Science.gov

Sample records for ecosystem carbon gain

  1. Response of photosynthetic carbon gain to ecosystem retrogression of vascular plants and mosses in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    In the long-term absence of rejuvenating disturbances, forest succession frequently proceeds from a maximal biomass phase to a retrogressive phase characterized by reduced nutrient availability [notably nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] and net primary productivity. Few studies have considered how retrogression induces changes in ecophysiological responses associated with photosynthetic carbon (C) gain, and only for trees. We tested the hypothesis that retrogression would negatively impact photosynthetic C gain of four contrasting species, and that this impact would be greater for vascular plants (i.e., trees and shrubs) than for non-vascular plants (i.e., mosses). We used a 5,000-year-old chronosequence of forested islands in Sweden, where retrogression occurs in the long-term absence of lightning-ignited wildfires. Despite fundamental differences in plant form and ecological niche among species, vascular plants and mosses showed similar ecophysiological responses to retrogression. The most common effects of retrogression were reductions in photosynthesis and respiration per unit foliar N, increases in foliar N, δ(13)C and δ(15)N, and decreases in specific leaf areas. In contrast, photosynthesis per unit mass or area generally did not change along the chronosequence, but did vary many-fold between vascular plants and mosses. The consistent increases in foliar N without corresponding increases in mass- or area-based photosynthesis suggest that other factor(s), such as P co-limitation, light conditions or water availability, may co-regulate C gain in retrogressive boreal forests. Against our predictions, traits of mosses associated with C and N were generally highly responsive to retrogression, which has implications for how mosses influence ecosystem processes in boreal forests.

  2. Photosynthesis, Nitrogen, Their Adjustment and its Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Gain at Elevated CO{sub 2}l. A Comparison of Loblolly and Ponderosa Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Tissue, David T.; Lewis, James D.; Picone, Johnn B.; Ross, Peter D.

    1996-12-01

    A functional understanding of terrestrial ecosystem carbon processes is essential for two reasons. First, carbon flow is a most fundamental aspects of ecosystem function as it mediates most of the energy flow in these systems. Second, carbon flow also mediates the majority of energy flow in the global economy and will do for the foreseeable future. The increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and its inevitable flow through global ecosystems will influence ecosystem processes. There is, of course, great interest in the potential of ecosystems to sequester some of the carbon being loaded into the atmosphere by economic activity.

  3. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  4. Constraining Belowground Carbon Turnover Times in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Insights Gained through Radiocarbon Analysis and Interpretation at AmeriFlux Network Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Sierra, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Land-model data comparisons show that models tend to underestimate mean transit time of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems relative to measurement-based estimates largely through an underestimation of soil carbon turnover times. Radiocarbon measurements of multiple quantified pools and fluxes combined with the belowground carbon and radiocarbon modeling tool, SoilR, can provide more robust estimates for transit times than simple, single pool models reliant on assumptions of steady-state and a single time-lag. In addition, this approach can constrain carbon cycles contributing to measured transit times. Well-instrumented sites provide an excellent opportunity to combine existing data, new measurements, and modeling to constrain terrestrial ecosystem turnover times and the mechanisms behind them. Existing soil radiocarbon and carbon stock data from sites in the AmeriFlux Network are being synthesized and reanalyzed using a belowground carbon radiocarbon-modeling tool, SoilR. These observed soil profiles are also being compared to model values from site-level runs of the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy's land surface model (ALM). Current work focuses on temperate deciduous and tropical forests. Additional data, archived samples, and sites are of interest for future efforts.

  5. Carbon in Mexican Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchevers, J.; de Jong, B.; Cruz, C.; Paz, F.; Garcias, F.

    2009-05-01

    The carbon (C) cycle is relevant for the understanding of the Global Climate Change. The present paper summarizes the studies conducted on terrestrial C (biomass and soil) in Mexico. The rural sector (land use and land use change, forestry, and agriculture) is the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (21%). The mean SOC status of Mexico's soils at different scales of aggregationby climate, by pedological units, by vegetation groups, and by ecoregionsis 68.45 Mg ha-1and the SOC stored in the country soils is estimated at 13.126 × 106 Mg C, considering 1.917 × 106 km2 of land (98% of Mexico's territory). The SOC accumulated in each aggregation class depends on the combination of surface area and average SOC values. In general, the SOC values were associated with conditions that either favored biomass production (climate factors) or allowed the accumulation of SOC in the profile (soil depth). Sites were identified where the highest and lowest SOC values in the country were registered. However, this calculation requires defining the date and the land use at the exact moment the field sampling was performed. Information like this would allow evaluation of the variation of SOC over time, either with the same land use or a different one, and identification of the effect of land use change on SOC values. These studies will probably allow identification of areas with higher potential for soil carbon sequestration. As well, calculations of the potential CO2 emissions into the atmosphere due to land use change will be possible. At the present there is an effort to register carbon values simultaneously in vegetation and the soil, making feasible to learn more about the differences in the time dynamics of the two stocksthe aerial and the undergroundaiming at modeling processes. Joint analysis of information generated at different spatial and time scales will be worthwhile to continue developing methodologies for modeling purposes. The contributions of

  6. The carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J.

    2008-05-01

    At the global scale, there are repeatable annual fluctuations in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide, sometimes referred to as the "breathing of the planet". Vegetation components within ecosystems fix carbon dioxide through photosynthesis into stable organic compounds; simultaneously both vegetation and heterotrophic components of the ecosystem release previously fixed carbon as respiration. These two-way fluxes influencing carbon dioxide exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere impact both the concentration and isotopic composition of carbon dioxide within the convective boundary layer. Over space, the compounding effects of gas exchange activities from ecosystems become reflected in both regional and global changes in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide. When these two parameters are plotted against each other, there are significant linear relationships between the carbon isotopic composition and inverse concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem scale, these "Keeling plots" intercepts of C3-dominated ecosystems describe the carbon isotope ratio of biospheric gas exchange. Using Farquhar's model, these carbon isotope values can be translated into quantitative measures of the drought-dependent control of photosynthesis by stomata as water availability changes through time. This approach is useful in aggregating the influences of drought across regional landscapes as it provides a quantitative measure of stomatal influence on photosynthetic gas exchange at the ecosystem-to-region scales. Multi-year analyses of the drought-dependent trends across terrestrial ecosystems show a repeated pattern with water stress in all but one C3-ecosystem type. Ecosystems that are dominated by ring-porous trees appear not to exhibit a dynamic stomatal response to water stress and therefore, there is little dependence of the carbon isotope ratio of gas exchange on site water balance

  7. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  8. Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests

    Treesearch

    J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

    2011-01-01

    Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions. Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation. We...

  9. Comparing ecosystem water and carbon exchange across a riparian mesquite invasion gradient

    Treesearch

    Russell L. Scott; Travis E. Huxman

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem water and carbon fluxes were monitored over a riparian grassland, mesquite-invaded grassland, and mesquite woodland to understand the consequences of woody plant encroachment. Water use and carbon gain were largest at the woodland site. Results suggest that the deep roots of mesquite will lead to a decoupling of ecosystem water sources as the invading...

  10. Trophic cascade alters ecosystem carbon exchange.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Michael S; Hawlena, Dror; Reese, Aspen; Bradford, Mark A; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2013-07-02

    Trophic cascades--the indirect effects of carnivores on plants mediated by herbivores--are common across ecosystems, but their influence on biogeochemical cycles, particularly the terrestrial carbon cycle, are largely unexplored. Here, using a (13)C pulse-chase experiment, we demonstrate how trophic structure influences ecosystem carbon dynamics in a meadow system. By manipulating the presence of herbivores and predators, we show that even without an initial change in total plant or herbivore biomass, the cascading effects of predators in this system begin to affect carbon cycling through enhanced carbon fixation by plants. Prolonged cascading effects on plant biomass lead to slowing of carbon loss via ecosystem respiration and reallocation of carbon among plant aboveground and belowground tissues. Consequently, up to 1.4-fold more carbon is retained in plant biomass when carnivores are present compared with when they are absent, owing primarily to greater carbon storage in grass and belowground plant biomass driven largely by predator nonconsumptive (fear) effects on herbivores. Our data highlight the influence that the mere presence of predators, as opposed to direct consumption of herbivores, can have on carbon uptake, allocation, and retention in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Indicators of carbon storage in U.S. ecosystems: baseline for terrestrial carbon accounting.

    PubMed

    Negra, Christine; Sweedo, Caroline Cremer; Cavender-Bares, Kent; O'Malley, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers, program managers, and landowners need information about net terrestrial carbon sequestration in forests, croplands, grasslands, and shrublands to understand the cumulative effects of carbon trading programs, expanding biofuels production, and changing environmental conditions in addition to agricultural and forestry uses. Objective information systems that establish credible baselines and track changes in carbon storage can provide the accountability needed for carbon trading programs to achieve durable carbon sequestration and for biofuels initiatives to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. A multi-sector stakeholder design process was used to produce a new indicator for the 2008 State of the Nation's Ecosystems report that presents metrics of carbon storage for major ecosystem types, specifically change in the amount of carbon gained or lost over time and the amount of carbon stored per unit area (carbon density). These metrics have been developed for national scale use, but are suitable for adaptation to multiple scales such as individual farm and forest parcels, carbon offset markets and integrated national and international assessments. To acquire the data necessary for a complete understanding of how much, and where, carbon is gained or lost by U.S. ecosystems, expansion and integration of monitoring programs will be required.

  12. Limits on carbon sequestration in arid blue carbon ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Kauffman, J Boone; Crooks, Stephen; Fourqurean, James W; Glavan, Jane; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems produce and sequester significant amounts of carbon ("blue carbon"), which has been well documented in humid and semi-humid regions of temperate and tropical climates but less so in arid regions where mangroves, marshes, and seagrasses exist near the limit of their tolerance for extreme temperature and salinity. To better understand these unique systems, we measured whole-ecosystem carbon stocks in 58 sites across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in natural and planted mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, microbial mats, and coastal sabkha (inter- and supratidal unvegetated salt flats). Natural mangroves held significantly more carbon in above- and belowground biomass than other vegetated ecosystems. Planted mangrove carbon stocks increased with age, but there were large differences for sites of similar age. Soil carbon varied widely across sites (2-367 Mg C/ha), with ecosystem averages that ranged from 49 to 156 Mg C/ha. For the first time, microbial mats were documented to contain soil carbon pools comparable to vascular plant-dominated ecosystems, and could arguably be recognized as a unique blue carbon ecosystem. Total ecosystem carbon stocks ranged widely from 2 to 515 Mg C/ha (seagrass bed and mangrove, respectively). Seagrass beds had the lowest carbon stock per unit area, but the largest stock per total area due to their large spatial coverage. Compared to similar ecosystems globally, mangroves and marshes in the UAE have lower plant and soil carbon stocks; however, the difference in soil stocks is far larger than with plant stocks. This incongruent difference between stocks is likely due to poor carbon preservation under conditions of weakly reduced soils (200-350 mV), coarse-grained sediments, and active shoreline migration. This work represents the first attempt to produce a country-wide coastal ecosystem carbon accounting using a uniform sampling protocol, and was motivated by specific policy goals identified by the Abu Dhabi Global

  13. Carbon cycling in high-latitude ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alan; Frolking, Stephen; Holland, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    The carbon-rich soils and peatlands of high-latitude ecosystems could substantially influence atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in a changing climate. Currently, cold, often waterlogged conditions retard decomposition, and release of carbon back to the atmosphere may be further slowed by physical protection of organic matter in permafrost. As a result, many northern ecosystems accumulate carbon over time (Billings et al., 1982; Poole and Miller, 1982), and although such rates of accumulation are low, thousands of years of development have left Arctic ecosystems with an extremely high soil carbon content; Schlesinger's (1984) average value of 20.4 kg C/m(sup 2) leads to a global estimate of 163 x 10(exp 15) g C. All GCM simulations of a doubled CO2 climate predict the greatest warming to occur in the polar regions (Dickinson, 1986; Mitchell, 1989). Given the extensive northern carbon pools and the strong sensitivity of decomposition processes to temperature, even a slight warming of the soil could dramatically alter the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems. If warming accelerates rates of decomposition more than rates of primary production, a sizeable additional accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere could occur. Furthermore, CH4 produced in anaerobic soils and peatlands of the Arctic already composes a good percentage of the global efflux (Cicerone and Oremlund, 1988); if northern soils become warmer and wetter as a whole, CH4 emissions could dramatically rise. A robust understanding of the primary controls of carbon fluxes in Arctic ecosystems is critical. As a framework for a systematic examination of these controls, we discussed a conceptual model of regional-scale Arctic carbon turnover, including CH4 production, and based upon the Century soil organic matter model.

  14. Marine biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and carbon cycles.

    PubMed

    Beaugrand, Grégory; Edwards, Martin; Legendre, Louis

    2010-06-01

    Although recent studies suggest that climate change may substantially accelerate the rate of species loss in the biosphere, only a few studies have focused on the potential consequences of a spatial reorganization of biodiversity with global warming. Here, we show a pronounced latitudinal increase in phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic biodiversity in the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. We also show that this rise in biodiversity paralleled a decrease in the mean size of zooplanktonic copepods and that the reorganization of the planktonic ecosystem toward dominance by smaller organisms may influence the networks in which carbon flows, with negative effects on the downward biological carbon pump and demersal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Our study suggests that, contrary to the usual interpretation of increasing biodiversity being a positive emergent property promoting the stability/resilience of ecosystems, the parallel decrease in sizes of planktonic organisms could be viewed in the North Atlantic as reducing some of the services provided by marine ecosystems to humans.

  15. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  16. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  17. St. Louis River fish migrations: Gains and losses of ecosystem ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Twin Ports fishery has undergone change from a migratory fish-based fishery to a Lake Superior-based fishery, and is now returning to a diverse fishery that includes fish of both life histories. These changes reflect past disturbances to the Great Lakes ecosystem as well as recent water quality improvement and efforts to restore habitat in the St. Louis River. Migratory fishes are an important ecosystem service for the St. Louis River, and improvements to the ecosystem quality within the St. Louis River Area of Concern has benefited migratory fishes. The coastal wetlands within the lower river provide direct support to a variety of high-value, recreationally-important fish species, including walleye, northern pike, and bass. Moreover, these wetlands serve as nursery habitat for a broader suite of high-value, commercially-important species. Restoration has likely improved the value of these coastal wetlands because low-value rough species tend to be more prevalent in degraded coastal wetlands, whereas high-value commercial and game fishes are more prevalent in high-quality coastal wetlands. There have been losses in ecosystem services, as well. Owing to legacy contamination of mercury and PCBs, migratory fishes in the St. Louis River have sufficiently high contaminant burdens to warrant consumption advisories, and recent movement research demonstrates that there is a positive relationship between increased use of St. Louis River habitat (versus Lake Superior)

  18. Predators help protect carbon stocks in blue carbon ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Connolly, Rod M.; Ritchie, Euan G.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Hays, Graeme C.; Fourqurean, James W.; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2015-12-01

    Predators continue to be harvested unsustainably throughout most of the Earth's ecosystems. Recent research demonstrates that the functional loss of predators could have far-reaching consequences on carbon cycling and, by implication, our ability to ameliorate climate change impacts. Yet the influence of predators on carbon accumulation and preservation in vegetated coastal habitats (that is, salt marshes, seagrass meadows and mangroves) is poorly understood, despite these being some of the Earth's most vulnerable and carbon-rich ecosystems. Here we discuss potential pathways by which trophic downgrading affects carbon capture, accumulation and preservation in vegetated coastal habitats. We identify an urgent need for further research on the influence of predators on carbon cycling in vegetated coastal habitats, and ultimately the role that these systems play in climate change mitigation. There is, however, sufficient evidence to suggest that intact predator populations are critical to maintaining or growing reserves of 'blue carbon' (carbon stored in coastal or marine ecosystems), and policy and management need to be improved to reflect these realities.

  19. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  20. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    PubMed

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  1. Marine biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and carbon cycles

    PubMed Central

    Beaugrand, Grégory; Edwards, Martin; Legendre, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although recent studies suggest that climate change may substantially accelerate the rate of species loss in the biosphere, only a few studies have focused on the potential consequences of a spatial reorganization of biodiversity with global warming. Here, we show a pronounced latitudinal increase in phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic biodiversity in the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. We also show that this rise in biodiversity paralleled a decrease in the mean size of zooplanktonic copepods and that the reorganization of the planktonic ecosystem toward dominance by smaller organisms may influence the networks in which carbon flows, with negative effects on the downward biological carbon pump and demersal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Our study suggests that, contrary to the usual interpretation of increasing biodiversity being a positive emergent property promoting the stability/resilience of ecosystems, the parallel decrease in sizes of planktonic organisms could be viewed in the North Atlantic as reducing some of the services provided by marine ecosystems to humans. PMID:20479247

  2. BOREAS TE-19 Ecosystem Carbon Balance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Frolking, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-19 team developed a model called the Spruce and Moss Model (SPAM) designed to simulate the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/moss boreal forest ecosystem. It is driven by daily weather conditions, and consists of four components: (1) soil climate, (2) tree photosynthesis and respiration, (3) moss photosynthesis and respiration, and (4) litter decomposition and associated heterotrophic respiration. The model simulates tree gross and net photosynthesis, wood respiration, live root respiration, moss gross and net photosynthesis, and heterotrophic respiration (decomposition of root litter, young needle and moss litter, and humus). These values can be combined to generate predictions of total site net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE), total soil dark respiration (live roots + heterotrophs + live moss), spruce and moss net productivity, and net carbon accumulation in the soil. To date, simulations have been of the BOREAS NSA-OBS and SSA-OBS tower sites, from 1968-95 (except 1990-93). The files include source code and sample input and output files in ASCII format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

  4. Net ecosystem production: A comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.; Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Harmon, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual framework used by ecologists and biogeochemists must allow for accurate and clearly defined comparisons of carbon fluxes made with disparate techniques across a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. Consistent with usage over the past four decades, we define "net ecosystem production" (NEP) as the net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. Past use of this term has been ambiguous, because it has been used conceptually as a measure of carbon accumulation by ecosystems, but it has often been calculated considering only the balance between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration. This calculation ignores other carbon fluxes from ecosystems (e.g., leaching of dissolved carbon and losses associated with disturbance). To avoid conceptual ambiguities, we argue that NEP be defined, as in the past, as the net carbon accumulation by ecosystems and that it explicitly incorporate all the carbon fluxes from an ecosystem, including autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration, losses associated with disturbance, dissolved and particulate carbon losses, volatile organic compound emissions, and lateral transfers among ecosystems. Net biome productivity (NBP), which has been proposed to account for carbon loss during episodic disturbance, is equivalent to NEP at regional or global scales. The multi-scale conceptual framework we describe provides continuity between flux measurements made at the scale of soil profiles and chambers, forest inventories, eddy covariance towers, aircraft, and inversions of remote atmospheric flask samples, allowing a direct comparison of NEP estimates made at all temporal and spatial scales.

  5. Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed, Upper Yangtze, China from 1975 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Yin, Runsheng; Li, Zhengpeng; Deng, Yulin; Tan, Kun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Rothstein, David; Qi, Jiaguo; Yin, Runsheng

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is critical to our understanding of regional patterns of carbon storage and loss. Here we use the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System to simulate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed of China's upper Yangtze basin from 1975 to 2000, based on unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes. Our analysis demonstrates that the Jinsha watershed ecosystems acted as a carbon sink during the period of 1975–2000, with an average rate of 0.36 Mg/ha/yr, primarily resulting from regional climate variation and local land use and land cover change. Vegetation biomass accumulation accounted for 90.6% of the sink, while soil organic carbon loss before 1992 led to lower net gain of carbon in the watershed, and after that soils became a small sink. Ecosystem carbon sinks/source pattern showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, Carbon sinks were associated with forest areas without disturbances, whereas carbon Sources were primarily caused by stand-replacing disturbances. This highlights the importance of land-use history in determining the regional carbon sinks/source pattern.

  6. Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed, Upper Yangtze, China from 1975 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems and carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is critical to our understanding of regional patterns of carbon budgets. Here we use the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System to simulate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the Jinsha watershed of China’s upper Yangtze basin from 1975 to 2000, based on unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes. Our analysis demonstrates that the Jinsha watershed ecosystems acted as a carbon sink during the period of 1975–2000, with an average rate of 0.36 Mg/ha/yr, primarily resulting from regional climate variation and local land use and land cover change. Vegetation biomass accumulation accounted for 90.6% of the sink, while soil organic carbon loss before 1992 led to a lower net gain of carbon in the watershed, and after that soils became a small sink. Ecosystem carbon sink/source patterns showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity. Carbon sinks were associated with forest areas without disturbances, whereas carbon sources were primarily caused by stand-replacing disturbances. It is critical to adequately represent the detailed fast-changing dynamics of land use activities in regional biogeochemical models to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of regional carbon sink/source patterns.

  7. Decadal trends in net ecosystem production and net ecosystem carbon balance for a regional socioecological system

    Treesearch

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Warren B. Cohen; Maureen V. Duane; Peter E. Thornton; Beverly E. Law

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly recognized as an ecosystem service, and forest management has a large potential to alter regional carbon fluxes, notably by way of harvest removals and related impacts on net ecosystem production (NEP). In the Pacific Northwest region of the US, the implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in 1993 established a regional...

  8. Estimating ecosystem carbon stocks at Redwood National and State Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Madej, Mary Ann; Seney, Joseph; Deshais, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for ecosystem carbon is increasingly important for park managers. In this case study we present our efforts to estimate carbon stocks and the effects of management on carbon stocks for Redwood National and State Parks in northern California. Using currently available information, we estimate that on average these parks’ soils contain approximately 89 tons of carbon per acre (200 Mg C per ha), while vegetation contains about 130 tons C per acre (300 Mg C per ha). estoration activities at the parks (logging-road removal, second-growth forest management) were shown to initially reduce ecosystem carbon, but may provide for enhanced ecosystem carbon storage over the long term. We highlight currently available tools that could be used to estimate ecosystem carbon at other units of the National Park System.

  9. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems.

  10. Plant diversity effects on ecosystem evapotranspiration and carbon uptake: a controlled environment (Ecotron) and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Roy, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Effects of species and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem evapotranspiration and carbon fluxes have been rarely assessed simultaneously. Here we present the results from an experiment that combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/ monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment ("The Jena Experiment") and a modelling approach. We aimed at (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (4 vs. 16 species) on day- and night-time ecosystem water vapor fluxes and carbon uptake, (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model, and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor vapor and CO2 fluxes using plant functional trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. The SW model indicated that at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while at higher species richness the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a production-related water flux) increased. This led to an increased carbon gain per amount of water vapor loss (i.e. increased water use efficiency). While the LAI controlled the carbon and water fluxes, we also found that the diversity of plant functional traits, and in particular of leaf nitrogen concentration are potential important predictors of ecosystem transpiration and carbon uptake and consequently significantly contributed to increase in water use efficiency in communities with higher plant diversity.

  11. Looking skyward to study ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dye, Dennis G.

    2012-01-01

    Between May and October 2011 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, conducted a field campaign at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma to evaluate a new instrument for quantitative image-based monitoring of sky conditions and solar radiation. The High Dynamic Range All-Sky Imaging System (HDR-ASIS) was developed by USGS to support studies of cloud- and aerosol-induced variability in the geometric properties of solar radiation (the sky radiance distribution) and its effects on photosynthesis and uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by terrestrial ecosystems. Under a clean, cloudless atmosphere when the Sun is above the horizon, most of the solar radiation reaching an area of the Earth's surface is concentrated in a beam coming directly from the Sun; a relatively small proportion arrives as diffuse radiation from the rest of the sky. Clouds and atmospheric aerosols cause increased scattering of the beam radiation, which increases the proportion of diffuse radiation at the surface.

  12. Using Radiocarbon to Test Models of Ecosystem Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S.; Lin, H.; Randerson, J.

    2007-05-01

    The radiocarbon content of carbon stored in and respired by ecosystems provides a direct measure of ecosystem carbon dynamics that can be directly compared to model predictions. Because carbon cycles through ecosystems on a variety of timescales, the mean age of C in standing biomass and soil organic matter pools is older than the mean age of microbially respired carbon. In turn, each pathway for C transit through ecosystems my respond differently to edaphic conditions; for example, soil organic matter mean age is controlled by factors affecting stabilization of C on very long timescales, such as mineralogy, while a factor like litter quality that effects decomposition rates reflects vegetation and climate characteristics. We compare the radiocarbon signature of heterotrophically respired CO2 across a number of ecosystems with models predicted using the CASA ecosystem model. The major controls of microbially respired CO2 from ecosystems include the residence time of C in living plant pools (i.e. the age of C in litter inputs to soil) and factors that control decomposition rates (litter quality and climate). Major differences between model and measured values at low latitudes are related to how woody debris pools are treated differently in models and measurements. The time lag between photosynthesis and respiration is a key ecosystem property that defines its potential to store or release carbon given variations in annual net primary production. Radiocarbon provides a rare case where models can be directly compared with measurements to provide a test of this parameter.

  13. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Victor Resco de Dios; Michael L. Goulden; Kiona Ogle; Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; Eric A. Davidson; Josu G. Alday; Greg A. Barron-Gafford; Arnaud Carrara; Andrew S. Kowalski; Walt C. Oechel; Borja R. Reverter; Russell L. Scott; Ruth K. Varner; Ruben Diaz-Sierra; Jose M. Moreno

    2012-01-01

    It is often assumed that daytime patterns of ecosystem carbon assimilation are mostly driven by direct physiological responses to exogenous environmental cues. Under limited environmental variability, little variation in carbon assimilation should thus be expected unless endogenous plant controls on carbon assimilation, which regulate photosynthesis in time, are active...

  14. Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourqurean, James W.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kennedy, Hilary; Marbà, Núria; Holmer, Marianne; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Apostolaki, Eugenia T.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; McGlathery, Karen J.; Serrano, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    The protection of organic carbon stored in forests is considered as an important method for mitigating climate change. Like terrestrial ecosystems, coastal ecosystems store large amounts of carbon, and there are initiatives to protect these `blue carbon' stores. Organic carbon stocks in tidal salt marshes and mangroves have been estimated, but uncertainties in the stores of seagrass meadows--some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth--hinder the application of marine carbon conservation schemes. Here, we compile published and unpublished measurements of the organic carbon content of living seagrass biomass and underlying soils in 946 distinct seagrass meadows across the globe. Using only data from sites for which full inventories exist, we estimate that, globally, seagrass ecosystems could store as much as 19.9Pg organic carbon; according to a more conservative approach, in which we incorporate more data from surface soils and depth-dependent declines in soil carbon stocks, we estimate that the seagrass carbon pool lies between 4.2 and 8.4Pg carbon. We estimate that present rates of seagrass loss could result in the release of up to 299Tg carbon per year, assuming that all of the organic carbon in seagrass biomass and the top metre of soils is remineralized.

  15. Carbon emissions and sequestration potential of Central African ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Justice, C O

    2001-09-01

    Joint Implementation under the Climate Change Convention and Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol require a scientific understanding of current carbon stocks, fluxes, and sequestration potential, especially in tropical ecosystems where there are large carbon reservoirs, significant carbon emissions, and large land areas available for reforestation. Central Africa contains 10% of the world's remaining tropical moist forests and has received little attention in carbon studies. In 1980, above-ground carbon stocks in the central African ecosystem were 28.92 Pg and were reduced to 24.79 Pg by 1990. Improved forest management aimed at increasing biomass density could sequester 18.32 Pg of carbon, and over 500,000 km2 formerly forested land will be available by 2050 for reforestation with a capacity to offset 10 Pg carbon. Understanding the spatial distribution of biomass carbon and sequestration potential will be essential for carbon trading initiatives through Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism.

