  5. Seminar on the Economics of Education-Investment Decisions and Contributions to Income and Economic Growth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee; Weisbrod, Burton A.

    A workshop on the Economics of Human Resources was initiated in 1966, at the University of Wisconsin to provide a vehicle for stimulating research by both faculty and graduate students and to provide a medium for disseminating the latest research findings of outside scholars, University of Wisconsin faculty and graduate students. This document is…

  6. Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

  7. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  8. Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

  9. The trials of theory: psychology and institutionalist economics, 1910-1931.

    PubMed

    Bycroft, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The rise of the institutionalist school of economics, in the 1910s and 1920s, has recently been given the historical attention it deserves. However, historical studies of the school have left two questions unanswered. First, to what extent was the institutionalist's interest in academic psychology (frequently declared in their meta-economic writings) realized in their economic writings? Second, what evidence of a fruitful collaboration with institutional economics can be found in the work of psychologists? In this paper I consider the meta-economic statements of three key institutionalists, Wesley C. Mitchell, John M. Clark, and Walton H. Hamilton, and two key economic works by Mitchell and Clark. I contend that these works show little systematic engagement of academic psychology. A study of psychological literature of the period yields the same conclusion; in particular, industrial psychology did not come into fruitful contact with institutional economics, despite the parallel interests of the two fields and their parallel rise after World War I.

  10. Regulation of Microtubule Growth and Catastrophe: Unifying Theory and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Hibbel, Anneke; Howard, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) can regulate the dynamical properties of microtubules in unexpected ways. For most MAPs, there is an inverse relationship between their effects on the speed of growth and the frequency of catastrophe, the conversion of a growing microtubule to a shrinking one. Such a negative correlation is predicted by the standard GTP-cap model, which posits that catastrophe is due to loss of a stabilizing cap of GTP-tubulin at the end of a growing microtubule. However, many other MAPs, notably Kinesin-4 and combinations of EB1 with XMAP215, contradict this general rule. In this review, we show that a more nuanced, but still simple, GTP-cap model, can account for the diverse regulatory activities of MAPs. PMID:26616192

  11. Outsourcing and benchmarking in a rural public hospital: does economic theory provide the complete answer?

    PubMed

    Young, S H

    2003-01-01

    The ideology and pronouncements of the Australian Government in introducing 'competitive neutrality' to the public sector has improved efficiency and resource usage. In the health sector, the Human Services Department directed that non-clinical and clinical areas be market tested through benchmarking services against the private sector, with the possibility of outsourcing. These services included car parking, computing, laundry, engineering, cleaning, catering, medical imaging (radiology), pathology, pharmacy, allied health and general practice. Managers, when they choose between outsourcing, and internal servicing and production, would thus ideally base their decision on economic principles. Williamson's transaction cost theory studies the governance mechanisms that can be used to achieve economic efficiency and proposes that the optimal organisation structure is that which minimises transaction costs or the costs of exchange. Williamson proposes that four variables will affect such costs, namely: (i) frequency of exchange; (ii) asset specificity; (iii) environmental uncertainty; and (iv) threat of opportunism. This paper provides evidence from a rural public hospital and examines whether Williamson's transaction cost theory is applicable. Case study research operates within the interpretivism paradigm and is used in this research to uncover why the outsourcing decision was made. Such research aims to study real-life experiences by examining the way people think and act and, in contrast to positivism, allows the interviewer to participate to better understand the details and features of the experiences. In the present research, individual interviews were conducted with managers of the hospital and owners and staff of the vendor organisations using semi- and unstructured questions to ascertain the extent of, and processes used in, outsourcing specific functional areas, and areas that were not outsourced. Pathology, radiology, dental technician services and lawn

  12. Is water security necessary? An empirical analysis of the effects of climate hazards on national-level economic growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Casey; Meeks, Robyn; Ghile, Yonas; Hunu, Kenneth

