Science.gov

Sample records for economically disadvantaged women

  1. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 6.207 - Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB... After Exclusion of Sources 6.207 Set-asides for economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns or women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns eligible under the WOSB Program. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  6. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  7. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  8. 48 CFR 18.117 - Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and women-owned small business (WOSB) concerns... Flexibilities 18.117 Awards to economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concerns and...

  9. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT PROGRAM... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a) General. To qualify as an EDWOSB,...

  10. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT PROGRAM... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a) General. To qualify as an EDWOSB,...

  11. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE... the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a) General. To qualify as...

  12. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE... the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?...

  13. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT PROGRAM... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? (a) General. To qualify as an EDWOSB,...

  14. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up. PMID:9256553

  15. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  16. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  17. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  18. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  19. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (χ2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (χ2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (χ2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (χ2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (χ2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (χ2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  20. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, A.; Grisso, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

  2. Culturally relevant treatment services for perinatal depression in socio-economically disadvantaged women: The design of the MOMCare study*

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Katon, Wayne J.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Carson, Kathy; Curran, Mary; Galvin, Erin; Russo, Joan E.; Gregory, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression during pregnancy has been demonstrated to be predictive of low birthweight, prematurity, and postpartum depression. These adverse outcomes potentially have lasting effects on maternal and child well-being. Socio-economically disadvantaged women are twice as likely as middle-class women to meet diagnostic criteria for antenatal major depression (MDD), but have proven difficult to engage and retain in treatment. Collaborative care treatment models for depression have not been evaluated for racially/ethnically diverse, pregnant women on Medicaid receiving care in a public health system. This paper describes the design, methodology, culturally relevant enhancements, and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of depression care management compared to public health Maternity Support Services(MSS). Methods Pregnant, public health patients, ≥18 years with a likely diagnosis of MDD or dysthymia, measured respectively by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) or the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview(MINI), were randomized to the intervention or to public health MSS. The primary outcome was reduction in depression severity from baseline during pregnancy to 18-months post-baseline(one-year postpartum). Baseline Results 168 women with likely MDD (96.4%) and/or dysthymia (24.4%) were randomized. Average age was 27.6 years and gestational age was 22.4 weeks; 58.3% racial/ethnic minority; 71.4% unmarried; 22% no high school degree/GED; 65.3% unemployed; 42.1% making ≤$10,000 annually; 80.4% having recurrent depression; 64.6% PTSD, and 72% an unplanned pregnancy. Conclusions A collaborative care team, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, project manager, and 3 social workers, met weekly, collaborated with the patients' obstetrics providers, and monitored depression severity using an electronic tracking system. Potential sustainability of the intervention within a public health system requires further study. PMID:25016216

  3. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  4. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  5. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... 13 CFR 121.406(b) or FAR 19.102(f), may submit an offer on an EDWOSB requirement with a NAICS...

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... venture. (f) Nonmanufacturer. An EDWOSB concern that is a non-manufacturer, as defined in 13 CFR...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who are economically disadvantaged in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a... affiliation applies pursuant to 13 CFR 121.103(h)(3); (2) The EDWOSB participant of the joint venture is... 13 CFR 121.406(b) or FAR 19.102(f), may submit an offer on an EDWOSB requirement with a NAICS...

  8. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  9. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  10. Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen L.

    The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

  11. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  12. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  13. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  14. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  15. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  16. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped.

  17. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic...) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial... exclusions for asset valuation or access to capital and credit purposes. (i) A contingent liability does...

  18. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  19. Women and Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Blankenship, Glen

    1983-01-01

    A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks revealed the textbooks to be less sex-biased than the books examined in earlier studies. However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks, and little attention is given to economic realities which women face. (Author/RM)

  20. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who is economically disadvantaged... Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.104 Who is economically... family member, or to a trust a beneficiary of which is an immediate family member, for less than...

  1. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.104 Who is economically... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who is economically...

  2. 48 CFR 52.219-29 - Notice of Total Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 13 CFR part 127. It automatically qualifies as a women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible under the WOSB Program. WOSB Program Repository means a secure, Web-based application... received. (c) Agreement. An EDWOSB concern agrees that in the performance of the contract for— (1)...

  3. Nontraditional Career Development Programs for Women. A Career Exploration Project for Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Marie R.

    This paper is a discussion of a Career Exploration Project jointly undertaken by the Seal of Ohio Girl Scout Council and the Division of Continuing Education of Columbus Technical Institute during the Summer of 1975. The participants were economically disadvantaged young women between the ages of 11 and 17. The main objective was to increase…

  4. Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2005-01-01

    The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

  5. Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta M.

    2008-01-01

    The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

  6. Economically disadvantaged females' perceptions of breast cancer and breast cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 500 economically disadvantaged females' perceptions and screening practices regarding breast cancer. The vast majority of respondents did not identify themselves, or economically disadvantaged women in general, as more susceptible to breast cancer. Those who were the most knowledgeable about breast cancer were significantly more likely than the least knowledgeable to perceive themselves as more susceptible to breast cancer, to perceive breast cancer as less severe, to perceive fewer barriers, and to perceive more benefits to screening for breast cancer. Fifty-four percent of the women claimed they had previously had a mammogram. A series of t-tests were conducted to see if breast cancer knowledge or health beliefs would discriminate between those who had and those who had not had a mammogram. The only difference between the two groups was that those who had a mammogram were more likely to perceive greater benefits of mammography screening. The results of this survey indicate that there is considerable room for improvement in knowledge, perceptions, and practices of economically disadvantaged women regarding breast cancer. PMID:7861468

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social...

  11. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  12. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  13. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  14. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  15. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  16. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  17. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  18. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel; Challoo, Linda B.; Kupczynski, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. The population of the study consisted of Texas campuses that served economically disadvantaged students and received a campus rating of Exemplary or Academically…

  19. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  20. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  1. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  2. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  3. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  4. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  5. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  6. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Chitra; And Others

    The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…

  7. Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Beverly J.

    This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

  8. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  9. How Does Childhood Economic Disadvantage Lead to Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Method: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21…

  10. Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify "family-based" mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential "school-based" remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of…

  11. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  12. Women for sustainable economic development.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    In the aftermath of Viet Nam's devastating war, the Vietnamese people suffer from a low standard of living, impoverishment, unemployment, child malnutrition, the deteriorating health of women, and a widespread inability to pay school fees. The Vietnam Women's Union (VWU) responded to this situation in 1989 by adopting the goals of 1) achieving cooperation among women to increase family income and living standards and 2) improving child nutrition and school attendance. In 1992-97, the VWU initiated additional programs to train women; generate employment income for women; support maternal-child health care, family planning, and child development; build and consolidate the VWU; and expand international cooperation. To promote economic development, Vietnamese women have constructed rural infrastructure; developed an agricultural extension system based on a model that combines a garden, pond, and pigsty on family land plots; launched health education projects to promote family planning, good nutrition, and health care; supported outreach educational efforts for children; and encouraged increased community participation in the design, implementation, and management of projects.

  13. Work-Family Context and the Longevity Disadvantage of US Women

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Martikainen, Pekka; Remes, Hanna; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Female life expectancy is currently shorter in the United States than in most high-income countries. This study examines work-family context as a potential explanation. While work-family context changed similarly across high-income countries during the past half century, the United States has not implemented institutional supports, such as universally available childcare and family leave, to help Americans contend with these changes. We compare the United States to Finland—a country with similar trends in work-family life but generous institutional supports—and test two hypotheses to explain US women's longevity disadvantage: (1) US women may be less likely than Finnish women to combine employment with childrearing; and (2) US women's longevity may benefit less than Finnish women's longevity from combining employment with childrearing. We used data from women aged 30–60 years during 1988–2006 in the US National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File and harmonized it with data from Finnish national registers. We found stronger support for hypothesis 1, especially among low-educated women. Contrary to hypothesis 2, combining employment and childrearing was not less beneficial for US women's longevity. In a simulation exercise, more than 75 percent of US women's longevity disadvantage was eliminated by raising their employment levels to Finnish levels and reducing mortality rates of non-married/non-employed US women to Finnish rates.

  14. Relation between economic disadvantage and psychosocial morbidity in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between low income and child psychosocial morbidity cross-sectionally and longitudinally. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with follow-up. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 4 to 16 years from families selected by means of stratified, clustered and random sampling of 1981 Canada Census data. Results were based on the responses of 2503 children interviewed in 1983 and 1076 re-interviewed in 1987. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, poor school performance and social impairment. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between low income and psychosocial morbidity, with a threshold at an income level of less than $10,000. Poor children 4 to 11 years of age were at greater risk of morbidity than poor children 12 to 16, but there were no significant age differences. Logistic regression revealed that low income and noneconomic factors (low maternal education and family dysfunction) shared significant independent influences on the prevalence of psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Low income is strongly associated with psychosocial morbidity in children. Both economic and noneconomic factors showed independent influences on morbidity. These findings have important clinical, scientific and policy implications. PMID:8055403

  15. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  16. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  17. The Pre-Technology Program for Disadvantaged, Minority and Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gepner, Ronald

    The pre-technology program described in this report was instituted at Mercer County Community College in 1981 to help meet the educational and career counseling needs of disadvantaged, minority, and women students. The first section outlines the program's objectives which were to identify and recruit into the program educationally, culturally, or…

  18. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  19. The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

  20. TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

  1. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

  2. Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

  3. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Addressing Summer Reading Setback among Economically Disadvantaged Elementary Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The study examined whether providing summer reading books to economically disadvantaged first- and second-grade students for three consecutive summers improved reading achievement. The study analyzed data on about 1,300 students from 17 high-poverty elementary schools in two large districts in Florida. Student-level reading achievement was…

  4. Linking Inputs and Outcomes: Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Appalachian Middle Grades Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

    This paper examines school, family, and community factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged Appalachian students. In two middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee, 245 students who received free or reduced-price school lunches completed the Rural School Success Inventory (RSSI) and a writing sample about…

  5. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR...

  6. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY DETERMINATION OF GROUP ELIGIBILITY FOR...

  7. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  8. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  9. Using "U-Pace" Instruction to Improve the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R.; Stoiber, L. C.; Pfeiffer, H. M.; Kienzler, S. E.; Fleming, R. R.; Pedrick, L. E.; Barth, D. J.; Reddy, D. .

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the student success associated with the "U-Pace" instructional approach, which integrates mastery-based learning with proactive instructor support in an online learning environment, would replicate for both economically disadvantaged students and students who are not economically…

  10. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  12. Coordinating Federal Assistance Programs for the Economically Disadvantaged: Recommendations and Background Materials. Special Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This special report from the National Commission for Employment Policy on coordinating federal assistance programs for the economically disadvantaged contains two parts. Part 1 includes recommendations for improving public assistance coordination programs in general and employment and training programs in particular. Eight recommendations focus on…

  13. At a disadvantage: the occupational attainments of foreign born women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M

    1984-01-01

    Using data on the wage and salary of labor force participants aged 25-64 from the 1973 Canadian Mobility Study, this study on the occupational status of Canadian female immigrant employess, finds that immigrant women in the Canadian labor force have occupational statuses which are lower on the average than those of other sex and nativity groups, and which appear to reflect not only their level of occupational status related resources, but their membership to 2 negative groups--female and foreign-born. However, considerable stratification, by birth place, exists among groups of female immigrant workers. The analysis indicates that the double disadvantage of being female and foreign-born is a less of a factor for the occupational attainments of women born in the US and UK, than it is for born elsewhere. There are 3 possible explanations for the existence of the dual disadvantage: 1) the social image of the desirability of foreign-born female immigrants and their capabilities may play a role; 2) the formation of ethnically and linguistically bounded local economies, which is a feature of immigrant receiving societies, may shape the employment patterns of women more so than men's, influenced by the non-North American norms concerning male approval of the work lives of women; and 3) the more general exploitation of workers in a class society and the relations between core-capitalist economies and dependent ones on the periphery, may be responsible for placing immigrant women in a position of double disadvantage.

  14. Making Ends Meet: Midlife and Older Women's Search for Economic Self-Sufficiency through Job Training and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Vikki

    Midlife and older women are at an economic disadvantage relative to their male counterparts and younger women. Older women should be served by the nation's employment, training, and vocational programs. Interviews with participants and operators of employment and training programs identified six program components needed to serve older women: (1)…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  16. Economic crisis helps to "demarginalize" women.

    PubMed

    Forje, C L

    1998-05-01

    This article discusses processes that demarginalize women in developing countries. The case study pertained to women in the Santa coffee growing area of North West Province, Cameroon. Coffee is the main source of income for families. Women obtain land for growing subsistence crops with the permission of their husbands and with pleading. The sharp fall in coffee prices left families in economic difficulties. It forced families to reduce coffee production or abandon coffee production entirely. Women found an alternative in growing vegetables for retail sale. The women formed associations that provided instruction on how to farm, sell produce, and obtain credit. Men observed the increase in income from the women's sale of produce. Women included the men in discussions about their progress and difficulties. Men were thus encouraged to sell their land to women. Women gained power by becoming the sole source of family income. The women's groups helped women improve land use and the use of income. This experience proved that crises can have positive outcomes. Men's power was based on economic control over resources rather than culture or machismo. Women's cooperation with men in nation building resulted in economic independence. Marginalization of women was based on money. Women proved that participation, rather than power, was the appropriate means to social change and more equitable relations. The obstacles to women's power included cultural expectations about their roles and choices, sex discrimination, and lack of access to leadership networks. PMID:12293703

  17. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  18. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  19. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  20. Remedial self-fulfilling prophecy: two field experiments to prevent Golem effects among disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, O B; Eden, D

    2000-06-01

    The Pygmalion effect is a self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) in which raising leader expectations boosts subordinate performance. Although attempts to produce Pygmalion effects have been successful repeatedly among men, attempts to produce Pygmalion effects with female leaders have yielded null results. Also, only 1 experiment has demonstrated the Golem effect (i.e., negative SFP in which low leader expectations impair subordinate performance). In 2 field experiments testing the SFP hypothesis among women leading disadvantaged women, experimental leaders were led to believe that their trainees had higher than usual potential. In reality, the trainees had been assigned randomly. Manipulation checks confirmed that the treatment raised leader expectations toward experimental trainees. Analysis of variance of performance detected the predicted SFP effects in both experiments. These were the first-ever experimental confirmations of SFP among women as leaders. PMID:10900813

  1. Economic Stress, Psychological Well-Being and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with Economic Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the association between perceived economic stress and adolescent adjustment in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parent reports of economic stress. Findings show differences in perceived stress between parents and children. A lower level of perceived economic stress was generally related to better adolescent mental health and…

  2. Changing health behaviour of young women from disadvantaged backgrounds: evidence from systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Baird, J; Cooper, C; Margetts, B M; Barker, M; Inskip, H M

    2009-05-01

    Observational evidence suggests that improving the diets of women of child-bearing age from disadvantaged backgrounds might be an important component of public health strategies aimed at reducing the burden of chronic disease in their offspring. The development of an intervention to improve the nutrition of young women needs to be informed by a systematic collation of evidence. Such a systematic collation of evidence from systematic reviews of interventions directed at changing health behaviours including diet, breast-feeding, physical activity and smoking has been conducted. Of 1847 potentially-relevant abstracts, fourteen systematic reviews met inclusion criteria. Four aspects of intervention design were identified that were effective at changing one or more of the health behaviours considered in the present review: the use of an educational component; provision of continued support after the initial intervention; family involvement; social support from peers or lay health workers. The findings of the present review suggest that interventions to change the health behaviour of women of child-bearing age from disadvantaged backgrounds will require an educational approach and should provide continued support after the initial intervention. Family involvement and social support from peers may also be important features of interventions that aim to improve diet.

  3. Validity and reliability of a dietary stages of change measure among economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of theoretically prescribed behavior change strategies associated with adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption are lacking. This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of five daily servings of FVs among economically disadvantage...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App....

  5. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  6. Minimally supervised multimodal exercise to reduce falls risk in economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Taís L; Alexander, Neil B; Nyquist, Linda V; Montagnini, Marcos L; Santos A, C S; Rodrigues G, H P; Negrão, Carlos E; Trombetta, Ivani C; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, η2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 η2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.