  16. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Barr, A. G.; Barr, J. G.; Black, T. A.; Bracho, R.; Brown, M.; Chen, J.; Clark, K. L.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dore, S.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Goulden, M. L.; Kolb, T. E.; Lavigne, M. B.; Law, B. E.; Margolis, H. A.; Martin, T.; McCaughey, J. H.; Misson, L.; Montes-Helu, M.; Noormets, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Starr, G.; Xiao, J.

    2010-10-01

    Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included stand-replacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Wisconsin) events, insect infestations (gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, and mountain pine beetle), Hurricane Wilma, and silvicultural thinning (Arizona, California, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a stand-replacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most. Maximum carbon losses following disturbance (g C m-2y-1) ranged from 1270 in Florida to 200 in boreal ecosystems. Similarly, for forests less than 100 years old, maximum uptake (g C m-2y-1) was 1180 in Florida mangroves and 210 in boreal ecosystems. More temperate forests had intermediate fluxes. Boreal ecosystems were relatively time invariant after 20 years, whereas western ecosystems tended to increase in carbon gain over time. This was driven mostly by gross photosynthetic production (GPP) because total ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration were relatively invariant with age. GPP/ER was as low as 0.2 immediately following stand-replacing disturbance reaching a constant value of 1.2 after 20 years. NEP following insect defoliations and silvicultural thinning showed lesser changes than stand-replacing events, with decreases in the year of disturbance followed by rapid recovery. NEP decreased in a mangrove ecosystem following Hurricane Wilma because of a decrease in GPP and an increase in ER.

  17. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Barr, A. G.; Barr, J. G.; Black, T. A.; Bracho, R.; Brown, M.; Chen, J.; Clark, K. L.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dore, S.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Goulden, M. L.; Kolb, T. E.; Lavigne, M. B.; Law, B. E.; Margolis, H. A.; Martin, T.; McCaughey, J. H.; Misson, L.; Montes-Helu, M.; Noormets, A.; Randerson, J. T.; Starr, G.; Xiao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Disturbances are important for renewal of North American forests. Here we summarize more than 180 site years of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide flux made at forest chronosequences in North America. The disturbances included stand-replacing fire (Alaska, Arizona, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan) and harvest (British Columbia, Florida, New Brunswick, Oregon, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Wisconsin) events, insect infestations (gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, and mountain pine beetle), Hurricane Wilma, and silvicultural thinning (Arizona, California, and New Brunswick). Net ecosystem production (NEP) showed a carbon loss from all ecosystems following a stand-replacing disturbance, becoming a carbon sink by 20 years for all ecosystems and by 10 years for most. Maximum carbon losses following disturbance (g C m-2y-1) ranged from 1270 in Florida to 200 in boreal ecosystems. Similarly, for forests less than 100 years old, maximum uptake (g C m-2y-1) was 1180 in Florida mangroves and 210 in boreal ecosystems. More temperate forests had intermediate fluxes. Boreal ecosystems were relatively time invariant after 20 years, whereas western ecosystems tended to increase in carbon gain over time. This was driven mostly by gross photosynthetic production (GPP) because total ecosystem respiration (ER) and heterotrophic respiration were relatively invariant with age. GPP/ER was as low as 0.2 immediately following stand-replacing disturbance reaching a constant value of 1.2 after 20 years. NEP following insect defoliations and silvicultural thinning showed lesser changes than stand-replacing events, with decreases in the year of disturbance followed by rapid recovery. NEP decreased in a mangrove ecosystem following Hurricane Wilma because of a decrease in GPP and an increase in ER.

  18. Carbon Management and Decision Support Systems for the CASA Ecosystem Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Fladeland, M.; Genovese, V.; Kramer, M.

    2003-12-01

    Ecosystem modeling and satellite remote sensing can link human activities such as land use change and forest management to the spatial distribution of carbon pools and fluxes at regional scales. The main objectives of this research and application are to: 1) evaluate major forest and agricultural sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the U. S. using NASA EOS satellite data and ecosystem modeling, 2) support the U. S. Government interagency program for registration of voluntary greenhouse gas emissions reductions under section 1605(b) of the 1992 Energy Policy Act, and 3) develop an internet-based decision support system (DSS) of carbon sequestration in U. S. ecosystems for users nationwide. We report on the first results of this DSS to assess the impacts of forest stand age on potential carbon sequestration, as predicted by the CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) biosphere model. Estimates of carbon storage in woody plant pools are compared before and after adjustment for management of stand age based on U. S. Forest Service map products. These predictions of historical forest carbon storage are subsequently compared to the potential annual increment of ecosystem carbon gain or loss under conditions of future climate variation.

  19. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  20. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  1. Integrating water and carbon fluxes at the ecosystem scale across African ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merbold, Lutz; Brümmer, Christian; Archibald, Sally; Ardö, Jonas; Arneth, Almut; Brüggemann, Nicolas; de Grandcourt, Agnes; Kergoat, Laurent; Moffat, Antje M.; Mougin, Eric; Nouvellon, Yann; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Saunders, Matthew; Scholes, Robert J.; Veenendaal, Elmar; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report on water and carbon dioxide fluxes, measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technology, from different ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These sites differed in ecosystem type (C3 plant dominated woodlands to C4 plant dominated grass savannas) and covered the very dry regions of the Sahel (250 mm rainfall, Sudan), the tropical areas in Central Africa (1650 mm in Uganda) further south to the subtropical areas in Botswana, Zambia and South Africa (400-900 mm in precipitation). The link between water and carbon dioxide fluxes were evaluated for time periods (see also the corresponding abstract by Bruemmer et al.) without water limitation during the peak growing season. Our results show that plant stomata control ecosystem scale water and carbon dioxide fluxes and mediate between plant growth and plant survival. On continental scale, this switch between maximizing carbon uptake and minimizing water losses, from here on called the "Carbon-Water-Tipping Point" was positively correlated to the mean annual growing season temperature at each site. Even though similar responses of plants were shown at the individual leaf-level scale this has to our knowledge not yet been shown at the ecosystem scale further suggesting a long-term adaptation of the complete ecosystems to certain climatic regions. It remains unclear how this adaption will influence the ecosystem response to ongoing climate change and according temperature increases and changes in precipitation.

  2. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in urban turfgrass ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Urbanization is a global trend. Turfgrass covers 1.9% of land in the continental US. Here we review existing literature associated with carbon (C) pools, sequestration, and nitrous oxide emission of urban turfgrass ecosystems. Turfgrasses exhibit significant carbon sequestration (0.34–1.4 Mg ha-1 ye...

  3. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of different ecosystems in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspira...

  4. High Resolution Ecosystem Structure, Biomass and Blue Carbon stocks in Mangrove Ecosystems- Methods and Applications of Lidar, radar Interferometry and High Resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.; Feliciano, E. A.; Simard, M.; Trettin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove forests and other Blue Carbon ecosystems are amongst some of the most carbon dense ecosystems. Because of the carbon density in these regions, losses and gains of these ecosystems may contribute a significant global fraction of carbon emission despite only representing 3% of the global forest cover. One of the main challenges to implementing carbon mitigation projects is not only measuring carbon efficiently, effectively, and safely, but also working with local communities to help address these issues. Access to mangrove forests, in particular, can be extremely difficult as a result of the terrain and has hindered the establishment of sufficient field plots needed to accurately measure carbon on the scale necessary to relate remotely sensed measurements and field measurements within specific protocols required for REDD and other carbon trading mechanisms. In this presentation, we will review the recent results from collaborative efforts with local in-country and international partners to develop methodologies, and produce the initial remote sensing products that are necessary to implement a Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system for Blue Carbon ecosystems in parts of Africa and South-East Asia. Specifically, we will show how new remote sensing techniques, such as radar interferometry and stereo-photogrammetry may be incorporated into coastal blue carbon monitoring efforts. The aim of our study is to provide an openly-available framework to generate land cover, change, and 3D map products, using statistically representative samples of forest types, and above and belowground biomass. Our ultimate goals are to develop carbon storage, emissions, and sequestration estimates for mangroves and other coastal wetlands by integrating satellite/airborne imagery and in situ measurements. By incorporating these datasets we anticipate being able to estimate mangrove blue carbon storage with an error under 20% at the project-level and permit the evaluation

  5. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  6. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Fang, Jingyun; Ciais, Philippe; Peylin, Philippe; Huang, Yao; Sitch, Stephen; Wang, Tao

    2009-04-23

    Global terrestrial ecosystems absorbed carbon at a rate of 1-4 Pg yr(-1) during the 1980s and 1990s, offsetting 10-60 per cent of the fossil-fuel emissions. The regional patterns and causes of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks, however, remain uncertain. With increasing scientific and political interest in regional aspects of the global carbon cycle, there is a strong impetus to better understand the carbon balance of China. This is not only because China is the world's most populous country and the largest emitter of fossil-fuel CO(2) into the atmosphere, but also because it has experienced regionally distinct land-use histories and climate trends, which together control the carbon budget of its ecosystems. Here we analyse the current terrestrial carbon balance of China and its driving mechanisms during the 1980s and 1990s using three different methods: biomass and soil carbon inventories extrapolated by satellite greenness measurements, ecosystem models and atmospheric inversions. The three methods produce similar estimates of a net carbon sink in the range of 0.19-0.26 Pg carbon (PgC) per year, which is smaller than that in the conterminous United States but comparable to that in geographic Europe. We find that northeast China is a net source of CO(2) to the atmosphere owing to overharvesting and degradation of forests. By contrast, southern China accounts for more than 65 per cent of the carbon sink, which can be attributed to regional climate change, large-scale plantation programmes active since the 1980s and shrub recovery. Shrub recovery is identified as the most uncertain factor contributing to the carbon sink. Our data and model results together indicate that China's terrestrial ecosystems absorbed 28-37 per cent of its cumulated fossil carbon emissions during the 1980s and 1990s.

  7. Decadal trends in net ecosystem production and net ecosystem carbon balance for a regional socioecological system

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David P.; Ritts, William D.; Yang, Zhiqiang; Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Duane, Maureen V.; Thornton, Peter E.; Law, Beverly E.

    2011-07-14

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly recognized as an ecosystem service, and forest management has a large potential to alter regional carbon fluxes notably by way of harvest removals and related impacts on net ecosystem production (NEP). In the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., the implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in 1993 established a regional socioecological system focused on forest management. The NWFP resulted in a large (82%) decrease in the rate of harvest removals on public forest land, thus significantly impacting the regional carbon balance. Here we use a combination of remote sensing and ecosystem modeling to examine the trends in NEP and Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) in this region over the 1985 to 2007 period, with particular attention to land ownership since management now differs widely between public and private forestland. In the late 1980s, forestland in both ownership classes was subject to high rates of harvesting, and consequently the land was a carbon source (i.e. had a negative NECB). After the policy driven reduction in the harvest level, public forest land became a large carbon sink driven in part by increasing NEP whereas private forest lands were close to carbon neutral. In the 2003-2007 period, the trend towards carbon accumulation on public lands continued despite a moderate increase in the extent of wildfire. The NWFP was originally implemented in the context of biodiversity conservation, but its consequences in terms of carbon sequestration are also of societal interest. Furthermore, management within the NWFP socioecological system will have to consider trade-offs among these and other ecosystem services.

  8. Observing terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle from space.

    PubMed

    Schimel, David; Pavlick, Ryan; Fisher, Joshua B; Asner, Gregory P; Saatchi, Sassan; Townsend, Philip; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Hibbard, Kathy; Cox, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks will significantly impact future climate, but their responses are highly uncertain. Models and tipping point analyses suggest the tropics and arctic/boreal zone carbon-climate feedbacks could be disproportionately large. In situ observations in those regions are sparse, resulting in high uncertainties in carbon fluxes and fluxes. Key parameters controlling ecosystem carbon responses, such as plant traits, are also sparsely observed in the tropics, with the most diverse biome on the planet treated as a single type in models. We analyzed the spatial distribution of in situ data for carbon fluxes, stocks and plant traits globally and also evaluated the potential of remote sensing to observe these quantities. New satellite data products go beyond indices of greenness and can address spatial sampling gaps for specific ecosystem properties and parameters. Because environmental conditions and access limit in situ observations in tropical and arctic/boreal environments, use of space-based techniques can reduce sampling bias and uncertainty about tipping point feedbacks to climate. To reliably detect change and develop the understanding of ecosystems needed for prediction, significantly, more data are required in critical regions. This need can best be met with a strategic combination of remote and in situ data, with satellite observations providing the dense sampling in space and time required to characterize the heterogeneity of ecosystem structure and function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  10. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  11. Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-12-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem.

  12. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  13. Present and Future Carbon Balance of Russia's Northern Ecosystems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F. Stuart III; Zimov, Sergei A.

    2000-08-28

    Recent increases in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes suggest a widespread biospheric response to high-latitude warming. We have shown that the seasonal amplitude of net ecosystem carbon exchange by northern Siberian ecosystems is greater in disturbed than undisturbed sites, due to increased summer influx and increased winter efflux. Net carbon gain in summer and respiration in winter were greater in a cool than in a warm year, especially in disturbed sites and did not differ between high-arctic and treeline sites, suggesting that high-latitude warming, if it occurred, would have little effect or would reduce seasonal amplitude of carbon exchange. We suggest that increased disturbance contributes significantly to the amplified seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes.

  14. Global simulation of the carbon isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.

    2009-12-01

    There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of global carbon cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced global environmental change. Information on carbon isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of carbon isotopes at the global scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of carbon cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable carbon isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive carbon isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial carbon cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial carbon pools. In this study, global simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable carbon isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in carbon isotope compositions. Leaf carbon with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was

  15. On carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Belnap, J.; Marion, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports of net ecosysytem production >100 g C m-2 yr-1 in deserts are incompatible with existing measurements of net primary production and carbon pools in deserts. The comparisions suggest that gas exchange measurements should be used with caution and better validation if they are expected to indicate the magnitude of carbon sink in these ecosysytems. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. Observing terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle from space

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, David; Pavlick, Ryan; Fisher, Joshua B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Saatchi, Sassan; Townsend, Philip; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Hibbard, Kathy; Cox, Peter

    2015-02-06

    Modeled terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute substantial uncertainty to projections of future climate. The limitations of current observing networks contribute to this uncertainty. Here we present a current climatology of global model predictions and observations for photosynthesis, biomass, plant diversity and plant functional diversity. Carbon cycle tipping points occur in terrestrial regions where fluxes or stocks are largest, and where biological variability is highest, the tropics and Arctic/Boreal zones. Global observations are predominately in the mid-latitudes and are sparse in high and low latitude ecosystems. Observing and forecasting ecosystem change requires sustained observations of sufficient density in time and space in critical regions. Using data and theory available now, we can develop a strategy to detect and forecast terrestrial carbon cycle-climate interactions, by combining in situ and remote techniques.

  17. Influence of the Tussock Growth Form on Arctic Ecosystem Carbon Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curasi, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Sonnentag, O.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Myers-Smith, I. H.; Fetcher, N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Parker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of plant growth forms on ecosystem carbon (C) cycling has been under appreciated. In arctic tundra, environmental factors and plant traits of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum cause the formation of mounds that are dense amalgamations of belowground C called tussocks. Tussocks have important implications for arctic ecosystem biogeochemistry and C stocks, but the environmental and biological factors controlling their size and distribution across the landscape are poorly understood. In order to better understand how landscape variation in tussock size and density impact ecosystem C stocks, we formed the Carbon in Arctic Tussock Tundra (CATT) network and recruited an international team to sample locations across the arctic. The CATT network provided a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient along which to improve our understanding of tussocks' influence on ecosystem structure and function. CATT data revealed important insights into tussock formation across the arctic. Tussock density generally declined with latitude, and tussock size exhibited substantial variation across sites. The relationship between height and diameter was similar across CATT sites indicating that both biological and environmental factors control tussock formation. At some sites, C in tussocks comprised a substantial percentage of ecosystem C stocks that may be vulnerable to climate change. It is concluded that the loss of this growth form would offset C gains from projected plant functional shifts from graminoid to shrub tundra. This work highlights the role of plant growth forms on the magnitude and retention of ecosystem C stocks.

  18. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO₂ emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  19. Soil carbon sensitivity to temperature and carbon use efficiency compared across microbial-ecosystem models of varying complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianwei; Wang, Gangsheng; Allison, Steven D.; Mayes, Melanie; Luo, Yiqi

    2014-01-01

    Global ecosystem models may require microbial components to accurately predict feedbacks between climate warming and soil decomposition, but it is unclear what parameters and levels of complexity are ideal for scaling up to the globe. Here we conducted a model comparison using a conventional model with first-order decay and three microbial models of increasing complexity that simulate short- to long-term soil carbon dynamics. We focused on soil carbon responses to microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) and temperature. Three scenarios were implemented in all models: constant CUE (held at 0.31), varied CUE ( 0.016 C 1), and 50 % acclimated CUE ( 0.008 C 1). Whereas the conventional model always showed soil carbon losses with increasing temperature, the microbial models each predicted a temperature threshold above which warming led to soil carbon gain. The location of this threshold depended on CUE scenario, with higher temperature thresholds under the acclimated and constant scenarios. This result suggests that the temperature sensitivity of CUE and the structure of the soil carbon model together regulate the long-term soil carbon response to warming. Equilibrium soil carbon stocks predicted by the microbial models were much less sensitive to changing inputs compared to the conventional model. Although many soil carbon dynamics were similar across microbial models, the most complex model showed less pronounced oscillations. Thus, adding model complexity (i.e. including enzyme pools) could improve the mechanistic representation of soil carbon dynamics during the transient phase in certain ecosystems. This study suggests that model structure and CUE parameterization should be carefully evaluated when scaling up microbial models to ecosystems and the globe.

  20. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  1. Infrared sensors to map soil carbon in agricultural ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid methods of measuring soil carbon such as near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have gained interest but problems of accurate and precise measurement still persist resulting from the high spatial variability of soil carbon within agricultural landscapes. T...

  2. The Alaska Land Carbon Assessment: Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, A. D.; Genet, H.; He, Y.; Stackpoole, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.; Rupp, S. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The Alaska Land Carbon Assessment was conducted to inform mitigation and adaptation policies and land management decisions at sub-regional, regional, and national scales. Ecosystem carbon balance of Alaska was estimated for two time periods, a historical period (1950-2009) and a projected period (2010-2099) by synthesizing results for upland, wetland, and inland aquatic ecosystems. The total area of Alaska considered in this assessment was 1,474,844 km2, which is composed of 84 percent uplands, 12 percent wetlands, and 4 percent inland waters. Between 1950 and 2009 the upland and wetland ecosystems of the state sequestered an average of 4.4 TgC/yr, which is almost 2 percent of net primary production (NPP) by upland and wetland ecosystems. However, this sequestration is spatially variable with the northern boreal sub-region losing C because of fire disturbance and other sub-regions gaining carbon. For inland aquatic ecosystems, there was a net combined carbon flux through various pathways of 41.2 TgC/yr, or about 17 percent of upland and wetland NPP. The greenhouse gas forcing potential of upland and wetland ecosystems of Alaska was approximately neutral during the historical period, but the state as a whole could be a source for greenhouse gas forcing to the climate system from methane emissions from lake ecosystems, which were not considered in the assessment. During the projected period (2010-2099), carbon sequestration of upland and wetland ecosystems of Alaska would increase substantially (18.2 to 34.4 TgC/yr) primarily because of an increase in NPP of 8 to 19 percent associated with responses to rising atmospheric CO2, increased nitrogen cycling, and longer growing seasons. Although C emissions to the atmosphere from wildfire increase substantially for all of the projected climates, the increases in NPP more than compensate for those losses. The analysis indicates that upland and wetland ecosystems would be sinks for greenhouse gases for all scenarios during

  3. Scale criticality in estimating ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Scaling is central to ecology and Earth system sciences. However, the importance of scale (i.e. resolution and extent) for understanding carbon dynamics across scales is poorly understood and quantified. We simulated carbon dynamics under a wide range of combinations of resolution (nine spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 5 km, 10 km, 20 km, 50 km, and 100 km) and extent (57 geospatial extents ranging from 108 to 1 247 034 km2) in the southeastern United States to explore the existence of scale dependence of the simulated regional carbon balance. Results clearly show the existence of a critical threshold resolution for estimating carbon sequestration within a given extent and an error limit. Furthermore, an invariant power law scaling relationship was found between the critical resolution and the spatial extent as the critical resolution is proportional to An (n is a constant, and A is the extent). Scale criticality and the power law relationship might be driven by the power law probability distributions of land surface and ecological quantities including disturbances at landscape to regional scales. The current overwhelming practices without considering scale criticality might have largely contributed to difficulties in balancing carbon budgets at regional and global scales.

  4. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John S.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-05-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  5. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  6. Challenges in Monitoring Carbon and Ecosystem Properties from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickland, Diane; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    Space-based remote sensing offers powerful tools to assess changes in global ecosystems and carbon cycle dynamics. Current capabilities are allowing regional quantification of disturbance and recovery processes and global, synoptic documentation of changes in primary productiv-ity, land cover, inundated wetlands, and the effects of fire. These in turn enable improved estimates of carbon storage in plants, soils, and ocean waters; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; and the ecosystem impacts of changing climate and land use/management. New satellite capabilities and mission concepts are about to enable 1) direct measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and the ability to identify sources and sinks, and 2) detailed characterization of the vertical structure of forest canopies. New measurements of forest three-dimensional structure offer to greatly improve estimates of global forest biomass and carbon stocks and also, for the first time, allow fundamentally new characterization of habitats for certain species. Challenges in making these observations and in deriving scientific information to inform climate-related policies, land management practices, and assessments of biodiversity will be discussed. Examples will be drawn from NASA's Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Focus Area programs.

  7. Technical Report: Investigation of Carbon Cycle Processes within a Managed Landscape: An Ecosystem Manipulation and Isotope Tracer Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griffis, Timothy J; Baker, John M; Billmark, Kaycie

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a better scientific understanding of carbon cycle processes within an agricultural landscape characteristic of the Upper Midwest. This project recognizes the need to study processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales to reduce uncertainty in ecosystem and landscape-scale carbon budgets to provide a sound basis for shaping future policy related to carbon management. Specifically, this project has attempted to answer the following questions: 1. Would the use of cover crops result in a shift from carbon neutral to significant carbon gain in corn-soybean rotation ecosystems of the Upper Midwest? 2. Can stable carbon isotope analyses be used to partition ecosystem respiration into its autotrophic and heterotrophic components? 3. Can this partitioning be used to better understand the fate of crop residues to project changes in the soil carbon reservoir? 4. Are agricultural ecosystems of the Upper Midwest carbon neutral, sinks, or sources? Can the proposed measurement and modeling framework help address landscape-scale carbon budget uncertainties and help guide future carbon management policy?

  8. Soil carbon sequestration: Quantifying this ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils have a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis. These include food and fiber production, water cleansing and supply, nutrient cycling, waste isolation and degradation. Soils also provide a significant amount of carbon s...

  9. Soil carbon sequestration: Quantifying this ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils have a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis. These include food and fiber production, water cleansing and supply, nutrient cycling, waste isolation and degradation. Soils also provide a significant amount of carbon s...

  10. Experimental nutrient additions accelerate terrestrial carbon loss from stream ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Amy D. Rosemond; Jonathan P. Benstead; Phillip M. Bumpers; Vladislav Gulis; John S. Kominoski; David W.P. Manning; Keller Suberkropp; J. Bruce. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient pollution of freshwater ecosystems results in predictable increases in carbon (C) sequestration by algae. Tests of nutrient enrichment on the fates of terrestrial organic C, which supports riverine food webs and is a source of CO2, are lacking. Using whole-stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions spanning the equivalent of 27 years, we found that...

  11. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested the hypothesis that diurnal changes in terrestrial CO2 exchange are driven exclusively by the direct effect of the physical environment on plant physiology. We failed to corroborate this assumption, finding instead large diurnal fluctuations in whole ecosystem carbon assimilation across a ...

  12. Modeling carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Klaus Butterbach-Bahl

    2005-01-01

    A forest biogeochemical model, Forest-DNDC, was developed to quantify carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forest ecosystems. Forest-DNDC was constructed by integrating two existing moels, PnET and DNDC, with several new features including nitrification, forest litter layer, soil freezing and thawing etc, PnET is a forest physiological model predicting...

  13. Soil carbon pools and fluxes in urban ecosystems

    Treesearch

    R. Pouyat; P. Groffman; I Yesilonis; L. Hernandez

    2002-01-01

    The transformation of landscapes from non-urban to urban land use has the potential to greatly modify soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes. For urban ecosystems, very little data exists to assess whether urbanization leads to an increase or decrease in soil C pools. We analyzed three data sets to assess the potential for urbanization to affect soil organic C. These...

  14. Banking carbon: A review of organic carbon storage and physical factors influencing retention in floodplains and riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Nicholas A. Sutfin; Ellen E. Wohl; Kathleen A. Dwire

    2016-01-01

    Rivers are dynamic components of the terrestrial carbon cycle and provide important functions in ecosystem processes. Although rivers act as conveyers of carbon to the oceans, rivers also retain carbon within riparian ecosystems along floodplains, with potential for long-term (> 102 years) storage. Research in ecosystem processing emphasizes the...