    2013-11-13

    The influence of climate and the role of water security on economic growth are topics of growing interest. Few studies have investigated the potential role that climate hazards, which water security addresses, and their cumulative effects have on the growth prospects for a country. Owing to the relatively stationary spatial patterns of global climate, certain regions and countries are more prone to climate hazards and climate variability than others. For example, El Nino/Southern Oscillation patterns result in greater hydroclimatic variability in much of the tropics than that experienced at higher latitudes. In this study, we use a precipitation index that preserves the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and differentiates between precipitation maxima (e.g. floods) and minima (e.g. droughts). The index is a more precise instrument for hydroclimate hazards than that used in any previous studies. A fixed effects, for year and country, regression model was developed to test the influence of climate variables on measures of economic growth and activity. The results indicate that precipitation extremes (i.e. floods and droughts) are the dominant climate influences on economic growth and that the effects are significant and negative. The drought index was found to be associated with a highly significant negative influence on gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while the flood index was associated with a negative influence on GDP growth and lagged effects on growth. The flood index was also found to have a negative effect on industrial value added in contemporary and lagged regressions. Temperature was found to have little significant effect. These results have important implications for economic projections of climate change impacts. Perhaps more important, the results make clear that hydroclimatic hazards have measurable negative impacts, and thus lack of water security is an impediment to growth. In addition, adaptation strategies should recognize the

  13. Impact of the Economic Growth and Acquisition of Land to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarmizi, H. B.; Daulay, M.; Muda, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to test the aggregation of the economic growth of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample district in North Sumatra with the observation time series and cross sectional. The analysis tool used is multiple regression. The results showed that there was economic growth aggregation of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building affect the Construction Cost Index.

  14. Accelerating 21st Century Economic Growth by Implementation of the Lunar Solar Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The World Energy Council (1) makes this declaration. "Given this dramatically uneven distribution and the limited evidence of improvement in economic growth in many developing countries, WEC at the 17th World Congress in Houston in September 1998 concluded that the number one priority in sustainable energy development today for all decision-makers in all countries is to extend access to commercial energy services to the people who do not now have it and to those who will come into the world in the next two decades, largely in developing countries, without such access." By ~2050 the global systems should supply 10 billion people approximately 6.7 kilowatts of thermal power per person or 61,360 kWt-h/y-person of energy. The economic equivalent is ~2 - 3 kWe of electric power per person. The energy must be environmentally clean. The energy must be sufficiently low in cost that the 2 billion poorest people, who now make 1,000 /y-person, can be provided with the new power. A survey of twenty-five options for providing adequate commercial electric power, including solar power satellites in orbit about Earth, concludes that only the Lunar Solar Power System can meet the WEC challenge (2, 3, 4, 5). Maurice Strong is the former CEO of Ontario Hydro and organizer of the 1992 Rio Environmental Summit. Quoting Strong - "I have checked it (LSP System) out with a number of experts, all of whom confirmed that the idea, which has been mooted for some time, may now be ripe to carry forward. --- The project would deliver net new energy to the Earth that is independent of the biosphere, would produce no CO2 or other polluting emissions and have minimal environmental impact compared with other energy sources." (6). Electric energy provided by the LSP System can accelerate terrestrial economic growth in several ways. A cost of less than 1 cent per kilowatt electric hour seems achievable. This allows poor nations to buy adequate energy. Increasing per capita use of electric power is

  15. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  16. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern

  17. Growth and development of male "little" mice assessed with Parks' theory of feeding and growth.

    PubMed

    Puche, Rodolfo C; Alloatti, Rosa; Chapo, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    This work was designed to characterize the appetite kinetics and growth of male C57BL/6J (lit) mice. Those variables were assessed with Parks' function of ad libitum feeding and growth. Heterozygous mice (lit/+) attained their mature weight at 12-15 weeks of age, peak growth rate (3.5 g/week) at 5 weeks and displayed the normal decay of food conversion efficiency as a function of age. The homozygous genotype has a chronic defect in the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH). Homozygous mice could not be assessed with Park's function. From the 4th to the 15th week of age, body weight increased linearly and exhibited constant food conversion efficiency. Food intake of both genotypes was commensurate with their body weights. Lit/lit mice became progressively obese. At 40 weeks of age, body fat of lit/lit mice was fivefold that of lit/+ and their body weight was similar to their heterozygous controls. The chronic deficiency of growth hormone produced a lower bone mass (compared to heterozygous controls). Bone mass of both genotypes attained maturity at 12-15 weeks with a maximum growth rate at 5 weeks. Body weight and bone mass grow harmoniously in lit/+ but not in lit/lit mice.