  7. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  8. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  9. Motivation and Barriers for Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Inês; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between motivation and barriers for physical activity, and physical activity behavior in women living in socioeconomic disadvantage. This study also examined whether weight control intentions moderate those associations. Methods Data from 1664 women aged 18–46 years was collected at baseline and three-year follow-up as part of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. In mail-based surveys, women reported sociodemographic and neighborhood environmental characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goals and perceived family barriers to be active, weight control intentions and leisure-time physical activity (assessed through the IPAQ-L). Linear regression models assessed the association of intrinsic motivation, goals and barriers with physical activity at baseline and follow-up, adjusting for environmental characteristics and also physical activity at baseline (for longitudinal analyses), and the moderating effects of weight control intentions were examined. Results Intrinsic motivation and, to a lesser extent, appearance and relaxation goals for being physically active were consistently associated with leisure-time physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Perceived family barriers, health, fitness, weight and stress relief goals were associated with leisure-time physical activity only at baseline. Moderated regression analyses revealed that weight control intentions significantly moderated the association between weight goals and leisure-time physical activity at baseline (β = 0.538, 99% CI = 0.057, 0.990) and between intrinsic motivation and leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.666, 99% CI = 0.188, 1.145). For women actively trying to control their weight, intrinsic motivation was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.184, 99% CI = 0.097, 0.313). Conclusions Results suggest that

  10. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition

  11. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions.

  12. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  13. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  14. ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current

  15. The NASA Plan: To award eight percent of prime and subcontracts to socially and economically disadvantaged businesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It is NASA's intent to provide small disadvantaged businesses, including women-owned, historically black colleges and universities and minority education institutions the maximum practicable opportunity to receive a fair proportion of NASA prime and subcontracted awards. Annually, NASA will establish socioeconomic procurement goals including small disadvantaged business goals, with a target of reaching the eight percent level by the end of FY 1994. The NASA Associate Administrators, who are responsible for the programs at the various NASA Centers, will be held accountable for full implementation of the socioeconomic procurement plans. Various aspects of this plan, including its history, are discussed.

  16. Core Attributes of Giftedness: A Foundation for Recognizing the Gifted Potential of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Mary M.; And Others

    This report explores the characteristics of giftedness in minority, language minority, and economically disadvantaged student populations and ways to assess giftedness in these populations. A qualitative content analysis is used to analyze gifted literature to determine characteristics of gifted children in general (n=262) and characteristics of…

  17. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Principals in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools with High African American Male Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Rhonda Cherie Crutchfield

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the self-efficacy beliefs of three high school principals in economically disadvantaged high schools with consistently high graduation rates for African American males. With the demand on school systems to perform in a politically driven, assessment-based paradigm, there is a need to describe and analyze the…

  18. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  19. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  20. Contextual Risk, Caregiver Emotionality, and the Problem Behaviors of Six- and Seven-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Schoff, Kristen; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Kogos, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Explored relations between additive and cumulative representations of contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, child adaptability, and teacher reports of problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from economically disadvantaged families. Found evidence that the relation for cumulative risk may be moderated by caregiver negative emotionality and…

  1. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  2. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  3. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  4. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  5. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Schools of today are expected to show continuous improvement in student achievement from year to year, regardless of the students' family background, ethnicity, or…

  6. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    PubMed

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.

  7. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  8. Exposure to interpersonal violence and socioemotional adjustment in economically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least 1 type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population.

  9. Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Hillary H.; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least one type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically-relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

  10. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

  11. Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children’s socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents’ human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

  12. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures.

  13. Tobacco Use in Six Economically Disadvantaged Communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quiñones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; McIntosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, LaToya

    2008-01-01

    The Dominican Republic (DR) is a tobacco-growing country and tobacco control efforts have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in 6 economically disadvantaged DR communities (2 small urban, 2 peri-urban, 2 rural; half were tobacco-growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each (total N=1048) and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting ≥1 tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, ages 45+, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and WHO mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the DR with tobacco cessation. While it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic. PMID:18569759

  14. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Diaz, Sergio; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; McIntosh, Scott; Fisher, Susan G.; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze household smoking bans over time and predictors of bans among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. Methods Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. Results Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities (24%–45%). Households with smokers (versus those without) adopted bans at lower rates (6%–17%; 35%–58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that allowing smoking in nonsmoking households was more likely in tobacco-growing communities, Catholic households, and those with a member with a cardiovascular problem. Having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition was not significantly related to establishing smoking bans. Conclusions Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those early in tobacco control, small awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to significant increases in household-ban adoption, particularly among nonsmoking households. Increasing household-ban prevalence may affect community norms that can lead to greater adoption. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals’ knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles. PMID:24626445

  15. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

  16. What might work? Exploring the perceived feasibility of strategies to promote physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants indicated the most and least appealing of nine hypothetical strategies, strategies most likely to use and strategies most likely to increase physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic and interpretive content analyses were used to identify emergent common and contrasting themes. A community centre-based program with free childcare, the provision of a cleaner while physical activity is undertaken and a neighbourhood-based program were the three most popular strategies. Mobile-telephone-delivered text messages, an online interactive diary and subsidized gym memberships were considered least useful. Irrespective of the strategy, components of importance commonly identified were social support; being accountable to someone; having the option of a structured or flexible attendance design; integration of multiple strategies and financial considerations. Issues around trust and privacy and weight loss also emerged as important. The findings provide important insights for the development of physical activity programs targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

  17. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males.

  18. Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-03-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men.

  19. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  20. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  1. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  2. Women's Economic Empowerment: Realities and Challenges for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborga, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Despite an international consensus on the importance of women's economic empowerment, expressed through such agreements as the Beijing Platform for Action, a recent study by the World Economic Forum noted that no country has yet managed to eliminate the gap between the economic participation of women and men. Even countries with high empowerment…

  3. Women in Economics: Making Connections and Forging Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neymotin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the economics department at Kansas State University began one of the first department-level Women in Economics groups for female graduate students in the United States. This is particularly important because of the general under-representation of women in the economics profession and especially in the academy. The main goals of this group…

  4. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  5. Work Evaluation for Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Families of Barron County. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Esther

    This is the report of a project designed to bring a coordinated service program to rural disadvantaged by providing career cluster workshops for youth and marriage and family counseling for families. In the first of three chapters the summary, purpose, objectives, rational, and literature review are presented. Two project purposes are to assess…

  6. EDPA Summer Institute for Home Economics-Gainful Teachers of the Disadvantaged. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Coll., Orangeburg.

    OBJECTIVES: The institute was organized around five of the major components believed to influence the quality of the relationship between the learner and the teacher: 1) characteristics of the disadvantaged learner, 2) perceptions and beliefs of the teacher, 3) facilitators of learning, 4) curriculum material, and 5) teaching skills. DURATION:…

  7. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

  8. Indigenous Women Facing Educational Disadvantages: The Case of the Ainu in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…

  9. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  10. Coming unmoored: Disproportionate increases in obesity prevalence among young, disadvantaged White women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane; Lee, Hedwig; Johnson/Lawrence, Vicki; Seamans, Marissa J.; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since the 1980s, older low-educated White women experienced an unprecedented decrease in life expectancy. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was evident among younger women for obesity. Design and Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated age-adjusted changes in prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference>88 cm) between 1988-1994 and 2003-2010 among non-Hispanic White women aged 25-44 years, stratified by educational attainment (women's changes in obesity prevalence to changes among similarly educated Black women. Results Relative increases in overall obesity were disproportionately larger for low- educated (women: 12.3 (95% CI: 3.1, 21.5) percentage points (ppts). For overall and abdominal obesity, general trends indicated dissimilar racial differences by educational attainment. For instance, overall obesity increased more in Blacks than Whites among college-educated (9.9 ppts) but not low- educated (−2.5 ppts) women. Conclusions Contemporary young, low-educated White women showed indications of disproportionate worsening of overall obesity prevalence compared to more educated White and similarly educated Black women. Low education levels are more powerful indicators of obesity risk among contemporary White women than 30 years ago. PMID:25294582

  11. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted.

  12. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  13. Study of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin (Joseph) Inc., Washington, DC.

    Historically, proportionately fewer women than men enter college and those that enter are faced with higher out-of-pocket expenses. Often they depend on borrowing to meet college costs. This document examines the suitability of existing loan arrangements for financing the postsecondary education of women. It also evaluates other, alternative, loan…

  14. Economic value of safe water for the infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household: A case study in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Purnamita; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2004-11-01

    Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanization during the past 50 years, with ever increasing growth in population and economic activity leading to water stress in several parts of the city. This paper looks at the valuation of water as an economic resource in the context of a low-income, infrastructurally disadvantaged urban household, through the results of a primary survey. In doing so, it examines several issues, often interlinked, concerning the quality and quantity of water being "accessed" by households. While there is no one perfect way of estimating household demand for improved water services, the study uses the contingent valuation approach and evaluates the findings in terms of the health benefits from safe water and the costs of provision of safe supplies.

  15. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  16. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.

  17. Adverse birth outcomes in African American women: the social context of persistent reproductive disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed within the context of American race relations. The review of the literature focuses on racism as a social determinant of race-based disparities in adverse birth outcomes with specific attention to the viability of genetic explanations, the role of socioeconomic factors, the multidimensional nature of racism, and the stress-induced physiologic pathways by which racism may negatively affect pregnancy. Implications for social work research and practice also are discussed.

  18. Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Alastair M.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

  19. Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

  20. Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

  1. An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

    This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

  2. At a Disadvantage: The Occupational Attainments of Foreign Born Women in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Monica

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the 1973 Canadian Mobility Study revealed that the occupational status of Canadian female immigrants is lower than that of immigrant male workers and male and female native-born Canadians. However, considerable stratification exists within the foreign-born population: American and British immigrant women are less affected by the double…

  3. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  4. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  5. Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

  6. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  7. Types of cultural capital and self-rated health among disadvantaged women in outer Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Aims Our study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869 women, conducted in 2003. Three types of cultural capital were included: watching cultural TV programs, producing art (e.g., drawing, theatre performance) and consuming art or literature (e.g., attending exhibits, reading literary books). Associations between self-rated health status and types of cultural capital were assessed using odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Results With the exception of art production, lack of cultural capital increased the odds of self-perceived poor health status adjusting for socio-demographics and other risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.07 to 3.22) for watching cultural TV programs and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.06) for consuming art. As expected, health risk factors, age, social support and community of residence were also associated with health status. Conclusions Two types of cultural capital were strong predictors of self perceived health status among women living in poor urban communities, regardless of social capital, income and other relevant risk factors. PMID:17852992

  8. Main partner's resistance to condoms and HIV protection among disadvantaged, minority women.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Fernandez, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Arheart, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    From a study of high-risk minority women, we examined data for a subgroup of 201 women who participated in a "male condom- focused" HIV prevention intervention, and who reported having attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms in the 3 months following intervention. Factors related to consistent condom use with a main partner post-intervention were not living with the partner, fewer sexual encounters, and no recent sexual encounter in which either partner was under the influence of drugs. At 3 months following intervention, factors related to women's future intentions to use condoms consistently with a main partner were no recent sex while either partner was under the influence of drugs, and the woman's desire to use condoms consistently with the partner. Main partner's resistance to condoms was unrelated to consistent condom use or future intentions to use condoms consistently. Findings identify barriers to consistent condom use within primary relationships, a critical yet challenging focal point for HIV prevention interventions.

  9. "It Really Takes a Village": A Socio-Ecological Model of Resilience for Prevention Among Economically Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn X; DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica; Gill, Vandna

    2016-10-01

    Promoting resilience prevents maladaptation among economically disadvantaged ethnic minority (EDEM) youth. EDEM youth need access to a variety of assets and promotive factors (i.e., resources) in the family, school, and community system to counter risks and promote positive adaptation. However, the field lacks a socio-ecological model of resilience for prevention targeted towards EDEM youth. We aim to review assets and promotive factors in the family, school, and community systems to present a socio-ecological model of resilience for the prevention of negative educational and health outcomes among EDEM youth. We reorient the social ecologies of EDEM youth from "at risk" to "at promise" focusing on family and community-centered prevention models. We discuss implications for the design of prevention strategies as well as their implementation and methodological challenges.

  10. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  11. Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Monica E.

    The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

  12. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ωh, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient α and ωh for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ≤ $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

  13. Attitudes Toward Changing Economic and Social Roles for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

    Attitudinal factors that hinder the economic and social advancement of women were investigated. Graduate students between the ages of 20 and 50 and enrolled in two southern institutions of higher learning were administered the Dolly-Bell Sex Discrimination Scale: Social and Economic Factors. Results indicate that sex discrimination is determined…

  14. Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population. PMID:12727602

  15. Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Greaves, Ian A; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Geisser, Mindy S; Ryan, Andrew D

    2003-05-01

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study used a probability sample of children (second through fifth grades) from two low-income and racially mixed neighborhoods of Minneapolis, Minnesota, to assess childhood environmental health. Children were eligible to participate in SHIELD regardless of whether they or their families spoke a foreign language, their household had a telephone, or they were enrolled in a special education program. The overall enrollment rate in year 1 was 57%, with a substantial disparity between children from English-speaking (42%) versus non-English-speaking (71%) families. At the end of year 1, 85% were retained in the study. A relatively high percentage of children provided the two requested blood (82%) and urine (86%) samples in year 1, and 90% provided a valid spirometry sample. Eighty-two percent provided both requested volatile organic chemical badge samples, and both time-activity logs were obtained from 66%. However, only 32% provided both peak flow measurements. All percentages increased for those participating in the second year of the study. Results indicate that a school-based research design makes it feasible and practical to conduct probability-based assessments of children's environmental health in economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse neighborhoods. There is an ongoing need, however, to improve understanding of the cultural, economic, psychologic, and social determinants of study participation among this population. PMID:12727602

  16. Are socio-economically disadvantaged Australians making more or less use of the Enhanced Primary Care Medicare Benefit Schedule item numbers?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; McElroy, Heather; Beilby, Justin; Mott, Kathy; Price, Kay; Morey, Sue; Best, John

    2003-01-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between levels of socio-economic disadvantage (measured by the Socio Economic Indexes for Areas [SEIFA] used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) and uptake of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) item numbers on the Medicare Benefits Schedule. Health services are often less likely to reach those that most need them and so it is important to monitor whether disadvantaged communities are accessing EPC The rates of health assessments, care plans and case conferences are similar in each SEIFA quartile (from advantaged to disadvantaged populations), favouring the more disadvantaged quartiles in some cases. These national trends are not observed in each state and territory. For all EPC services combined, the lowest number of doctors that provide EPC services are found in the 2 most disadvantaged quartiles, yet more EPC services are provided in these quartiles, due to the higher mean and median number of services provided by general practitioners in these quartiles. Overall, populations living in the most disadvantaged quartiles have similar or higher levels of EPC uptake, apparently due, at least in part, to greater than average use of EPC services by general practitioners in these areas. PMID:15368819

  17. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges.

  18. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges. PMID:26022147

  19. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  20. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk. PMID:27023344

  1. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  2. Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-28

    Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0.035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups.