  15. Contrasting responses of shrubland carbon gain and soil carbon efflux to drought and warming across a European climate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Koller, Eva; Sowerby, Alwyn; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Estiarte, Marc; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Kovács-Láng, Edit; Kröel-Dulay, György; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Larsen, Klaus S.; Liberati, Dario; Penuelas, Josep; Ransijn, Johannes; Schmidt, Inger K.; Smith, Andrew R.; Tietema, Albert; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between above- and belowground processes is crucial if we are to forecast feedbacks between terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics and future climate. To test if climate-induced changes in annual aboveground net primary productivity (aNPP) will drive changes in C loss by soil respiration (Rs), we integrated data across a European temperature and precipitation gradient. For over a decade, six European shrublands were exposed to repeated drought (-30 % annual rain) during the plants' growth season or year-round night-time warming (+1.5 oC), using an identical experimental approach. As a result, drought reduced ecosystem C gain via aNPP by 0-25 % (compared to an untreated control) with the lowest C gain in warm-dry sites and highest in wet-cold sites (R2=0.078, p-value = 0.544, slope = 14.35 %). In contrast, drought induced C loss via Rs was of a lower magnitude (10-20 %) and was most pronounced in warm-dry sites compared to wet-cold sites (R2=0.687, p-value = 0.131, slope = 7.86 %). This suggests that belowground activity (microbes and roots) is stabilizing ecosystem processes and functions in terms of C storage. However, when the drought treatment permanently altered the soil structure at our hydric site, indicating we had exceeded the resilience of the system, the ecosystem C gain was no longer predictable from current (linear) relationships. Results from the warming treatment were generally of lower magnitude and of opposing direction compared to the drought treatment, indicating different mechanisms were driving ecosystem responses. Overall, our results suggest that aNPP is less sensitive than Rs to climate stresses and soil respiration C fluxes are not predictable from changes in plant productivity. Drought and warming effects on aNPP and Rs did not weaken over decadal timescales at larger, continental scales if no catastrophic threshold is passed. However, indirect effects of climate change on soil properties and/or microbial communities

  16. Assessing ecosystem carbon stocks of Indonesia's threatened wetland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M.; Kauffman, B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Kurnianto, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over millennia, atmospheric carbon dioxide has been sequestered and stored in Indonesia's tropical wetland forests. Waterlogged conditions impede decomposition, allowing the formation of deep organic soils. These globally significant C pools are highly vulnerable to deforestation, degradation and climate change which can potentially switch their function as C sinks to long term sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also at risk are critical ecosystem services which sustain millions of people and the conservation of unique biological communities. The multiple benefits derived from wetland forest conservation makes them attractive for international C offset programs such as the proposed Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism. Yet, ecosystem C pools and fluxes in wetland forests remain poorly quantified. Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding how land use changes impact C dynamics in tropical wetlands, and very few studies have simultaneously assessed above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in Indonesia's freshwater peat swamps and mangroves. In addition, most of what is known about Indonesia's tropical wetland forests is derived from few geographic locations where long-standing research has focused, despite their broad spatial distribution. Here we present results from an extensive survey of ecosystem C stocks across several Indonesian wetland forests. Ecosystem C stocks were measured in freshwater peat swamp forests in West Papua, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Carbon storage was also measured for mangrove forests in W. Papua, W. Kalimantan, and Sumatra. One overarching goal of this research is to support the development of REDD+ for tropical wetlands by informing technical issues related to carbon measuring, monitoring, and verification (MRV) and providing baseline data about the variation of ecosystem C storage across and within several Indonesian wetland forests.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  19. Energy gains predict the distribution of plains bison across populations and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Babin, Jean-Sébastien; Fortin, Daniel; Wilmshurst, John F; Fortin, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    Developing tools that help predict animal distribution in the face of environmental change is central to understanding ecosystem function, but it remains a significant ecological challenge. We tested whether a single foraging currency could explain bison (Bison bison) distribution in dissimilar environments: a largely forested environment in Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) and a prairie environment in Grasslands National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada). We blended extensive behavioral observations, relocations of radio-collared bison, vegetation surveys, and laboratory analyses to spatially link bison distribution in the two parks and expected gains for different nutritional currencies. In Prince Albert National Park, bison were more closely associated with the distribution of plants that maximized their instantaneous energy intake rate (IDE) than their daily intake of digestible energy. This result reflected both bison's intensity of use of individual meadows and their selection of foraging sites within meadows. On this basis, we tested whether IDE could explain the spatial dynamics of bison reintroduced to Grasslands National Park. As predicted, bison distribution in this park best matched spatial patterns of plants offering rapid IDE rather than rapid sodium intake, phosphorus intake, or daily intake of digestible energy. Because the two study areas have very different plant communities, a phenomenological model of resource selection developed in one area could not be used to predict animal distribution in the other. We were able, however, to successfully infer the distribution of bison from their foraging objective. This consistency in foraging currency across ecosystems and populations provides a strong basis for forecasting animal distributions in novel and dynamic environments.

  20. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Bett, B. J.; Billett, D. S. M.; Lampitt, R. S.; Kaufmann, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy ≈60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate. PMID:19901326

  1. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Smith, K L; Ruhl, H A; Bett, B J; Billett, D S M; Lampitt, R S; Kaufmann, R S

    2009-11-17

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy approximately 60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate.

  2. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems - the effect of drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. S.; Mateus, J. A.; Aires, L. M.; Pita, G.; Pio, C.; David, J. S.; Andrade, V.; Banza, J.; David, T. S.; Paço, T. A.; Rodrigues, A.

    2007-09-01

    Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean), droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like) with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003-2006) the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE) between -861 and -399 g C m-2 year-1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between -140 and -28 g C m-2 year-1 and in the grassland between -190 and +49 g C m-2 year-1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD), as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume) and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density) than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September) of 2004-2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004-2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE). The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m-2 year-1). In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation component, which was strongly affected by

  3. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  4. Interactions of Carbon Gain and Nitrogen Addition in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaz, F. A.

    2001-12-01

    In plants, carbon and nitrogen are intimately related. The plant gains carbon using nitrogen because it is a major constituent of both the light reaction (chlorophyll) and dark reaction (Rubisco and PEP carboxylase). The plant also gains more nitrogen by using carbon to grow roots that can forage for nitrogen, especially the less mobile (NH4+). Rising CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition are important elements of global change, both of which may affect ecosystem structure and function. They may cause a particularly large shift in species composition in systems where contrasting groups of species co-occur, e.g. evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved tree species. We studied the impact of nitrogen deposition in a mixed forest in central Massachusetts (Harvard Forest). We found that the early-successional broad-leaved species, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and red maple (Acer rubrum), both showed large increases in biomass, while the late successional species sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and all the coniferous species, hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red spruce (Picea rubens) and white pine (Pinus strobus), only showed slight increases. As a result, when these species wre grown together, there was a decrease in species diversity. There was a significant correlation between species growth rate and the growth enhancement following nitrogen addition. We used SORTIE, a spatially explicit forest model to speculate about the future of this community. In both hemlock and red oak stands, nitrogen deposition led to shift in forest composition towards further dominance of young forests by yellow birch. We conclude that seedling physiological and demographic responses to increased nitrogen availability will scale up to exaggerate successional dynamics in mixed temperate forests in the future

  5. Organic carbon flow in a swamp-stream ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    An annual organic carbon budget is presented for an 8-km segment of Creeping Swamp, an undisturbed, third-order swamp-stream in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Annual input of organic carbon (588 gC/m/sup 2/) was 96% allochthonous and was dominated by leaf litter inputs (36%) and fluvial, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs (31%). Although the swamp-stream was primarily heterotrophic, autochthonous organic carbon input, primarily from filamentous algae, was important during February and March when primary production/ecosystem respiration (P/R) ratios of the flooded portions were near one. Annual output of organic carbon via fluvial processes (214 gC/m/sup 2/), 95% as DOC, was 36% of total annual inputs, indicating that the swamp-stream segment ecosystem was 64% efficient at retaining organic carbon. Organic carbon dynamics in the Creeping Swamp segment were compared to those reported for upland stream segments using indices of organic matter processing suggested by Fisher (1977) and a loading potential index suggested here. Creeping Swamp, while loading at a high rate, retains a much larger portion of its organic carbon inputs than two upland streams. Despite the high degree of retention and oxidation of organic inputs to Creeping Swamp, there is a net annual fluvial export of 21 gC/m/sup 2/, mostly in the dissolved form. Watersheds drained by swamp-streams in the southeastern United States are thought to have large organic carbon exports compared to upland forested drainages, because the stream network covers a much greater proportion of the total watershed area.

  6. Phenological control over ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, R. K.; Moore, D. J.; Scott-Denton, L.; Burns, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon fluxes has been improved over the past decade in large part due to the maturation of observational records from networks of flux towers and the development of model-data assimilation techniques from which insight into carbon cycle processes can be extracted. Some of the earliest analyses of the observation record revealed that interannual phenological variation in forest ecosystems has a significant influence on the annual cumulative net rate of CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. In winter-deciduous forest ecosystems, phenological variability in the timing of bud break in the spring, and the early-season rate at which the forest reaches its seasonal maximum leaf area index, have large effects on the ultimate annual sum for net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In snow-controlled evergreen forests, the timing at which snow melt or soil thaw occurs, and liquid water becomes available to drive diurnal increases in stomatal conductance, the spring 'phenological switch-on' can be abrupt and the capacity for the forest to reach its seasonal maximum NEE can occur within a few days. The relatively high sensitivity of ecosystem carbon budgets to variability in phenology renders it difficult to accurately model system dynamics, especially for evergreen forests. Recent model-data assimilation studies have found large errors in the ability of the models to replicate observations of NEE at the seasonal-to-annual time scales, in large part due to inadequacies in how they capture spring and fall phenology thresholds and early- and late-season dynamics in the state of the photosynthetic apparatus. In our own studies of interannual variation in NEE in the evergreen subalpine forest at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we have not been able to accurately represent spring phenology dynamics and their influence on annual NEE using the Simple Evapotranspiration and Net Photosynthesis (SIPNET) model without explicit consideration of snowmelt dynamics. In

  7. Comparison of Current and Historical Rates of Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation in a Northern Alberta Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, K. H.; Flanagan, L. B.; Carlson, P. J.; Glenn, A. J.; Ponton, S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of Fluxnet-Canada, we have been investigating the environmental controls on net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange using the eddy covariance technique in a moderately rich (treed) fen in northern Alberta, Canada. In addition, integrated CO2 fluxes were compared to carbon stock measurements and rates of peat accumulation. The total ecosystem carbon stock was 52,669 g C m-2 with the vast majority (52,129) accumulated in peat over a 2 meter depth. The basal age for the peat was 2210 ± 50 years before present. The above-ground carbon stock in the two tree species was 226 g C m-2. The oldest Picea mariana trees were aged at 135 years, and they showed a rapid increase in basal area increment starting about 65 years ago that peaked at rates of 2 cm2 yr-1 about 40 years ago. The Larix laricina trees became established approximately 45 years ago and currently have a basal area increment of 3 to 4 cm2 yr-1, much higher than the current rates (0.5 cm2 yr-1) observed for Picea mariana. The rates of peat accumulation were determined on 210Pb-dated cores. Over the last 70 years the peat gained an average of 113 ± 12 g C m-2 yr-1. This was similar to net ecosystem production measured by eddy covariance (95 and 210 g C m-2 yr-1) over the last two years. Variation in annual net ecosystem production was associated with shifts in weather and growing season length. Current and recent historical rates of carbon accumulation were quite consistent despite significant variation in tree species growth and successional changes in this peatland over the last 70 years.

  8. Biomass carbon pool of forest ecosystems and carbon-containing gas emission from biomass burning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoke Wang; Yahui Zhuang; Zongwei Feng

    1997-12-31

    With the increasing study on global climatic change, scientists have paid more attention to the role of forest ecosystem in global carbon cycle, especially to the uncertainty of atmospheric carbon source and sink involved in forest ecosystems. However, to date it is lack of the information of forest carbon cycle in China for many studies of global carbon cycle. By investigations of forest ecosystem biomass and experiment of chamber combustion, in this paper it was estimated that the carbon pool of forest ecosystem and the carbon-containing gases released from forest biomass burning in China.

  9. Carbon dioxide budget in a temperature grassland ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.; Clement, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 flux made during May-October 1987 and June-August 1989 were employed, in conjunction with simulated data, to examine the net exchange of CO2 in a temperature grassland ecosystem. Simulated estimates of CO2 uptake were used when flux measurements were not available. These estimates were based on daily intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and extractable soil water. Soil CO2 flux and dark respiration of the aerial part of plants were estimated using the relationships developed by Norman et al. (1992) and Polley et al. (1992) at the study site. The results indicate that the CO2 exchange between this ecosystem and the atmosphere is highly variable. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reached its peak value (12-18 g/sq m d) during the period when the leaf area index was maximum. Drought, a frequent occurrence in this region, can change this ecosystem from a sink to a source for atmospheric CO2. Comparison with data on dry matter indicated that the aboveground biomass accounted for about 45-70 percent of the net carbon uptake, suggesting the importance of the below ground biomass in estimating net primary productivity in this ecosystem.

  10. Carbon dioxide budget in a temperature grassland ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.; Clement, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 flux made during May-October 1987 and June-August 1989 were employed, in conjunction with simulated data, to examine the net exchange of CO2 in a temperature grassland ecosystem. Simulated estimates of CO2 uptake were used when flux measurements were not available. These estimates were based on daily intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and extractable soil water. Soil CO2 flux and dark respiration of the aerial part of plants were estimated using the relationships developed by Norman et al. (1992) and Polley et al. (1992) at the study site. The results indicate that the CO2 exchange between this ecosystem and the atmosphere is highly variable. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reached its peak value (12-18 g/sq m d) during the period when the leaf area index was maximum. Drought, a frequent occurrence in this region, can change this ecosystem from a sink to a source for atmospheric CO2. Comparison with data on dry matter indicated that the aboveground biomass accounted for about 45-70 percent of the net carbon uptake, suggesting the importance of the below ground biomass in estimating net primary productivity in this ecosystem.

  11. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selmants, Paul C.; Giardina, Christian P.; Jacobi, James D.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-05-04

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to improve understanding of factors influencing carbon balance in ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Ecosystem carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and carbon balance were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems on the seven main Hawaiian islands in two time periods: baseline (from 2007 through 2012) and future (projections from 2012 through 2061). The assessment incorporated observed data, remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment has been completed for the conterminous United States, using methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, with results provided in three regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897), and for Alaska, with results provided in PP 1826.

  12. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos

    2011-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  13. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  14. Global distribution of carbon turnover times in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability remains one of the largest uncertainties affecting future projections of climate change. This feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by the response of carbon uptake and by changes in the residence time of carbon in land ecosystems, which depend on climate, soil, and vegetation type. Thus, it is of foremost importance to quantify the turnover times of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial co-variability with climate. Here, we develop a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times (τ) to investigate its co-variation with climate at global scale. Assuming a balance between uptake (gross primary production, GPP) and emission fluxes, τ can be defined as the ratio between the total stock (C_total) and the output or input fluxes (GPP). The estimation of vegetation (C_veg) stocks relies on new remote sensing-based estimates from Saatchi et al (2011) and Thurner et al (2014), while soil carbon stocks (C_soil) are estimated based on state of the art global (Harmonized World Soil Database) and regional (Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database) datasets. The uptake flux estimates are based on global observation-based fields of GPP (Jung et al., 2011). Globally, we find an overall mean global carbon turnover time of 23-4+7 years (95% confidence interval). A strong spatial variability globally is also observed, from shorter residence times in equatorial regions to longer periods at latitudes north of 75°N (mean τ of 15 and 255 years, respectively). The observed latitudinal pattern reflect the clear dependencies on temperature, showing increases from the equator to the poles, which is consistent with our current understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. However, long turnover times are also observed in semi-arid and forest-herbaceous transition regions. Furthermore

  15. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, Joeri S; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn), which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  16. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, Joeri S.; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn), which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:26461108

  17. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko-Najera, Nina; Isaac, Peter; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; McHugh, Ian; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen) forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010-2012) of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of -1234 ± 109 (SE) g C m-2 yr-1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m-2 yr-1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m-2 yr-1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so that soil water content remained relatively high and the forest

  18. Ecosystem and Societal Consequences of Ocean versus Atmosphere Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Adams, E. E.; Bleck, R.; Caldeira, K.; Carman, K.; Erickson, D.; Kennett, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Tsouris, C.

    2005-12-01

    Climate stabilization during the next 100 to 200 y will require significant reductions in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions to avoid large increases in global temperature. While there is only mild disagreement concerning carbon management options such as energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and even geologic C storage, ocean storage remains controversial, due to its potential impacts for deep-sea ecosystems. A cautionary approach to carbon management might avoid any ocean C storage. However, this approach does not consider the balance between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, or societal concerns. Using a broader perspective, we might ask whether atmospheric CO2 storage (i.e. the status quo), or deep ocean sequestration is better for Earth's ecosystems and societies? We explored the potential storage capacity of the deep ocean for carbon dioxide, under scenarios producing a 0.2 pH unit reduction, a level similar to observed scale of pH variability in deep ocean basins, which may also represent coarse thresholds for deep-sea ecosystem impacts. Roughly 500 PgC could be stored in the deep ocean to lower pH by 0.2 units, yielding a long term (~250 y) ocean sequestration program of 2 PgCy-1. The mitigation value of such ocean C sequestration for upper ocean and terrestrial systems depends strongly on future emission scenarios. Under a low emission scenario (e.g. SRES scenario A1T, B1; atm CO2 ~575 ppm, global temperature change of ~+2 oC), a 2 PgCy-1 ocean CO2 injection program could mitigate global temperature by ~-0.4 oC (20%) by 2100. This could reduce significantly the number of people at risk of water shortage and tropical diseases, with lesser improvement expected for hunger or coastal flooding. Mitigation for terrestrial and shallow ocean ecosystems is difficult to predict. A 0.4 oC reduction in warming this century is expected to delay the progression of coral reef devastation by roughly 20 y. The mitigation potential of ocean storage under very

  19. Forest ecosystem carbon on public lands of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, L.S.

    1995-06-01

    Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has prompted nations to investigate strategies to mitigate emissions. One set of strategies involves sequestering carbon in forests, and this requires a way to estimate and project the forest ecosystem carbon budget for all forestland under a range of potential policy options. Carbon was estimated and projected using the FORCARB model, linked to ATLAS, the Aggregate Timberland Assessment System. FORCARB estimates carbon in live trees, detrital wood, forest floor, and soil, and ATLAS tracks timber inventory in terms of volume and land area. Together, these models account for the effects of existing forest inventories, forest growth, land use changes, and harvesting on carbon sequestered on public lands. Forests on both federal and non-federal public lands comprise at least 40% of the forests in the U.S. by land area, and contain a significant portion of the forest carbon budget. Changes in harvesting and fire suppression strategies on public lands noticeably affect the forest carbon budget of the U.S.

  20. Role of soil water erosion on the organic carbon balance in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro, M.; Boix Fayos, C.; López, J.; Albaladejo, J.; Castillo, V.; Martínez-Mena, M.

    2009-04-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool represents a dynamic equilibrium of gains and losses. Conversion of forest ecosystems into croplands causes depletion of the SOC pool by as much as 60% in soils of temperate regions. Alterations in the size of the soil C pool at a specific location are determined by the relative changes in the inputs (aboveground and belowground net primary production) and outputs (decomposition of plant material and soil organic matter, root respiration and erosion) of C over yearly and longer time scales. The total global area of lands with a Mediterranean-type climate is about 2.75 million km2 (Rambal 2001). Coupled General Circulation Models (GCM) and ecophysiological models such as GOTILWA predict 1°C warming and 15-20% lower soil water availability for the next three decades in Mediterranean ecosystems as a result of smaller annual amounts of precipitation and also changes in rain distribution (IPPC, 2001; Sabaté et al., 2002), which may alter soil carbon dynamics. There is an ongoing debate about the role of soil erosion in the global carbon budget. Thus, while several authors consider that soil erosion has a strong impact on the global C cycle, others do not consider this component while assessing the global carbon budget. In the present study we evaluate the effect of soil erosion on the annual carbon balance under three representative land uses in a dry Mediterranean ecosystem (,a typical Mediterranean semiarid shrubland with scattered Aleppo pines, (ii) a rainfed olive grove, and (iii) an abandoned agricultural field) and determine the effectof land use changes on the carbon pools and fluxes. To address the role of land use change in controlling C fluxes, and thereby soil C sequestration rates, we measured aboveground and belowground net primary production, soil respiration and soil C loss via water erosion for two years, in each of the land use selected. The three selected areas showed a similar pattern in the annual carbon balance

  1. Freshwater ecology. Experimental nutrient additions accelerate terrestrial carbon loss from stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P; Bumpers, Phillip M; Gulis, Vladislav; Kominoski, John S; Manning, David W P; Suberkropp, Keller; Wallace, J Bruce

    2015-03-06

    Nutrient pollution of freshwater ecosystems results in predictable increases in carbon (C) sequestration by algae. Tests of nutrient enrichment on the fates of terrestrial organic C, which supports riverine food webs and is a source of CO2, are lacking. Using whole-stream nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions spanning the equivalent of 27 years, we found that average terrestrial organic C residence time was reduced by ~50% as compared to reference conditions as a result of nutrient pollution. Annual inputs of terrestrial organic C were rapidly depleted via release of detrital food webs from N and P co-limitation. This magnitude of terrestrial C loss can potentially exceed predicted algal C gains with nutrient enrichment across large parts of river networks, diminishing associated ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO[sub 2] increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO{sub 2} increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

  4. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiaoa; Qianlai Zhuang; Beverly E. Law; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Jiquan Chen; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a...

  5. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change as well as carbon accounting and climate policy-making depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems...

  6. Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindermann, Jürgen; Würth, Gudrun; Kohlmaier, Gundolf H.; Badeck, Franz-W.

    1996-12-01

    A global prognostic physiologically based model of the carbon budget in terrestrial ecosystems, the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), is applied to simulate the interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The data on climatic forcing are based on Cramer and Leemans climate maps; the interannual variation is introduced according to records of temperature anomalies and precipitation anomalies for the period 1980 to 1993. The calculated net exchange flux between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is compared to the biospheric signal deduced from 13C measurements. Some intermediate results are presented as well: the contributions of the most important global ecosystems to the biospheric signal, the contributions of different latitudinal belts to the biospheric signal, and the responses of net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh). From the simulation results it can be inferred that the complex temperature and precipitation responses of NPP and Rh in different latitudes and different ecosystem types add up to a global CO2 signal contributing substantially to the atmospheric CO2 anomaly on the interannual timescale. The temperature response of NPP was found to be the most important factor determining this signal.

  7. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Results Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire

  8. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Crabtree, Robert; Huang, Shengli; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa

    2011-08-11

    A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire areas. Rates of

  9. Terrestrial carbon and intraspecific size-variation shape lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Mats; Persson, Lennart; De Roos, André M; Jones, Roger I; Tranvik, Lars J

    2007-06-01

    Conceptual models of lake ecosystem structure and function have generally assumed that energy in pelagic systems is derived from in situ photosynthesis and that its use by higher trophic levels depends on the average properties of individuals in consumer populations. These views are challenged by evidence that allochthonous subsidies of organic carbon greatly influence energy mobilization and transfer and the trophic structure of pelagic food webs, and that size variation within consumer species has major ramifications for lake community dynamics and structure. These discoveries represent conceptual shifts that have yet to be integrated into current views on lake ecosystems. Here, we assess key aspects of energy mobilization and size-structured community dynamics, and show how these processes are intertwined in pelagic food webs.

  10. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Hollinger, David; Munger, James W.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  11. Carbon Budget and its Dynamics over Northern Eurasia Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-04-01

    The presentation contains an overview of recent findings and results of assessment of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. From a methodological point of view, there is a clear tendency in understanding a need of a Full and Verified Carbon Account (FCA), i.e. in reliable assessment of uncertainties for all modules and all stages of FCA. FCA is considered as a fuzzy (underspecified) system that supposes a system integration of major methods of carbon cycling study (land-ecosystem approach, LEA; process-based models; eddy covariance; and inverse modelling). Landscape-ecosystem approach 1) serves for accumulation of all relevant knowledge of landscape and ecosystems; 2) for strict systems designing the account, 3) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 4) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). The ILIS includes a hybrid land cover in a spatially and temporarily explicit way and corresponding attributive databases. The forest mask is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data, geographically weighed regression and validation within GEO-wiki platform. By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is based on a special optimization algorithms using all available knowledge and information sources (data of forest inventory and different surveys, observations in situ, official statistics of forest management etc.). Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data and aggregations with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. Within method results of LEA and corresponding uncertainties are harmonized and mutually constrained with independent outputs received by other methods based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000

  12. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Different Ecosystems in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    Information on exchange of energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) for major terrestrial ecosystems is vital to quantify carbon and water balances on a large-scale. It is also necessary to develop, test, and improve crop models and satellite-based production efficiency and evapotranspiration (ET) models, and to better understand the potential of terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. A network (GRL-FLUXNET) of nine eddy flux towers has been established over a diverse range of terrestrial ecosystems, including native and improved perennial grasslands [unburned and grazed tallgrass prairie, burned and grazed tallgrass prairie, and burned Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.)], grazed and non-grazed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), till and no-till winter wheat and canola (Brassica napus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.), at the USDA-ARS, Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK. In this presentation, we quantify and compare net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ET between recently burned and grazed tallgrass prairie and burned and non-grazed Bermuda grass pastures, alfalfa, and soybean. Preliminary results show monthly ensembles average NEE reached seasonal peak values of -29, -35, -25, and -20 µmol m-2 s-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Similarly, monthly ensembles average ET reached seasonal peak values of 0.22, 0.27, 0.25, 0.28 mm 30-min-1 in burned tallgrass prairie pasture, burned Bermuda grass pasture, alfalfa, and soybean, respectively. Seasonal patterns and daily magnitudes of NEE and ET and their responses to the similar climatic conditions will be further investigated.

  13. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  14. Linking disturbance intensity and carbon cycle in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, B.; Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing awareness that natural and anthropogenic disturbance in forests forest affects exchange of CO2, H2O and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. Furthermore, severe disturbance may result in substantial emissions of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Consequently quantification of land use and disturbance intensity (LUDI) is one of the next steps needed to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle, its interactions with the atmosphere and its main drivers at local as well as at global level. The conventional NPP-based approaches to quantify the intensity of land management are limited because they lack a sound ecological basis. Here we apply a new way of characterising the degree of management and disturbance in forest. The index called LUDI: land use and disturbance intensity makes use of the self thinning theory and observations of diameter at breast height and stand density. The application of LUDI was demonstrated by using a very extensive dataset from the Pacific Northwest region (PNW) in North America containing more than 5000 inventory plots. Results show significant relationships between LUDI and forest productivity (NPP) and Carbon uptake (NEP) for seven different forest types in the PNW. In addition the relationships suggest a maximal productivity at mild disturbance. These results further confirm the link between forest disturbance and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems.

  15. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  16. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  17. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    along watercourses from ca. 50,000 ha to ca. 25,000 ha and at the same time they reduced the width of the mandatory BSs from 10 m to 9 m. The aim of this presentation is to share the experience gained in Denmark on establishing mandatory BSs. Furthermore, we will show some preliminary results from two newly initiated research projects (BUFFERTECH and BALTICSEA2020) that studies how to enhance the ecosystem services provided by buffer strips. We will show how intelligently to guide managers when establishing BSs along watercourses at catchment scale utilizing a combined P-index model for soil erosion and a statistical model for P retention in BSs as well as results obtained from new 'Engineered' or 'Constructed' BSs that delays tile drainage flow from field to streams thereby increasing nutrient retention. Acknowledgement The work is supported by the Strategic Research Foundation/Innovation Fund Denmark project 'BUFFERTECH - Optimization of Ecosystem Services Provided by Buffer Strips Using Novel Technological Methods' (Grant No. 1305-00017B) and the BalticSea2020 project 'Integrerade skyddszoner (IBZ)'.

  18. Comparison of a mass balance and an ecosystem model approach when evaluating the carbon cycling in a lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian

    2006-12-01

    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter-in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net autotrophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO2. The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions.

  19. DESPOT, a process-based tree growth model that allocates carbon to maximize carbon gain.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    We present a new model of tree growth, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is adjusted in each time step to maximize whole-tree net C gain in the next time step. Carbon gain, respiration and the acquisition and transport of substitutable photosynthetic resources (nitrogen, water and light) are modeled on a process basis. The current form of DESPOT simulates a uniform, monospecific, self-thinning stand. This paper describes DESPOT and its general behavior in comparison to published data, and presents an evaluation of the sensitivity of its qualitative predictions by Monte Carlo parameter sensitivity analysis. DESPOT predicts determinate height growth and steady stand-level net primary productivity (NPP), but slow declines in aboveground NPP and leaf area index. Monte Carlo analysis, wherein the model was run repeatedly with randomly different parameter sets, revealed that many parameter sets do not lead to sustainable NPP. Of those that do lead to sustainable growth, the ratios at maturity of net to gross primary productivity and of leaf area to sapwood area are highly conserved.