  18. Large-scale dynamo growth rates from numerical simulations and implications for mean-field theories.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwan; Blackman, Eric G; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-05-01

    Understanding large-scale magnetic field growth in turbulent plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is a goal of magnetic dynamo theory. In particular, assessing how well large-scale helical field growth and saturation in simulations match those predicted by existing theories is important for progress. Using numerical simulations of isotropically forced turbulence without large-scale shear with its implications, we focus on several additional aspects of this comparison: (1) Leading mean-field dynamo theories which break the field into large and small scales predict that large-scale helical field growth rates are determined by the difference between kinetic helicity and current helicity with no dependence on the nonhelical energy in small-scale magnetic fields. Our simulations show that the growth rate of the large-scale field from fully helical forcing is indeed unaffected by the presence or absence of small-scale magnetic fields amplified in a precursor nonhelical dynamo. However, because the precursor nonhelical dynamo in our simulations produced fields that were strongly subequipartition with respect to the kinetic energy, we cannot yet rule out the potential influence of stronger nonhelical small-scale fields. (2) We have identified two features in our simulations which cannot be explained by the most minimalist versions of two-scale mean-field theory: (i) fully helical small-scale forcing produces significant nonhelical large-scale magnetic energy and (ii) the saturation of the large-scale field growth is time delayed with respect to what minimalist theory predicts. We comment on desirable generalizations to the theory in this context and future desired work.

  19. The Adult Education and Economic Growth Act: Toward a Modern Adult Education System and a More Educated Workforce. [Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    The Adult Education and Economic Growth Act (AEEGA) was introduced in the House of Representatives in June 2011 by Rep. Ruben Hinojosa (TX-15) and in February 2012 in the Senate by Sen. Jim Webb (VA). The Act (H.R. 2226 and S. 2117) would amend the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to encourage the use and availability of career pathways for…

  20. The New Population Debate: Two Views on Population Growth and Economic Development. Population Trends and Public Policy, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Timothy; Kelley, Allen C.

    Articles representing two views on the issue of rapid population growth and economic development are presented. Although the authors present different perspectives, they agree on many of the fundamentals. For example, both reject alarmism about impending "population explosions" and the use of population as a scapegoat for all Third World…

  1. The New Population Debate: Two Views on Population Growth and Economic Development. Population Trends and Public Policy, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Timothy; Kelley, Allen C.

    Articles representing two views on the issue of rapid population growth and economic development are presented. Although the authors present different perspectives, they agree on many of the fundamentals. For example, both reject alarmism about impending "population explosions" and the use of population as a scapegoat for all Third World…

  2. The nexus of oil consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in China, Japan and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Behnaz; Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Sung, Jinsok

    2017-01-20

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between oil consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in three East Asian oil importing countries (i.e. China, South Korea and Japan) over the period 1980-2013, by using the Granger causality, Johansen cointegration test, Generalised Impulse Response functions (GIRF) and variance decompositions. The empirical findings provide evidence for the existence of a long-run relationship between oil consumption and economic growth in China and Japan. The results also point to a uni-directional causality from running from oil consumption to economic growth in China and Japan, and from oil consumption to CO2 emissions in South Korea. The overall results of GIRF reveal that while economic growth in China and South Korea shows a positive response to oil consumption, this variable responses negatively to the same shock in Japan. In addition, oil consumption spikes cause a negative response of CO2 emissions in Japan and China, as well as a U-shape response in South Korea.

  3. Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This paper…

  4. Education for Economic Growth or Human Development? the Capabilities Approach and the World Bank's Basic Education Project in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's recent development plans suggest that, according to state planners, development is no longer identified with, achieved through or measured by economic growth. These documents evince that Turkey has embraced what is referred to as the capability approach. What remains unclear is whether this embrace is substantive or rhetorical. This paper…

  5. New Skills for a New Economy: Adult Education's Key Role in Sustaining Economic Growth and Expanding Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John; Sum, Andrew; Uvin, Johan

    The role of adult education in sustaining economic growth and expanding opportunity in Massachusetts was explored. The analysis focused on the new basic skills needed for a new economy, groups lacking the new basic skills, the demand for adult basic education (ABE), funding for ABE, building basic skills through adult education, ABE's costs and…