  3. Health Care for the Economically Disadvantaged. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    These hearings examine ways of ensuring access to quality health care, especially for low-income persons ineligible for Medicaid. The problems of determining who the economically disadvantaged are, what services they are provided with, and how those services are provided and financed are all addressed. An Urban Institute researcher testifies that…

  4. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  5. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  6. Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

  7. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  8. How can we improve socio-economic condition of women?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P C; Pattanaik, B E

    Aspects of discrimination against women in India are summarized, a case study of a rural district in Orissa is presented, and the article follows with a suggested 3-part strategy of education, employment and appropriate technology. The economic role played by women is difficult to quantitate because of their lifestyle that combines domestic work and unpaid family or low-paid outside farm or cottage industry labor. Besides these tasks, women usually care for dairy animals, and carry water and firewood. Discrimination against women in this system is evident, however, from some available statistics. 46% of women, as opposed to 20% of men, work as agricultural laborers. Women are denied education because they are not expected to do responsible work, then they are denied employment because they are not educated. Their work is counted as worth only half that of men, and based on this assumption, they are paid less then men. The male heads of 124 households in 7 villages in the Orissa area were interviewed to study labor participation of household members. 89% of the people worked in agriculture, 94% in rice paddy and 6% in oilseed or pulses for cash crops. The average farm size was 2.29 acres. Female literacy had risen to 14.3% from 1% 10 years before. Women usually worked in transplantation, weeding, harvesting and threshing, but also in heavier farm labor, construction of roads and buildings, quarrying and forestry. In this poor, hilly region, the custom of purdah was not practiced to the extent of keeping women from doing day labor outside the home. The authors' suggested strategy for women's development included appropriate technology such as the Gobar methane gas plant, provision of credit for women's industries, retention of girls in school and literacy programs for girls and women, and higher wages for women. PMID:12281792

  9. How can we improve socio-economic condition of women?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P C; Pattanaik, B E

    Aspects of discrimination against women in India are summarized, a case study of a rural district in Orissa is presented, and the article follows with a suggested 3-part strategy of education, employment and appropriate technology. The economic role played by women is difficult to quantitate because of their lifestyle that combines domestic work and unpaid family or low-paid outside farm or cottage industry labor. Besides these tasks, women usually care for dairy animals, and carry water and firewood. Discrimination against women in this system is evident, however, from some available statistics. 46% of women, as opposed to 20% of men, work as agricultural laborers. Women are denied education because they are not expected to do responsible work, then they are denied employment because they are not educated. Their work is counted as worth only half that of men, and based on this assumption, they are paid less then men. The male heads of 124 households in 7 villages in the Orissa area were interviewed to study labor participation of household members. 89% of the people worked in agriculture, 94% in rice paddy and 6% in oilseed or pulses for cash crops. The average farm size was 2.29 acres. Female literacy had risen to 14.3% from 1% 10 years before. Women usually worked in transplantation, weeding, harvesting and threshing, but also in heavier farm labor, construction of roads and buildings, quarrying and forestry. In this poor, hilly region, the custom of purdah was not practiced to the extent of keeping women from doing day labor outside the home. The authors' suggested strategy for women's development included appropriate technology such as the Gobar methane gas plant, provision of credit for women's industries, retention of girls in school and literacy programs for girls and women, and higher wages for women.

  10. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  11. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  12. Mother-Child Discrepancy in Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Families Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of

  13. Economic and Social Psychological Independence: Dilemmas for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    1985-01-01

    Reviews three volumes which provide considerable material on the cultural, economic, psychological, and social factors which affect Black and White women and their families: "Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives" (Joseph and Lewis); "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally" (Steady); and "Household Composition and Racial…

  14. The Influx of Women into Legal Professions: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joe G.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates show that women are increasingly attracted to the field of law, possibly because of its favorable economic factors, such as relatively high earnings early in the career and ease of reentry after periods of nonparticipation in the labor force. (Contains 30 references.) (JOW)

  15. The Economic Consequences of Widowhood for Older Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Jacqueline L.; Jimenez, Maren A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We compare the economic consequences of widowhood for preretirement age and early-retirement age Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women. Methods: We use the 1992 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to assess the effects of widowhood on the household incomes and assets of non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic women…

  16. Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Lear, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places, incorporating the…

  17. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  18. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone."

  19. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PREPARING HOME ECONOMICS LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH AND ADULTS. FINAL REPORT, APPENDIX C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARRETT, PAULINE GILLETTE

    SIXTY-FIVE SELECTIONS, IN NOTE OR OUTLINE FORM, FROM PRESENTATIONS BY CONSULTANTS AIDING IN PREPARING LEADERS FOR EMERGING PROGRAMS SERVING THE DISADVANTAGED ARE INCLUDED IN THIS APPENDIX. THE SUBJECT MATTER RANGES FROM SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SUCH SKILLS AS READING TO GENERAL INFORMATION SUCH AS BASIC UNDERSTANDINGS NECESSARY FOR…

  20. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  1. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  2. Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.

    PubMed

    Hallqvist, Johan; Lynch, John; Bartley, Mel; Lang, Thierry; Blane, David

    2004-04-01

    The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these alternatives. We used a population based case-control study (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme) of all incident first events of myocardial infarction among men and women, living in the Stockholm region 1992-94. The analyses were restricted to men 53-70 years, 511 cases and 716 controls. From a full occupational history each subject was categorized as manual worker or non-manual at three stages of the life course, childhood (from parent's occupation), at the ages 25-29 and 51-55, resulting in 8 possible socio-economic trajectories. We found a graded response to the accumulation of disadvantaged socio-economic positions over the life course. However, we also found evidence for effects of critical periods and of social mobility. A conceptual analysis showed that there are, for theoretical reasons, only a limited number of trajectories available, too small to form distinct empirical categories of each hypothesis. The empirical task of disentangling the life course hypotheses of critical period, social mobility and accumulation is therefore comparable to the problem of separating age, period, and cohort effects. Accordingly, the interpretation must depend on prior knowledge of more specific causal mechanisms.

  3. Socio-Economic Disparities in Use of Family Planning Methods among Pakistani Women: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Qureshi, Muhammad Sameer; Aslam, Syeda Nisma; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Background Several developing countries like Pakistan step into Sustainable Development Goals period with crucial maternal and child health needs that need to be addressed for improving health outcomes among people. We aim to explore existent socio-economic disparities in use of family planning methods (FPM) among Pakistani women, and compare any such inequalities between the years 2006 and 2013. Setting Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) 2006–7 (n = 9177) and the most recent 2012–13(n = 13558) data were used to conduct secondary analysis. Participants were ever married women aged between 15 and 49 years. Socio-economic status was assessed by the education level and wealth index. Inequalities were measured through Odds Ratio (OR), Relative Index of inequality (RII), and Slope index of inequality (SII) on non-use of FPM. Results Although the prevalence of FPM use has increased over time (28% in 2006 versus 54% in 2013), the socio-economic inequalities persistently exist. Comparing results of PDHS 2006 with PDHS 2013, education related absolute inequalities among urban dwellers increased from -0.41 (95% CI -0.67, -0.13, p-value < 0.01) to -0.83 (95% CI -1.02, -0.63, p-value < 0.01); and increased from -0.93 (95% CI -1.21, -0.64, p-value < 0.01) to -0.98 (95% CI -1.20, -0.76, p-value < 0.01) among rural dwellers. Similarly wealth related absolute inequalities are also existent. Conclusions Although the FPM use has increased over time, but it is important to note that socio-economic gap in use of FPM persists. Such differences have disadvantaged the poor and the illiterate. Family planning programs may target the disadvantaged subgroups for ensuring well-being of women and children in Pakistan. PMID:27055164

  4. Neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage and race/ethnicity as predictors of breast cancer stage at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the role of key individual- and community-level determinants to explore persisting racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. Methods We examined socio-demographic determinants and changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in California during 1990 and 2000. In situ, local, regional, and distant diagnoses were examined by individual (age, race/ethnicity, and marital status) and community (income and education by zip code) characteristics. Community variables were constructed using the California Cancer Registry 1990-2000 and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census. Results From 1990 to 2000, there was an overall increase in the percent of in situ diagnoses and a significant decrease in regional and distant diagnoses. Among white and Asian/Pacific Islander women, a significant percent increase was observed for in situ diagnoses, and significant decreases in regional and distant diagnoses. Black women had a significant decrease in distant -stage diagnoses, and Hispanic women showed no significant changes in any diagnosis during this time period. The percent increase of in situ cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 was observed even among zip codes with low income and education levels. We also found a significant percent decrease in distant cases for the quartiles with the most poverty and least education. Conclusions Hispanic women showed the least improvement in breast cancer stage at diagnosis from 1990 to 2000. Breast cancer screening and education programs that target under-served communities, such as the rapidly growing Hispanic population, are needed in California. PMID:24209733

  5. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  7. The Relationship between Residential Land Use Patterns and the Educational Outcomes of Economically Disadvantaged Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Shannon; Wunneburger, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Disparate outcomes resulting from economic segregation in public primary schools have been the subject of much debate and litigation. Little research, however, examines whether negative outcomes may be exacerbated by inequities in the distribution of housing across metropolitan areas. This article explores connections between residential land use…

  8. Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2 weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5 min occurred in the 14 days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST

  9. Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

  10. Introductory Economics Textbooks and the Treatment of Issues Relating to Women and Minorities, 1984 and 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiner, Susan F.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of introductory college economics textbooks on the quality and quantity of coverage of the economic status of women and minorities. Finds that textbooks still have a tendency to exclude women and minorities from the general discussion and disguise the multiplicity of explanations for observed differences. (CFR)

  11. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  12. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods.

  13. Practitioner perspectives of the economic coping experiences of women of domestic violence abuse.

    PubMed

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    Through this case study the author investigates women's coping experiences with economic challenges in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. Women of abuse cope with financial difficulties compounded by other ecologically contributing factors. Eight non-abused, social service practitioners from four different agencies, two providers per agency, described the economic coping experiences of women of abuse they serve. Comprehensive and interdisciplinary care is necessary to meet women's multifaceted, complex economic needs. Study results corroborate with research. Service delivery of care for women of abuse coping with family, schooling, and economic hardships are enhanced through schools and service agencies working together, collaborating networking, and sharing of resources in order to better advocate for women and children.

  14. Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking. PMID:17708005

  15. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia.

  16. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating.

  17. Depressive symptoms are associated with dietary intake but not physical activity among overweight and obese women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E

    2014-04-01

    Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are associated with poorer dietary intake and inadequate physical activity; however, this association has not been examined in lower-income overweight and obese African American women. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and diet and physical activity in 196 women (87% African American; age, 25-51 years). Higher depressive symptoms were hypothesized to predict poorer diet quality, greater emotional eating, lower physical activity levels, and greater sedentary time. Depressive symptoms were measured using the validated short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Dietary intake and quality were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. Emotional eating was evaluated using 4 items from the emotional eating subscale of the Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear regression models tested the associations between depressive symptoms and each dietary and physical activity outcome variable. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with total daily caloric intake from saturated fat and total sugars, as well as emotional eating scores (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sweetened beverage consumption (P = .06) and added sugars (P = .07). Depressive symptoms were not associated with total fat, sodium, fruit and vegetables, fast food consumption, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or sedentary time. Future studies should explore the mechanisms linking the identified associations between depressive symptoms and dietary intake, such as the role of emotional eating. PMID:24774065

  18. Does car ownership reflect socio-economic disadvantage in rural areas? A cross-sectional geographical study in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, S M; Fone, D L

    2003-03-01

    It is widely believed that area-based deprivation indices that include the car ownership census variable are poor indicators of deprivation in rural areas since car ownership is a necessity of rural life. In this cross-sectional geographical study, we assess whether the relation between lack of car ownership and socio-economic deprivation varies between urban and rural enumeration districts of Wales, UK. We classified the 6376 census enumeration districts in Wales into rural (1636, 26%) and urban (4740, 74%), using the Office for National Statistics' classification based on land use. Rank correlation coefficients between the proportion of households with no car and a range of other proxy deprivation census variables were strongly positive in urban and the most densely populated rural enumeration districts. However, these correlations were weaker in sparsely populated rural enumeration districts, with a declining trend across deciles of population density. Exclusion of the car ownership variable from the Townsend index of deprivation re-categorized rural enumeration districts as more deprived and urban enumeration districts as less deprived compared with the standard Townsend index. Our results suggest that lack of car ownership is a poor proxy for social deprivation in the most sparsely populated rural areas of Wales, and therefore, deprivation indices that include the car ownership variable are less valid for use in rural areas. PMID:12802977

  19. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability.

  20. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations.

  1. The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda, Ed.

    The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

  2. An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2007-01-01

    We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

  3. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results. PMID:12286863

  4. Kenyan women in physics: Overcoming cultural, economic, and professional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, Paul; Kasina, Angeline; Nyamwandha, Cecilia; Kawira, Millien; Mburu, Jane; King'ori, Gladys; Kahonge, Teresia; Gichana, Zubeda

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to attract, retain, and improve the status of girls and women in Kenya to the sciences, in particular physics, are outlined. Areas in which positive change has been observed are noted. Issues that still need to be addressed to realize the full potential of women undertaking physics are discussed.

  5. Benevolent Ideology and Women's Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men's Wallet.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Aude; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne; Dardenne, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Can ideology, as a widespread "expectation creator," impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women's economic decision-making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2's Generalized Linear Mixed Model's results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women's endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape male-female relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men.

  6. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  7. Correlates of the Economic Status of Widowed and Divorced Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.

    1992-01-01

    Performed ordinary least squares regression analysis on data from National Beneficiary Survey concerning elderly divorced and widowed women. Found that women's economic status was commonly associated with such factors as level of education, work history, and Social Security primary insurance amount. Also analyzed differences between widows and…

  8. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  9. Women's Formal Education and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.

    Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…

  10. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  11. Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.

    PubMed

    Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

    2014-05-01

    Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations. PMID:24758976

  12. Ethics, equity, and economics: a primer on women in medicine.

    PubMed

    Essary, Alison C; Coplan, Bettie

    2014-05-01

    Women account for more than 70% of physician assistant (PA) students, 62% of practicing PAs, and 57% of faculty in PA programs. About half of all US medical students, 30% of actively practicing physicians, and 37% of faculty at academic medical centers are female. However, women in medicine are paid less than men for equal work effort and achieve fewer leadership positions within academia and medicine. Neglecting the skills and talents of women may lead to a workforce that fails to represent our patient and student populations.

  13. The other side of economic success: poverty, inequality, and women in Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, S

    1993-10-01

    The economic liberalization and overall economic success achieved by the former military dictatorship in Chile paradoxically increased inequities and "feminized" poverty. By 1990, when a democratically elected government came into power, 40% of the population was living in poverty and suffering from large-scale reductions in state welfare. This led to a huge increase in self-help community organizations, many run by women and set-up by the church, to insure survival. These groups have been an important catalyst to women's ability to create political organizations. One factor which led to increased poverty was the involvement of women in "flexible," low-paid jobs. In 1987, women earned 65% of male wages, although women and men had approximately the same level of education. The democratic government is committed to helping women and has created a National Women's Service to develop public policies for women in the areas of legal reform, labor laws, welfare, rights, economic support, and domestic violence. Issues such as divorce and abortion, however, remain highly divisive. It is ironic that the traditional gender-based division of labor was shaken during the military dictatorship but that a return to democracy had failed to decrease the pressures on women. PMID:12320730

  14. Reverse mortgages and the economic status of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Morgan, B A; Megbolugbe, I F; Rasmussen, D W

    1996-06-01

    Data from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing are used to estimate the potential demand for reverse mortgages among elderly women householders. A reverse mortgage product is simulated using parameters based on the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage insurance demonstration, and its effect on poverty and income distribution among this group is calculated. Approximately 1.8 million women with low incomes and home equity of $40,000 and above could see a significant increase in income under such a program.

  15. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Program. (a) Definition. Interested party, as used in this section, has the meaning given in 13 CFR 127... protest regulations are found in subpart F “Protests” at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127.605. (c) Protests... Program, without setting forth specific facts or allegations, will not be considered by SBA (see 13...

  16. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID

  17. Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a “hot spot” in Camden, New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution – the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community – the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004–2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution. PMID:25674036

  18. Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and associated health risks of socio-economically disadvantaged population in a "hot spot" in Camden, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Zhu, Xianlei; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2012-09-01

    To address disparities in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for racial/ethnic minority groups, this study characterized personal and ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a suspected hot spot of air pollution - the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), and an urban reference community - the Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood in Camden, New Jersey. Both are minority-dominant, impoverished communities. We collected 24-h integrated personal air samples from 54 WFS residents and 53 CDS residents, with one sample on a weekday and one on a weekend day during the summer and winter seasons of 2004-2006. Ambient air samples from the center of each community were also collected simultaneously during personal air sampling. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) presented higher (p < 0.05) ambient levels in WFS than in CDS, particularly during weekdays. A stronger association between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and TEX was found in WFS than in CDS. Fourteen to forty-two percent of the variation in personal MTBE, hexane, benzene, and TEX was explained by local outdoor air pollution. These observations indicated that local sources impacted the community air pollution and personal exposure in WFS. The estimated cancer risks resulting from two locally emitted VOCs, benzene and ethylbenzene, and non-cancer neurological and respiratory effects resulting from hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes exceeded the US EPA risk benchmarks in both communities. These findings emphasized the need to address disparity in health risks associated with ambient air pollution for the socio-economically disadvantaged groups. This study also demonstrated that air pollution hot spots similar to WFS can provide robust setting to investigate health effects of ambient air pollution.