  20. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  1. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Chen, Jiquan; Richardson, Andrew D.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hollinger, David Y.; Wharton, Sonia; Cook, David R.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr−1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr−1 over the period 2001–2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by ∼20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  2. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Ma, Siyan; Chen, Jiquan; Richardson, Andrew; Melillo, Jerry; Davis, Ken J.; Hollinger, D.; Wharton, Sonia; Falk, Matthias; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha; Oren, Ram; Katulk, Gabriel G.; Noormets, Asko; Fischer, Marc; Verma, Shashi; Suyker, A. E.; Cook, David R.; Sun, G.; McNulty, Steven G.; Wofsy, Steve; Bolstad, Paul V; Burns, Sean; Monson, Russell K.; Curtis, Peter; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; Meyers, Tilden; Oechel, Walter C.; Schmid, H. P.; Scott, Russell L.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  3. Carbon Isotope Composition of Ecosystem Respired Carbon Dioxide in Three Boreal Forest Ecosystems: Measurements and Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, T.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2007-12-01

    We conducted measurements of seasonal and inter-annual variation in the carbon isotope composition of ecosystem respired CO2 (δR) in aspen, black spruce and jack pine dominated ecosystems in northern Saskatchewan during 2004-2006 as part of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network. All three sites showed relatively small variation (approximately -26 to -29 per mil) in δR values during the entire study. The measurements were strongly correlated with modeled δ13C values of ecosystem respired CO2. The model calculated leaf CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and chloroplast CO2 concentration separately for sunlit and shaded leaves within multiple canopy layers, and, therefore, allowed us to estimate canopy photosynthetic 13C discrimination. All three sites showed variation in canopy 13C discrimination in response to environmental conditions in a manner consistent with well-known leaf-level studies. Specifically, 13C discrimination was positively correlated with soil moisture and negatively correlated with photon flux density, air temperature and vapor pressure deficit. As a consequence a strong diurnal pattern was observed for 13C discrimination. The measured δR values also varied in response to environmental conditions in a manner consistent with well-known leaf-level studies of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, but with a dampened response caused by the contribution of heterotrophic respiration, which had a constant δ13C value. These results indicate that the stable isotope composition of respired CO2 is a useful ecosystem-scale tool to study constraints to photosynthesis and acclimation of ecosystems to environmental stress.

  4. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  5. [Carbon budget of ecosystem in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Guirui; Zhao, Shidong; Yu, Zhenliang

    2003-01-01

    The study used EPPML, a biological geochemistry cycle model that was built, to simulate the carbon budget for ecosystems in Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve. The results indicated that the annual net primary productivity [NPP (carbon)] of the natural reserve was 1.332 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual NPP of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest and spruce-fir forest were maximal, 0.540 x 10(6) t.a-1 and 0.428 x 10(6) t.a-1 respectively. The area and productivity of the two stands were maximal in Changbai Mountain, therefore, the simulating productivity of the two stands most greatly affect carbon cycle and carbon budget of the natural reserve, and the veracity of the former decides the security of the latter. To sum up, not only did the simulations accord with routines in the relative comparisons between different vegetation belts and climate belts in the whole natural reserve, but also was exact in the absolute comparisons with very disperse data from field survey. Vegetations in the natural reserve had evident carbon sink functions, mainly exhibiting in the increasing of carbon, about 1.058 x 10(6) t.a-1. The annual carbon of mixed broad-leaved and Korean pine forest increased greatest (0.452 x 10(6) t.a-1), secondly spruce-fir forest (0.339 x 10(6) t.a-1). The two stands played crucial roles in the carbon sink for Changbai Mountain, others being Changbai larch forest, broad-leaved forest, meadow, shrub, alpine tundra, subalpine Betula ermanii forest and alpine grass. In 1995, the decomposing carbon of soil organic matter was 0.169 x 10(6) t.a-1 higher than the littering carbon in the natural reserve. There was accumulation of organic matter in the meadow soil and shrub soil. The decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter was in the nearly balancing condition in the alpine tundra soil and alpine grass soil. The decomposition of organic matter was as one and a half time or double as litterfall in the arbor forest soil.

  6. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change.

  7. Multiple independent constraints help resolve net ecosystem carbon exchange under nutrient limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, P. E.; Metcalfe, D.; Oren, R.; Ricciuto, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude, spatial distribution, and variability of land net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) are important determinants of the trajectory of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Independent observational constraints provide important clues regarding NEE and its component fluxes, with information available at multiple spatial scales: from cells, to leaves, to entire organisms and collections of organisms, to complex landscapes and up to continental and global scales. Experimental manipulations, ecosystem observations, and process modeling all suggest that the components of NEE (photosynthetic gains, and respiration and other losses) are controlled in part by the availability of mineral nutrients, and that nutrient limitation is a common condition in many biomes. Experimental and observational constraints at different spatial scales provide a complex and sometimes puzzling picture of the nature and degree of influence of nutrient availability on carbon cycle processes. Photosynthetic rates assessed at the cellular and leaf scales are often higher than the observed accumulation of carbon in plant and soil pools would suggest. We infer that a down-regulation process intervenes between carbon uptake and plant growth under conditions of nutrient limitation, and several down-regulation mechanisms have been hypothesized and tested. A recent evaluation of two alternative hypotheses for down-regulation in the light of whole-plant level flux estimates indicates that some plants take up and store extra carbon, releasing it to the environment again on short time scales. The mechanism of release, either as additional autotrophic respiration or as exudation belowground is unclear, but has important consequences for long-term ecosystem state and response to climate change signals. Global-scale constraints from atmospheric concentration and isotopic composition data help to resolve this question, ultimately focusing attention on land use fluxes as the most uncertain

  8. Environmental Control of Net Ecosystem Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Contrasting Peatlands in northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, K. H.; Carlson, P. J.; Glenn, A. J.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2004-12-01

    Peatlands cover about 21 per cent of the landscape and contain about 80 per cent of the soil carbon stock in western Canada. However, the current rates of carbon accumulation and the environmental controls on ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration in peatland ecosystems is poorly understood. As part of Fluxnet-Canada, we continuously measured net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) using the eddy covariance technique in a treed fen (main site) dominated by stunted black spruce and larch trees during August 2003 through July 2004. Additional NEE measurements were made at two auxiliary sites during intervals in the active growing season (May through September 2004). One auxiliary site was dominated by Sphagnum moss, while the dominant species at other site were Carex and brown mosses. The NEE measurements were used to develop statistical models to assess temporal variation in physiological parameters for ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration. Large seasonal changes occurred in maximum photosynthetic capacity and standardized ecosystem respiration rate at 10 degrees C (R10). The mid-day NEE uptake rate during July averaged 10 μ mol m-2 s-1 at the main site, while lower values of approximately 6 μ mol m-2 s-1 were observed at the two auxiliary sites. No photosynthetic activity was observed during mid-November through mid-March. On an annual basis R10 varied from less than 0.5 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the winter to approximately 3 μ mol m-2 s-1 during August at the main site. During much of the growing season, a distinct hysteresis was observed in the light (photon flux density, PFD) response curves for NEE between morning and afternoon periods. This was caused by large diurnal changes in temperature, which at times resulted in the light compensation point for NEE shifting from a PFD of 100 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the morning to 350 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the afternoon. The main site recorded a net annual gain of 160 g C m-2 yr-1, the result of a difference between gross

  9. Alternative ways of using field-based estimates to calibrate ecosystem models and their implications for ecosystem carbon cycle studies

    Treesearch

    Y. He; Q. Zhuang; A.D. McGuire; Y. Liu; M. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Model-data fusion is a process in which field observations are used to constrain model parameters. How observations are used to constrain parameters has a direct impact on the carbon cycle dynamics simulated by ecosystem models. In this study, we present an evaluation of several options for the use of observations inmodeling regional carbon dynamics and explore the...

  10. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-03

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  11. Modelling Plant and Soil Nitrogen Feedbacks Affecting Forest Carbon Gain at High CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.; Franklin, O.; Pepper, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term, direct effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant carbon gain are relatively well understood. There is considerable uncertainty, however, about longer-term effects, which are influenced by various plant and ecosystem feedbacks. A key feedback in terrestrial ecosystems occurs through changes in plant carbon (C) allocation patterns. For instance, if high CO2 were to increase C allocation to roots, then plants may experience positive feedback through improved plant nutrition. A second type of feedback, associated with decomposition of soil-organic matter, may reduce soil-nutrient availability at high CO2. This paper will consider mechanistic models of both feedbacks. Effects of high CO2 on plant C allocation will be investigated using a simple model of forest net primary production (NPP) that incorporates the primary mechanisms of plant carbon and nitrogen (N) balance. The model called MATE (Model Any Terrestrial Ecosystem) includes an equation for annual C balance that depends on light- saturated photosynthetic rate and therefore on [CO2], and an equation for N balance incorporating an expression for N uptake as a function of root mass. The C-N model is applied to a Free Air CO2 Exchange (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, where closed-canopy, monoculture stands of the deciduous hardwood sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua) have been growing at [CO2] of 375 and 550 ppm for ten years. Features of this experiment are that the annual NPP response to elevated CO2 has averaged approximately 25% over seven years, but that annual fine-root production has almost doubled on average, with especially large increases in later years of the experiment (Norby et al. 2006). The model provides a simple graphical approach for analysing effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf/root/wood C allocation and productivity. It simulates increases in NPP and fine-root production at the ORNL FACE site that are consistent

  12. St. Louis River fish migrations: Gains and losses of ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Twin Ports fishery has undergone change from a migratory fish-based fishery to a Lake Superior-based fishery, and is now returning to a diverse fishery that includes fish of both life histories. These changes reflect past disturbances to the Great Lakes ecosystem as well as r...

  13. St. Louis River fish migrations: Gains and losses of ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Twin Ports fishery has undergone change from a migratory fish-based fishery to a Lake Superior-based fishery, and is now returning to a diverse fishery that includes fish of both life histories. These changes reflect past disturbances to the Great Lakes ecosystem as well as r...

  14. Functional diversity of carbon-gain, water-use, and leaf-allocation traits in trees of a threatened lowland dry forest in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Darren R; Cordell, Susan

    2007-09-01

    We examined carbon-gain, water-use, and leaf-allocation traits for six tree species of a Hawaiian dry forest to better understand the functional diversity within this threatened ecosystem. Tropical dry forests are among the most endangered ecosystems on Earth, and in Hawaii, as elsewhere, declining biodiversity threatens ecosystem processes that may depend on forest functional diversity. We found broad variation among species including a two-fold difference for mean photosynthetic rate, a greater than three-fold difference for predawn water potential, and a nearly three-fold difference for leaf life span. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of species based on carbon-gain vs. water-use related axes, and δ(13)C analysis revealed differing limitations (supply vs. demand) on carbon assimilation. The broad functional variation not only spanned traditional classifications (avoiders vs. tolerators), but also included unusual strategies (e.g., fast growth with drought tolerance). Correlations among traits, including leaf life span, leaf mass per area, and %N, followed typical global patterns, but some exceptions appeared as a result of unique life-history characteristics, such as latex-rich sap and root parasitism. Elucidating functional variation provides important information that can be used to link plant biodiversity with ecosystem processes and also facilitate the management and preservation of tropical dry forests and other threatened communities.

  15. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-04-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  16. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Karunaratne, Senani B.; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios. PMID:28439540

  17. Seasonal changes of water carbon relations in savanna ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Archibald, S.

    2011-12-01

    During evolution plant species have developed different strategies to optimize the water carbon relations. These stratgies summarize to ecosystem properties. As an example we show how tropical and subtropical savannas and woodlands can respond flexibly to changes in temperature and water availability and thus optimize carbon and water fluxes between land surface and atmosphere. Several phenomena are presented and discussed in this overview from African flux sites in Zambia, Burkina Faso and South Africa: Pre-rain leaf development: Many trees developed new leaves before the first rain appeared. As a consequence of this early timing of leaf flush, the phenological increase of photosynthetic capacity (Amax) was steeper than in temperate forests. Mid-term response of conductance and photosynthesis to soil water relations: The regulation of canopy conductance was temporally changing in two ways: changes due to phenology during the course of the growing season and short-term (hours to days) acclimation to soil water conditions. The most constant parameter was water use efficiency. It was influenced by water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) during the day, but the VPD response curve of water usage only changed slightly during the course of the growing season, and decreased by about 30% during the transition from wet to dry season. The regulation of canopy conductance and photosynthetic capacity were closely related. This observation meets recent leaf-level findings that stomatal closure triggers down-regulation of Rubisco during drought. Our results may show the effects of these processes on the ecosystem scale. Furthermore, we observed that the close relationship between stomatal conductance and photosynthesis resulted in different temperature optima of GPP that were close to the average daytime temperature. Adaptation of respiration to rain pulses: Finally, the response of respiration to rain pulses showed changes throughout the growing season. The first rain events early

  18. Environmental change and carbon limitation in trees: a biochemical, ecophysiological and ecosystem appraisal.

    PubMed

    Millard, Peter; Sommerkorn, Martin; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle

    2007-01-01

    As C(3) photosynthesis is not yet CO(2)-saturated, forests offer the possibility of enhanced growth and carbon (C) sequestration with rising atmospheric CO(2). However, at an ecosystem scale, increased photosynthetic rates are not always translated into faster tree growth, and in free air carbon enrichment (FACE) experiments with trees, the stimulation in above-ground growth often declines with time. So is tree growth C-limited? The evidence is reviewed here at three different scales. First, at the biochemical scale, the role of Rubisco is discussed by considering its evolution and role as a nitrogen (N) storage protein. Second, at the ecophysiological scale, C allocation to gain nutrients from the soil is considered and it is argued that any C limitation is only through a limitation to soil nutrient cycling. Finally, the response of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations is considered and evidence from FACE experiments is discussed. From the three lines of evidence we conclude that the growth of trees is not C-limited, with the key to understanding future responses to climate change being turnover of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling.

  19. Carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems in China

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen; Hui Chen; Shiping Chen; Gang Dong

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude, spatial patterns, and controlling factors of the carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in China are not well understood due to the lack of ecosystem-level flux observations. We synthesized flux and micrometeorological observations from 22 eddy covariance flux sites across China,and examined the carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration (ET), and...

  20. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO2 emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; Del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  1. Quantifying carbon budgets of conifer Mediterranean forest ecosystems, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Berberoglu, Suha; Taskinsu-Meydan, Sibel; Yilmaz, Erhan

    2006-08-01

    Aboveground biomass, aboveground litterfall, and leaf litter decomposition of five indigenous tree stands (pure stands of Pinus brutia, Pinus nigra, Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa, and a mixed stand of Abies cilicica, P. nigra, and C. libani) were measured in an eastern Mediterranean evergreen needleleaf forest of Turkey. Measurements were converted to regional scale estimates of carbon (C) stocks and fluxes of forest ecosystems, based on general non-site-specific allometric relationships. Mean C stock of the conifer forests was estimated as 97.8 +/- 79 Mg C ha(-1) consisting of 83.0 +/- 67 Mg C ha(-1) in the aboveground and 14.8 +/- 12 Mg C ha(-1) in the belowground biomass. The forest stands had mean soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) stocks of 172.0 +/- 25.7 Mg C ha(-1) and 9.2 +/- 1.2 Mg N ha(-1), respectively. Mean total monthly litterfall was 376.2 +/- 191.3 kg C ha(-1), ranging from 641 +/- 385 kg C ha(-1) for Pinus brutia to 286 +/- 82 kg C ha(-1) for Cedrus libani. Decomposition rate constants (k) for pine needles were 0.0016 for Cedrus libani, 0.0009 for Pinus nigra, 0.0006 for the mixed stand, and 0.0005 day(-1) for Pinus brutia and Juniperus excelsa. Estimation of components of the C budgets revealed that the forest ecosystems were net C sinks, with a mean sequestration rate of 2.0 +/- 1.1 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ranging from 3.2 +/- 2 Mg C ha(-1) for Pinus brutia to 1.6 +/- 0.6 Mg C ha(-1) for Cedrus libani. Mean net ecosystem productivity (NEP) resulted in sequestration of 98.4 +/- 54.1 Gg CO2 yr(-1) from the atmosphere when extrapolated for the entire study area of 134.2 km2 (Gg = 10(9) g). The quantitative C data from the study revealed the significance of the conifer Mediterranean forests as C sinks.

  2. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Treesearch

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  3. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Lal, Rattan

    2006-08-01

    Global warming risks from emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible mitigation strategies of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have increased the need for the identification of ecosystems with high C sink capacity. Depleted soil organic C (SOC) pools of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems can be restored through conversion to an appropriate land use and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs). The objectives of this paper are to (1) synthesize available information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal mining and combustion activities, (2) understand mechanisms of SOC sequestration and its protection, (3) identify factors affecting C sequestration potential in RMSs, (4) review available methods for the estimation of ecosystem C budget (ECB), and (5) identify knowledge gaps to enhance C sink capacity of RMS ecosystems and prioritize research issues. The drastic perturbations of soil by mining activities can accentuate CO2 emission through mineralization, erosion, leaching, changes in soil moisture and temperature regimes, and reduction in biomass returned to the soil. The reclamation of drastically disturbed soils leads to improvement in soil quality and development of soil pedogenic processes accruing the benefit of SOC sequestration and additional income from trading SOC credits. The SOC sequestration potential in RMS depends on amount of biomass production and return to soil, and mechanisms of C protection. The rate of SOC sequestration ranges from 0.1 to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 0.7 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in grass and forest RMS ecosystem, respectively. Proper land restoration alone could off-set 16 Tg CO2 in the U.S. annually. However, the factors affecting C sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase in microbial activity, nutrient availability, soil aggregation, C build up, and soil profile development must be better understood in order to formulate guidelines for development of an

  4. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased carbon flux with rising mean annual temperature does not alter ecosystem carbon storage in a tropical montane wet forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmants, P.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory and existing studies agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in the absence of water and nutrient limitations. However, it remains unclear how increased carbon input to and loss from terrestrial ecosystems will affect overall ecosystem carbon storage, which has important implications for potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we use a well-constrained model ecological gradient to quantify how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects carbon fluxes and ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across nine permanent plots representing a 5.2ο C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Aboveground net primary productivity increased by 1 Mg ha-1 y-1 and the residence time of carbon in the forest floor declined by ~3 months for each 1ο C rise in MAT across the gradient, indicating a substantial increase in both carbon input and output with rising MAT. Despite these large increases in carbon flux, ecosystem carbon storage showed minimal sensitivity to MAT. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of temperature. Detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg ha-1 for each 1ο C rise in temperature, but this decline was driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter, which together make up < 10% on average of total ecosystem C across the MAT gradient. The largest detrital pool, soil carbon, did not vary with MAT, averaging 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the gradient. Overall, total ecosystem carbon storage did not vary with MAT, averaging ~550 Mg ha-1 across the gradient. In addition, the distribution of ecosystem carbon in live biomass vs. detritus remained relatively constant at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. Because our MAT gradient does not vary with respect to factors other than temperature (i.e., dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), these

  6. Global change accelerates carbon assimilation by a wetland ecosystem engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Hager, Rachel N.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2015-11-01

    The primary productivity of coastal wetlands is changing dramatically in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, nitrogen (N) enrichment, and invasions by novel species, potentially altering their ecosystem services and resilience to sea level rise. In order to determine how these interacting global change factors will affect coastal wetland productivity, we quantified growing-season carbon assimilation (≈gross primary productivity, or GPP) and carbon retained in living plant biomass (≈net primary productivity, or NPP) of North American mid-Atlantic saltmarshes invaded by Phragmites australis (common reed) under four treatment conditions: two levels of CO2 (ambient and +300 ppm) crossed with two levels of N (0 and 25 g N added m-2 yr-1). For GPP, we combined descriptions of canopy structure and leaf-level photosynthesis in a simulation model, using empirical data from an open-top chamber field study. Under ambient CO2 and low N loading (i.e., the Control), we determined GPP to be 1.66 ± 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 at a typical Phragmites stand density. Individually, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 44 and 60%, respectively. Changes under N enrichment came largely from stimulation to carbon assimilation early and late in the growing season, while changes from CO2 came from stimulation during the early and mid-growing season. In combination, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 95% over the Control, yielding 3.24 ± 0.08 kg C m-2 yr-1. We used biomass data to calculate NPP, and determined that it represented 44%-60% of GPP, with global change conditions decreasing carbon retention compared to the Control. Our results indicate that Phragmites invasions in eutrophied saltmarshes are driven, in part, by extended phenology yielding 3.1× greater NPP than native marsh. Further, we can expect elevated CO2 to amplify Phragmites productivity throughout the growing season, with potential implications including accelerated spread

  7. Using carbon oxidation state and ecosystem oxidative ratio to understand terrestrial ecosystem response to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that an easily-measured biogeochemical tracer, carbon oxidation state (Cox) can be used to understand ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We briefly review the use of Cox in understanding C sink estimates, and its role in understanding the coupled nature of carbon and oxygen cycles, which derives from its relationship with ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). The Cox of a carbon pool provides an integrated measure of all processes that create and destroy organic matter (e.g. photosynthesis, respiration, fire) and therefore, can be used to estimate the oxidative ratio (O2/CO2) of biosphere-atmosphere exchange. Our preliminary data suggest that the OR of temperate hardwood forest and grassland ecosystems are influenced by atmospheric CO2 concentration. The variation in ecosystem Cox with atmospheric CO2 concentration suggest that OR is not a conservative property of terrestrial ecosystems on annual or decadal timescales. In the grassland ecosystem, the Cox of plant biomass increased by as much as 50% across a CO2 concentration gradient of 190 ppm, but the response was highly dependent upon soil properties. In the temperate forest, the Cox of the soil C pool increased by 40% after 9 seasons of CO2 enrichment (by 175 ppm). We will discuss our interpretation of Cox as a proxy and its potential use in studies of coupled O2 and CO2 cycling.

  8. Typhoons exert significant but differential impact on net carbon ecosystem exchange of subtropical mangrove ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

    2014-06-01

    Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but litter information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during typhoon season. Daily total NEE values were decreased by 26-50% following some typhoons (e.g. W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan), but were significantly increased (43-131%) following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings not only indicate that mangrove ecosystems have strong resilience to the frequent typhoon disturbances, but also demonstrate the damage of increasing typhoon intensity and frequency on subtropical mangrove ecosystems under future global climate change scenarios.

  9. Insights into the Processing of Carbon by Early Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D.; Bebout, B.; Carpenter, S.; Discipulo, S.; Londry, K.; Habicht, K.; Turk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between Earth and the biosphere that were crucial for early biological evolution also influenced substantially the processes that circulate C between its reservoirs in the atmosphere, ocean, crust and mantle. The C-13 C-12 values of crustal carbonates and organics have recorded changes both in biological discrimination and in the relative rates of burial of organics and carbonates. A full interpretation of these patterns needs further isotopic studies of microbial ecosystems and individual anaerobes. Thus we measured carbon isotope discrimination during autotrophic and heterotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea (SRB and SRA). Discrimination during CO2 assimilation is significantly larger than during heterotrophic growth on lactate or acetate. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination, as follows: Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (alpha 1.0100 to 1.0123), Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus (alpha = 0.0138), and Desulfotomuculum acetoxidans (alpha = 1.0310). Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with delta C-13 composition intermediate to that of the substrates. We have recently extended these experiments to include the thermophilic SRA Archeoglobus spp. Ecological forces also influence isotopic discrimination. Accordingly, we quantified the flow of C and other constituents in modern marine cyanobacterial mats, whose ancestry extends back billions of years. Such ecosystem processes shaped the biosignatures that entered sediments and atmospheres. At Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, we examined mats dominated by Microcoleus (subtidal) and Lyngbya (intertidal to supratidal) cyanobacteria. During 24 hour cycles, we observed the exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) between mats and the overlying water. Microcoleus mats assimilated near-equal amounts of DIC during the day as they released at night, but

  10. Insights into the Processing of Carbon by Early Microbial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D.; Bebout, B.; Carpenter, S.; Discipulo, S.; Londry, K.; Habicht, K.; Turk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between Earth and the biosphere that were crucial for early biological evolution also influenced substantially the processes that circulate C between its reservoirs in the atmosphere, ocean, crust and mantle. The C-13 C-12 values of crustal carbonates and organics have recorded changes both in biological discrimination and in the relative rates of burial of organics and carbonates. A full interpretation of these patterns needs further isotopic studies of microbial ecosystems and individual anaerobes. Thus we measured carbon isotope discrimination during autotrophic and heterotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea (SRB and SRA). Discrimination during CO2 assimilation is significantly larger than during heterotrophic growth on lactate or acetate. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination, as follows: Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (alpha 1.0100 to 1.0123), Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus (alpha = 0.0138), and Desulfotomuculum acetoxidans (alpha = 1.0310). Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with delta C-13 composition intermediate to that of the substrates. We have recently extended these experiments to include the thermophilic SRA Archeoglobus spp. Ecological forces also influence isotopic discrimination. Accordingly, we quantified the flow of C and other constituents in modern marine cyanobacterial mats, whose ancestry extends back billions of years. Such ecosystem processes shaped the biosignatures that entered sediments and atmospheres. At Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, we examined mats dominated by Microcoleus (subtidal) and Lyngbya (intertidal to supratidal) cyanobacteria. During 24 hour cycles, we observed the exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) between mats and the overlying water. Microcoleus mats assimilated near-equal amounts of DIC during the day as they released at night, but

  11. Cold ecosystems in a warmer climate: carbon fluxes at the alpine treeline under experimental soil warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipf, Sonja; Hagedorn, Frank; Martin, Melissa

    2010-05-01

    The impact of climatic warming on the C balance of terrestrial ecosystems is uncertain because rising temperature increases both C gains through net primary production, but also respiratory C losses. 'Cold' ecosystems such as treeline ecotones will respond particularly sensitive to climatic changes because many processes are limited by temperature and soils store particular large amounts of labile soil organic matter. In our study, we investigate ecosystem responses to 9 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 and to 3 years of experimental soil warming by 4° C. The added CO2 contains another δ13C signature than normal air, which allows the tracing of new carbon through the plant and soil system. This provides new insight into carbon cycling at the treeline and it shows which C flux respond most sensitive to climatic changes. Results showed that soil warming increased soil CO2 effluxes instantaneously and persisted for at least three vegetation periods (+35-45%; +80 to 120 g C m y-1). In contrast, DOC leaching showed a negligible response of less than 5% increase. Annual C uptake of new shoots was not significantly affected by elevated soil temperatures, with a 10 to 20% increase for larch, pine, and dwarf shrubs, respectively, resulting in an overall increase in net C uptake by plants of 20 to 40 g C m-2y-1. The Q10 of 3.0 measured for soil respiration did not change compared to a three-year period before the warming treatment started, suggesting little impact of warming-induced lower soil moisture (-15% relative decrease) or a depletion in labile soil C. The fraction of recent plant-derived C in soil respired CO2 from warmed soils was smaller than that from control soils (25 vs. 40% of total C respired), which implies that the warming-induced increase in soil CO2 efflux resulted mainly from mineralization of older SOM rather than from stimulated root respiration. In summary, the 4 ° C soil warming led to C losses from the studied alpine treeline ecosystem by

  12. Utilization of carbon sources in a northern Brazilian mangrove ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Schwamborn, Ralf; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( 13C and 15N) and trophic level (TL) estimates based on stomach content analysis and published data were used to assess the contribution of autotrophic sources to 55 consumers in an intertidal mangrove creek of the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Primary producers showed δ 13C signatures ranging between -29.2 and -19.5‰ and δ 15N from 3.0 to 6.3‰. The wide range of the isotopic composition of carbon of consumers (-28.6 to -17.1‰) indicated that different autotrophic sources are important in the intertidal mangrove food webs. Food web segregation structures the ecosystem into three relatively distinct food webs: (i) mangrove food web, where vascular plants contribute directly or indirectly via POM to the most 13C-depleted consumers (e.g. Ucides cordatus and zooplanktivorous food chains); (ii) algal food web, where benthic algae are eaten directly by consumers (e.g. Uca maracoani, mullets, polychaetes, several fishes); (iii) mixed food web where the consumers use the carbon from different primary sources (mainly benthivorous fishes). An IsoError mixing model was used to determine the contributions of primary sources to consumers, based on δ 13C values. Model outputs were very sensitive to the magnitude of trophic isotope fractionation and to the variability in 13C data. Nevertheless, the simplification of the system by a priori aggregation of primary producers allowed interpretable results for several taxa, revealing the segregation into different food webs.