  6. Impact of economic fluctuations on suicide mortality in Canada (1926-2008): Testing the Durkheim, Ginsberg, and Henry and Short theories.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Lise; Lachaud, James

    2016-01-01

    Three theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between suicide and economic fluctuations, including the Durkheim (nonlinear), Ginsberg (procyclical), and Henry and Short (countercyclical) theories. This study tested the effect of economic fluctuations, measured by unemployment rate, on suicide rates in Canada from 1926 to 2008. Autoregressive integrated moving average time-series models were used. The results showed a significant relationship between suicide and economic fluctuation; this association was positive during the contraction period (1926-1950) and negative in the period of economic expansion (1951-1973). Males and females showed differential effects in the period of moderate unemployment (1974-2008). In addition, the suicide rate of mid-adults (45-64) was most impacted by economic fluctuations. Our study tends to support Durkheim's theory and suggests the need for public health responses in times of economic contraction and expansion.

  7. Productivity in physical and chemical science predicts the future economic growth of developing countries better than other popular indices.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.

  8. Productivity in Physical and Chemical Science Predicts the Future Economic Growth of Developing Countries Better than Other Popular Indices

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences. PMID:23776640

  9. Health expenditure and economic growth - a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries.

    PubMed

    Piabuo, Serge Mandiefe; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2017-12-01

    African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis. Results showed that health expenditure has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in both samples. A unit change in health expenditure can potentially increase GDP per capita by 0.38 and 0.3 units for the five other African countries that achieve the Abuja target and for CEMAC countries respectively, a significant difference of 0.08 units among the two samples. In addition, a long-run relationship also exist between health expenditure and economic growth for both groups of countries. Thus African Economies are strongly advised to achieve the Abuja target especially when other socio-economic and political factors are efficient.

  10. An Analysis of Erikson's and Piaget's Theories of Human Growth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Donald W., Jr.

    Similarities and differences between Erik H. Erikson's and Jean Piaget's theories concerning social development and the process of identification are explored in this report. The first part of the report is a synthesis of Erikson's concept of the developmental processes of personal growth and societal development. The second part integrates…

  11. Economic growth and obesity: an interesting relationship with world-wide implications.

    PubMed

    Egger, Garry; Swinburn, Boyd; Islam, F M Amirul

    2012-03-01

    The prosperity of a country, commonly measured in terms of its annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has different relationships with population levels of body weight and happiness, as well as environmental impacts such as carbon emissions. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships and to try to find a level of GDP, which provides for sustainable economic activity, optimal happiness and healthy levels of mean body mass index (BMI). Spline regression analyses were conducted using national indices from 175 countries: GDP, adult BMI, mean happiness scores, and carbon footprint per capita for the year 2007. Results showed that GDP was positively related to BMI and happiness up to ∼$US3000 and ∼$5000 per capita respectively, with no significant relationships beyond these levels. GDP was also positively related to CO(2) emissions with a recognised sustainable carbon footprint of less than 5 tonnes per capita occurring at a GDP of <$US15,000. These findings show that a GDP between $US5 and $15,000 is associated with greater population happiness and environmental stability. A mean BMI of 21-23 kg/m(2), which minimises the prevalence of underweight and overweight in the population then helps to define an ideal position in relation to growth, which few countries appear to have obtained. Within a group of wealthy countries (GDP>$US30,000), those with lower income inequalities and more regulated (less liberal) market systems had lower mean BMIs.

  12. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  13. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  14. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  15. Comparison of experiment and theory for elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, L; Rice, J R

    1980-02-01

    Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.

  16. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  17. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  18. The Relationship between Economic Growth and School Enrollment Rates: Time Series Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat; Kayhan, Selim

    2012-01-01

    It has long been argued that there is a close relationship between education and economic development at both individual and societal levels. Economists have found that the level of educational infrastructure is an important indicator of economic development. Similarly, economic variables have been found to be strongly related to school enrollment…

  19. What Does the Impact Statement Say About Economic Impacts? Coping With Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Ronald C.

    Local public officials may be confronted with the use of economic multipliers when asked to react to project proposals, to environmental impact statements, or to other studies containing economic impact analyses. Employment, income, and output multipliers are tools for estimating private sector economic impacts of a new development within a local…

  20. Behavioral economics: reunifying psychology and economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, C

    1999-09-14

    "Behavioral economics" improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.