  19. Understanding the social and economic contexts surrounding women engaged in street-level prostitution.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz

    2010-12-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated.

  20. Economic inequalities amongst women with osteoporosis-related fractures: an application of concentration index decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Nadrian, Haidar; Golboni, Farzaneh; Kazemi-Galougahi, Mohammad Hasan; Moghimi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the renewed emphasis on women’s health, attention to the new aspects of their health, such as equity, among different groups is warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the economic inequalities among women with osteoporosis-related bone fractures (ORBFs) in Sanandaj, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, convenient sampling was employed to recruit 220 women with osteoporosis referring to the only rheumatology clinic in Sanandaj (the center of Kurdistan province in Iran) from January to April 2013. Main outcome was the history of fractures due to osteoporosis. Concentration index decomposition (CID) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: In multivariate logistic analysis, the fourth and fifth quintiles of family economic status were found to be significantly associated with ORBFs. Risk difference and confidence interval (CI) for the relation between the history of bone fracture and family economic status was -0.115 (95% CI: -0.209, -0.021; P = 0.016), which reflected the higher prevalence of bone fractures among women with the lower economic levels. About 25% out of all ORBFs were happened among 20% of the women with low economic status. Conclusion: It was concluded that economic status plays an important role in happening ORBFs among underprivileged women. A reorientation on women’s health care services in Iran with a focus on underprivileged postmenopausal women seems to be necessary. There is a need for inter-sectoral coalition between the policymakers of the health system and those of other organizations to reduce the economic inequalities among osteoporotic women. PMID:27766236

  1. Two Paths into Home Economics: A Study of Black and White Women in 1890 and 1862 Land-Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, B.; And Others

    This 1977 study was conducted to determine the relative importance of selected variables on choice of major in home economics which distinguished black women attending southern 1890 land-grant universities from white women attending southern 1862 land-grant institutions. A 15% random sample of women with home economic majors was selected to…

  2. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  3. Women and Minorities in Introductory Economics Textbooks: 1974 to 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiner, Susan F.; Morgan, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews widely-used introductory economics textbooks, examining how issues relating to race and gender are treated. Suggests how stereotypical roles could be avoided in the future. Includes a table summarizing data from 21 textbooks. (Author/DH)

  4. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

  5. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  6. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    LEI, MAN-KIT; SIMONS, RONALD L.; EDMOND, MARY BOND; SIMONS, LESLIE GORDON; CUTRONA, CAROLYN E.

    2015-01-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene×Environment. The effect of Gene×Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene×Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  7. The relationship between socio-economic inequalities, intimate partner violence and economic abuse: a national study of women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina; Anthony, David Steven

    2014-01-01

    Economic abuse against women has for too long remained a relatively 'unseen' part of interpersonal violence, in spite of intimate partner violence (IPV) being a public health problem. Most studies on economic abuse derive especially from the USA and amongst women in shelters, and their findings are not easily generalisable to low-middle-income countries. Socio-economic inequalities render women vulnerable to control and risk of abuse. We investigated the role of socio-economic inequalities in the association between IPV and economic abuse. Logistic regression analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of 8478 women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicated strong positive associations between both physical IPV and emotional IPV and all four forms of economic abuse. Measures of socio-economic inequalities and other covariates such as no education, primary education, unemployment and justifying wife beating were also statistically significant. Findings suggest the increased need for health care practitioners to include economic abuse during the assessment of and response to IPV, the implementation of a multidimensional approach to providing tangible support and women-centred responses in reported cases of economic abuse, as well as measures that enhance socio-economic equality and increase economic opportunities for women.

  8. Divorced women at retirement: projections of economic well-being in the near future.

    PubMed

    Butrica, B A; Iams, H M

    2000-01-01

    The Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) data system projects retirement income for persons retiring in the 1990s through 2020. Using those data, we examine the economic well-being of divorced women at retirement. The MINT data system improves upon previous estimates of Social Security benefits by: Measuring and projecting years of marriage to determine if the 10-year requirement has been met, Projecting lifetime earnings until retirement and eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits, and Estimating lifetime earnings of former spouses. MINT also makes independent projections of each retiree's income from pensions, assets, and earnings (for working beneficiaries). As a result of changes in marital patterns, MINT projects that the proportion of women who are divorced will increase. At the same time, the proportion of those women who are eligible for auxiliary benefits is projected to decrease, for two main reasons. First, changes in women's earnings and work patterns result in more women receiving retired-worker benefits based on their own earnings. Second, an increased number of divorced women will not meet the 10-year marriage requirement for auxiliary benefits. Despite the projected decrease over time in eligibility rates for auxiliary benefits, the level of Social Security benefits is projected to change little between the older and younger birth cohorts of divorced women entering retirement. According to the MINT data, the most vulnerable of divorced women will be those who have not met the 10-year marriage requirement. Poverty rates will be higher for them than for all other divorced women. This group of divorced women is projected to grow as more and more women divorce from shorter marriages. With more women divorcing and with fewer divorced women meeting the 10-year marriage requirement, the proportion of economically vulnerable aged women will increase when the baby boom retires. Further research is warranted on this long neglected subject

  9. The Economic Future of Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    Later marriage ages, longer life expectancy, higher divorce rates, and the feminization of poverty will all figure in the economic future of modern girls. Values about work, marriage, and motherhood are in flux during adolescence, and the messages they receive are often contradictory. Steps must be taken to educate girls to make clearheaded and…

  10. The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women.

    PubMed

    Aassve, Arnstein

    2003-02-01

    This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze the accumulating effects of various economic variables. The results show that the economic resources are indeed important both for premarital childbearing and for subsequent marriage. However, the simulations show that large changes in these economic variables do not necessarily translate into large changes in nonmarital childbearing.

  11. ENDURING ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, WOMEN'S EDUCATION, MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY TRANSITION IN KINSHASA.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines fertility transition in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. Shapiro (1996) documented the onset of fertility transition in the city, using data from 1990. Women's education was strongly inversely related to fertility, beginning with secondary schooling, and increases in women's education were important in initiating fertility transition in the city. The paper uses data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC to examine fertility in Kinshasa and assess fertility transition since 1990, a period characterized by severe adverse economic conditions in the DRC. Fertility transition has continued at a strong pace. In part this reflects increased educational attainment of women, but it appears also to be largely a consequence of enduring economic hardship. The ongoing fertility decline has been accompanied by substantial delays in entry to marriage and childbearing, reflecting adverse economic conditions, which in turn have contributed to continuing declines in fertility.

  12. Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  13. The Relations between Cluster Indexes of Risk and Promotion and the Problem Behaviors of 6- and 7-Year-Old Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Schoff, Kristen; Levinson, Karen; Youngstrom, Eric; Izard, Carroll E.

    1999-01-01

    Examined relations between alternative representations of poverty cofactors and promotion processes, and problem behaviors of 6- and 7-year-olds from disadvantaged families. Found that single-index risk representations and promotion variables predicted aggression but not anxiety/depression. An additive model of individual risk indicators performed…

  14. Beyond the simple economics of cesarean section birthing: women's resistance to social inequality.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2002-12-01

    This research explored the reasons for women's preferences for cesarean section births in Pelotas, Brazil. It is argued that women strategize and appropriate both medical knowledge and the technology of cesarean sections as a creative form of responding to larger public debates (and the practices that produced them) on the need for and causes of (de)medicalization. Questioning the reasons why some women engage more actively in this process than others elucidates the ways local forms of power engage gender, economic and medical ideologies. The current debate on why some women prefer c-section deliveries, or indeed if they really do at all, has diverted attention from the utility of the technology itself. This paper argues that for some women, the effort to medicalize the birth process represents a practical solution to problems found within the medical system itself. I end by exploring the socio-biological conditions that have produced a need for the technology. PMID:12572770

  15. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions. PMID:12179933

  16. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  17. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging

  18. The Economic Contributions of Women in a Rural Western Navajo Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Scott C.; McDonald, Mark B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines and enumerates economic changes that have occurred in the traditional rural Navajo community of Shonto. While women's net income contributions to Shonto's economy has declined, their position has seen only a slight erosion; their activities (sheep and goat husbandry, agriculture, arts and crafts) are still considered necessary and…

  19. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  20. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  1. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  2. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...."

  3. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women’s financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  4. A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation of Variability and Contextual Sources Related to the Academic Engagement of Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Joan Carlin

    2009-01-01

    Research consistently has indicated that academic achievement outcomes for most minority students, and for students from economically impoverished backgrounds, are marginal as compared with the achievement of their Asian and Caucasian classmates and of individuals with higher socio-economic status (STS). Academic engagement has been linked to…

  5. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context.

  6. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  7. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 14, 15, 18, 19, 26, 33, 36, 42, 52, and 53 RIN 9000-AL97 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned... Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Business (EDWOSB) Concerns (APR 2012) (15 U.S.C. 637(m)).'' 4. On...: ``(25) 52.219-30, Notice of Set-Aside for Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Concerns Eligible Under...

  8. 77 FR 17352 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program Correction In rule document 2012... 2012) * * * * * (b) * * * -- (24) 52.219-29, Notice of Set-Aside for Economically Disadvantaged Women...-Aside for Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Concerns Eligible Under the WOSB Program (APR 2012) (15...

  9. Why do some socioeconomically disadvantaged women eat better than others? An investigation of the personal, social and environmental correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the contribution of individual, social and environmental factors to predicting fruit and vegetable consumption among women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). An Australian community sample of 355 women of low SEP provided survey data on sociodemographic information, diet (fruit and vegetable consumption), and various cognitive, behavioural, social and perceived environmental influences on healthy eating. Information on the availability and accessibility of major chain supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores from participant's residence was collected through objective audits. Women who were older, dieting to lose weight, had a greater taste preference for fruit and perceived the cost of fruit to be lower were more likely to be high fruit consumers. Women who had a high BMI were more likely to be high vegetable consumers. Women who perceived a greater availability of healthy foods in their neighbourhoods were more likely to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. Strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among low SEP women should focus on modifying perceptions about the cost, availability and taste of fruits and vegetables. Tailoring nutrition interventions to accommodate differences in age, weight-control practices and weight status may also prove beneficial.

  10. [Economic activity of Third World women and perspectives on the decline of their fertility].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1983-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to achieve a better understanding of the economic roles of women throughout the world, progress has been impeded by the lack of available statistical material concerning their employment. The importance of women's productive activity remains unrecognized in most of the Third World because it is largely accomplished outside the cash sector and is not included in any statistics. 72% of women in developing countries live in rural zones, where they are occupied in production, processing, storage, and preparation of foodstuffs. Many also assist the family budget by selling foodstuffs and craft products. The role of women in agriculture and commerce varies in different regions; it is estimated that 60-80% of agricultural labor in Africa and about 40% in Latin America is female. Third World women have also found employment in labor intensive industries such as electronics and textiles. The active female population grew from 1950-75 at 2.5%/1year in Asia, 1.9% in Africa, and 3.2% in Latin America. Major variations are seen in the female participation rates of countries within the same regions. The number of women working in the nonorganized sector is not known. Particularly in cities, most new jobs have been in the service sector. Prior to the spread of the capitalist mode of production, the productive and reproductive roles of women were equally significant and compatible, and women had a greater weight in family and community. With the separation of the cash and subsistence sectors, women were increasingly relegated to the least prestigious and least remunerative sectors. When forced to seek work in the modern sector, their lack of education and the persistence of traditional sexist practices allowed them to find only the least qualified, most poorly paid, and least secure jobs in the primary, secondary, or tertiary sectors. The introduction of technical development into Third World countries benefitted women very little, since it was usually

  11. A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the US: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession.

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Sheely, Amanda L

    2013-03-01

    The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or 'welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from 'welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p = 0.05 and time-to-employment, p = 0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p = 0.002 and time-to-employment, p < 0.001). Neither the intervention nor recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy.

  12. Overweight and obesity among women by economic stratum in urban India.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Jitendra; Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past.

  13. The role of sexual violence in creating and maintaining economic insecurity among asset-poor women of color.

    PubMed

    Loya, Rebecca M

    2014-11-01

    This article argues that economic instability and sexual violence reinforce each other in two ways. First, the devastating psychological consequences of sexual assault can diminish work performance and disrupt income, creating economic instability, particularly for the asset-poor. Latina and African American women face particular risk due to barriers to appropriate post-assault resources and low rates of asset ownership. Second, income- and asset poverty increase women's risk for sexual violence and complicate recovery. Women with financial and social resources can leverage these assets to both avoid and recover from sexual assault, whereas women without such resources lack these options. Policy solutions are proposed. PMID:25288596

  14. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  15. Women: Their Educational and Career Roles. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected ERIC References. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 31, August 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabas, Jean

    This annotated bibliography has been prepared to deal with the issue of women as a group whose realistic and creative contributions have often been hindered by traditional employment patterns and social institutions. The listing encompasses document citations in "Research in Education" from November 1966 through December of 1971, and journal…

  16. Increasing Levels of Urban Malnutrition with Rapid Urbanization in Informal Settlements of Katutura, Windhoek: Neighbourhood Differentials and the Effect of Socio-Economic Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing urban poverty characterize much of Southern Africa, resulting in poor urban health. This study investigates inter-urban differences and determinants of undernutrition among marginalized communities. Using the 1992, 2000 and 2006/2007 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey data, we fitted hierarchical random intercept logit models, applied at 52 enumeration areas in the capital city (Windhoek), to estimate trends in undernutrition, and investigate risk factors associated with stunting and underweight. Findings demonstrate that undernutrition among children has risen (7.4% to 25.1%, p<0.001 for stunting; and 9.7% to 17.6%, p<0.001 for underweight, between 1992 and 2006/2007). The risk was pronounced for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged households (OR=1.53, 95% CI:[1.01, 2.31] for stunting and OR=2.16, 95% CI:[1.03, 4.89]for underweight). Evidence emerged of intra-urban variation in undernutrition. We argue that with increasing urbanization, comes the challenge of food insecurity and, consequently, malnutrition. For improved child health, urban planners should have targeted interventions for poor urban households and deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:27009767

  17. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  18. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  19. Social Investigation and Economic Empowerment: The Women's Industrial Council and the LCC Trade Schools for Girls, 1892-1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    Considers the political and gender issues involved in the provision of trade training for girls in London (England). Focuses on the strategies adopted by the Women's Industrial Council in their campaign to provide trade training for girls and expounds that the Council intended to enhance the economic position of industrial women. (CMK)

  20. Women's health: marketing challenges for the 21st century. The future of women's health care reflects demographic, social, and economic trends. MHS staff.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The notion of a separate "women's health" component within the U.S. health care system emerged in the 1980s as many health care organizations recognized the opportunities offered by this market. While originally addressed traditional women's needs such as OB services, the 1990s witnessed as expansion of the scope of women's services as baby-boom women became a driving force for consumerism. For health care marketers, the female market is in many THE market for health care for the future and health care organizations have responded to this opportunity in a variety of ways. Demographic, social, and economic trends will only serve to increase the importance of women as health care consumers. For both providers of care and marketers, the women's market is clearly a force to be reckoned with as health care enters the 21st century.