  13. Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark

  14. Canopy Stomatal Conductance Unlocks Partitioning of Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon and Water Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R. A.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Stomata are a key nexus in biosphere-atmosphere interactions: the gateway for both carbon gain and water loss by plant canopies. Accurate quantification of canopy stomatal conductance enables partitioning of both evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE)—the latter via CO2 isotope flux measurements. To those ends, we determined the behavior of canopy stomatal conductance in a temperate deciduous forest based on heat and water vapor flux measurements, and validated that determination based on uptake of carbonyl sulfide, which also passes through the stomata. We found that the canopy stomatal conductance followed a simple empirical function of leaf area index, light intensity, diffuse light fraction, and leaf-air water vapor gradient. The dependence on light intensity was highly linear, in contrast to the leaf scale, and in contrast to the behavior of canopy photosynthesis. Using canopy stomatal conductance, we partitioned ET and found that evaporation in this ecosystem peaks at the time of the year when soils are driest and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is low—because soil temperature is an important driver. As stomatal conductance impacts not only the rate of photosynthesis but also the fractionation of carbon isotopes by photosynthesis, we were also able to combine canopy stomatal conductance with CO2 isotope flux measurements in order to partition NEE. We found that: (1) canopy respiration is much less during the day than at night, likely due to the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (that is, the Kok effect), and (2) canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency does not decline through the summer, in contrast to standard estimates. These results clarify how leaf-level physiological dynamics impact ecosystem-atmosphere gas exchange, and demonstrate the utility of combining multiple tracers to constrain the processes underlying that exchange.

  15. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

  16. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  17. [A review on carbon and water interactions of forest ecosystem and its impact factors].

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-lin; Sun, Xiang-yang; Wang, Gen-xu

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between carbon and water in forest ecosystem is a coupling process in terrestrial ecosystem, which is an indispensable aspect for the study of forest carbon pool, ecohydrological processes and the responses to global change. In the context of global change, the interaction and coupling of carbon and water in forest ecosystem has attracted much attention among scientists. In this paper, we reviewed the process mechanism of forest carbon and water relationships based on previous studies, which consisted of advance in forest water use efficiency, carbon and water interactions at different scales, scaling, and model simulation. We summed up the factors affecting for- est water and carbon interaction, including water condition, carbon dioxide enrichment, warming, nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration variation, solar radiation, and altitudinal gradients. Finally, we discussed the problems in the previous studies, and prospected the possible future research fields, among which we thought the inherent dynamics mechanism and scaling of forest carbon and water interactions should be enhanced.

  18. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2009-08-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon uptake of forest ecosystems by affecting incoming solar radiation on the ground, temperature and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS) of ChinaFLUX, based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of the NEE of forest ecosystem to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was different under clear sky and cloudy sky conditions, and this difference was not consistent between CBS and DHS. Compared with clear skies, light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) of CBS during mid-growing season (from June to August) was respectively enhanced by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% on cloudy skies in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006; however, Pec,max of DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. NEE of forests at CBS reached its maximum when the clearness index (kt) was between 0.4 and 0.6, and the NEE decreased obviously when kt exceeded 0.6. Compare with CBS, although NEE of forest at DHS tended to the maximum when kt varied between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE did not decrease noticeably when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicated that cloudy sky conditions were more beneficial to carbon uptake for the temperate forest ecosystem rather than for the subtropical forest ecosystem. This is due to the fact that the non-saturating light conditions and increase of diffuse radiation were more beneficial to photosynthesis, and the reduced temperature was more conducive to decreasing the ecosystem respiration in temperate forest ecosystems under cloudy sky conditions. This phenomenon is important to evaluate carbon uptake of temperate forests under climate change conditions.

  19. Land Use Effects on Carbon Storage in Thailand Tropical Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, F.; Tostado, E.; Chidthaisong, A.; Tyler, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of stable isotopes of C have proved to be of value in estimating soil organic C turnover times and in partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) from different sources. Typically, the contrast between sources and estimates of C turnover have been studied in ecosystems where C-3 photosynthetic plants such as hardwoods have been replaced by C-4 photosynthetic plants from agriculture such as corn or sugarcane. Here we report concentrations and stable C isotope ratios of SOC from Thailand coastal mangrove forests and intrusive coastal aquaculture in the form of shrimp and wastewater treatment ponds. There are clear changes in both magnitude and 13C/12C of SOC at former mangrove sites which have been altered to make ponds for shrimp farming and wastewater treatment. For instance, total per cent C from 0-40 cm soil depth (average of four 10 cm layers at 2 sites) was 6.2±2.8% for mature mangrove, while it was only 0.5±0.4% for a 10-year old shrimp pond and 1.3±0.4% for an 8-year old water treatment pond. Previous studies of mangrove organic C balance have indicated that these inter-tidal forest ecosystems are a sink for C and that significant C is vested in both above- and below-ground biomass and stored in sediments. Mangrove forest disturbance by human activities clearly has the potential to affect C storage. Our data indicates that stable C isotope tracing will be of value in tracking changes in coastal forest-aquaecosystems just as it has been for forest-agroecosystems

  20. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  1. Focus on the impact of climate change on wetland ecosystems and carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lei; Roulet, Nigel; Zhuang, Qianlai; Christensen, Torben R.; Frolking, Steve

    2016-10-01

    The renewed growth in atmospheric methane (CH4) since 2007 after a decade of stabilization has drawn much attention to its causes and future trends. Wetlands are the single largest source of atmospheric CH4. Understanding wetland ecosystems and carbon dynamics is critical to the estimation of global CH4 and carbon budgets. After approximately 7 years of CH4 related research following the renewed growth in atmospheric CH4, Environmental Research Letters launched a special issue of research letters on wetland ecosystems and carbon dynamics in 2014. This special issue highlights recent developments in terrestrial ecosystem models and field measurements of carbon fluxes across different types of wetland ecosystems. The 14 research letters emphasize the importance of wetland ecosystems in the global CO2 and CH4 budget.

  2. Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year.

    PubMed

    Arnone, John A; Verburg, Paul S J; Johnson, Dale W; Larsen, Jessica D; Jasoni, Richard L; Lucchesi, Annmarie J; Batts, Candace M; von Nagy, Christopher; Coulombe, William G; Schorran, David E; Buck, Paul E; Braswell, Bobby H; Coleman, James S; Sherry, Rebecca A; Wallace, Linda L; Luo, Yiqi; Schimel, David S

    2008-09-18

    Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and respiration, a balance between net primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration, that determines whether an ecosystem is sequestering carbon or releasing it to the atmosphere. Global and site-specific data sets have demonstrated that climate and climate variability influence biogeochemical processes that determine net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) at multiple timescales. Experimental data necessary to quantify impacts of a single climate variable, such as temperature anomalies, on NEE and carbon sequestration of ecosystems at interannual timescales have been lacking. This derives from an inability of field studies to avoid the confounding effects of natural intra-annual and interannual variability in temperature and precipitation. Here we present results from a four-year study using replicate 12,000-kg intact tallgrass prairie monoliths located in four 184-m(3) enclosed lysimeters. We exposed 6 of 12 monoliths to an anomalously warm year in the second year of the study and continuously quantified rates of ecosystem processes, including NEE. We find that warming decreases NEE in both the extreme year and the following year by inducing drought that suppresses net primary productivity in the extreme year and by stimulating heterotrophic respiration of soil biota in the subsequent year. Our data indicate that two years are required for NEE in the previously warmed experimental ecosystems to recover to levels measured in the control ecosystems. This time lag caused net ecosystem carbon sequestration in previously warmed ecosystems to be decreased threefold over the study period, compared with control ecosystems. Our findings suggest that more frequent anomalously warm years, a possible consequence of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels, may lead to a sustained decrease in carbon dioxide uptake by terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jeda; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Dominati, Estelle J; Probert, Merv E; Meier, Elizabeth A; Huth, Neil I; Dodd, Mike; Snow, Val; Larsen, Joshua R; Parton, William J

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally

  4. Assessing and Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Changes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Liu, S.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Stackpoole, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land changes (land use and ecosystem disturbances) are the primary driver of stability and vulnerability of ecosystem carbon sequestration. Advances in remote sensing and modeling make it possible that carbon storage in relation to land changes can be assessed and monitored at the national and regional scales. Using remote sensing and modeling tools, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a national assessment to estimate spatial and temporal distributions of carbon storage in relation to land changes. The assessment covers all major ecosystems: forests, shrub and grasslands, croplands, wetlands, and aquatic systems. Recent land changes (baseline, 1992 to current) are mapped on an annual basis using Landsat imagery; future land changes (current to 2050) are modeled by incorporating IPCC socioeconomic storylines and climate change projections (three storylines and projections used: A1B, A2, and B1, each with multiple GCM runs). Carbon storage in, and transitions between, ecosystems are modeled and estimated annually using biogeochemical models, with the baseline and future potential land use changes and fire disturbances as the primary input. Effects of land changes and management activities are analyzed. A series of regional-scale maps and datasets are produced as deliverables of the assessment. The Great Plains region of the United States is the first region to complete for the assessment. The region encompasses 2.17 million square kilometers from eastern half of Montana south to Texas and east to Minnesota and Iowa. Changes in land use between 1992 and 2050 are pronounced for major ecosystems, including 7-16% gains in agriculture, 8-17% losses of grasslands and 18-19% losses of wetlands under A1B and A2 scenarios. More environmental oriented scenarios such as B1 will see gains in wetlands (15%) while holding areas of other ecosystems stable. For fire disturbances, number, size, and severity of large wildland fires in the region are highly variable, depending on

  5. Relationships among carbon inputs, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil carbon storage in a monoculture corn ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M. J.; Brown, K.; Hofmockel, K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon inputs are positively associated with soil organic carbon storage. Soil organic carbon can be stored in relatively stable pools through: silt + clay association and aggregation. Current models predict that the proportion of new carbon inputs that can be stabilized by silt + clay and aggregates decreases in proportion to the amount of organic matter already present in the fraction. Accordingly, as the capacity to stabilize organic matter approaches zero (full capacity), the efficiency of organic matter stabilization decreases and a greater proportion of organic matter inputs is respired as CO2 or accumulate as litter or easily mineralizable particulate organic matter. The organic matter storage capacity of silt + clay particles is a function of soil texture and mineralogy whereas aggregate storage capacity is also affected by biological factors such as mycorrhizae abundance. We explored relationships among net primary production (carbon inputs), mycorrhizae, and soil organic matter storage in a long-term monoculture corn ecosystem. Replicated plots of corn were grown with one of five nitrogen fertilizer input rates (0-228 kg ha-1 h-y) to impart differences in net primary productivity. The fertilizer rates had no effect on soil C/N ratio. However, the fertilizer rate was positively associated with mycorrhizae abundance and soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increases were the result of an increase in soil aggregate-protected carbon only; silt + clay associated carbon did not differ with fertilizer rate. These results are inconsistent with models that predict aggregate and silt + clay pools reach capacity at similar rates. A positive correlation among soil carbon stored in aggregates and mycorrhizae helps to explain this result.

  6. Establishing a Supervised Classification of Global Blue Carbon Mangrove Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltezar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding change in mangroves over time will aid forest management systems working to protect them from over exploitation. Mangroves are one of the most carbon dense terrestrial ecosystems on the planet and are therefore a high priority for sustainable forest management. Although they represent 1% of terrestrial cover, they could account for about 10% of global carbon emissions. The foundation of this analysis uses remote sensing to establish a supervised classification of mangrove forests for discrete regions in the Zambezi Delta of Mozambique and the Rufiji Delta of Tanzania. Open-source mapping platforms provided a dynamic space for analyzing satellite imagery in the Google Earth Engine (GEE) coding environment. C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from Sentinel 1 was used in the model as a mask by optimizing SAR parameters. Exclusion metrics identified within Global Land Surface Temperature data from MODIS and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission were used to accentuate mangrove features. Variance was accounted for in exclusion metrics by statistically calculating thresholds for radar, thermal, and elevation data. Optical imagery from the Landsat 8 archive aided a quality mosaic in extracting the highest spectral index values most appropriate for vegetative mapping. The enhanced radar, thermal, and digital elevation imagery were then incorporated into the quality mosaic. Training sites were selected from Google Earth imagery and used in the classification with a resulting output of four mangrove cover map models for each site. The model was assessed for accuracy by observing the differences between the mangrove classification models to the reference maps. Although the model was over predicting mangroves in non-mangrove regions, it was more accurately classifying mangrove regions established by the references. Future refinements will expand the model with an objective degree of accuracy.

  7. Modeling carbon turnover in five terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone using multiple criteria of acceptance.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Louise; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover in ecosystems are key elements in the understanding of climate change and in predicting the accumulation of trace elements in the biosphere. In this paper we present estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover times for five terrestrial ecosystems using a modeling approach. Multiple criteria of acceptance were used to parameterize the model, thus incorporating large amounts of multi-faceted empirical data in the simulations in a standardized manner. Mean turnover times of carbon were found to be rather similar between systems with a few exceptions, even though the size of both the pools and the fluxes varied substantially. Depending on the route of the carbon through the ecosystem, turnover times varied from less than one year to more than one hundred, which may be of importance when considering trace element transport and retention. The parameterization method was useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, and to identify variability in carbon turnover in the selected ecosystems.

  8. Gaining insight into river ecosystem processes from a large-scale flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Pike, A.; Boughton, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    In rivers throughout the world, anthropogenic impacts related to large dams have altered or eliminated the habitat necessary for many aquatic organisms. Flow experiments, both planned and unplanned, provide unique opportunities to evaluate the extent to which alternative dam operations can provide downstream ecological benefits. Here we use an unanticipated, reservoir release on the Santa Ynez River in southern California to investigate how a large flood influenced river ecosystem processes. We directly measured the flood-induced, topographic changes over 80 km of the river and floodplain using two high-resolution field and remote sensing data sets that bracketed the flood event. DEM-differencing of the pre- and post-flood topography was used to calculate shifts in the active channel planform and the net volumetric fluxes in gravel storage along the channel and floodplain. LiDAR and image-based habitat mapping was conducted to quantify the proportion of different habitat units before and after the flood. Large-scale geomorphic changes were observed as a result of the flood, including lateral migration of the river channel, gravel bar formation and the development of off-channel chute habitat. Spatial patterns of gravel storage changed with distance from the dam, with the upper 20 km experiencing a net sediment deficit and the lower 60 km undergoing net deposition. The longitudinal trends in gravel transport and storage reflect differences in the channel gradient, valley confinement and density of floodplain vegetation. We found that the flood nearly doubled the extent of pool habitat, primarily by converting runs to pools and by incising new pools adjacent to valley walls and terraces. The increase in the number of pools was predicted to have positive impacts on steelhead habitat, by providing a broader range of water depths and micro-habitats utilized by different age classes. Results from this study highlight the value of using flow pulses as opportunities to

  9. Contributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to net ecosystem carbon flux in a ponderosa pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.; Schade, Gunnar W.; Misson, Laurent; Lee, Anita; McKay, Megan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2012-12-01

    When assessing net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB), respiration is generally assumed to be the only significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere. However, carbon is also emitted from ecosystems in the form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Here we consider the magnitude of systematic difference caused by omitting this additional carbon loss from the net ecosystem carbon balance, as compared to the NEE term, of the ponderosa pine plantation at Blodgett Forest. We find that 9.4 (range 6.2-12.5) g C m-2 yr-1 were emitted from this ecosystem as BVOCs. This is 4.0 (2.0-7.9) % of annual NEE, and neglecting this additional loss of carbon causes an overestimation of carbon storage for this rapidly growing commercial forest plantation. For ecosystems that are not storing carbon as rapidly, where photosynthesis and respiration are more closely balanced, ignoring BVOC emission may cause a larger error in the estimation of NECB.

  10. Recent change of artic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source

    Treesearch

    Walter C. Oechel; Steven J. Hastings; George Vourlitis; Mitchell Jenkins; George Riechers; Nancy Grulke

    1993-01-01

    Arctic tundra has been a net sink for carbon dioxide during historic and recent geological times1-4, and large amounts of carbon are stored in the soils of northern ecosystems. Many regions of the Arctic are warmer now than they have been in the past5-10, and this warming may cause the soil to change from a carbon dioxide...

  11. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland using a biogeochemical process model

    Treesearch

    Jianbo Cui; Changsheng Li; Carl Trettin

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model, Wetland-DNDC, was applied to analyze the carbon and hydrologic characteristics of forested wetland ecosystem at Minnesota (MN) and Florida (FL) sites. The model simulates the flows of carbon, energy, and water in forested wetlands. Modeled carbon dynamics depends on physiological plant factors, the size of plant pools,...

  12. Contribution of Increasing CO2 and Climate to Carbon Storage by Ecosystems in the United States

    Treesearch

    David Schimel; Jerry Melillo; Hanqin Tian; A. David McGuire; David Kicklighter; Timothy Kittel; Nan Rosenbloom; Steven Running; Peter Thorton; Dennis Ojima; William Parton; Robin Kelly; Martin Sykes; Ron Neilson; Brian Rizzo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink...

  13. Influence of prescribed fire on ecosystem biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in a pinyon juniper woodland

    Treesearch

    Benjamin M. Rau; Robin Tausch; Alicia Reiner; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Annmarrie Lucchesi

    2010-01-01

    Increases in pinyon and juniper woodland cover associated with land-use history are suggested to provide offsets for carbon emissions in arid regions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long-term storage in fire-prone ecosystems. Also, the objectives of carbon storage may...

  14. Fluid mixing technique increases the gain and output power of carbon dioxide laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cool, T. A.

    1970-01-01

    High speed flowing gas system provides uniform mixing in short times compared to flow transit times and carbon dioxide vibrational relaxation times. This system minimizes the effects of surrounding surfaces and provides a uniformly high gain that is independent of dimensions transverse to the flow direction.

  15. The Carbon Balance of Semi-Arid Ecosystems: Why Southern Africa Carbon-Climate Dynamics are uniquely different

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal, S. A.; Fisher, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies by Poulter et al (2014) and Alhstrom et al (2015) have shown that the semi-arid ecosystems (e.g. Australia) can dramatically alter the regional and global net carbon sink/source status depending on sporadic precipitation. For example, the unprecedented huge carbon sink which occurred in 2011 was mainly due to the growth semi-arid vegetation over Australia; which was driven by increased precipitation. Thus, we sought to uncover if this was the case with the semi-arid ecosystems in southern Africa. We used 10 models from the "Trends In Net Land-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange - Model Inter comparison Project (TRENDY-MIP)" to evaluate response of southern Africa semi-arid ecosystems to precipitation in the 20th century. Our study revealed that the sensitivities and net carbon source/sink dynamics in these ecosystems are distinctly different from those elsewhere owing to opposite climate anomalies; i.e. the region receives sporadic precipitation drops, rather than spikes which is the case in other semi-arid regions. The implications for this study is explored in an ecosystem services context for future trajectories of the region as the ability of the ecosystems to continually provide such services directly depends on the soaring population rise in the region. Key words: Semi-arid ecosystem, Southern Africa, TRENDY-MIP, Carbon dynamics and climate change.

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3. Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r2 = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m−2) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (ΔNPP/ΔN) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2. Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  17. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-08-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O3 ) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3 . Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r(2) = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m(-2) ) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (∆NPP/∆N) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2 . Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contributions of wildland fire to terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in North America from 1990 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Hayes, Daniel J.; David McGuire, A.

    2017-05-01

    Burn area and the frequency of extreme fire events have been increasing during recent decades in North America, and this trend is expected to continue over the 21st century. While many aspects of the North American carbon budget have been intensively studied, the net contribution of fire disturbance to the overall net carbon flux at the continental scale remains uncertain. Based on national scale, spatially explicit and long-term fire data, along with the improved model parameterization in a process-based ecosystem model, we simulated the impact of fire disturbance on both direct carbon emissions and net terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance in North America. Fire-caused direct carbon emissions were 106.55 ± 15.98 Tg C/yr during 1990-2012; however, the net ecosystem carbon balance associated with fire was -26.09 ± 5.22 Tg C/yr, indicating that most of the emitted carbon was resequestered by the terrestrial ecosystem. Direct carbon emissions showed an increase in Alaska and Canada during 1990-2012 as compared to prior periods due to more extreme fire events, resulting in a large carbon source from these two regions. Among biomes, the largest carbon source was found to be from the boreal forest, primarily due to large reductions in soil organic matter during, and with slower recovery after, fire events. The interactions between fire and environmental factors reduced the fire-caused ecosystem carbon source. Fire disturbance only caused a weak carbon source as compared to the best estimate terrestrial carbon sink in North America owing to the long-term legacy effects of historical burn area coupled with fast ecosystem recovery during 1990-2012.

  19. Maximizing carbon uptake and performance gain in slag-containing concretes through early carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkman, Sean

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been identified as a major contributor to climate change. Current CO2 mitigation efforts focus on the removal, recovery and disposal of CO2 at point sources. Finding beneficial uses of as-captured or recovered CO2 is a critical challenge in greenhouse gas mitigation. This thesis investigates the possibility of the beneficial use of carbon dioxide in precast concrete production and the performance, both short-term and long-term, of the concretes so produced. The calcium compounds in cementitious materials react readily with carbon dioxide to convert CO2 to thermodynamically stable carbonates. The reaction accelerates strength development and makes the technology appropriate for early age curing. Paste, mortar and concrete samples were examined to quantify such aspects as the carbon dioxide uptake, strength development, and durability of carbonated concrete. It was found that the uptake by the cementitious binders was significant. Compared to their theoretical capacity, cement could reach a carbonation degree of over 25% when treated as pastes and about 20% when used as a part of concrete. The study compared carbonation-cured and hydrated Portland cement concrete and slag cement concretes in terms of their early strength, late strength, weathering carbonation shrinkage, freeze/thaw durability, water absorption, and pH. The carbonated concrete was generally comparable, or superior, to the hydrated concrete except for the case of a 50% GGBF slag blend which had a slower strength development due to reduced secondary cementitious reaction. A second method of binding carbon into concrete was considered by carbonating ladle slag fines and using them as a fine aggregate. The 28-day strength of concrete, either hydrated or carbonation-cured, made with the manufactured slag aggregate was comparable to that of a hydrated concrete made with conventional fine aggregate. Carbon dioxide uptake by concrete was nearly doubled if carbonation

  20. Estimating global "blue carbon" emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Linwood; Donato, Daniel C; Murray, Brian C; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W; Kauffman, J Boone; Marbà, Núria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, David; Baldera, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems--marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses--that may be lost with habitat destruction ('conversion'). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this 'blue carbon' can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3-19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6-42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats.

  1. Investigating Carbon Cycle Dynamics of Tropical and Boreal Ecosystems with an Improved Land Surface Model (JULES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, A. B.; Wiltshire, A.; Cox, P. M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is the land surface of the next generation UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). Recently, the model was updated with new plant functional types and physiology based on a global plant trait database. These developments improved the simulation of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity on local and global scales, and enabled a more realistic representation of the global distribution of vegetation. In this study, we explore the stability of ecosystem dynamics and carbon storage for the historical period and up to 2100, focusing on tropical and boreal ecosystems. These regions will experience large-scale climate change and pressure from anthropogenic activity, and therefore we expect large responses in ecosystem carbon dynamics. JULES predicts a net increase in carbon stored in high latitude ecosystems resulting from the combined effects of warming and increased CO2 (with the caveat that permafrost carbon is not accounted for in this study). Productivity increases due to northward migration of woody vegetation, a longer growing season, and CO2 fertilization, while carbon stored in soils decrease due to warming. In tropical ecosystems, productivity does not significantly increase, possibly due to changes in dry season characteristics, and carbon residence times decrease, resulting a net loss of carbon from these ecosystems. These results, as well as opportunities for observational constraints on the predicted future changes, will be discussed.

  2. [Carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Yun; Fan, Wei; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Wan, Meng

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the carbon storage of poplar-crop ecosystem in Eastern Henan Plain, the poplar-crop ecosystems with different ages (5, 9, 11, and 13 years old) of poplar were selected, and each of them was further divided into four subsystems, i. e. , forest, crop, litterfall, and soil. In the poplar-crop ecosystems with 5, 9, 11, and 13 years old poplar, the carbon storage of the subsystems forest and litterfall was summed as 7.86, 42.07, 44.31, and 60.71 t x hm(-2), respectively. Subsystem crop averagely sequestrated 6. 8 t x hm(-2) of CO2 per year, and the carbon storage of subsystem soil achieved 45.55, 51.06, 55.94, and 60.49 t x hm(-2), respectively. The total carbon storage of these four poplar-crop ecosystems reached 60.81, 100.09, 106.76, and 127.34 t x hm(-2), respectively, much higher than that in mono-cultured farmland (49.36 t x hm(-2)). For the test poplar-crop ecosystems, the carbon storage of subsystems forest and soil occupied a large proportion, accounting for 87.1%-93.1% of the total carbon storage, while that of subsystems crop and litterfall occupied a relatively small proportion, being 6.9%-12.9% of the total, illustrating that agroforestry ecosystem had a high potential in carbon absorption and sequestration.

  3. Heterotrophic carbon gain by the root hemiparasites, Rhinanthus minor and Euphrasia rostkoviana (Orobanchaceae).

    PubMed

    Tesitel, Jakub; Plavcová, Lenka; Cameron, Duncan D

    2010-04-01

    Hemiparasitic plants gain virtually all mineral nutrients and water from their host plant whilst organic carbon is provided, at least in part, by their own photosynthetic activity, although their rates of assimilation are substantially lower than that found in non-parasitic plants. Hence, hemiparasites must gain at least some of their organic carbon heterotrophically from the host plant. Despite this, heterotrophic carbon gain by root hemiparasites has been investigated only for a few genera. We investigated heterotrophic carbon gain by two root hemiparasites, Rhinanthus minor L. and Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Orobanchaceae), using natural abundance stable isotope (delta(13)C) profiles of both parasites attached to C(3) (wheat) and C(4) (maize) hosts coupled to a linear two-source isotope-mixing model to estimate the percentage of carbon in the parasite that was derived from the host. Both R. minor and E. rostkoviana attached to maize hosts were significantly more enriched in (13)C than those attached to wheat hosts with R. minor becoming more enriched in (13)C than E. rostkoviana. The natural abundance (13)C profiles of both parasites were not significantly different from their wheat hosts, but were less enriched in (13)C than maize hosts. Using a linear two-source isotope-mixing model, we estimated that R. minor and E. rostkoviana adult plants derive c. 50 and 25% of their carbon from their hosts, respectively. In light of these results, we hypothesise that repeatedly observed negative effect of competition for light on hemiparasites acts predominantly in early ontogenetic stages when parasites grow unattached or the abstraction of host nutrients is less effective.

  4. Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Surya Prakash

    Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength

  5. Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via

  6. Tradeoffs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cremonese, Edoardo; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; di Cella, Umberto Morra

    2013-12-16

    It is well established that warming leads to longer growing seasons in seasonally cold ecosystems. Whether this goes along with an increase in the net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake is much more controversial. We studied the effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP) of three mountain grasslands situated along an elevational gradient in the Alps. To this end we used a simple empirical model of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, calibrated and forced with multi-year empirical data from each site. We show that reductions in the quantity and duration of daylight associated with earlier snowmelts were responsible for diminishing returns, in terms of carbon gain, from longer growing seasons caused by reductions in daytime photosynthetic uptake and increases in nighttime losses of CO2. This effect was less pronounced at high, compared to low, elevations, where the start of the CUP occurred closer to the summer solstice when changes in day length and incident radiation are minimal.

  7. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  8. Quantifying simultaneous fluxes of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor above a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    K. F. Zeller; N. T. Nikolov

    2000-01-01

    Assessing the long-term exchange of trace gases and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is an important priority of the current climate change research. In this regard, it is particularly significant to provide valid data on simultaneous fluxes of carbon, water vapor and pollutants over representative ecosystems. Eddy covariance measurements and...

  9. Carbon storage in mangrove and peatland ecosystems: A preliminary account from plots in Indonesia

    Treesearch

    Daniel Murdiyarso; Daniel Donato; J. Boone Kauffman; Sofyan Kurnianto; Melanie Stidham; Markku. Kanninen

    2009-01-01

    Tropical mangroves and peat swamp forests provide numerous ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, sediment trapping, protection from cyclones and tsunamis, habitat for numerous organisms (many economically important) and wood for lumber and fuel (Ellison 2008). Among the most important of these functions--but poorly quantified--is ecosystem carbon (C) storage...

  10. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  11. Burrowing herbivores alter soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a semi-arid ecosystem, Argentina

    Treesearch

    Kenneth L. Clark; Lyn C. Branch; Jose L. Hierro; Diego. Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Activities of burrowing herbivores, including movement of soil and litter and deposition of waste material, can alter the distribution of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil, affecting spatial patterning of nutrient dynamics in ecosystems where they are abundant. Their role in ecosystem processes in surface soil has been studied extensively, but effects of...

  12. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere

    Treesearch

    Ned Nikolova; Karl F. Zeller

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology....

  13. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Yu Zhang; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li; Ge Sun

    2002-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are an important component in global carbon (C) cycles and may exert a large influence on global clinlate change. Predictions of C dynamics require us to consider interactions among many critical factors of soil, hydrology, and vegetation. However, few such integrated C models exist for wetland ecosystems. In this paper, we report a simulation model...

  14. The Importance of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses in Process-Based Models of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems with Particular Emphasis on Forest Ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many process-based models of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles have been developed for terrestrial ecosystems, including forest ecosystems. Existing models are sufficiently well advanced to help decision makers develop sustainable management policies and planning of terrestrial ecosystems, as they ...

  15. Whole-canopy carbon gain as a result of selection on individual performance of ten genotypes of a clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R; Stuefer, Josef F; During, Heinjo J

    2013-06-01

    Game theoretical models predict that plant competition for light leads to reduced productivity of vegetation stands through selection for traits that maximize carbon gains of individuals. Using empirical results from a 5-year competition experiment with 10 genotypes of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans, we tested this prediction by analyzing the effects of the existing leaf area values on the carbon gain of the different genotypes and the consequent whole canopy carbon gain. We focused on specific leaf area (SLA) due to its role in the trade-off between light capture area and photosynthetic capacity per unit area. By combining a canopy model based on measured leaf area and light profiles with a game theoretical approach, we analyzed how changes in the SLA affected genotypic and whole-stand carbon gain. This showed that all genotypes contributed to reduced stand productivity. The dominant genotype maximized its share of total carbon gain, resulting in lower than maximal absolute gain. Other genotypes did not maximize their share. Hypothetical mutants of the dominant genotype were not able to achieve a higher carbon gain. Conversely, in other genotypes, some mutations did result in increased carbon gain. Hence, genotypic differences in the ability to maximize performance may determine genotype frequency. It shows how genotypic selection may result in lower carbon gains of the whole vegetation, and of the individual genotypes it consists of, through similar mechanisms as those that lead to the tragedy of the commons.

  16. Responses of ecosystem carbon cycling to climate change treatments along an elevation gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Koch, George W.; Dijkstra, Paul; Bowker, Matthew A.; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Global temperature increases and precipitation changes are both expected to alter ecosystem carbon (C) cycling. We tested responses of ecosystem C cycling to simulated climate change using field manipulations of temperature and precipitation across a range of grass-dominated ecosystems along an elevation gradient in northern Arizona. In 2002, we transplanted intact plant–soil mesocosms to simulate warming and used passive interceptors and collectors to manipulate precipitation. We measured daytime ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem C exchange throughout the growing season in 2008 and 2009. Warming generally stimulated ER and photosynthesis, but had variable effects on daytime net C exchange. Increased precipitation stimulated ecosystem C cycling only in the driest ecosystem at the lowest elevation, whereas decreased precipitation showed no effects on ecosystem C cycling across all ecosystems. No significant interaction between temperature and precipitation treatments was observed. Structural equation modeling revealed that in the wetter-than-average year of 2008, changes in ecosystem C cycling were more strongly affected by warming-induced reduction in soil moisture than by altered precipitation. In contrast, during the drier year of 2009, warming induced increase in soil temperature rather than changes in soil moisture determined ecosystem C cycling. Our findings suggest that warming exerted the strongest influence on ecosystem C cycling in both years, by modulating soil moisture in the wet year and soil temperature in the dry year.

  17. The 1km estimation of Vegetation carbon budgets in South Korea using a terrestrial ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Ito, A.; Lee, W.; Son, Y.; Kwak, D.; Oh, S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem can store atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the major factors of global warming, in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis process. Human induced CO2 emission has been rapidly increased by industrialization. On the current situation, Terrestrial ecosystem could be regarded as one of the major sinks of CO2 for mitigating global warming. So it is very important to quantify carbon dynamics and budget for preparing adaptation measures to climate change. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been developed and used for investigating the terrestrial carbon dynamics and quantifying budget. In this study, we simulated biogeochemistry model, VISIT, in whole South Korea territory to quantify ecosystem carbon budgets. Before simulating this model, we modified model parameters such as maximum photosynthetic rate and phonological parameters with flux measurement data. And then, we prepared high resolution input variables for simulation from reliable national source. As a result, the model estimated the vegetation ecosystems in South Korea are a net carbon sink, with a value of 3.51 Tg C year-1 during the period 1999-2008. Compared with the anthropogenic emission of South Korea, vegetation ecosystems offset 3.3% of human emissions. Spatially, evident latitudinal and topographical gradients were found in all estimates over entire areas due to the environmental difference surrounding ecosystems. In addition, seasonal and inter-annual variability could be found in the estimates, especially biomass growth and carbon uptake, in consequence of the variation of annual weather conditions. However, to achieve a reliable estimate of a carbon budget, the result should be examined and validated carefully by the independent approaches. And also, to overcome the uncertainties in the simulation model, we need to develop a method for consideration of disturbances, such as land-use change, fertilizing, timber production, and air pollution. This modeling approach can

  18. Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long-term nutrient fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mack, Michelle C; Schuur, Edward A G; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Shaver, Gaius R; Chapin, F Stuart

    2004-09-23

    Global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes, and observational evidence over the past 25 years suggests that this warming is already under way. One-third of the global soil carbon pool is stored in northern latitudes, so there is considerable interest in understanding how the carbon balance of northern ecosystems will respond to climate warming. Observations of controls over plant productivity in tundra and boreal ecosystems have been used to build a conceptual model of response to warming, where warmer soils and increased decomposition of plant litter increase nutrient availability, which, in turn, stimulates plant production and increases ecosystem carbon storage. Here we present the results of a long-term fertilization experiment in Alaskan tundra, in which increased nutrient availability caused a net ecosystem loss of almost 2,000 grams of carbon per square meter over 20 years. We found that annual aboveground plant production doubled during the experiment. Losses of carbon and nitrogen from deep soil layers, however, were substantial and more than offset the increased carbon and nitrogen storage in plant biomass and litter. Our study suggests that projected release of soil nutrients associated with high-latitude warming may further amplify carbon release from soils, causing a net loss of ecosystem carbon and a positive feedback to climate warming.

  19. How ecological restoration alters ecosystem services: an analysis of carbon sequestration in China's Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoming; Fu, Bojie; Lu, Nan; Zeng, Yuan; Wu, Bingfang

    2013-10-03

    Restoring disturbed and over-exploited ecosystems is important to mitigate human pressures on natural ecosystems. China has launched an ambitious national ecosystem restoration program called Grain to Green Program (GTGP) over the last decade. By using remote sensing techniques and ecosystem modelling, we quantitatively evaluated the changes in ecosystem carbon sequestration since China's GTGP program during period of 2000-2008. It was found the NPP and NEP in this region had steadily increased after the initiative of the GTGP program, and a total of 96.1 Tg of additional carbon had been sequestered during that period. Changes in soil carbon storage were lagged behind and thus insignificant over the period, but was expected to follow in the coming decades. As a result, the Loess Plateau ecosystem had shifted from a net carbon source in 2000 to a net carbon sink in 2008. The carbon sequestration efficiency was constrained by precipitation, and appropriate choices of restoration types (trees, shrubs, and grasses) in accordance to local climate are critical for achieving the best benefit/cost efficiency.

  20. How ecological restoration alters ecosystem services: an analysis of carbon sequestration in China's Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoming; Fu, Bojie; Lu, Nan; Zeng, Yuan; Wu, Bingfang

    2013-01-01

    Restoring disturbed and over-exploited ecosystems is important to mitigate human pressures on natural ecosystems. China has launched an ambitious national ecosystem restoration program called Grain to Green Program (GTGP) over the last decade. By using remote sensing techniques and ecosystem modelling, we quantitatively evaluated the changes in ecosystem carbon sequestration since China's GTGP program during period of 2000–2008. It was found the NPP and NEP in this region had steadily increased after the initiative of the GTGP program, and a total of 96.1 Tg of additional carbon had been sequestered during that period. Changes in soil carbon storage were lagged behind and thus insignificant over the period, but was expected to follow in the coming decades. As a result, the Loess Plateau ecosystem had shifted from a net carbon source in 2000 to a net carbon sink in 2008. The carbon sequestration efficiency was constrained by precipitation, and appropriate choices of restoration types (trees, shrubs, and grasses) in accordance to local climate are critical for achieving the best benefit/cost efficiency. PMID:24088871

  1. Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Peylin, Philippe; Reichstein, Markus; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Margolis, Hank; Fang, Jingyun; Barr, Alan; Chen, Anping; Grelle, Achim; Hollinger, David Y; Laurila, Tuomas; Lindroth, Anders; Richardson, Andrew D; Vesala, Timo

    2008-01-03

    The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is particularly sensitive to climatic changes in autumn and spring, with spring and autumn temperatures over northern latitudes having risen by about 1.1 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C, respectively, over the past two decades. A simultaneous greening trend has also been observed, characterized by a longer growing season and greater photosynthetic activity. These observations have led to speculation that spring and autumn warming could enhance carbon sequestration and extend the period of net carbon uptake in the future. Here we analyse interannual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration data and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes. We find that atmospheric records from the past 20 years show a trend towards an earlier autumn-to-winter carbon dioxide build-up, suggesting a shorter net carbon uptake period. This trend cannot be explained by changes in atmospheric transport alone and, together with the ecosystem flux data, suggest increasing carbon losses in autumn. We use a process-based terrestrial biosphere model and satellite vegetation greenness index observations to investigate further the observed seasonal response of northern ecosystems to autumnal warming. We find that both photosynthesis and respiration increase during autumn warming, but the increase in respiration is greater. In contrast, warming increases photosynthesis more than respiration in spring. Our simulations and observations indicate that northern terrestrial ecosystems may currently lose carbon dioxide in response to autumn warming, with a sensitivity of about 0.2 PgC degrees C(-1), offsetting 90% of the increased carbon dioxide uptake during spring. If future autumn warming occurs at a faster rate than in spring, the ability of northern ecosystems to sequester carbon may be diminished earlier than previously suggested.

  2. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  3. Ontogeny, understorey light interception and simulated carbon gain of juvenile rainforest evergreens differing in shade tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Christopher H.; Pérez-Millaqueo, Manuel Matías; Piper, Frida I.; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A long-running debate centres on whether shade tolerance of tree seedlings is mainly a function of traits maximizing net carbon gain in low light, or of traits minimizing carbon loss. To test these alternatives, leaf display, light-interception efficiency, and simulated net daily carbon gain of juvenile temperate evergreens of differing shade tolerance were measured, and how these variables are influenced by ontogeny was queried. Methods The biomass distribution of juveniles (17–740 mm tall) of seven temperate rainforest evergreens growing in low (approx. 4 %) light in the understorey of a second-growth stand was quantified. Daytime and night-time gas exchange rates of leaves were also determined, and crown architecture was recorded digitally. YPLANT was used to model light interception and carbon gain. Results An index of species shade tolerance correlated closely with photosynthetic capacities and respiration rates per unit mass of leaves, but only weakly with respiration per unit area. Accumulation of many leaf cohorts by shade-tolerant species meant that their ratios of foliage area to biomass (LAR) decreased more gradually with ontogeny than those of light-demanders, but also increased self-shading; this depressed the foliage silhouette-to-area ratio (STAR), which was used as an index of light-interception efficiency. As a result, displayed leaf area ratio (LARd = LAR × STAR) of large seedlings was not related to species shade tolerance. Self-shading also caused simulated net daily carbon assimilation rates of shade-tolerant species to decrease with ontogeny, leading to a negative correlation of shade tolerance with net daily carbon gain of large (500 mm tall) seedlings in the understorey. Conclusions The results suggest that efficiency of energy capture is not an important correlate of shade tolerance in temperate rainforest evergreens. Ontogenetic increases in self-shading largely nullify the potential carbon gain advantages expected

  4. Organic carbon stock modelling for the quantification of the carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Pilar; Algeet, Nur; Oyonarte, Cecilio

    2017-04-01

    Given the recent environmental policies derived from the serious threats caused by global change, practical measures to decrease net CO2 emissions have to be put in place. Regarding this, carbon sequestration is a major measure to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations within a short and medium term, where terrestrial ecosystems play a basic role as carbon sinks. Development of tools for quantification, assessment and management of organic carbon in ecosystems at different scales and management scenarios, it is essential to achieve these commitments. The aim of this study is to establish a methodological framework for the modeling of this tool, applied to a sustainable land use planning and management at spatial and temporal scale. The methodology for carbon stock estimation in ecosystems is based on merger techniques between carbon stored in soils and aerial biomass. For this purpose, both spatial variability map of soil organic carbon (SOC) and algorithms for calculation of forest species biomass will be created. For the modelling of the SOC spatial distribution at different map scales, it is necessary to fit in and screen the available information of soil database legacy. Subsequently, SOC modelling will be based on the SCORPAN model, a quantitative model use to assess the correlation among soil-forming factors measured at the same site location. These factors will be selected from both static (terrain morphometric variables) and dynamic variables (climatic variables and vegetation indexes -NDVI-), providing to the model the spatio-temporal characteristic. After the predictive model, spatial inference techniques will be used to achieve the final map and to extrapolate the data to unavailable information areas (automated random forest regression kriging). The estimated uncertainty will be calculated to assess the model performance at different scale approaches. Organic carbon modelling of aerial biomass will be estimate using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging

  5. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.

    2013-08-01

    Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated at both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36-87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26-50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen were the maximum root uptake rate (Imax) and the radius of the root (r0) in our model. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake at tundra ecosystem was larger than at boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to boreal ecosystem carbon modeling.

  6. Organic Carbon Storage in Four Ecosystem Types in the Karst Region of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m−2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m−2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m−2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m−2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m−2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. PMID:23451047

  7. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuguo; Liu, Changcheng; Wang, Shijie; Guo, Ke; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xinshi; Li, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG), thorn shrubbery (TS), forest - shrub transition (FS) and secondary forest (F). The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2), respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2), respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2), respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2), respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2), respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  8. Evaluating carbon fluxes of global forest ecosystems by using an individual tree-based model FORCCHN.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyong; Shugart, Herman H; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Cougui; Wu, Shuang; Fang, Jing

    2017-05-15

    The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0.72, 0.70 and 0.53, respectively, across all forest biomes. The model underestimated GPP and slightly overestimated ER across most of the eddy-covariance sites. An underestimation of NEP arose primarily from the lower GPP estimates. Model performance was better in capturing both the temporal changes and magnitude of carbon fluxes in deciduous broadleaf forest than in evergreen broadleaf forest, and it performed less well for sites in Mediterranean climate. We then applied the model to estimate the carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale over 1982-2011. This application of FORCCHN gave a total GPP of 59.41±5.67 and an ER of 57.21±5.32PgCyr(-1) for global forest ecosystems during 1982-2011. The forest ecosystems over this same period contributed a large carbon storage, with total NEP being 2.20±0.64PgCyr(-1). These values are comparable to and reinforce estimates reported in other studies. This analysis highlights individual tree-based model FORCCHN could be used to evaluate carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems on global scale.

  9. Elevated CO2 and warming influence ecosystem carbon dynamics and evapotranspiration in a semi-arid grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecosystem carbon dynamics are sensitive to rising CO2 concentrations and warming, but the combined effects of these global change drivers on ecosystem carbon uptake and loss remain a critical uncertainty. Northern mixed grass prairie is expected to be among the most responsive ecosystems to the effe...

  10. Toward coordinated space-based air quality, carbon cycle, and ecosystem measurements to quantify air quality-ecosystem interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, J. L.; Schimel, D.; Lerdau, M.; Drewry, D.; Fu, D.; Payne, V.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations are increasing in many regions of the world, and this ozone can severely damage vegetation. Ozone enters plants through their stomata and oxidizes tissues, inhibiting physiology and decreasing ecosystem productivity. Ozone has been experimentally shown to reduce crop production, with important implications for global food security as concentrations rise. Ozone damage to forests also alters productivity and carbon storage and may drive changes in species distributions and biodiversity. Process-based quantitative estimates of these ozone impacts on terrestrial ecosystems at continental to global scales as well as of feedbacks to air quality via production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are thus crucial to sustainable development planning. We demonstrate that leveraging planned and proposed missions to measure ozone, formaldehyde, and isoprene along with solar-induced fluorescence (SiF), evapotranspiration, and plant nitrogen content can meet the requirements of an integrated observing system for air quality-ecosystem interactions while also meeting the needs of the individual Air Quality, Carbon Cycle, and Ecosystems communities.

  11. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-10-09

    The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is 23(+7)(-4) years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.

  12. Interannual Variability in Amazonian Net Ecosystem Production: Implication for Regional Carbon Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevliakova, E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Pacala, S. W.; Milly, P. D.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Interannual variability in Amazonian terrestrial ecosystems functioning during the past two decades is examined in order to estimate the range of variations in biogenic sources and sinks of CO2 as well as the changes in the biophysical conditions affecting regional climate. We simulated interannual patterns of vegetation characteristics using Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. This is a mechanistic terrestrial biosphere model which simulates both the fast time scales (hours) of carbon and water fluxes and the longtime scales of ecosystem dynamics. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climate data set and regional precipitation data sets drive the simulations of ED model. We explore sensitivities of tropical ecosystem photosynthetic production and respiration to variation in temperature, precipitation, atmospheric humidity, radiation and wind conditions. The simulated inter-annual variations in the state of Amazonian ecosystems suggests that short -term changes in the state of vegetation could have salient effect on the global carbon cycle as well as regional climatic conditions.

  13. Whole ecosystem estimates of carbon exchange and storage in a New England salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are wetlands situated at the interface of land and ocean. They are among the most productive ecosystems worldwide and store substantial amounts of carbon as peat. Their long-term stability is dependent on sediment accretion and carbon accumulation to avoid submergence when sea level is rising. Currently, estimates of carbon storage in salt marshes are uncertain because our understanding of the coupling between marsh plant productivity and carbon release to the adjacent ocean is limited. To evaluate the capacity to store carbon as well as the resilience of the ecosystem, long-term studies of carbon cycling considering both vertical and lateral fluxes are necessary. To study the net exchange between marsh and atmosphere, we chose the non-intrusive eddy covariance which allows nearly continuous half hourly flux measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on the ecosystem scale. Since spring 2012, we have been investigating the marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a Spartina patens high marsh at the Plum Island Ecosystems Long-Term Ecological Research site. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 exchange during summer were controlled by the phenology of S. patens. Preliminary estimates for seasonal carbon storage range from 185 to 228 g C m-2 (5/1/2012 to 10/31/2012). During the winter months we observed small fluxes, but carbon uptake still occurred during the day. We attribute this to microalgae productivity. Winter carbon release is estimated to be approximately 130 g C m-2 (12/6/2012 to 4/30/2013), when uptake by microalgae is not taken into account. This emphasizes the relevance of transitional and cold season carbon cycling for the carbon storage capacity of northern salt marshes, since a large proportion of fixed carbon is released during these periods. Direct tidal effects on the marsh-atmosphere carbon exchange are visible especially during monthly spring tides, when both daytime carbon uptake and night time respiration were reduced during

  14. Spatial patterns and climate drivers of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Zhu, Xian-Jin; Fu, Yu-Ling; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Wen, Xue-Fa; Li, Xuan-Ran; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics and underlying mechanism of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is one of the key issues in global change research. In this study, we quantified the carbon fluxes in different terrestrial ecosystems in China, and analyzed their spatial variation and environmental drivers based on the long-term observation data of ChinaFLUX sites and the published data from other flux sites in China. The results indicate that gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China showed a significantly latitudinal pattern, declining linearly with the increase of latitude. However, GEP, ER, and NEP did not present a clear longitudinal pattern. The carbon sink functional areas of terrestrial ecosystems in China were mainly located in the subtropical and temperate forests, coastal wetlands in eastern China, the temperate meadow steppe in the northeast China, and the alpine meadow in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The forest ecosystems had stronger carbon sink than grassland ecosystems. The spatial patterns of GEP and ER in China were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas the spatial variation in NEP was largely explained by MAT. The combined effects of MAT and MAP explained 79%, 62%, and 66% of the spatial variations in GEP, ER, and NEP, respectively. The GEP, ER, and NEP in different ecosystems in China exhibited 'positive coupling correlation' in their spatial patterns. Both ER and NEP were significantly correlated with GEP, with 68% of the per-unit GEP contributed to ER and 29% to NEP. MAT and MAP affected the spatial patterns of ER and NEP mainly by their direct effects on the spatial pattern of GEP.

  15. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, T. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bohrer, G.; Dragoni, D.; Munger, J. W.; Schmid, H. E.; Richardson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  16. Exploiting heterogeneous environments: does photosynthetic acclimation optimize carbon gain in fluctuating light?

    PubMed Central

    Retkute, Renata; Smith-Unna, Stephanie E.; Smith, Robert W.; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Johnson, Giles N.; Preston, Simon P.; Murchie, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to balance the efficient use of absorbed light energy in photosynthesis with the capacity to use that energy in assimilation, so avoiding potential damage from excess light. This is particularly important under natural light, which can vary according to weather, solar movement and canopy movement. Photosynthetic acclimation is the means by which plants alter their leaf composition and structure over time to enhance photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. However there is no empirical or theoretical basis for understanding how leaves track historic light levels to determine acclimation status, or whether they do this accurately. We hypothesized that in fluctuating light (varying in both intensity and frequency), the light-response characteristics of a leaf should adjust (dynamically acclimate) to maximize daily carbon gain. Using a framework of mathematical modelling based on light-response curves, we have analysed carbon-gain dynamics under various light patterns. The objective was to develop new tools to quantify the precision with which photosynthesis acclimates according to the environment in which plants exist and to test this tool on existing data. We found an inverse relationship between the optimal maximum photosynthetic capacity and the frequency of low to high light transitions. Using experimental data from the literature we were able to show that the observed patterns for acclimation were consistent with a strategy towards maximizing daily carbon gain. Refinement of the model will further determine the precision of acclimation. PMID:25788730

  17. Exploiting heterogeneous environments: does photosynthetic acclimation optimize carbon gain in fluctuating light?

    PubMed

    Retkute, Renata; Smith-Unna, Stephanie E; Smith, Robert W; Burgess, Alexandra J; Jensen, Oliver E; Johnson, Giles N; Preston, Simon P; Murchie, Erik H

    2015-05-01

    Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to balance the efficient use of absorbed light energy in photosynthesis with the capacity to use that energy in assimilation, so avoiding potential damage from excess light. This is particularly important under natural light, which can vary according to weather, solar movement and canopy movement. Photosynthetic acclimation is the means by which plants alter their leaf composition and structure over time to enhance photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. However there is no empirical or theoretical basis for understanding how leaves track historic light levels to determine acclimation status, or whether they do this accurately. We hypothesized that in fluctuating light (varying in both intensity and frequency), the light-response characteristics of a leaf should adjust (dynamically acclimate) to maximize daily carbon gain. Using a framework of mathematical modelling based on light-response curves, we have analysed carbon-gain dynamics under various light patterns. The objective was to develop new tools to quantify the precision with which photosynthesis acclimates according to the environment in which plants exist and to test this tool on existing data. We found an inverse relationship between the optimal maximum photosynthetic capacity and the frequency of low to high light transitions. Using experimental data from the literature we were able to show that the observed patterns for acclimation were consistent with a strategy towards maximizing daily carbon gain. Refinement of the model will further determine the precision of acclimation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. The impact of early morning elevated CO sub 2 on foliar carbon gain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Predawn concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the boundary layer above vegetated landscapes can be as much as 200 {mu}L{sup {minus}1} higher than typical midday concentrations (330-360 {mu}l L{sup {minus}1}). This period of elevated CO{sub 2} lasts up to 3 hours after sunrise. Estimates of daily carbon gain from models of photosynthesis have often assumed constant CO{sub 2} concentrations. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models were coupled and used to assess the importance of a diurnal variation in CO{sub 2} concentration. Daily carbon gain estimates based on a constant CO{sub 2} concentration equal to the afternoon average (1,200 to 1,600 h), were as much as 13% less than estimates based on the more realistic diurnal pattern including elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations in the morning. The largest discrepancies in calculated carbon gain (6-13%) occurred for simulated sunny days, and for foliage having a low carboxylation efficiency.

  19. Fate of the Chinese river-transported carbon: Implication for carbon cycle in the coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wen, X.; He, N.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers play an important part on C exchange between terrestrial and oceanic, and atmospheric environment. This study systematically qualifies the riverine C export and the C exchange fluxes in the air-sea interface in China's marine ecosystems. we systematically qualify (1) the riverine C export to the Chinese coastal ecosystem and the contributions of C transported from three major rivers to the adjacent coastal area, (2) evaluate the C exchange fluxes subject to the air-sea interface in China's marine ecosystems; and then (3) present a comprehensive analysis on the C cycling in the China seas as well as forecasting how this process will change as the climate change in the future. Based on our estimation, the annual C transport from the river systems to the oceanic bodies in China is 64.35 TgC. In Bohai Sea, the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) is the main form of C influx. The annual amount reaches up to annual 20.79 TgC, which is 65.7% of the total annual C input. In contrast, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the main form of C input to the East China Sea. The annual amount reaches up to 10.52 TgC, which is 42.6% of total annual C import. The three major river systems in China contribute 76.9% of the total C transport in China. In details, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River transport 21.71 TgC and 16.3 TgC annually, which accounts for 33.7% and 25.3% of the total annual C transport in China, respectively. The CO2 fluxes of the China seas exhibit great seasonal variations, wherein the winter and spring exhibit as a sink, and autumn and summer exhibit as a source. The China's marine ecosystems can absorb 65.06 TgC annually from the atmosphere. The China seas absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, except the Bohai Sea, which is showing annual net CO2 release. The annual net CO2 uptake from the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea are 5.69, 34.61, and 25.55 TgC, respectively.