  1. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Londono, John; Valencia, Paula; Santos, Ana María; Gutiérrez, Luisa F; Baquero, Roberto; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4) and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3%) had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7%) had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001). The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confience interval [CI]:1.6–16), age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2), a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2), or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2). Conclusion Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature. Hypothyroidism was an outstanding risk factor in Colombian premenopausal women with osteoporosis. This shows the influence of poverty and other risk factors on the onset of osteoporosis in women aged 35–53 years. PMID:23901298

  2. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  3. Beaten and Poor? A Study of the Long-Term Economic Situation of Women Victims of Severe Violence

    PubMed Central

    Trygged, Sven; Hedlund, Ebba; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    This 10-year follow-up study based on Swedish national registers compares the economic situation of women victims of violence leading to hospitalization (n = 6,085) to nonexposed women (n = 55,016) in 1992 to 2005. Women exposed to severe violence had a poorer financial situation prior to the assault. Violence seems to heavily reinforce this pattern, indicating a continued need of support from the social work profession. Assaulted women had a worse income development, lower odds for being in employment, and higher odds for having low incomes and means tested social assistance during the 10-year follow-up, independent of having children or not. PMID:24405195

  4. The Relationship of Social Support and Economic Self-Sufficiency to Substance Abuse Outcomes in a Long-Term Recovery Program for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Thomas K.; Snively, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Explores outcomes for 59 women who attended long term substance abuse treatment in a women's facility that emphasized employment and economic self sufficiency. Results revealed that reductions in substance abuse were associated with an increase in economic self sufficiency. Additionally, women living in drug free social environments had high rates…

  5. Development of Literacy Follow-Up Materials for Women and Other Disadvantaged Population. Final Report of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (9th, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 2-13, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    This report contains materials from a workshop to provide training in audiovisual materials development for women and other disadvantaged populations, such as slum dwellers, minorities, and migrants. The proceedings section contains an introduction, objective, and summaries of opening, workshop, and other presentations. Chapter 1 provides details…

  6. Women Are "The Key to Progress." The Situation of Women in Developing Countries and German Efforts To Improve Their Situation. IN Visitors' Information Special Report, SO 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugmann-Randolf, Inga

    Women in developing countries carry out three-quarters of all work in rural areas, are often exposed to great health risks through frequent childbirth, and are disadvantaged compared with men in education and training. Modernization has burdened women with new responsibilities and more work but has improved health care. The economic and social…

  7. Making a livelihood at the fish-landing site: exploring the pursuit of economic independence amongst Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Georgina; Barratt, Caroline; Seeley, Janet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nabbagala, Georgina; Asiki, Gershim

    2013-11-01

    Qualitative life history data were used to explore the experiences of women who live at five fish-landing sites on Lake Victoria, Uganda. We explored what economic and social opportunities women have in order to try to understand why some women are more vulnerable to violence and other risks than others and why some women are able to create successful enterprises while others struggle to make a living. The ability of women to create a viable livelihood at the landing sites was influenced by a wide variety of factors. Women who had or were able to access capital when they arrived at the landing site to set up their own enterprise had a significant advantage over those who did not, particularly in avoiding establishing sexual relationships in order to get support. Being able to establish their own business enabled women to avoid lower paid and more risky work such as fish processing and selling or working in bars. The development of landing sites and the leisure industry may be having an impact on how women earn money at the landing sites, with the most desirable economic opportunities not necessarily being connected directly to fishing.

  8. Nutritional status of lactating women in Bogor district, Indonesia: cross-sectional dietary intake in three economic quintiles and comparison with pre-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Briawan, Dodik; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The way in which women accommodate for their increased nutritional needs during the lactation period is poorly investigated. In a cross-sectional study involving 220 lactating women (LW), equally distributed in economic quintiles (Q2, Q3, Q4), we investigated whether habitual dietary intake of LW differed from that of 200 pre-pregnant women (PPW) studied using the same methodology. Differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status were also investigated. Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24-h dietary recalls and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn and vitamins A and C intakes were calculated utilising local food composition tables and were compared against Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes 25 % of LW. For Q2-LW, this proportion was >50 %, except for protein. LW across all studied economic quintiles approximately doubled their vegetable intake, and 71 % of LW indicated a belief that this enhances lactation performance. Biochemical status parameters were analysed in a subset of forty-five women. Anaemia as well as Fe, Zn and Se deficiencies were prevalent among LW, supporting the nutrient intake deficiency data. Despite increasing intakes in LW compared with PPW, habitual diets in the study area do not provide for daily nutrient requirements in substantial proportions for both LW and PPW across all investigated economic groups.

  9. Nutritional status of lactating women in Bogor district, Indonesia: cross-sectional dietary intake in three economic quintiles and comparison with pre-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Briawan, Dodik; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The way in which women accommodate for their increased nutritional needs during the lactation period is poorly investigated. In a cross-sectional study involving 220 lactating women (LW), equally distributed in economic quintiles (Q2, Q3, Q4), we investigated whether habitual dietary intake of LW differed from that of 200 pre-pregnant women (PPW) studied using the same methodology. Differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status were also investigated. Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24-h dietary recalls and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn and vitamins A and C intakes were calculated utilising local food composition tables and were compared against Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes 25 % of LW. For Q2-LW, this proportion was >50 %, except for protein. LW across all studied economic quintiles approximately doubled their vegetable intake, and 71 % of LW indicated a belief that this enhances lactation performance. Biochemical status parameters were analysed in a subset of forty-five women. Anaemia as well as Fe, Zn and Se deficiencies were prevalent among LW, supporting the nutrient intake deficiency data. Despite increasing intakes in LW compared with PPW, habitual diets in the study area do not provide for daily nutrient requirements in substantial proportions for both LW and PPW across all investigated economic groups. PMID:27341617

  10. Confronting the Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Weinberg, Sheldon

    1972-01-01

    A review of recent innovations in counseling style is presented along with an analysis of the advantages of these innovations over the more traditional counseling framework when dealing with disadvantaged clients. The authors recommend the use of these new, directive methods for the effective counseling of these groups. (Author)

  11. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  12. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  13. The "amazing" fertility decline: Islam, economics, and reproductive decision making among working-class Moroccan women.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cortney L

    2011-12-01

    Often it is understood that Islam prohibits family planning because the Qur'an does not explicitly address contraception. Public health and development officials have recently congratulated the Muslim world for decreases in fertility given the supposed constraints placed on reproductive healthcare by Islam, while popular culture writers have warned the West of threats by young Muslims if the population goes uncontrolled. This article draws on data collected through interviews with working-class women seeking reproductive healthcare at clinics in Rabat, Morocco, and with medical providers to challenge the link between Islamic ideology and reproductive practices and the correlation among Islam, poverty, and fertility. Morocco, a predominantly Muslim country, has experienced a dramatic decrease in fertility between the 1970s and today. I argue that patients and providers give new meanings to modern reproductive practices and produce new discourses of reproduction and motherhood that converge popular understandings of Islam with economic conditions of the Moroccan working class.

  14. No time to worship the serpent deities: women, economic change, and religion in north-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Saul, R

    1999-03-01

    This paper explores the changing relationships between lay women, and the spiritual realm, in two ethnic Tibetan communities, Kag and Dzong, in northwestern Nepal. The study tackles how economic and social change has affected women's spiritual roles within the household and the community, and how these roles, in turn, have influenced the course of such change. In Kag, the introduction of tourism changed women's way of life. They became income-generating members of the community as lodge-owners. With new responsibilities to manage, Kag women eventually neglected their traditional social and spiritual obligations, much to the dismay of the older generation. On the other hand, women in Dzong still consider full social and physical participation in village life important despite the added obligations. They maintain spiritual harmony within the village. Dzongba women do not seem to feel the same conflicts as Kagpa women. The negative impact of Kag women's neglect of traditional social and spiritual responsibilities should be weighed against the possible benefits to women, household, and economy.

  15. The long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Russell, Steve; D'Exelle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long term economic impact of severe obstetric complications for women and their children in Burkina Faso, focusing on measures of food security, expenditures and related quality of life measures. It uses a hospital based cohort, first visited in 2004/2005 and followed up four years later. This cohort of 1014 women consisted of two main groups of comparison: 677 women who had an uncomplicated delivery and 337 women who experienced a severe obstetric complication which would have almost certainly caused death had they not received hospital care (labelled a "near miss" event). To analyze the impact of such near miss events as well as the possible interaction with the pregnancy outcome, we compared household and individual level indicators between women without a near miss event and women with a near miss event who either had a live birth, a perinatal death or an early pregnancy loss. We used propensity score matching to remove initial selection bias. Although we found limited effects for the whole group of near miss women, the results indicated negative impacts: a) for near miss women with a live birth, on child development and education, on relatively expensive food consumption and on women's quality of life; b) for near miss women with perinatal death, on relatively expensive foods consumption and children's education and c) for near miss women who had an early pregnancy loss, on overall food security. Our results showed that severe obstetric complications have long lasting consequences for different groups of women and their children and highlighted the need for carefully targeted interventions.

  16. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  17. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  18. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  19. KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D

    "KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED" IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANTS OR THE ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED. IT IS ARRANGED BY BOTH TOPIC AND TITLE INDEXES. TOPICS INCLUDE AGRICULTURE, AMERICAN CULTURE, DIRECTORIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, HANDBOOKS, ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION, ADULT…

  20. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer - complications, women´s experiences, quality of life and a health economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth

    2016-07-01

    This thesis contains four studies all focusing on women with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH). Women with endometrial cancer are typically elderly with co-morbidities. RALH is a relatively new treatment option which has been introduced and adopted over the last decade without randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove superiority over other surgical alternatives. The purpose of the thesis was to explore and describe patient and health economic outcomes of RALH for women with endometrial cancer using different research approaches. The first study was a retrospective descriptive cohort study with 235 women. The aim was to explore types and incidence of post-operative complications within 12 months after RALH reported with the Clavien-Dindo scale. We found that 6% had severe complications and that women with lymphadenectomy did not have an increased rate of complications. Urinary tract and port site infections were the most frequent complications. The second study was a qualitative interview study where we explored the experience of undergoing RALH. Using content analysis, we analysed semi-structured interviews with 12 women who had undergone RALH on average 12 weeks earlier. The women were positive towards the robotic approach and felt recovered shortly after. They expressed uncertainty with the normal course of bleeding and bowel movement post-operatively as well as with the new anatomy. The third study was an economic evaluation; an activity-based costing study including 360 women comparing total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) to RALH. This study showed that for women with endometrial cancer, RALH was cheaper compared to TAH, mainly due to fewer complications and shorter length of stay (LOS) that counterbalanced the higher robotic expenses. When including all cost drivers the analysis showed that the RALH procedure was more than 9.000 Danish kroner (DKK) cheaper than the TAH. Increased age and Type 2 diabetes appeared

  1. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer - complications, women´s experiences, quality of life and a health economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth

    2016-07-01

    This thesis contains four studies all focusing on women with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH). Women with endometrial cancer are typically elderly with co-morbidities. RALH is a relatively new treatment option which has been introduced and adopted over the last decade without randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove superiority over other surgical alternatives. The purpose of the thesis was to explore and describe patient and health economic outcomes of RALH for women with endometrial cancer using different research approaches. The first study was a retrospective descriptive cohort study with 235 women. The aim was to explore types and incidence of post-operative complications within 12 months after RALH reported with the Clavien-Dindo scale. We found that 6% had severe complications and that women with lymphadenectomy did not have an increased rate of complications. Urinary tract and port site infections were the most frequent complications. The second study was a qualitative interview study where we explored the experience of undergoing RALH. Using content analysis, we analysed semi-structured interviews with 12 women who had undergone RALH on average 12 weeks earlier. The women were positive towards the robotic approach and felt recovered shortly after. They expressed uncertainty with the normal course of bleeding and bowel movement post-operatively as well as with the new anatomy. The third study was an economic evaluation; an activity-based costing study including 360 women comparing total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) to RALH. This study showed that for women with endometrial cancer, RALH was cheaper compared to TAH, mainly due to fewer complications and shorter length of stay (LOS) that counterbalanced the higher robotic expenses. When including all cost drivers the analysis showed that the RALH procedure was more than 9.000 Danish kroner (DKK) cheaper than the TAH. Increased age and Type 2 diabetes appeared

  2. The Effect of Integrated Basic Education Programs on Women's Social and Economic Well-Being in Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Haiyan; Burchfield, Shirley

    A large-scale longitudinal study in Bolivia examined the relationship between adult women's basic education and their social and economic well-being and development. A random sample of 1,600 participants and 600 nonparticipants, aged 15-45, was tracked for 3 years (the final sample included 717 participants and 224 controls). The four adult…

  3. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  4. Is the Unemployment Rate of Women Too Low? A Direct Test of the Economic Theory of Job Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.

    To test the economic theory of job search and the rationality of job search behavior by unemployed married women, the importance of reservation wages (or wages requested for employment) was studied for its effect on the duration of unemployment and its relationship to the subsequent rate of pay upon reemployment. Models were established to explain…

  5. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending.

  6. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Karin; Axelson, Henrik; Sheehan, Peter; Anderson, Ian; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Friedman, Howard S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E; Sweeny, Kim; Tulloch, Jim; Hansen, Peter; Chopra, Mickey; Gupta, Anuradha; Vogel, Joshua P; Ostergren, Mikael; Rasmussen, Bruce; Levin, Carol; Boyle, Colin; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Koblinsky, Marjorie; Walker, Neff; de Francisco, Andres; Novcic, Nebojsa; Presern, Carole; Jamison, Dean; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-04-12

    A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments. Increasing health expenditure by just $5 per person per year up to 2035 in 74 high-burden countries could yield up to nine times that value in economic and social benefits. These returns include greater gross domestic product (GDP) growth through improved productivity, and prevention of the needless deaths of 147 million children, 32 million stillbirths, and 5 million women by 2035. These gains could be achieved by an additional investment of $30 billion per year, equivalent to a 2% increase above current spending. PMID:24263249

  7. Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marthers, Paul Philip

    2011-01-01

    At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

  8. The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

  9. Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

  10. Women in Transition, 1983. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Examination of Problems Faced by Women in Transition from Work without Pay to Economic Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a Congressional hearing on an examination of problems faced by women in transition from work without pay to economic self-sufficiency. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing the Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor; the Career Training Program, Women's Center, Enterprise State Junior College, Alabama; the National…

  11. Effects of a ‘school-based' physical activity intervention on adiposity in adolescents from economically disadvantaged communities: secondary outcomes of the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone' RCT

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, J L; Sutherland, R; Campbell, L; Morgan, P J; Lubans, D R; Nathan, N; Wolfenden, L; Okely, A D; Davies, L; Williams, A; Cohen, K E; Oldmeadow, C; Gillham, K; Wiggers, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity prevention during adolescence is a health priority. The ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone' (PA4E1) study tested a multi-component physical activity intervention in 10 secondary schools from socio-economically disadvantaged communities. This paper aimed to report the secondary outcomes of the study; to determine whether the intervention impacted on adiposity outcomes (weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score), and whether any effect was moderated by sex, baseline BMI and baseline physical activity level, at 12 and 24 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. The school-based intervention included seven physical activity strategies targeting the following: curriculum (strategies to maximise physical activity in physical education, student physical activity plans, an enhanced school sport programme); school environment (physical activity during school breaks, modification of school policy); and parents and the community (parent engagement, links with community physical activity providers). Students' weight (kg), BMI and BMI z-score, were collected at baseline (Grade 7), 12 and 24 months. Linear Mixed Models were used to assess between-group mean difference from baseline to 12 and 24 months. Exploratory sub-analyses were undertaken according to three moderators of energy balance. RESULTS: A total of 1150 students (mean age=12 years) provided outcome data at baseline, 1051 (91%) at 12 months and 985 (86%) at 24 months. At 12 months, there were group-by-time effects for weight (mean difference=–0.90 kg (95% confidence interval (CI)=–1.50, −0.30), P<0.01) and BMI (−0.28 kg m−2 (−0.50, −0.06), P=0.01) in favour of the intervention group, but not for BMI z-score (−0.05 (−0.11; 0.01), P=0.13). These findings were consistent for weight (−0.62 kg (−1.21, 0.03), P=0.01) and BMI (−0.28 kg m−2 (−0.49, −0.06), P=0.01) at 24 months, with group

  12. Educational Advancement and Socio-Economic Participation of Women in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doraiswami, Smt. S.

    The educational advancement of women in India is not perceived as an important characteristic since education is perceived as irrelevant to their roles. The equality of women in status and opportunity is guaranteed in the 1955 Constitution of India and by the government. Although achievements by women in the local and national levels exist, a…

  13. Lightening the load for women.

    PubMed

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.

  14. A comparison of socio-economic profiles of mixed married and intracaste married working women.

    PubMed

    Vijaylaxmi, A H; Saroja, K; Katarki, P A

    1992-04-01

    Differences between women in caste marriages and mixed marriages in India were investigated based on data from 65 working women in caste marriages and 65 in intracaste marriages. The findings indicated that mixed marriage women were similar in age at marriage and educational levels. There were significant differences in income: women in mixed marriages had higher income at the time of marriage than women in intracaste marriages. During the marital period there was no evidence of significant changes in educational level among women in either type of marriage. There were significant changes in income during the marital period. There were also significant differences in duration of marriage between marriage types: 10.92 years for women in mixed marriages and 13.77 years for women in intracaste marriages. There were more women in mixed marriages than women in intracaste marriages who advanced in their occupations, which was commensurate with this group's older age, education, and income levels at the time of marriage. The number of women advancing in their occupations was comparatively small.

  15. Money, men and markets: economic and sexual empowerment of market women in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Barbara; Nyanzi, Stella; Wolff, Brent; Whitworth, James

    2005-01-01

    Market trading requires access to cash, independent decision-making, mobility and social interaction. This study sought to explore whether market work empowers women with respect to spending decisions and negotiation over sex and condom-use. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 212 market women; and 12 focus group discussions and 52 in-depths interviews were conducted among market women in southwestern Uganda. Market women reported high levels of independence, mobility, assertiveness and social interaction. Access to cash was not synonymous with control over it, however. Spending decisions were limited by men's ability to selectively withdraw finances for expenditures central to women's concerns including household and children's needs. Trading in markets earns women masculine labels such as kiwagi, characterized variously as independent, rebellious and insubordinate. Earning money does not change expectations of correct behaviour for wives, making it difficult for women to initiate, deny sex or ask for condoms. Independence and income from market work may make it easier for women to enter and exit new sexual relationships. However, unable to protect themselves within partnerships, HIV risk may increase as a result. PMID:16864185

  16. Training Women for Rural Employment in Fiji's Changing Economic and Cultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele M. E.; Waqanivalu, Makario

    1996-01-01

    A young women's employment program in Fiji focused on personal development, self-reliance, and small business development. The responsibilities of women's traditional roles and lack of capital and credit were difficulties encountered, but the human development sessions were most valued by the participants. (SK)

  17. The Timing and Spacing of Births and Women's Labor Force Participation: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sue Goetz

    Empirical tests of hypotheses developed in a discussion of income and substitution effects support the hypotheses and show that women with more education have their first birth (Bl) sooner after leaving school than less educated women; also, an additional year of schooling raises the woman's age at Bl by only about one-half year. The higher the…

  18. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  19. Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Saul

    This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A…

  20. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANNOTATIONS ON BOOKS ABOUT DISADVANTAGED YOUTH ARE GIVEN. INCLUDED ARE SUCH SUBJECTS AS PUERTO RICAN LINGUAL AND NONLINGUAL MEASURES, APPROACHES TO COMBAT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, THE URBAN PROBLEMS OF NEGROES SETTLING OUTSIDE THE SOUTH, THE SCHOOLS' OBLIGATIONS AND SERVICES TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED NEGROES,…

  1. ERIC, DATA ON THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALKINS, PATRICIA; GUSSOW, JOAN

    THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL CENTER ON THE DISADVANTAGED (IRCD) OFFERS A WIDE RANGE OF SERVICES TO THE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY INTERESTED IN THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE CENTER ANSWERS SPECIFIC QUESTIONS BY DRAWING ON ITS LARGE COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS AND ABSTRACTS, MAINTAINS A SPECIALIZED LIBRARY, AND PUBLISHES BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND BIMONTHLY…

  2. Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

  3. Family Factors Related to Competence in Young, Disadvantaged Mexican-American Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, James M.; McKenzie, Richard E.

    As part of the continuing search for the environmental antecedents of competence in young children, this study investigated several parameters of a population of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. The factors of child competence on which this study focused were behavioral adjustment and linguistic ability. The antecedents of competence were…

  4. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  5. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  6. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  7. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  8. The Impact of Economic Crises on Women's Employment: A Comparison of the Great Depression (1930s) and the Current Crisis (1970s-1980s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Natalie J.

    Two areas in which the impact of economic crises on women's employment in the Great Depression of 1930 and during the 1970's and 1980's appear to be similar are examined: (1) the actual changes in female employment; and (2) the ideological campaigns and policies generated and/or reinforced, especially by the federal government, blaming women for…

  9. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  10. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  11. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  12. First Nations women's encounters with mainstream health care services.

    PubMed

    Browne, A J; Fiske, J A

    2001-03-01

    Health care encounters are important areas for study because they reflect social, political, economic, and ideological relations between patients and the dominant health care system. This study examines mainstream health care encounters from the viewpoint of First Nations women from a reserve community in northwestern Canada. Perspectives from critical medical anthropology and the concept of cultural safety provided the theoretical orientation for the study. Critical and feminist ethnographic approaches were used to guide in-depth interviews conducted with 10 First Nations women. Findings were organized around two broad themes that characterized women's descriptions of "invalidating" and "affirming" encounters. These narratives revealed that women's encounters were shaped by racism, discrimination, and structural inequities that continue to marginalize and disadvantage First Nations women. The women's health care experiences have historical, political, and economic significance and are reflective of wider postcolonial relations that shape their everyday lives.

  13. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  14. Social characteristics of psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area.

  15. Faculty practice: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Klooster, J

    1978-10-01

    In considering the advantages and disadvantages of full-time dental faculty members involved in private practice, some suggestions for coping with problems represented by the disadvantages have been cited. Faculty members may find a more satisfactory climate for the patient service aspect of their professional activity in a system where several options are made available from which a teacher may select his preferred office environment and practice style.

  16. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  17. Economic Costs of a Postrelease Intervention for Incarcerated Female Substance Abusers: Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO)

    PubMed Central

    McCollister, Kathryn E.; Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Freitas, Derek M.; French, Michael T.; Funk, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO), highlighting the unique mix of services and differential costs between two distinct phases of the intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to quarterly outcome monitoring (OM) only (n=242) or OM plus Recovery Management Checkups (OM-plus-RMC) (n=238). The OM-only condition has a total annual economic cost of $76,010, which equates to $81 quarterly per person. The average cost per OM interview completed is $86. OM-plus-RMC generates a total annual economic cost of $126,717, or $137 quarterly per person. The cost per interview completed is $147 and the cost per intervention session completed is $161. RMC-WO has a relatively modest additional cost compared with the average costs of post-release supervision, which can range from $3.42 ($1,250) per day (year) for probationers to $7.47 ($2,750) per day (year) for parolees. The clinical, economic, and policy implications of incorporating RMC-WO into existing corrections and/or community-based treatment settings are discussed. PMID:27030790

  18. The Impact of Nontraditional Training on the Occupational Attainment of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streker-Seeborg, Irmtraud; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Using a logit model of occupational attainment, researchers found that economically disadvantaged women who received nontraditional training were much less likely to be employed in male-dominated occupations and received lower hourly wages. Direct labor market discrimination seems to be responsible for the inhibited occupational attainment of…

  19. The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

  20. Coresidence with Parents, Women's Economic Resources, and the Transition to Marriage in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymo, James M.; Ono, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Integrating three theoretical explanations for declining rates of marriage in Japan, the authors develop hypotheses in which linkages between benefits of coresidence with parents and marriage timing are moderated by women's own socioeconomic characteristics. To evaluate these hypothesized interactive relationships, data from a panel survey of…

  1. Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.

    PubMed

    Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

    2005-01-01

    Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving

  2. Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W F

    2001-05-01

    A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process.

  3. Women's worth.

    PubMed

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men. PMID:12317441

  4. Women's worth.

    PubMed

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  5. Neighbourhood disadvantage, network capital and restless sleep: is the association moderated by gender in urban-dwelling adults?

    PubMed

    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2014-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that social and neighbourhood contexts may relate to sleep in adults, the underlying social and demographic mechanisms involved remain relatively unexplored. This study proposes a conceptual framework for examining the link between social environments and restless sleep, and assesses whether associations among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environments differ by gender. Data come from the 2008 Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (n = 2707). Participants self-reported restless sleep. Network and cognitive dimensions of social capital were examined. Neighbourhood disadvantage and population density were measured using 2006 Canada Census data. Multilevel logistic analyses adjusting for socio-economic and -demographic variables were used to estimate associations among study variables. The final sample size for this study was 2643 adults (nmen = 930; nwomen = 1713). Women were more likely to experience restless sleep than men (OR: 1.29; 95% CIs: 1.07, 1.55). Network capital increased the likelihood of restless sleep in men (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) but not women. High generalized trust decreased the odds of restless sleep in women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.94); neighbourhood disadvantage increased the odds of restless sleep in women but not men (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.38). The association among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environmental factors differed in male and female Montreal adults. This study contributes to a greater understanding of possible differential associations between social environments and health in men and women. Greater knowledge of the social and environmental factors that contribute to poor sleep in men and women can aid in the design of interventions to improve sleep patterns in the general population. Social and health promotion interventions might aim to improve general neighbourhood environmental conditions to improve the sleep health of

  6. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  7. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  8. Women and Minorities in Economics Textbooks: Are They Being Adequately Represented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Examines 12 recent editions of principles of economics textbooks to determine the quantity of race- and gender-related material. Finds, in general, that there has been an increase in the quantitative coverage of race- and gender-related material as measured by the number of pages, names, and tables in the textbooks. (RLH)

  9. Jobs: women's double burden.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  10. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  11. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--A PROGRAM FOR ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINGER, LEON; AND OTHERS

    A LARGE NUMBER OF NEW JERSEY PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS ARE AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH LIMIT THEIR ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION. THREE FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE THAT HIS FAMILY IS ECONOMICALLY POOR, HIS HOME LIFE PROVIDES LITTLE IF ANY STIMULATION TO HIS INTELLECTUAL GROWTH, AND HE AND…

  12. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  13. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  14. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  15. Training the Disadvantaged: Can it Reduce Welfare Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1987-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act was evaluated in terms of moving economically disadvantaged individuals toward financial independence. Data analysis indicated small savings in welfare payments for female recipients, but not males. Data deficiencies in the Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Survey were also…

  16. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  17. The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

    Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

  18. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  19. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  20. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing breast-feeding among Kuwaiti women.

    PubMed

    Al Bustan, M; Kohli, B R

    1988-01-01

    Data about breastfeeding practices were collected from a sample of 1553 Kuwaiti married women during June 1985 to November 1985. The survey results show that Kuwaiti population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate incidence and duration of breastfeeding. The findings of a strong positive association between duration of breastfeeding and parity of the infant, and age of the mother at the time of birth of the child were observed which was expected. Further negative association between breastfeeding and family income, education of the mother and age of mother at marriage was confirmed by the data. Survey findings also support the general expectation that housewives have higher incidence and duration of breastfeeding relative to working mothers. Contrary to the practice among developing societies, Kuwaiti women did not show any preferential treatment for male infants. The survey findings call for concerted efforts through mass media, and education to promote breastfeeding practices for the benefits of infants as well as mothers.

  1. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  2. The Disadvantaged: Challenge to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…

  3. GUIDANCE FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, BERNARD A.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN FROM CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS REQUIRE SPECIAL ATTENTION FROM COUNSELORS AND OTHER SCHOOL PERSONNEL. PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFTEN REFLECT A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND VALUE STRUCTURE. AS A RESULT, A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE SCHOOL'S ACTIVITIES, EXPECTATIONS, AND STANDARDS ARE PARTIALLY ALIEN TO THOSE OF MOST OF ITS DISADVANTAGED…

  4. SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS, SLOW LEARNERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, S. ALAN

    THIS PAPER DOCUMENTS THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS AND EXAMINES THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS WHICH GROW OUT OF THEM. SPECIFIC STATISTICS ARE REPORTED WHICH DESCRIBE INADEQUATE MEDICAL SERVICES FOR NEGROES, POOR HEALTH, POVERTY LEVEL INCOMES, AND EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION. THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL FACTORS DISCUSSED INCLUDE VISUAL…

  5. Women's employment and the production force.

    PubMed

    Li, S

    1990-01-01

    The economic problem of women in China is discussed in terms of the diversification of women's jobs, the growth in women's employment rate, and improvements in women's employment structure. Any change in women's employment status must be compatible with social production forces of labor organization patterns and the demand in professional fields. Fields of employment that are suitable for women need to be expanded. The division of labor is such that men are predominately in heavy industry and women in light industry. The physical makeup of women puts them at a disadvantage, as well as their role in child rearing. The service industry is open to women. The number of new jobs is rapidly increasing in occupations that require more mental work and hence open to women, such as, office maintenance, computer services' technician, computer programmer, and law associates or electrical engineer. The semiconductor industry statistics in southeast Asia reveal that 90% of unmarried women 16-23 years are employed in this industry. Improvement in women's educational levels also provide opportunities. The largest proportion of jobs are still in agriculture, while the country is changing from a natural economy to a market-oriented one. More women are engaged in employment in developed countries, and there is regional variation in female employment patterns. Comparisons are made for countries in southeast Asia in the % of working women. The increase in working women is attributed to increases in very young (16-23 years) and very old (65 years) women. Women's employment has grown on an annual average of 23.7% vs. 15% for the world. During times of economic recession, women's employment grew but in low level jobs. Women in state-owned enterprises rose from 7.5% in 1949 to 32.0% in 1984. Growth for women was fastest in the service industry (4.1%-39.8%), followed closely by scientific research institutions and health services (11.4%-38.2%). Women in agriculture and forestry rose from 2

  6. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  7. Influences on Employment Discrimination in the Caribbean: The Case of the Marginalized Men and Wasted Women of Dominica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    A study considered the global problem of employment discrimination as it is reenacted in the Caribbean. It takes Dominica as a micro-example of how factors of differential education and cultural expectation interact within the influences of changing global economic policies to disadvantage men and women across the spectrum of employment…

  8. Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Andrea C.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at risk" of leaving school…

  9. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  10. Body mass index, socio-economic status and socio-behavioral practices among Tz'utujil Maya women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Valeggia, Claudia R; Barg, Frances K; Bream, Kent D W

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates the associations between body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES) and related socio-behavioral practices including marriage and market visits in a population of adult Tz'utujil Maya women in Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala, aged 18-82. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods include cross-sectional anthropometric measurements and semi-structured interviews gathered in 2007, as well as participant observation and purposive interviews conducted in 2007-2008. The regional quota sample of 53 semi-structured interviews was designed to be representative of the cantones (municipal divisions) of Santiago Atitlán. BMI was positively associated with years of schooling, income and literacy, all measures of SES. A statistical analysis of our data indicates that increased income, increased market visits and being married are significantly positively associated with BMI. Qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory method reveals relevant themes including a preoccupation with hunger and undernutrition rather than obesity, a preference for food quantity over dietary diversity, the economic and social influence of a husband, the effects of market distance and the increasing consumption of food from tiendas. These themes help to explain how SES, socio-behavioral practices and BMI are positively associated and can inform future public health interventions related to obesity and undernutrition. PMID:19299213

  11. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  12. Interpreting the Economic Growth and Development Policies of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence on Higher Education and Prospects for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through…

  13. Pay Now or Pay Later: An Economic Rationale for State-Funded Helping Services to Assist Women Leaving an Abusive Relationship.

    PubMed

    DeRiviere, Linda

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in costing analysis of intimate partner violence in recent decades, including the monetary impact to government, society, and the individual. Using data collected in a Canadian longitudinal study, the empirical analysis in this article provides an economic rationale for mobilizing public resources that improve the well-being of women leaving an abusive relationship. I estimated six variants of a selection model and used a costing exercise to build an economic case for preventive and other helping services to support women over their healing journey. The removal of financial constraints suffered by abused women, in support of their training needs, as well as reduced barriers to preventive health care services, may potentially lead to fiscal resource savings in the long run. PMID:26299448

  14. Women, Work, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines causes of women's disadvantage in the workplace and the inadequacies of career development models for women. Addresses themes related to women's learning at work: hidden curriculum in the work context, identity development, relationships and connection, and mentoring. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  15. Social and contextual etiology of coronary heart disease in women.