  20. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of China: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Li, Dejun; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Yu, Guirui; Li, Linghao; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Huajun; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has increased greatly, but the general impact of elevated N deposition on carbon (C) dynamics in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems is not well documented. In this study we used a meta-analysis method to compile 88 studies on the effects of N deposition C cycling on Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. Our results showed that N addition did not change soil C pools but increased above-ground plant C pool. A large decrease in below-ground plant C pool was observed. Our result also showed that the impacts of N addition on ecosystem C dynamics depend on ecosystem type and rate of N addition. Overall, our findings suggest that 1) decreased below-ground plant C pool may limit long-term soil C sequestration; and 2) it is better to treat N-rich and N-limited ecosystems differently in modeling effects of N deposition on ecosystem C cycle.

  1. Carbon allocation in plants and ecosystems - insights from stable isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Trees are large global stores of carbon (C) that will be impacted by increased carbon dioxide levels and climate change. However, at present we cannot properly predict the carbon balance of forests in future as we lack knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage, and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with environmental drivers and ecosystem-scale processes. This paper will summarise how stable isotope techniques can give new insights in the fate of newly assimilated C in plants and ecosystems on time scales from hours to seasons and it will include studies either characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. It comprises the assessment of the mechanisms of C partitioning among specific metabolic pathways, between plant organs and into various ecosystem C pools with different residence times. Moreover stable isotopes are highly suitable tools to characterise the role of the phloem, which is the central long-distance conveyer distributing C from source to sinks and thus plays a central role in linking sites and structures of storage, growth and other metabolic activities. A deeper understanding of these processes and their interaction with environmental drivers is critical for predicting how trees and ecosystems will respond to coming global environmental changes, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

  2. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

    Treesearch

    YIQING LI; MING XU; XIAOMING ZOU

    2006-01-01

    Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July...

  3. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models

    Treesearch

    W. R. L. Anderegg; C. Schwalm; F. Biondi; J. J. Camarero; G. Koch; M. Litvak; K. Ogle; J. D. Shaw; E. Shevliakova; A. P. Williams; A. Wolf; E. Ziaco; S. Pacala

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of...

  4. Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation

    Treesearch

    Ian D. Thompson; Joice Ferreira; Toby Gardner; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Christine B. Schmitt; Jason Tylianakis; Jos Barlow; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; John A. Parrotta; Mark D. Spalding; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    REDD+ actions should be based on the best science and on the understanding that forests can provide more than a repository for carbon but also offer a wide range of services beneficial to people. Biodiversity underpins many ecosystem services, one of which is carbon sequestration, and individual species’ functional traits play an important role in determining...

  5. Canopy structure of sagebrush ecosystems leading to differences in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Pendall, E. G.; Kelly, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sagebrush steppe ecosystem covers nearly 15% of Western North America, and its productivity is sensitive to warming and increasingly variable precipitation. Previous work has shown that interannual variability of precipitation is the largest factor in carbon and water cycling in these semi-arid ecosystems and that the relationship of traditional drivers of fluxes (VPD, net radiation, soil temperature) to carbon and water fluxes as well as ecosystem water use efficiency does not change along an elevation gradient. We seek to expand on that work by using multiple site-years from eddy covariance data near the upper (2469m) and lower (2069m) elevation range of sagebrush to answer the question 'How does canopy structure and canopy leaf area index combine to control the ecosystem carbon and water fluxes from rocky mountain sagebrush ecosystems'. We are answering this question by quantifying ecosystem scale carbon and water using eddy covariance measurements and a standard suite of atmospheric, soil and vegetation monitoring instruments. This data will be used with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) Bayesian framework model that utilizes a coupled plant hydraulic and carbon uptake. For this work we use the TREES model to simulate canopy structure and leaf area based on seven years of eddy covariance data from the two different locations. This canopy information will be compared with canopy structure ground measurements within the eddy covariance footprint, and then we will compare the relationship between canopy structure and ecosystem fluxes. During well watered growing season time periods, the high elevation site has average water flux of 1.06 mmol m-2 s-1 and carbon flux of 1.54 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake. Average water and carbon fluxes at the lower elevation site were 0.84 mmol m-2 s-1 and 1.09 μmol m-2 s-1 of uptake respectively. This is a reduction of 20% for water flux and 30% and carbon flux down the elevation gradient. With the

  6. Carbon and nitrogen cycles in European ecosystems respond differently to global warming.

    PubMed

    Beier, C; Emmett, B A; Peñuelas, J; Schmidt, I K; Tietema, A; Estiarte, M; Gundersen, P; Llorens, L; Riis-Nielsen, T; Sowerby, A; Gorissen, A

    2008-12-15

    The global climate is predicted to become significantly warmer over the next century. This will affect ecosystem processes and the functioning of semi natural and natural ecosystems in many parts of the world. However, as various ecosystem processes may be affected to a different extent, balances between different ecosystem processes as well as between different ecosystems may shift and lead to major unpredicted changes. In this study four European shrubland ecosystems along a north-south temperature gradient were experimentally warmed by a novel nighttime warming technique. Biogeochemical cycling of both carbon and nitrogen was affected at the colder sites with increased carbon uptake for plant growth as well as increased carbon loss through soil respiration. Carbon uptake by plant growth was more sensitive to warming than expected from the temperature response across the sites while carbon loss through soil respiration reacted to warming in agreement with the overall Q10 and response functions to temperature across the sites. Opposite to carbon, the nitrogen mineralization was relatively insensitive to the temperature increase and was mainly affected by changes in soil moisture. The results suggest that C and N cycles respond asymmetrically to warming, which may lead to progressive nitrogen limitation and thereby acclimation in plant production. This further suggests that in many temperate zones nitrogen deposition has to be accounted for, not only with respect to the impact on water quality through increased nitrogen leaching where N deposition is high, but also in predictions of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under future climatic conditions. Finally the results indicate that on the short term the above-ground processes are more sensitive to temperature changes than the below ground processes.

  7. Carbon dioxide and Water Vapor Fluxes of Winter Wheat and Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, R.; Xiao, X.; Basara, J. B.; Wagle, P.; Zhou, Y.; Gowda, P. H.; Mahan, H. R.; Steiner, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and tallgrass prairie are common land cover types in the Southern Plains of the United States. In recent years, agricultural expansion into native grasslands has been extensive, particularly either managed pasture or dryland crops such as wheat. In this study, we measured the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes from two major ecosystems (winter wheat and tallgrass prairie) in the Southern Plains of the United States using the eddy covariance technique. The major objective of this study was to compare and contrast carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes between these two ecosystems for providing insights on how the conversion of tallgrass prairie grassland to winter wheat could impact the carbon and water budgets of the region. Daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peaks of - 9.24 g C m-2 d-1 and - 6.23 g C m-2 d-1in winter wheat and tall grass prairie, respectively. The wheat ecosystem was a net sink of carbon for four months (February-May), whereas the tallgrass prairie ecosystem was a net sink of carbon for seven months (March-September). Although both ecosystems were sinks of carbon during their respective growing seasons, the wheat ecosystem was a net source of carbon on an annual scale (128 ± 46 g C m-2 yr-1) when fluxes from summer fallow period were considered. In contrast, the tallgrass prairie ecosystem was a net sink of carbon on an annual scale (-147 ± 30 g C m-2 yr-1). The daily ET reached seasonal maximum of 6.0 mm day-1 and 7.2 mm day-1in winter wheat and tallgrass prairie, respectively. Although, ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE, the ratio of cumulative gross primary production (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET)) was higher in wheat (13.1 g CO2 mm-1 ET) than in tallgrass prairie (7.6 g CO2 mm-1 ET) on a seasonal scale, it was slightly higher in tallgrass prairie (6.9 g CO2 mm-1 ET) than in wheat (6.2 g CO2 mm-1 ET) on an annual scale. Results suggest that the differences in

  8. Long term net gains in coastal blue carbon stocks: A search for terrestrial drivers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Jessica; Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig; Winterton, Cathy; Bresnan, Eileen; Davidson, Keith; Lo Giudice Cappelli Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Green, Jade

    2017-04-01

    Peat and Organic soils covers nearly 66% of Scotland, representing over 50% of the UK's soil carbon stocks. Natural processes such as peatland erosion are accelerated by human activities, such as land management and potentially by the impacts of climate change. We present evidence from the isle of Shetland's west coast voes (sea lochs or fjords) to suggest this process may have accelerated since medieval times. This work is supported by the analyses of short sediment Craib cores (triplicate coring) recovered from 17 sites. We present preliminary chronologies supported by radiocarbon dating and sediment characteristics that highlight both changes in the rate of accumulation and source of sedimentary organic carbon to the west coast Shetland voes during the late Holocene. Scottish coastal sediments contain a significant blue carbon stock, a significant proportion of which derives directly from terrestrial sources. The loss of peatland carbon represents a potentially important contribution (i.e. net gain) in refractory carbon within the marine environment and we present preliminary estimates to assess the significance of these large scale transfers and the subsidy of carbon to the coastal ocean.

  9. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons

  10. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental variability

    PubMed Central

    Medvigy, David; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Moorcroft, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    We assess the significance of high-frequency variability of environmental parameters (sunlight, precipitation, temperature) for the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and future climate. We examine the influence of hourly, daily, and monthly variance using the Ecosystem Demography model version 2 in conjunction with the long-term record of carbon fluxes measured at Harvard Forest. We find that fluctuations of sunlight and precipitation are strongly and nonlinearly coupled to ecosystem function, with effects that accumulate through annual and decadal timescales. Increasing variability in sunlight and precipitation leads to lower rates of carbon sequestration and favors broad-leaved deciduous trees over conifers. Temperature variability has only minor impacts by comparison. We also find that projected changes in sunlight and precipitation variability have important implications for carbon storage and ecosystem structure and composition. Based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model estimates for changes in high-frequency meteorological variability over the next 100 years, we expect that terrestrial ecosystems will be affected by changes in variability almost as much as by changes in mean climate. We conclude that terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to high-frequency meteorological variability, and that accurate knowledge of the statistics of this variability is essential for realistic predictions of ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:20404190

  11. Nonsteady state carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems of China estimated by data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Luo, Yiqi

    2013-12-01

    sequestration occurs only when terrestrial ecosystems are at nonsteady states. Despite of their ubiquity in the real world, the nonsteady states of ecosystems have not been well quantified, especially at regional and global scales. In this study, we developed a two-step data assimilation scheme to estimate carbon sink strength in China's forest ecosystems. Specifically, the two-step scheme consists of a steady state step and a nonsteady state step. In the steady state step, we constrained a process-based model (Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional (TECO-R) model) against biometric data (net primary production NPP, biomass, litter, and soil organic carbon) in mature forests. With a subset of the parameter values estimated from the steady state data assimilation being fixed, the nonsteady state data assimilation was performed to estimate carbon sequestration in China's forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that 17 out of the 22 total parameters in the TECO-R model were well constrained by the biometric data with the steady state data assimilation. When observations from both mature and developing forests were used, all the 10 parameters related to carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil carbon pools were well constrained at the nonsteady state step. The estimated mean vegetation carbon sink in China's forests is 89.7 ± 16.8 gC m-2 yr-1, comparable with the values estimated from the forest inventory and other process-based regional models. The estimated mean soil and litter carbon sinks in China's forests are 14.1 ± 20.7 and 4.7 ± 6.5 gC m-2 yr-1. This study demonstrated that a two-step data assimilation scheme can be a potent tool to estimate regional carbon sequestration in nonsteady state ecosystems.

  12. Carbon exchange of organic soils ecosystems of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Armentano, T.V.; Menges, E.S.; Molofsky, J.; Lawler, D.J.

    1984-03-01

    Because the annual uptake and release of CO/sub 2/ by the earth's biota (50-100 x 10/sup 9/ t/yr (10/sup 9/ t = 1 Gt)) is 10-20 times larger than the recent annual combustion of fossil fuel (5 Gt/yr), understanding the global carbon cycle requires detailed consideration of relatively small alterations in regional photosynthesis or in the oxidation of carbon stored in the major biological pools. This report presents an original synthesis of data on wetland carbon sinks and releases. Computer simulations of wetland conversions and altered carbon balance were used to estimate carbon uptake and release rates in the tropical and temperate zones. A major goal of this study was to determine whether the world's wetlands, considered as a single global carbon pool, have been appreciably altered by human intervention since 1800. For soil carbon exchangers, only wetlands with organic soils are important because, when functioning naturally, they remove carbon from the atmosphere and retain it over long periods of time. Both tropical and temperature zone wetlands have been sequestering carbon from the atmosphere for the past 5000-10,000 years, thus forming a long-term natural carbon sink of potential significance. Prior to human intervention, the annual sequestering in this sink is estimated here to have been 0.14 Ft of carbon, three-quarters of which occurred in the temperate zone.

  13. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjo, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of organic carbon is stored in high-latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an Arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment at 50 m resolution. Integrating the observed carbon fluxes from aquatic systems with the modeled terrestrial carbon fluxes across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modeled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this study also highlights some limitations in modeling subarctic ecosystem responses to climate change, such as aquatic system flux dynamics, nutrient limitation, herbivory and other disturbances, and peatland expansion, our study provides one process-based approach to resolve the complexity of carbon cycling in subarctic ecosystems while simultaneously pointing out the key model developments for capturing

  14. Ecosystem carbon exchange in response to locust outbreaks in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Wu, Dandan; Shao, Pengshuai; Hui, Dafeng; Wan, Shiqiang

    2015-06-01

    It is predicted that locust outbreaks will occur more frequently under future climate change scenarios, with consequent effects on ecological goods and services. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to examine the responses of gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) to locust outbreaks in a temperate steppe of northern China from 2010 to 2011. Two processes related to locust outbreaks, natural locust feeding and carcass deposition, were mimicked by clipping 80 % of aboveground biomass and adding locust carcasses, respectively. Ecosystem carbon (C) exchange (i.e., GEP, NEE, ER, and SR) was suppressed by locust feeding in 2010, but stimulated by locust carcass deposition in both years (except SR in 2011). Experimental locust outbreaks (i.e., clipping plus locust carcass addition) decreased GEP and NEE in 2010 whereas they increased GEP, NEE, and ER in 2011, leading to neutral changes in GEP, NEE, and SR across the 2 years. The responses of ecosystem C exchange could have been due to the changes in soil ammonium nitrogen, community cover, and aboveground net primary productivity. Our findings of the transient and neutral changes in ecosystem C cycling under locust outbreaks highlight the importance of resistance, resilience, and stability of the temperate steppe in maintaining reliable ecosystem services, and facilitate the projections of ecosystem functioning in response to natural disturbance and climate change.

  15. [Design of dynamic simulation system for carbon cycle in forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Gang; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Zhang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Chen; Gan, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jin-Hai

    2009-11-01

    Modeling techniques are indispensable for the researches on the carbon cycle of forest ecosystem. In this paper, a new general simulation system FORCASS (FORest CArbon Simulation System) was designed and developed under Simulink environment, with the objectives of modeling the carbon cycle dynamics of forest ecosystems. A comprehensive analysis on the framework, design solution, and development process showed that the FORCASS was feasible. This simulation system had the characteristics of 1) it divided the carbon storage in forest ecosystem into four compartments, i.e., vegetation, litter, soil, and animal, and took into account the carbon flows between the compartments, possessing high mechanism and easily to be comprehended, 2) it was a process-based system, taking the Richards growth function of vegetation component biomass carbon storage as the input to solve difference equations, and was easily to export the outputs such as net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) at different stand ages, and 3) it had the explicit expansibility because it was developed based on a general framework for carbon cycle patterns.

  16. Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange.

    PubMed

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra C; Costa E Silva, Filipe; Pereira, Joao S; Werner, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems contribute about 40% to global net primary production (GPP) even though water is a major factor limiting carbon uptake. Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for up to 95% of the water loss and in addition, vegetation can also mitigate drought effects by altering soil water distribution. Hence, partitioning of carbon and water fluxes between the soil and vegetation components is crucial to gain mechanistic understanding of vegetation effects on carbon and water cycling. However, the possible impact of herbaceous vegetation in savanna type ecosystems is often overlooked. Therefore, we aimed at quantifying understory vegetation effects on the water balance and productivity of a Mediterranean oak savanna. ET and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) were partitioned based on flux and stable oxygen isotope measurements and also rain infiltration was estimated. The understory vegetation contributed importantly to total ecosystem ET and GPP with a maximum of 43 and 51%, respectively. It reached water-use efficiencies (WUE; ratio of carbon gain by water loss) similar to cork-oak trees. The understory vegetation inhibited soil evaporation (E) and, although E was large during wet periods, it did not diminish WUE during water-limited times. The understory strongly increased soil water infiltration, specifically following major rain events. At the same time, the understory itself was vulnerable to drought, which led to an earlier senescence of the understory growing under trees as compared to open areas, due to competition for water. Thus, beneficial understory effects are dominant and contribute to the resilience of this ecosystem. At the same time the vulnerability of the understory to drought suggests that future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin threaten understory development. This in turn will very likely diminish beneficial understory effects like infiltration and ground water recharge and therefore ecosystem resilience to drought.

  17. Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange

    PubMed Central

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra C.; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Pereira, Joao S.; Werner, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems contribute about 40% to global net primary production (GPP) even though water is a major factor limiting carbon uptake. Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for up to 95% of the water loss and in addition, vegetation can also mitigate drought effects by altering soil water distribution. Hence, partitioning of carbon and water fluxes between the soil and vegetation components is crucial to gain mechanistic understanding of vegetation effects on carbon and water cycling. However, the possible impact of herbaceous vegetation in savanna type ecosystems is often overlooked. Therefore, we aimed at quantifying understory vegetation effects on the water balance and productivity of a Mediterranean oak savanna. ET and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) were partitioned based on flux and stable oxygen isotope measurements and also rain infiltration was estimated. The understory vegetation contributed importantly to total ecosystem ET and GPP with a maximum of 43 and 51%, respectively. It reached water-use efficiencies (WUE; ratio of carbon gain by water loss) similar to cork-oak trees. The understory vegetation inhibited soil evaporation (E) and, although E was large during wet periods, it did not diminish WUE during water-limited times. The understory strongly increased soil water infiltration, specifically following major rain events. At the same time, the understory itself was vulnerable to drought, which led to an earlier senescence of the understory growing under trees as compared to open areas, due to competition for water. Thus, beneficial understory effects are dominant and contribute to the resilience of this ecosystem. At the same time the vulnerability of the understory to drought suggests that future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin threaten understory development. This in turn will very likely diminish beneficial understory effects like infiltration and ground water recharge and therefore ecosystem resilience to drought. PMID

  18. Losses and recovery of organic carbon from a seagrass ecosystem following disturbance.

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M; Skilbeck, Charles G; Sanderman, Jonathan; Curlevski, Nathalie; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Seymour, Justin R

    2015-10-22

    Seagrasses are among the Earth's most efficient and long-term carbon sinks, but coastal development threatens this capacity. We report new evidence that disturbance to seagrass ecosystems causes release of ancient carbon. In a seagrass ecosystem that had been disturbed 50 years ago, we found that soil carbon stocks declined by 72%, which, according to radiocarbon dating, had taken hundreds to thousands of years to accumulate. Disturbed soils harboured different benthic bacterial communities (according to 16S rRNA sequence analysis), with higher proportions of aerobic heterotrophs compared with undisturbed. Fingerprinting of the carbon (via stable isotopes) suggested that the contribution of autochthonous carbon (carbon produced through plant primary production) to the soil carbon pool was less in disturbed areas compared with seagrass and recovered areas. Seagrass areas that had recovered from disturbance had slightly lower (35%) carbon levels than undisturbed, but more than twice as much as the disturbed areas, which is encouraging for restoration efforts. Slow rates of seagrass recovery imply the need to transplant seagrass, rather than waiting for recovery via natural processes. This study empirically demonstrates that disturbance to seagrass ecosystems can cause release of ancient carbon, with potentially major global warming consequences. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  20. Losses and recovery of organic carbon from a seagrass ecosystem following disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M.; Skilbeck, Charles G.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Curlevski, Nathalie; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Seymour, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrasses are among the Earth's most efficient and long-term carbon sinks, but coastal development threatens this capacity. We report new evidence that disturbance to seagrass ecosystems causes release of ancient carbon. In a seagrass ecosystem that had been disturbed 50 years ago, we found that soil carbon stocks declined by 72%, which, according to radiocarbon dating, had taken hundreds to thousands of years to accumulate. Disturbed soils harboured different benthic bacterial communities (according to 16S rRNA sequence analysis), with higher proportions of aerobic heterotrophs compared with undisturbed. Fingerprinting of the carbon (via stable isotopes) suggested that the contribution of autochthonous carbon (carbon produced through plant primary production) to the soil carbon pool was less in disturbed areas compared with seagrass and recovered areas. Seagrass areas that had recovered from disturbance had slightly lower (35%) carbon levels than undisturbed, but more than twice as much as the disturbed areas, which is encouraging for restoration efforts. Slow rates of seagrass recovery imply the need to transplant seagrass, rather than waiting for recovery via natural processes. This study empirically demonstrates that disturbance to seagrass ecosystems can cause release of ancient carbon, with potentially major global warming consequences. PMID:26490788

  1. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  2. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich, J.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    1 The role of undisturbed tropical land ecosystems in the global carbon budget is not well understood. It has been suggested that inter-annual climate variability can affect the capacity of these ecosystems to store carbon in the short term. In this paper, we use a transient version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to estimate annual carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems during the period 1980-94, and to understand the underlying causes of the year-to-year variations in net carbon storage for this region. 2 We estimate that the total carbon storage in the undisturbed ecosystems of the Amazon Basin in 1980 was 127.6 Pg C, with about 94.3 Pg C in vegetation and 33.3 Pg C in the reactive pool of soil organic carbon. About 83% of the total carbon storage occurred in tropical evergreen forests. Based on our model's results, we estimate that, over the past 15 years, the total carbon storage has increased by 3.1 Pg C (+ 2%), with a 1.9-Pg C (+2%) increase in vegetation carbon and a 1.2-Pg C (+4%) increase in reactive soil organic carbon. The modelled results indicate that the largest relative changes in net carbon storage have occurred in tropical deciduous forests, but that the largest absolute changes in net carbon storage have occurred in the moist and wet forests of the Basin. 3 Our results show that the strength of interannual variations in net carbon storage of undisturbed ecosystems in the Amazon Basin varies from a carbon source of 0.2 Pg C/year to a carbon sink of 0.7 Pg C/year. Precipitation, especially the amount received during the drier months, appears to be a major controller of annual net carbon storage in the Amazon Basin. Our analysis indicates further that changes in precipitation combine with changes in temperature to affect net carbon storage through influencing soil moisture and nutrient availability. 4 On average, our results suggest that the undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems accumulated 0.2 Pg C/year as a result of climate

  3. [Effects of land use change on carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingcheng; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Pan, Qingmin

    2003-08-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem is an important carbon pool, which plays a crucial role in carbon biogeochemical cycle. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and land use change have resulted in carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystem to the atmosphere, which increased the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and reinforced the greenhouse effect. Land use change affects the structure and function of the terrestrial ecosystem, which causes its change of carbon storage. To a great extent, the change of carbon storage lies in the type of ecosystem and the change of land use patterns. The conversion of forest to agricultural land and pasture causes a large reduction of carbon storage in vegetation and soil, and the decrease of soil carbon concentration is mainly caused by the reduction of detritus, the acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition, and the destroy of physical protection to organic matter due to agricultural practices. The loss of soil organic matter appears at the early stage after deforestation, and the loss rate is influenced by many factors and soil physical, chemical and biological processes. The conversion of agricultural land and pasture to forest and many conservative agricultural practices can sequester atmospheric carbon in vegetation and soil. Vegetation can sequester large amounts of carbon from atmosphere, while carbon accumulation in soil varies greatly because of farming history and soil spatial heterogeneity. Conservative agricultural practices such as no-tillage, reasonable cropping system, and fertilization can influence soil physical and chemical characters, plant growth, quality and quantity of stubble, and soil microbial biomass and its activity, and hence, maintain and increase soil carbon concentration.

  4. Carbon financing of household water treatment: background, operation and recommendations to improve potential for health gains.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James M; Clasen, Thomas F

    2014-11-04

    Household water treatment (HWT) provides a means for vulnerable populations to take charge of their own drinking water quality as they patiently wait for the pipe to finally reach them. In many low-income countries, however, promoters have not succeeded in scaling up the intervention among the target population or securing its consistent and sustained use. Carbon financing can provide the funding for reaching targeted populations with effective HWT solutions and the incentives to ensure their long-term uptake. Nevertheless, programs have been criticized because they do not actually reduce carbon emissions. We summarize the background and operation of carbon financing of HWT interventions, including the controversial construct of "suppressed demand". We agree that these programs have limited potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that their characterization of trading "carbon for water" is misleading. Nevertheless, we show that the Kyoto Protocol expressly encouraged the use of suppressed demand as a means of allowing low-income countries to benefit from carbon financing provided it is used to advance development priorities such as health. We conclude by recommending changes to existing criteria for eligible HWT programs that will help ensure that they meet the conditions of microbiological effectiveness and actual use that will improve their potential for health gains.

  5. An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, David F; Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J

    2009-02-17

    This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2

  6. Carbon Offset Forestry: Forecasting Ecosystem Effects (COFFEE) Project Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    COFFEE will evaluate the environmental impacts of implementing various COF practices by using the amount of total ecosystem C (TEC) sequestered in forests as the integrative response metric. These evaluations will be done for current-climate and future-climate scenarios and will...

  7. Water and carbon dynamics in selected ecosystems in China

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; J. Sun; G. Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change and unprecedented socioeconomic evelopment have resulted in tremendous environmental, ecological and resource stress on China’s continued growth.Among the numerous challenges, nothing is more pressing than ecosystem degradation as evidenced by the regional-scale air and water pollution, groundwater...

  8. Carbon Offset Forestry: Forecasting Ecosystem Effects (COFFEE) Project Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    COFFEE will evaluate the environmental impacts of implementing various COF practices by using the amount of total ecosystem C (TEC) sequestered in forests as the integrative response metric. These evaluations will be done for current-climate and future-climate scenarios and will...