    PubMed

    Fleury, J; Keller, C; Murdaugh, C

    2000-11-01

    We explored the social and contextual etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention and management in women. Social and contextual influences on CHD risk include such factors as socioeconomic status, access to healthcare, cultural mores, working conditions including work overload, multiple role responsibilities, and social isolation. Women, particularly economically disadvantaged women, occupy lower levels on the social status hierarchy and, therefore, experience more stressful life experiences, less favorable living conditions, and less opportunity to affect positive health behavior and outcomes. Women are often discriminated against economically, politically, and socially, and this discrimination may adversely affect their efforts at CHD health promotion and treatment. Multiple role responsibilities within the family and psychosocial factors, including chronic life stress, are critical to an understanding of the health status of women, particularly poor and minority women. Although community-based interventions appear to be ideal for addressing the contextual risks related to CHD in women, a number of issues need to be considered, for example, the limited acknowledgment of secular trends in economic development that influence lifestyle decisions and health promotion efforts. Directions for research and interventions include recognition of the full spectrum of CHD risk in women, recognition of culturally competent interventions, and recognition of the need for empowerment of women.

  16. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  17. Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.; Bradford, Clarence

    The results of a 1983 followup survey to assess the long-term impact of the federally-funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program are presented. Educationally or economically disadvantaged students who enrolled in the program during their freshman year, 1979-1980, were studied. Questionnaires investigated respondents'…

  18. Leading in Disadvantaged Zimbabwean School Contexts: Female School Heads' Experiences of Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…

  19. Urban Education and the "Truly Disadvantaged": The Historical Roots of the Contemporary Crisis, 1945-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Harvey; Brenzel, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Postwar transformation of U.S. cities gave new form to longstanding racial and economic educational inequities, intensifying barriers to achievement facing disadvantaged students. By concentrating disadvantaged students in inferior innercity schools, educational problems are intensified. Bureaucratic school systems do little to address new…

  20. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, team members, and subcontractors. This clause addresses disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, teaming arrangement members, and subcontractors.... The Contractor shall obtain representations of small disadvantaged status from joint venture...

  2. [Arterial hypertension in menopausal women: Clinical, functional, and pharmaco-economical aspects].

    PubMed

    Gel'tser, B I; Kotel'nikov, V N; Khludeeva, T A

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to define the specific features of daily variations of blood pressure (BP) and autonomic cardiac regulation (ACR), as well as the functional status of the myocardium and vascular endothelium in females with menopausal arterial hypertension (MPAH) and to assess the pharmacotherapeutic and economical aspects of the combined use of arifon retard and clinonorm. The study enrolled 30 reproductive females with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH) and 65 females with MPAH who were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the therapeutic model. MPAH was characterized by more unfavorable hemodynamic changes that AH in the presence of preserved fertile function: greater load on target organs, elevated BP, its inadequate nocturnal lowering, greater BP variations, the magnitude and rate of its morning elevation. In AH, the vasomotor function of the endothelium varies with the clinical form of the disease and with the functional status of the female reproductive system. By and large, in the group of patients with MPAH, the latter was characterized by a more significant decrease in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDVD). Arifon retard monotherapy has an adequate antihypertensive effect in female patients with MPAH, by ensuring 24-hour control of BP and affecting its chronostructure. A combination of arifon retard and climonorm has no cumulative effect on the level of BP and on the parameters of pressure-induced load; however, this is a pathogenetically grounded combination that potentiates the positive effects of a diuretic in significantly improving EDVD and ACR. The use of arifon retard in combination with climonorm in MPAH is the most cost-effective for public health care facilities and effective for patients. The course of MPAH is of certain peculiarity, which should be taken into account in choosing a therapeutic model for this category of patients.

  3. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. PMID:20541306

  4. EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

    COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

  5. Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on Their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Melinda

    In order to indicate potential income-generating programs for women, 67 women in the river region and selected sites in the Assaba and the Guidimakha were interviewed in 1980 to illuminate effects of the 1970s-80s drought and male migration on Mauritanian women. Hypotheses were based on the drought causing unprecedented disruption to Mauritanian…

  6. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  7. Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians.

    PubMed

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Reidy, Erin; Knodel, John

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender differences across indicators and provide an important qualification to widely held views concerning the globally disadvantaged position of older women. Whereas men tend to report higher levels of income than women, there is generally little gender difference in housing characteristics, asset ownership, or reports of subjective economic well-being. Unmarried women are economically advantaged compared to unmarried men in some respects, in part because they are more likely to be embedded in multigenerational households and receive both direct and indirect forms of support from family members.

  8. Protecting women's rights to land.

    PubMed

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  9. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  10. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Toit, Nola Cora Du

    2012-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women—the notion that certain limitations may make women poor marriage partners. Like their male counterparts, we find women also possess qualities that are not considered assets in the marriage market, such as economic constraints, mental and physical health issues, substance use, multiple partner fertility, and gender distrust. We also consider how women participating in a marriage program frame their marriage options, whereas a few opt out of the marriage market altogether. PMID:23258947

  11. Social security, age of retirement, and economic well-being: intertemporal and demographic patterns among retired-worker beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Haveman, Robert; Holden, Karen; Wilson, Kathryn; Wolfe, Barbara

    2003-05-01

    We examine the economic status of a sample of new recipients of social security retired-worker benefits shortly after their first receipt of benefits (1982) and 10 years later (1991). The probability that these retired-worker beneficiaries were poor or near-poor is positively and strongly associated with their acceptance of early retired-worker benefits. Early retirees, women who remained single, and women who lost their spouses experienced large declines in economic status over the decade following their first receipt of benefits. Although both women and men who first received benefits at younger ages had lower economic status than did those who became beneficiaries at older ages, this retirement age-related disadvantage increased over the decade for women but not for men. PMID:12846137

  12. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p < .0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (β = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p = 0.006), while attitudes

  13. Self Concepts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    The specific intention of this study was to determine whether samples of disadvantaged students showed positive self-images (as had been shown by some of previous researches) and whether these are maintained when disadvantaged children move out of their neighborhood schools to the more integrated environment of the high school. Seven hundred and…

  14. Developing Programs for the Educationally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    The 17 papers in this book are collected to offer some insights into the problems of teaching the disadvantaged. Part I contains papers on the nature of the disadvantaged child, curriculum relevant to his needs, and difficulties in evaluating compensatory education programs; Part II includes papers describing compensatory education from various…

  15. Disadvantaged Children: Health, Nutrition and School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; Gussow, Joan Dye

    This book examines the relationships between poverty, disadvantage, and educational failure in a way considered to be more comprehensive and complex than is possible when such an examination is based solely on a concept of cultural disadvantage and defective experience. The mortality of infants and their mothers around birth, held to be both the…

  16. Primary Prevention Strategies for Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Paul D.

    Primary prevention strategies (prevention at the community level) for disadvantaged populations are discussed. A number of factors in Canadian society have placed additional stress on many poor and working class families. These include issues of housing, unemployment, lack of education, and social changes with adverse effects on the disadvantaged.…

  17. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  18. HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

    DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

  19. METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDBERG, MIRIAM L.

    PROCEDURES TO HELP THE TEACHER OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN RECONSTITUTE THE MODELS OF LEARNERS AND CLASSROOMS TO WHICH SHE IS ACCUSTOMED ARE PRESENTED. THESE PROCEDURES ALSO HELP TO ELIMINATE THE EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. SEVEN PROCEDURES WERE DISCUSSED--(1) "CONTACT WITH THE CULTURAL MAINSTREAM"--ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT…

  20. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... or more. (b) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  1. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... or more. (b) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  2. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... or more. (b) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  3. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates... or more. (c) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  4. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates... or more. (c) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  5. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates... or more. (c) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  6. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... or more. (b) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  7. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates... or more. (c) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  8. Challenging Change: Transformative Education for Economically Disadvantaged Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland-Russell, Tara; Syrnyk, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a mixed-methods study of 13 participants in a Radical Humanities programme designed as a transformative learning space for low-income adults who have experienced barriers to learning. Using demographic questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews and course evaluations this study examined participants'…

  9. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... or more. (b) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  10. 34 CFR 668.213 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates... or more. (c) Low income rate. (1) Your low income rate is the percentage of your students, as... selected under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, have an expected family contribution, as defined in 34...

  11. Working Women, Marriage, and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith

    Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…

  12. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its implications for population health planning of obesity and overweight, using cross-sectional data from general practices from a regional catchment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhijeet; Charlton, Karen E; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify smaller geographic and region-specific evidence to inform population health planning for overweight and obesity. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data. Setting Primary healthcare—17 general practices located in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales (NSW). Participants A subset (n=36 674) of the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project adult persons data set (n=118 794) that included information on disease status of all adult patients who had height and weight measurements recorded in their electronic health records and had visited the included general practices within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of NSW between September 2011 and September 2013. Main outcome measures Age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of overweight and obesity was determined for high and low levels of socioeconomic disadvantage based on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)—Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD) scores of patients' residential statistical local area. Results In men, overweight was lowest in areas of highest socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=0.910; 95% CI 0.830 to 0.998; p<0.001); but no statistically significant association with socioeconomic score was found for women. Overall obesity was associated with high socioeconomic disadvantage (aOR=1.292; 95% CI 1.210 to 1.379; p<0.001). Conclusions This type of data analysis reveals multiple layers of evidence that should be assessed for population health approaches to curb the epidemic of obesity and overweight. It strongly highlights the need for preventive health initiatives to be specific to gender and socioeconomic attributes of the target population. PMID:27142857

  13. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  14. Minority women and advocacy for women's health.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Morssink, C B; Nestle, M

    2001-09-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

  15. The evaluation of the JEWEL project: an innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Sherman, S G; German, D; Cheng, Y; Marks, M; Bailey-Kloche, M

    2006-01-01

    The JEWEL (Jewellery Education for Women Empowering Their Lives) pilot study examined the efficacy of an economic empowerment and HIV prevention intervention targeting illicit drug-using women (n=50) who were involved in prostitution in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention was comprised of six 2-hour sessions that taught HIV prevention risk reduction and the making, marketing and selling of jewellery. Bivariate comparisons examined behaviour change pre- and 3-months post-intervention. The intervention's effect on the change in the number of sex trade partners from baseline to follow-up was explored with multiple linear regression. Participants were 62.0% African American, 5.0% were currently employed, and the median age was 39 years old (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 34-45). Women attended an average of six (IQR: 4.5-6.0) sessions. The women sold over $7,000 worth of jewellery in eleven sales. In comparing self-reported risk behaviours pre and 3-month post intervention participation, we found significant reductions in: receiving drugs or money for sex (100% versus 71.0%, p<0.0005); the median number of sex trade partners per month (9 versus 3, p=0.02); daily drug use (76.0% vs. 55.0%, p=0.003); the amount of money spent on drugs daily (US$52.57 versus US$46.71, p = 0.01); and daily crack use (27.3% versus 13.1.0%, p = 0.014). In the presence of other variables in a multivariate linear model, income from the jewelry sale was associated with a reduction in the number of sex trade partners at follow-up. The pilot indicated effectiveness of a novel, HIV prevention, economic enhancement intervention upon HIV sexual risk behaviours and drug utilization patterns. PMID:16282070

  16. [Women in labor and migration. The female labor market between 1950 and 1990 and migration of women to Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Szasz, I

    1994-06-01

    Changes in the volume of female migration to Santiago and in the employment patterns of migrant women are analyzed in relationship to changes in the female labor market from 1950 onward, with special emphasis on the years 1970-90. Data sources include published works, the censuses of 1952 to 1982, a 1962 survey on in-migration to Santiago, employment surveys conducted by the University of Chile and the National Institute of Statistics, special tabulations for subsamples of the 1970 and 1982 censuses, and household employment survey information from the fourth quarter of 1993. In 1973 Chile embarked on a process of structural adjustments that affected social expenditures and employment, profoundly modifying urban labor markets. The Chilean economy is currently in a phase of consolidating its productive transformation, with positive results for economic growth and recuperation of employment, but with no reduction of poverty. The explanation of the growth in poverty should be sought in modifications in the conditions of employment of the Chilean population during the productive transformation. Modernization processes such as increased education and access to fertility control contributed to an increase in the number of highly educated women in nonmanual occupations in Santiago, but have not significantly influenced the volume or direction of female migration or modified the disadvantageous occupational profile of migrant women. Gender considerations including cultural norms governing female sexual behavior and nuptiality appear to exercise a decisive influence on the occupational status of migrant women in Santiago. Low status, single women migrating to Santiago have been concentrated in domestic service in part because of their need to find work providing safe living quarters. After 1975, migrant women encountered an increasing proportion of urban women working and looking for work and a structural transformation of domestic service marked by massive absorption of

  17. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  18. Promotion of Physical Activity Among Mexican-Origin Women in Texas and South Carolina: An Examination of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K

    2011-02-01

    Interventions to improve physical activity levels among Latinos must take into consideration the social, cultural, economic, and environmental contexts of Latino communities. We report findings of formative assessments related to Mexican-origin women's levels of readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in regular leisure time physical activity in two diverse locations, the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley and the South Carolina Midlands. The ENLACE project employed a Community-Based Participatory Research approach. Formative assessment activities focused on identification of community assets and resources and exploration of community members' experiences, opinions, values, preferences, and perceived needs related to physical activity. Data sources included windshield tours, walkability assessments of local neighborhoods; community inventory exercises, focus groups, and individual interviews. Barriers to regular physical activity included the dominance of work and family responsibilities, social norms, lack of social support, social isolation, environmental constraints, economics, and low levels of personal knowledge and motivation. PMID:21731409

  19. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Jane P.; Latthe, Pallavi; Coomarasamy, Arri; Rachaneni, Suneetha; McCooty, Shanteela; Verghese, Tina S.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. Design Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS) and secondary sources. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken. Results Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties. Conclusions Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty. PMID:27513926

  20. Child survival in big cities: the disadvantages of migrants.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, M

    1995-05-01

    Data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys are used to examine whether rural-urban migrants in developing countries experience higher child mortality after settling in towns and cities than do lifelong urban residents, and if so, what individual or household characteristics account for this. Findings indicate that children of female migrants from the countryside generally have much poorer survival chances than other urban children. This survival disadvantage is more pronounced in big cities than in smaller urban areas, among migrants who have lived in the city for many years than among recent migrants, and in urban Latin America than in urban North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Within big cities, higher child mortality among migrant women is clearly related to their concentration in low-quality housing, and in part to fertility patterns at early ages of children and mother's educational attainment at later ages. Excess child mortality among urban migrants may also result from factors associated with the migration process, that are outlined in this study but not included in the analysis. Evidence of moderately high levels of residential segregation of migrant women in big cities suggests that opportunities exist for urban health programs to direct interventions to this disadvantaged segment of city populations. PMID:7638646

  1. Integration of women in population and development programmes.

    PubMed

    Sadik, N

    1986-09-01

    Recently, and mostly as a result of awareness created during the United Nations decade for women, it has become clear that women's contribution to development--and its recognition--are essential to the success of national development. The concept of development has evolved. Women should now be seen not only as a disadvantaged group but also as potential agents of change; one of the criteria for the examination of development plans should be women's involvement in the process and decision-making. "Equality" is difficult to define. Often development efforts neglect to take inherent differences in sex roles in each society into account. "Women's status" connected to educational level continues to be a factor in fertility behavior and infant mortality. Women's economic activity, is generally undervalued especially where it is not paid. The majority of women are employed in agriculture in developing countries and service jobs in developed countries; neither sector enjoys high pay or status. Female employment status also appears to affect fertility. The 3rd factor in women's status is fertility itself, and the access to family planning methods and information. There is still a huge unmet family planning need. It should not be assumed that prosperity in 1 society sector will have a positive influence in other sectors, that development automatically affects men and women equally, that men rather than women are the only important family financial resources; or that there are no status differences between women in the same society. Women are not "1 more development problem." Changes must atempt to impact multiple aspects of women's lives, and be considered a political and multiministerial and not "welfare" priorities. Some governments have made firm commitments, in policy and in international conferences, in improving the status of women.

  2. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  3. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  4. Introduction: lesbians and work: the advantages and disadvantages of comfortable shoes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Pamela A

    2008-01-01

    This collection of research articles and personal essays on Lesbians and Work is introduced, highlighting some of the advantages and disadvantages that lesbians experience when they engage in paid work outside the home. Although lesbians in the U.S. and elsewhere experience similar workplace discrimination and stress, there are many different ways in which lesbian women respond to discrimination and manage stress.

  5. Identification of Strategies to Increase Retention of Disadvantaged Students in Nontraditional Programs in Florida. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel in their efforts to increase the number of women and nontraditional students who are recruited into and retained in nontraditional occupational preparation programs. Discussed first are the nature and scope of the problem of retaining disadvantaged students in nontraditional vocational programs,…

  6. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  7. The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

  8. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  9. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  10. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-05-14

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  11. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  12. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  13. The perplexing links between contraceptive sterilization and (dis)advantage in ten low-fertility countries.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors.

  14. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory.

    PubMed

    Dannefer, Dale

    2003-11-01

    Age and cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory have obvious logical, theoretical, and empirical connections, because both are inherently and irreducibly related to the passage of time. Over the past 15 years, these connections have resulted in the elaboration and application of the cumulative advantage-disadvantage perspective in social gerontology, especially in relation to issues of heterogeneity and inequality. However, its theoretical origins, connections, and implications are not widely understood. This article reviews the genesis of the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective in studies of science, its initial articulation with structural-functionalism, and its expanding importance for gerontology. It discusses its intellectual relevance for several other established theoretical paradigms in sociology, psychology, and economics. On the basis of issues deriving from these perspectives and from the accumulating body of work on cumulative advantage and disadvantage, I identify several promising directions for further research in gerontology.

  15. Women in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Bickel, J

    2000-01-01

    Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women.

  16. Socio-Economic Characteristics of Women Enrolled in Higher Education Programs at the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibuogwu, Nnaka V.

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there is gender disparity in education access especially at the higher education level. Research reports on this subject link this phenomenon to the prevailing socio-cultural and economic values and practices in Nigeria. Efforts are on ground to widen access to tertiary education for all including…

  17. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line.

  18. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit VII: Improving Language Skills of the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The seventh in a series of inservice teacher education units is devoted to improving the language skills of disadvantaged students. Part I discusses standard and nonstandard English, and the structural and functional interferences posed by the language systems used by disadvantaged pupils. Part II is devoted to the dialects used by Negro and…

  19. Gender and Reinforcing Associations between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Body Mass over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Reither, Eric; Logan, Ellis; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–1993 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore reciprocal associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass in this 1939 birth cohort of non-Hispanic white men and women. We integrate the fundamental cause theory, the gender relations theory, and the life-course perspective to analyze gender differences in (a) the ways that early socioeconomic disadvantage launches bidirectional associations of body mass and SES, and (b) the extent to which these mutually-reinforcing effects generate socioeconomic disparities in midlife body mass. Using structural equation modeling, we find that socioeconomic disadvantage at age 18 is related to higher body mass index and a greater risk of obesity at age 54, and that this relationship is significantly stronger for women than men. Moreover, women are more adversely affected by two mechanisms underlying the focal association: the obesogenic effect of socioeconomic disadvantage and the SES-impeding effect of obesity. These patterns were also replicated in propensity score matching models. Gender and SES act synergistically over the life course to shape reciprocal chains of two disadvantaged statuses: heavier body mass and lower SES. PMID:25138198

  20. Consumption of potentially fortifiable foods by women and young children varies by ecological zone and socio-economic status in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Ndjebayi, Alex Ongla; Nankap, Martin; Brown, Kenneth H

    2012-03-01

    In preparation for a proposed large-scale food fortification program in Cameroon, we completed a nationally representative, cross-sectional, cluster survey to assess the consumption patterns of four potentially fortifiable foods (refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube) by women and children. Thirty clusters were randomly chosen in each of three ecologic zones (south, north, and large cities) and 10 households (HH) per cluster were selected, each with a child 12-59 mo old and a primary female caregiver 15-49 y old (total 1002 HH). Blood samples were collected and food consumption was assessed by FFQ and 24-h dietary recall. Anemia (39% of women, 58% of children) and deficiencies of iron (15-32%, 21-70%), zinc (77%, 70%), vitamin A (22%, 35%), and vitamin B-12 (28%, 27%) were common, especially in the north and among HH with lower socio-economic status (SES). Oil was consumed by 54% of HH, whereas >75% of HH consumed wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube. For most foods, coverage was lower among HH with lower SES. On average, oil, wheat flour, and sugar were consumed once per day and bouillon cube was consumed twice per day. Median intakes of oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cube (among consumers) were 19.8, 79.4, 30.0, and 1.9 g/d for women and 12.0, 49.4, 19.4, and 0.9 g/d for children, respectively. Food consumption patterns of high risk population subgroups must be considered, along with technical feasibility and cost, for the selection of appropriate vehicles for food fortification.

  1. Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballagas, Linda D.

    The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

  2. Counselor Preferences of Disabled and Disadvantaged College Students for Personal Versus Vocational Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the preferred counselor characteristics of two groups: students with disabilities and students who were educationally and economically disadvantaged. Counselor characteristics were examined in terms of how preferences are differentially expressed for help with personal-social versus vocational-educational concerns. (Author/BH)

  3. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  4. A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmar, Susan Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

  5. The Educationally Disadvantaged: A National Crisis. The State Youth Initiatives Project. Working Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Available data reviewed in this paper suggest that at least 30% of elementary and secondary school students in the United States are educationally disadvantaged, and that the proportion will rise rapidly in the future. When these youth reach adulthood, their poor educational foundations will have deleterious economic and social consequences,…

  6. Do Public Schools Disadvantage Students Living in Public Housing? Working Paper #09-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; McCabe, Brian J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Chellman, Colin

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, public housing developments are predominantly located in neighborhoods with low median incomes, high rates of poverty and disproportionately high concentrations of minorities. While research consistently shows that public housing developments are located in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods, we know little…

  7. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  8. Upward Mobility Programs in the Service Sector for Disadvantaged and Dislocated Workers. Volume I: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; And Others

    Upward mobility programs in the service sector for low-skilled, economically disadvantaged, and dislocated or displaced workers promote employment security, career development, and productivity. Two basic types of upward mobility programs are basic and job-specific skills training. Although 60-80 percent of all employer-sponsored formal training…

  9. Project Spring II: Science Curriculum Modifications for Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

    This manual is an overview of the science curriculum intervention that occurred in a federally funded project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from minority populations. An introduction discusses the training in curriculum development and methodology, based on Bloom's Taxonomy…

  10. Quantifying Access Disadvantage and Gathering Information in Rural and Remote Localities: The Griffith Service Access Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis A.

    2003-01-01

    A purely geographic classification is not the best way to measure rural disadvantage in Australia. A service access model is described that incorporates the following elements: population center size; distance, time, and cost of travel to the service center; and a measure of the economic capacity of residents to overcome the cost of travel.…

  11. Token Reinforcement: Effects for Reducing Tardiness with a Socially Disadvantaged Adolescent Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkster, J. A.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A token reinforcement program with microcomputer free time as the reinforcer was implemented to decrease the tardiness of a middle school economically disadvantaged student. The microcomputer time was a very effective reinforcer; school personnel reported improved school attendance and a decrease in administrative discipline related to tardiness;…

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  13. Mentoring Disadvantaged Gifted Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    In spite of increasing amounts of attention given to mentoring in recent years, it appears that the disadvantaged child is not being mentored, and that his or her educational needs are not being addressed. Some possible reasons why so little mentoring of minority students occurs, or reasons why so little is heard about what does occur, are…

  14. Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreedhar, M. V.

    Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

  15. Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalka, Joseph A.

    A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

  16. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  17. Using Pamphlets with Disadvantaged Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susan K.

    One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide explains the advantages of pamphlets for a public library collection. Pamphlets provide easily read, up-to-date information at little cost. Several bibliographies and magazine columns regularly list free and inexpensive pamphlets. Collections of these booklets can be placed…

  18. TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELKINS, DEBORAH; TABA, HILDA

    TWO CURRICULUM SEQUENCES, DESIGNED FOR A GROUP OF PREDOMINANTLY NEGRO SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADERS AND FOR A GROUP OF WHITE SECOND-GENERATION AMERICAN EIGHTH-GRADERS, ARE PRESENTED HERE AS INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. THE SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADE CURRICULUM UNIT ON THE "FAMILY OF MAN" STRESSES INSIGHTS INTO THE…

  19. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  20. Comment: Unemployment Theories and Disadvantaged Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, Al

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that policies tolerating higher levels of joblessness for workers generally, and for disadvantaged workers in particular, are based on tenuous job search rationales and inflation expectationist fears. The old weapons of fiscal and monetary stimulation to stabilize income and unemployment are required, together with new strategies to…

  1. EDUCATING THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED, A MATURING APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOWLER, WILLIAM L.

    THIS REPORT BRIEFLY REVIEWS TRENDS IN 20TH-CENTURY RESEARCH ON EDUCATING DISADVANTAGED AND MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. MANY STUDIES WRITTEN IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S INDICATED THAT NEGROES WERE LESS INTELLIGENT THAN CAUCASIANS, AND THUS TEACHERS DEMANDED LITTLE OF THEIR MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. SINCE THAT TIME RESEARCH STUDIES HAVE EMPHASIZED THE…

  2. Making Education Meaningful for Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lansing J.

    Educational and training programs have been successful in recruiting disadvantaged young adults because they also provide other services (e.g., food, money, and shelter); yet, client participation in the programs is often minimal. Client lack of utilization of academic and vocational training programs can be categorized in three areas. These are…

  3. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  5. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  6. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  7. Classroom Management and the Socially Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl

    Because of their deficits in academic attainments and different cultural styles, socially disadvantaged children create more potential than other children for classroom management problems. To improve classroom management, teachers should maintain a clean room and train their students to enter that room in an orderly fashion. In dealing with their…

  8. The Leftouts; Disadvantaged Children in Heterogeneous Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Sandra A.

    This work by a social psychologist is concerned with the consequences of the values, attitudes, and behavior of teachers and more advantaged peers for the educational experience of disadvantaged youngsters in heterogeneous schools. The academic, social, and emotional factors in these schools are interdependent and equally important for the…

  9. Achievement Related Motives of Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J.; And Others

    The motivational dynamics of educationally disadvantaged students in Title I education programs in Illinois were studied. Pretesting and posttesting for 450 students in grades 1 through 6 were conducted by using two test forms, the Mature Test Form for the older students and the Happy Face Form for the younger students. Ethnicity included Whites,…

  10. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  11. Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

  12. Psychological Assessment of the Preschool Disadvantaged Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Carol S.

    The author describes a psychological assessment process for use with the disadvantaged preschooler which involves screening (identification), diagnostic evaluation, instruction related assessment (formative evaluation), evaluation of the results of instruction (summative evaluation), and prediction of readiness. Some generalizations which apply to…

  13. Understanding gendered influences on women's reproductive health in Pakistan: moving beyond the autonomy paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    Recent research and policy discourse commonly view the limited autonomy of women in developing countries as a key barrier to improvements in their reproductive health. Rarely, however, is the notion of women's autonomy interrogated for its conceptual adequacy or usefulness for understanding the determinants of women's reproductive health, effective policy formulation or program design. Using ethnographic data from 2001, including social mapping exercises, observation of daily life, interviews, case studies and focus group discussions, this paper draws attention to the incongruities between the concept of women's autonomy and the gendered social, cultural, economic and political realities of women's lives in rural Punjab, Pakistan. These inadequacies include: the concept's undue emphasis on women's independent, autonomous action; a lack of attention to men and masculinities; a disregard for the multi-sited constitution of gender relations and gender inequality; an erroneous assumption that uptake of reproductive health services is an indicator of autonomy; and a failure to explore the interplay of other axes of disadvantage such as caste, class or socio-economic position. This paper calls for alternative, more nuanced, theoretical approaches for conceptualizing gender inequalities in order to enhance our understanding of women's reproductive wellbeing in Pakistan. The extent to which our arguments may be relevant to the wider South Asian context, and women's lives in other parts of the world, is also discussed.

  14. Engendering economics.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    Gender has become a major issue in discussions of economic development, with international organizations having generated studies which demonstrate that investments in women yield high returns in productivity, child health, and family welfare. Discussions of gender usually have been compartmentalized, with little impact upon broader studies of development. Examining the role that gender plays in economic life, however, could lead to a better understanding of the role which social institutions play in development. The author discusses reexamining gender bias and collective action by men and women with respect to property rights, family law, and the labor market. It is noted in closing that individual preferences are partially shaped by social norms which are strongly influenced by the coalitions which hold power in a society. As women gain collective power, they are likely to challenge the social norms which are costly to them.

  15. Gender differences in the social pathways linking neighborhood disadvantage to depressive symptoms in adults.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (n(ct) = 300) and individuals within those tracts (ni = 2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.003-0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs. PMID:24146888

  16. On the Study of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight Gain as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Belonging to Low Socio-Economic Category: A Study from Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima

    2015-01-01

    Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey. PMID:26170546

  17. On the Study of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight Gain as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Belonging to Low Socio-Economic Category: A Study from Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima

    2015-01-01

    Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey.

  18. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  19. The intergenerational transmission of inequality: Maternal disadvantage and health at birth

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

  20. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  1. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that

  2. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff-Everding, Christoph; Soeder, Ruediger; Neukirch, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia. Methods Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA) were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations) was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT) and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant) and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant) than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns). However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns), with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that RFA is non-inferior and favorable with regard to economic outcomes. PMID:26848277

  3. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health.

  4. Women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Crissman, Halley P; Adanu, Richard M; Harlow, Siobán D

    2012-09-01

    Pervasive gendered inequities and norms regarding the subordination of women give Ghanaian men disproportionately more power than women, particularly in relation to sex. We hypothesize that lack of sexual empowerment may pose an important barrier to reproductive health and adoption of family planning methods. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey, we examine the association between women's sexual empowerment and contraceptive use in Ghana among nonpregnant married and partnered women not desiring to conceive in the next three months. Increasing levels of sexual empowerment are found to be associated with use of contraceptives, even after adjusting for demographic predictors of contraceptive use. This association is moderated by wealth. Formal education, increasing wealth, and being in an unmarried partnership are associated with contraceptive use, whereas women who identify as being Muslim are less likely to use contraceptives than those who identify as being Christian. These findings suggest that to achieve universal access to reproductive health services, gendered disparities in sexual empowerment, particularly among economically disadvantaged women, need to be better addressed.

  5. Helping Women into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With women bearing a disproportionate share of economic hardship, their poor representation on training designed to tackle barriers to work is a critical concern. The author asks what can be done to improve women's access to this sort of learning. As the underrecruitment of women to ESF pre-employment programmes demonstrates, the author suggests…

  6. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  7. Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

    2013-01-01

    What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

  8. Evolution of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul M., Jr.; Jablonsky, Adelaide

    1970-01-01

    Describes the scope, function, and history of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged (ERIC-UD). This clearinghouse was formerly the Information Retrieval Center on the Disadvantaged (IRCD). (DE)

  9. British Ethnic Minorities and Employment Training: Redressing or Extending Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonna, Emmanuel

    1998-01-01

    Ethnic minorities in Britain continue to be disadvantaged in the labor market through employment and training discrimination. Government-sponsored programs sometimes extend disadvantage through constant policy changes, contradictory policies, and inefficiency or prejudice in training and employing organizations. (SK)

  10. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  11. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  12. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  13. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... designated group if SBA requires it. (3) The presumption of social disadvantage may be overcome with credible... presumed to be socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must establish individual...

  14. Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

  15. Women's Education and Earnings in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This publication is part of a joint project of the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation and the Institute for Women?s Policy Research to analyze women?s educational status in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It reports detailed information on the educational status of women and the economic gains…

  16. Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

  17. Migration and women's health.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  18. Overcoming Disadvantage through the Innovative Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosalyn

    2006-01-01

    Australia is a high performing but low equity country with regards to educational attainment. Low socio-economic background students and schools with large numbers of these students perform less well than higher socio-economic background students and schools. Yet some schools are turning around student learning outcomes despite the impact of…

  19. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit III: The Culturally Disadvantaged Negro Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The third of a series of teacher education units on teaching the disadvantaged contains material specifically about the Negro student. Reviewed are the scope and significance of the problem of educating these students, with some brief remarks on their location. The factors which contribute to the cultural deprivation of Negroes are…

  20. Women's Role in Future Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Providing an overview of women's role in national and economic development, particularly in Africa and Asia, the article touches upon women's participation in employment, vocational training and education, agriculture, and other aspects of progress in developing nations. (MW)