  9. Imaging spectroscopy studies of Hawaiian ecosystems, carbon properties, and disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands contain more than two-thirds of the global life zones delineated by Holdridge1. We used high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral mixture analysis to analyze the lateral distribution of plant tissues and bare substrate across bioclimatic gradients and ecological life zones in Hawai'i. Unique quantities of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation (PV, NPV) and bare substrate identified fundamental differences in ecosystem structure across life zones. There was a nearly 20-fold increase in PV fractional cover with a 10-fold increase in mean annual precipitation (< 250 to 2000 mm yr-1). NPV fractional cover remained nearly constant at ~50% in ecosystems with a mean annual precipitation < 1500 mm yr-1. Thereafter, NPV steadily declined to a minimum of ~ 20% at 3000 mm yr-1 of rainfall. Bare substrate fractions were highest (~50%) at precipitation levels < 750 mm yr-1, then declined to < 20% in the 750-1000 mm yr-1 zones. The combination of low bare substrate and high NPV cover in the 750-1000 mm yr-1 rainfall zones identified these areas as high fire risk. The results verify the applicability of SWIR imaging spectroscopy for ecosystem research on a global scale. They also set the framework for continued studies of ecosystem structure, function and invasive species throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  10. Water and carbon fluxes from savanna ecosystems of the Volta River watershed, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Heiko; Ferguson, Paul R.; Dubois, Kristal; Hayford, Ebenezer Kofi; von Vordzogbe, Vincent; Veizer, Ján

    2008-03-01

    The fluxes of water and carbon from terrestrial ecosystems are coupled via the process of photosynthesis. Constraining the annual water cycle therefore allows first order estimates of annual photosynthetic carbon flux, providing that the components of evapotranspiration can be separated. In this study, an isotope mass-balance equation is utilized to constrain annual evaporation flux, which in turn, is used to determine the amount of water transferred to the atmosphere by plant transpiration. The Volta River watershed in West Africa is dominated by woodland and savanna ecosystems with a significant proportion of C 4 vegetation. Annually, the Volta watershed receives ˜ 380 km 3 of rainfall, ˜ 50% of which is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. An annual photosynthetic carbon flux of ˜ 170 × 10 12 g C yr - 1 or ˜ 428 g C m - 2 was estimated to be associated with this water vapor flux. Independent estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration slightly exceeded the NPP estimate from this study, implying that the exchange of carbon between the Volta River watershed and the atmosphere was close to being in balance or that terrestrial ecosystems were a small annual source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. In addition to terrestrial carbon flux, the balance of photosynthesis and respiration in Volta Lake was also examined. The lake was found to evade carbon dioxide to the atmosphere although the magnitude of the flux was much smaller than that of the terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. A carbon budget of Arizona: Comparing Natural Ecosystems with Emissions from Human Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A. C.; Finley, B. K.; Koch, G. W.; Hungate, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    A carbon budget of Arizona was constructed to examine the potential for carbon uptake by the state's ecosystems to mitigate human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon flux model was used to estimate annual ecosystem CO2 exchange and the State's 2006 greenhouse gas inventory provided data on emissions from transportation, industry, waste, agriculture, electricity, industrial, and residential fuel use. The net carbon flux from primary production in the eight major land resource areas in the state averaged -1.56 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) per year between 2001 and 2004. This net uptake from the atmosphere amounts to only 1.5% of statewide anthropogenic emissions of 99 MMTCE per year. Given this large imbalance and that projected climate trends for the region are likely to reduce C stocks in the state's forest and woodland ecosystems, land management to promote ecosystem carbon uptake is not a realistic solution to mitigate Arizona's anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Biochemical inventory as a tool to assay ecosystem carbon dynamics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks (2 x 1018 g C) are large enough that a minor change in soil C dynamics would constitute a major climate feedback. The responses of soil C stocks to experimental manipulations of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) and temperature vary widely in direction and...

  13. Does woody plant encroachment increase ecosystem carbon stocks?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drylands account for ~30-35% of terrestrial primary production and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Changes in dryland vegetation thus have implications for carbon uptake and storage. One widely observed change is the conversion of grasslands to shrublands and woodlands. Althou...

  14. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  15. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  16. Quantifying regional changes in terrestrial carbon storage by extrapolation from local ecosystem models

    SciTech Connect

    King, A W

    1991-12-31

    A general procedure for quantifying regional carbon dynamics by spatial extrapolation of local ecosystem models is presented Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the expected value of one or more local models, explicitly integrating the spatial heterogeneity of variables that influence ecosystem carbon flux and storage. These variables are described by empirically derived probability distributions that are input to the Monte Carlo process. The procedure provides large-scale regional estimates based explicitly on information and understanding acquired at smaller and more accessible scales.Results are presented from an earlier application to seasonal atmosphere-biosphere CO{sub 2} exchange for circumpolar ``subarctic`` latitudes (64{degree}N-90{degree}N). Results suggest that, under certain climatic conditions, these high northern ecosystems could collectively release 0.2 Gt of carbon per year to the atmosphere. I interpret these results with respect to questions about global biospheric sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2} .

  17. Photosynthetically active radiation and carbon gain drives the southern orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans fruits.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bautista, A; Valverde, P L; Flores, J; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Vite, F; López-Ortega, G; Pérez-Hernández, M A

    2017-03-01

    The equatorial orientation of reproductive structures is known in some columnar cacti from extratropical deserts. It has been hypothesised that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception is the main reason for this orientation, because of its key effect on nocturnal CO2 uptake. However, there are no studies addressing both the effect of PAR and its consequence, carbon gain, on fruit orientation. Accordingly, we tested whether PAR and carbon gain could explain the southern fruit orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, an inter-tropical columnar cactus. We studied three populations of M. geometrizans in Mexico. For each population, azimuth of fruits, total daily PAR, nocturnal acid accumulation (NAA) and fruit production were measured. The relationships between rib orientation and number of fruits, as well as total daily PAR, were evaluated using periodic regressions. The effect of total daily PAR and NAA on number of fruits was assessed using generalised linear models. During spring, mean fruit orientation had a south azimuth for three populations. Likewise, rib orientation had a significant effect on fruit production, with the south-facing ribs having the maximum number of fruits. Total daily PAR was highest in the south-facing ribs, at least for those in the northern and central populations. Furthermore, during spring, there was a significant positive effect of total daily PAR and NAA on fruit production. Our results provide strong evidence that the higher carbon gain in equatorial ribs, through a highest interception of PAR, would be the responsible factor for equatorial orientation of fruits in an inter-tropical columnar cactus.

  18. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  19. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees - A cross-scale assessment of wildfire and carbon dynamics in fire-prone, forested ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Rachel A. Loehman; Elizabeth Reinhardt; Karin L. Riley

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and one of the main pathways for movement of carbon from the land surface to the atmosphere. Fires have received much attention in recent years as potential catalysts for shifting landscapes from carbon sinks to carbon sources. Unless structural or functional ecosystem shifts occur, net carbon balance...

  20. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  1. Simultaneous reproduction of global carbon exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial carbon cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both carbon exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial carbon budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, carbon exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of carbon budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial carbon fluxes and often neglected carbon storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to carbon fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial carbon cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as carbon fluxes in the system of carbon cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the global assessment of both carbon budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of carbon allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. Carbon allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as carbon fluxes by controlling the carbon content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of carbon budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the

  2. Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chengzhang; Peng, Ronghao; Luo, Yiqi; Zhou, Xuhui; Wu, Xiaowen; Fang, Changming; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Plant invasion potentially alters ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles. However, the overall direction and magnitude of such alterations are poorly quantified. Here, 94 experimental studies were synthesized, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the changes of 20 variables associated with C and N cycles, including their pools, fluxes, and other related parameters in response to plant invasion. Pool variables showed significant changes in invaded ecosystems relative to native ecosystems, ranging from a 5% increase in root carbon stock to a 133% increase in shoot C stock. Flux variables, such as above-ground net primary production and litter decomposition, increased by 50-120% in invaded ecosystems, compared with native ones. Plant N concentration, soil NH+4 and NO-3 concentrations were 40, 30 and 17% higher in invaded than in native ecosystems, respectively. Increases in plant production and soil N availability indicate that there was positive feedback between plant invasion and C and N cycles in invaded ecosystems. Invasions by woody and N-fixing plants tended to have greater impacts on C and N cycles than those by herbaceous and nonN-fixing plants, respectively. The responses to plant invasion are not different among forests, grasslands, and wetlands. All of these changes suggest that plant invasion profoundly influences ecosystem processes.

  3. [Carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of natural vegetation in wetland ecosystem on east beach of Chongming Island].

    PubMed

    Mei, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Feng

    2007-04-01

    Vegetation is an important biological factor in the ecological succession of wetland, and the main factor affecting the carbon storage and carbon fixation in wetland ecosystem. By the methods of field survey and lab analysis, this paper studied the carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of wetland vegetation on east beach of Chongming Island, and the results showed that there existed greater differences in the existing carbon storage and its allocation in wetland vegetation at its different succession stages. The existing carbon storage of the pioneer plant Scirpus mariqueter was much less than that of Phragmites australis, only accounted for about 13% of the latter. The underground rhizome of P. australis and the aboveground part of S. mariqueter were the main sites of existing carbon storage. P. australis at the later succession stage of wetland vegetation had a stronger capability of carbon fixation than S. mariqueter at the earlier succession stage of the vegetation, with the values being (1.63 +/- 0.39) kg x m(-2) x a(-1) and (0.63 +/- 0.28) kg x m(-2) x a(-1), respectively, suggesting that during the succession of S. mariqueter community to P. australis community, the carbon fixation capability of the wetland ecosystem became stronger.

  4. Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Benjamin; Frank, David; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Andela, Niels; Bi, Jian; Broquet, Gregoire; Canadell, Josep G; Chevallier, Frederic; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W; Sitch, Stephen; van der Werf, Guido R

    2014-05-29

    The land and ocean act as a sink for fossil-fuel emissions, thereby slowing the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the uptake of carbon by oceanic and terrestrial processes has kept pace with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions until now, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit a large variability on interannual timescales, considered to be driven primarily by terrestrial ecosystem processes dominated by tropical rainforests. We use a terrestrial biogeochemical model, atmospheric carbon dioxide inversion and global carbon budget accounting methods to investigate the evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink over the past 30 years, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exceptionally large land carbon sink reported in 2011 (ref. 2). Here we show that our three terrestrial carbon sink estimates are in good agreement and support the finding of a 2011 record land carbon sink. Surprisingly, we find that the global carbon sink anomaly was driven by growth of semi-arid vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 per cent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. In addition, since 1981, a six per cent expansion of vegetation cover over Australia was associated with a fourfold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. Our findings suggest that the higher turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability and that tropical rainforests may become less relevant drivers in the future. More research is needed to identify to what extent the carbon stocks accumulated during wet years are vulnerable to rapid decomposition or loss through fire in subsequent years.

  5. Quantifying spatially and temporally explicit CO2 fertilization effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Shaoqing; Zhuang, Qianlai; Chen, Min; ...

    2016-07-25

    Current terrestrial ecosystem models are usually driven with global average annual atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data at the global scale. However, high-precision CO2 measurement from eddy flux towers showed that seasonal, spatial surface atmospheric CO2 concentration differences were as large as 35 ppmv and the site-level tests indicated that the CO2 variation exhibited different effects on plant photosynthesis. Here we used a process-based ecosystem model driven with two spatially and temporally explicit CO2 data sets to analyze the atmospheric CO2 fertilization effects on the global carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems from 2003 to 2010. Our results demonstrated that CO2more » seasonal variation had a negative effect on plant carbon assimilation, while CO2 spatial variation exhibited a positive impact. When both CO2 seasonal and spatial effects were considered, global gross primary production and net ecosystem production were 1.7 Pg C•yr–1 and 0.08 Pg C•yr–1 higher than the simulation using uniformly distributed CO2 data set and the difference was significant in tropical and temperate evergreen broadleaf forest regions. Moreover, this study suggests that the CO2 observation network should be expanded so that the realistic CO2 variation can be incorporated into the land surface models to adequately account for CO2 fertilization effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics.« less

  6. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  7. Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Palmroth, Sari; Porporato, Amilcare; Katul, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Optimization theories explain a variety of forms and functions in plants. At the leaf scale, it is often hypothesized that carbon gain is maximized, thus providing a quantifiable objective for a mathematical definition of optimality conditions. Eco-physiological trade-offs and limited resource availability introduce natural bounds to this optimization process. In particular, carbon uptake from the atmosphere is inherently linked to water losses from the soil as water is taken up by roots and evaporated. Hence, water availability in soils constrains the amount of carbon that can be taken up and assimilated into new biomass. The problem of maximizing photosynthesis at a given water availability by modifying stomatal conductance, the plant-controlled variable to be optimized, has been traditionally formulated for short time intervals over which soil moisture changes can be neglected. This simplification led to a mathematically open solution, where the undefined Lagrange multiplier of the optimization (equivalent to the marginal water use efficiency, λ) is then heuristically determined via data fitting. Here, a set of models based on different assumptions that account for soil moisture dynamics over an individual dry-down are proposed so as to provide closed analytical expressions for the carbon gain maximization problem. These novel solutions link the observed variability in λ over time, across soil moisture changes, and at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to water use strategies ranging from intensive, in which all soil water is consumed by the end of the dry-down period, to more conservative, in which water stress is avoided by reducing transpiration.

  8. Carbon Sequestration in Semi-arid Ecosystems: Potential Benefits of Sagebrush Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austreng, A. C.; Olin, P. H.; Hummer, A.; Pierce, J. L.; deGraaff, M.; Benner, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    The results of our work indicate that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to offset 23% of annual US carbon emissions. Invasion of native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in semi-arid ecosystems of the Intermountain Northwest is degrading ecosystem structure and function and can significantly decrease soil carbon contents. Remediation of invaded sagebrush-steppe communities may be accomplished by replacing cheatgrass with bunchgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and subsequently reestablishing native sagebrush. To evaluate how this remedial strategy affects soil carbon contents, we have quantified carbon associated with root biomass and soils under adjacent cheatgrass, bunchgrass and sagebrush communities at a site in the central Snake River Plain of southern Idaho. A large soil carbon dataset (n = 850) was generated allowing statistical distinction of belowground carbon pools (biomass and soil C). Our study led to two main results: (1) Soil carbon stores were greatest under sagebrush and lowest under cheatgrass (67 and 35 t C per hectare, respectively). Soil carbon was found to be significantly greater beneath sagebrush compared to cheatgrass (~90% increase) at all depths throughout a 60cm profile. (2) Belowground biomass was greatest under sagebrush and lowest beneath cheatgrass (31 and 14 t per hectare, respectively), which accounted for approximately 20% of the total increase in belowground carbon beneath sagebrush. The results of our work indicate that this stepwise reclamation strategy will produce significant increases in soil carbon storage with conversion of cheatgrass to bunchgrass facilitating carbon storage benefits of ~15 t C per hectare and a bunchgrass to native sagebrush benefit of ~17 t C per hectare. Extending these results to all ~10 million ha of cheatgrass-infested ecosystems in the Great Basin, suggests that sagebrush restoration may have the potential to compensate for 23% of US annual carbon

  9. Field-Scale Partitioning of Ecosystem Respiration Components Suggests Carbon Stabilization in a Bioenergy Grass Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C. K.; Miller, J. N.; Masters, M. D.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Annually-harvested agroecosystems have the potential to be net carbon sinks only if their root systems allocate sufficient carbon belowground and if this carbon is then retained as stable soil organic matter. Soil respiration measurements are the most common approach to evaluate the stability of soil carbon at experimental time scales, but valid inferences require the partitioning of soil respiration into root-derived (current-year C) and heterotrophic (older C) components. This partitioning is challenging at the field scale because roots and soil are intricately mixed and physical separation in impossible without disturbing the fluxes to be measured. To partition soil flux and estimate the C sink potential of bioenergy crops, we used the carbon isotope difference between C3 and C4 plant species to quantify respiration from roots of three C4 grasses (maize, Miscanthus, and switchgrass) grown in a site with a mixed cropping history where respiration from the breakdown of old soil carbon has a mixed C3-C4 signature. We used a Keeling plot approach to partition fluxes both at the soil surface using soil chambers and from the whole field using continuous flow sampling of air within and above the canopy. Although soil respiration rates from perennial grasses were higher than those from maize, the isotopic signature of respired carbon indicated that the fraction of soil CO2 flux attributable to current-year vegetation was 1.5 (switchgrass) to 2 (Miscanthus) times greater in perennials than that from maize, indicating that soil CO2 flux came mostly from roots and turnover of soil organic matter was reduced in the perennial crops. This reduction in soil heterotrophic respiration, combined with the much greater quantities of C allocated belowground by perennial grasses compared to maize, suggests that perennial grasses grown as bioenergy crops may be able to provide an additional climate benefit by acting as carbon sinks in addition to reducing fossil fuel consumption.

  10. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  11. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  12. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  13. Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xuehai; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yiping; Sha, Liqing; Liu, Yuntong; Song, Qinghai; Zhou, Wenjun; Liang, Naishen; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shubin; Li, Peiguang

    2017-02-01

    Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha(-1) yr(-1). The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6.84, 5.54, and -1.30 tC ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, from May 2013 to December 2015, indicating that this savanna ecosystem acted as an appreciable carbon sink. The ecosystem was more efficient during the wet season than the dry season, so that it represented a small carbon sink of 0.16 tC ha(-1) yr(-1) in the dry season and a considerable carbon sink of 1.14 tC ha(-1) yr(-1) in the wet season. However, it is noteworthy that the carbon sink capacity may decline in the future under rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Consequently, further studies should assess how environmental factors and climate change will influence carbon-water fluxes.

  14. Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xuehai; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yiping; Sha, Liqing; Liu, Yuntong; Song, Qinghai; Zhou, Wenjun; Liang, Naishen; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shubin; Li, Peiguang

    2017-02-01

    Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha-1 yr-1. The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6.84, 5.54, and -1.30 tC ha-1 yr-1, respectively, from May 2013 to December 2015, indicating that this savanna ecosystem acted as an appreciable carbon sink. The ecosystem was more efficient during the wet season than the dry season, so that it represented a small carbon sink of 0.16 tC ha-1 yr-1 in the dry season and a considerable carbon sink of 1.14 tC ha-1 yr-1 in the wet season. However, it is noteworthy that the carbon sink capacity may decline in the future under rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Consequently, further studies should assess how environmental factors and climate change will influence carbon-water fluxes.

  15. Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Xuehai; Jin, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yiping; Sha, Liqing; Liu, Yuntong; Song, Qinghai; Zhou, Wenjun; Liang, Naishen; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Leiming; Zhou, Ruiwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Shubin; Li, Peiguang

    2017-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha−1 yr−1. The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6.84, 5.54, and −1.30 tC ha−1 yr−1, respectively, from May 2013 to December 2015, indicating that this savanna ecosystem acted as an appreciable carbon sink. The ecosystem was more efficient during the wet season than the dry season, so that it represented a small carbon sink of 0.16 tC ha−1 yr−1 in the dry season and a considerable carbon sink of 1.14 tC ha−1 yr−1 in the wet season. However, it is noteworthy that the carbon sink capacity may decline in the future under rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Consequently, further studies should assess how environmental factors and climate change will influence carbon-water fluxes. PMID:28145459

  16. Protecting terrestrial ecosystems and the climate through a global carbon market.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Robert; Carey, Melissa; Petsonk, Annie

    2002-08-15

    Protecting terrestrial ecosystems through international environmental laws requires the development of economic mechanisms that value the Earth's natural systems. The major international treaties to address ecosystem protection lack meaningful binding obligations and the requisite financial instruments to affect large-scale conservation. The Kyoto Protocol's emissions-trading framework creates economic incentives for nations to reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions cost effectively. Incorporating GHG impacts from land-use activities into this system would create a market for an important ecosystem service provided by forests and agricultural lands: sequestration of atmospheric carbon. This would spur conservation efforts while reducing the 20% of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions produced by land-use change, particularly tropical deforestation. The Kyoto negotiations surrounding land-use activities have been hampered by a lack of robust carbon inventory data. Moreover, the Protocol's provisions agreed to in Kyoto made it difficult to incorporate carbon-sequestering land-use activities into the emissions-trading framework without undermining the atmospheric GHG reductions contemplated in the treaty. Subsequent negotiations since 1997 failed to produce a crediting system that provides meaningful incentives for enhanced carbon sequestration. Notably, credit for reducing rates of tropical deforestation was explicitly excluded from the Protocol. Ultimately, an effective GHG emissions-trading framework will require full carbon accounting for all emissions and sequestration from terrestrial ecosystems. Improved inventory systems and capacity building for developing nations will, therefore, be necessary.

  17. Growing season and spatial variations of carbon fluxes of Arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska (USA).

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Masahito; Iwata, Hiroki; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Oechel, Walter C; Zona, Donatella

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO2 exchange between Arctic ecosystems and the atmosphere, we synthesized CO2 flux data, measured in eight Arctic tundra and five boreal ecosystems across Alaska (USA) and identified growing season and spatial variations of the fluxes and environmental controlling factors. For the period examined, all of the boreal and seven of the eight Arctic tundra ecosystems acted as CO2 sinks during the growing season. Seasonal patterns of the CO2 fluxes were mostly determined by air temperature, except ecosystem respiration (RE) of tundra. For the tundra ecosystems, the spatial variation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net CO2 sink strength were explained by growing season length, whereas RE increased with growing degree days. For boreal ecosystems, the spatial variation of net CO2 sink strength was mostly determined by recovery of GPP from fire disturbance. Satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) was a better index to explain the spatial variations of GPP and NEE of the ecosystems in Alaska than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Multiple regression models using growing degree days, growing season length, and satellite-derived LAI explained much of the spatial variation in GPP and net CO2 exchange among the tundra and boreal ecosystems. The high sensitivity of the sink strength to growing season length indicated that the tundra ecosystem could increase CO2 sink strength under expected future warming, whereas ecosystem compositions associated with fire disturbance could play a major role in carbon release from boreal ecosystems.

  18. Using stand replacement fires to restore southern Appalachian pine-hardwood ecosystems: effects on mass, carbon, and nutrient pools

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Lloyd W. Swift

    1999-01-01

    Pine-hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians are in serious decline due to fire exclusion and insect infestations. Fire has been advanced as a tool to restore these ecosystems, yet there are few studies evaluating overall ecosystem effects. The authors’ objectives were to evaluate the effects of stand restoration burning on forest floor nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  19. Stomatal limitation to carbon gain in Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) and its reversal by blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Grivet, C.; Assmann, S.M.; Dietzer, G.F.; Hannegan, M.W.

    1985-02-01

    Leaves from Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) having achlorophyllous stomata, show reduced levels of stomatal conductance when irradiated with red light, as compared with either the related, chlorophyllous genus Phragmipedium or with their response to blue light. These reduced levels of stomatal conductance, and the failure of isolated Paphiopedilum stomata to open under red irradiation indicates that the small stomatal response measured in the intact leaf under red light is indirect. The overall low levels of stomatal conductance observed in Paphiopedilum leaves under most growing conditions and their capacity to increase stomatal conductance in response to blue light suggested that growth and carbon gain in Paphiopedilum could be enhanced in a blue light-enriched environment. To test that hypothesis, plants of Paphiopedilum acmodontum were grown in controlled growth chambers under daylight fluorescent light, with or without blue light supplementation. Blue light enrichment resulted in significantly higher growth rates over a 3 to 4 week growing period, with all evidence indicating that the blue light effect was a stomatal response. Manipulations of stomatal properties aimed at long-term carbon gains could have agronomic applications.

  20. "Carbon gain vs. water saving, growth vs. defence": two dilemmas with soluble phenolics as a joker.

    PubMed

    Karabourniotis, George; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Stavroulaki, Vassiliki; Sumbele, Sally

    2014-10-01

    Despite that phenolics are considered as a major weapon against herbivores and pathogens, the primal reason for their evolution may have been the imperative necessity for their UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties in order for plants to compensate for the adverse terrestrial conditions. In dry climates the choice concerning the first dilemma (carbon gain vs. water saving) needs the appropriate structural and metabolic modulations, which protect against stresses such as high UV and visible radiation or drought, but reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative pressure. Thus, when water saving is chosen, priority is given to protection (including phenolic synthesis), instead of carbon gain and hence growth. At the global level, the different choices by the individual species are expressed by an interspecific negative relationship between total phenolics and photosynthesis. On the other hand, the accumulation of phenolics in water saving plants offers additional defensive functions because these multifunctional compounds can also act as pro-oxidant, antifeeding or toxic factors. Therefore phenolics, as biochemical jokers, can give the answer to both dilemmas: water saving involves high concentrations of phenolics which also offer high level of defence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycorrhizal mediated feedbacks influence net carbon gain and nutrient uptake in Andropogon gerardii.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Miller, S. P.; Jastrow, J. D.; Rivetta, C. B.; Environmental Research

    2002-07-01

    The carbon sink strength of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated by comparing the growth dynamics of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Andropogon gerardii plants over a wide range of equivalent tissue phosphorus : nitrogen (P : N) ratios. Host growth, apparent photosynthesis (A{sub net}), net C gain (C{sub n}) and P and N uptake were evaluated in sequential harvests of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal A. gerardii plants. Response curves were used to assess the effect of assimilate supply on the mycorrhizal symbiosis in relation to the association of C with N and P. Mycorrhizal plants had higher C{sub n} than nonmycorrhizal plants at equivalent shoot P : N ratios even though colonization did not affect plant dry mass. The higher C{sub n} in mycorrhizal plants was related to both an increase in specific leaf area and enhanced photosynthesis. The additional carbon gain associated with the mycorrhizal condition was not allocated to root biomass. The C{sub n} in the mycorrhizal plants was positively related to the proportion of active colonization in the roots. The calculated difference between C{sub n} values in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants, C{sub diff}, appeared to correspond to the sink strength of the AMF and was not an indirect result of enhanced nutrition in mycorrhizal plants.

  2. Discovery of natural gain amplification in the 10-micrometer carbon dioxide laser bands on Mars - A natural laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Chin, G.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.; Zipoy, D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the carbon dioxide band at 10.4 micrometers have been measured on Mars with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain in these lines. The detection of natural optical gain amplification enables identification of these lines as a definite natural laser.

  3. Convergence of the effect of root hydraulic functioning and root hydraulic redistribution on ecosystem water and carbon balance across divergent forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    domec, J.; King, J. S.; Ogée, J.; Noormets, A.; Warren, J.; Meinzer, F. C.; Sun, G.; Jordan-Meille, L.; Martineau, E.; Brooks, R. J.; Laclau, J.; Battie Laclau, P.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    INVITED ABSTRACT: Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change on root-zone processes influencing HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from two old growth sites in the western USA, two mature sites in the eastern USA, one site in southern Brazil, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, our objectives were to show that HR can 1) mitigate the effects of soil drying on root functioning, and 2) have important implications for carbon uptake and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In a dry, old-growth ponderosa pine (USA) and a eucalyptus stand (Brazil) both characterized by deep sandy soils, HR limited the decline in root hydraulic conductivity and increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 30%, which impacted NEE through major increases in gross primary productivity (GPP). The presence of deep-rooted trees did not necessarily imply high rates of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case in the wet old-growth Douglas-fir/mixed conifer stand. At the Duke mixed hardwood forest characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, modeled HR was low but not negligible, representing annually up to 10% of T, and maintaining root conductance high. At this site, in the absence of HR, it was predicted that annual GPP would have been diminished by 7-19%. At the coastal loblolly pine plantation, characterized by deep organic soil, HR limited the decline in shallow root conductivity by more than 50% and increased dry season T by up to 40%, which increased net carbon gain by the ecosystem by about 400 gC m-2 yr-1, demonstrating the significance of HR in maintaining the stomatal conductance and assimilation capacity of the whole ecosystem. Under future climate conditions (elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature), HR is predicted to be reduced by up to 50%; reducing the resilience of

  4. Soil Carbon Inputs and Ecosystem Respiration: a Field Priming Experiment in Arctic Coastal Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, L. S.; Zhu, B.; Bimueller, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Chafe, O.; Bill, M.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Torn, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    In Arctic ecosystems, climate change is expected to influence soil carbon stocks through changes in both plant carbon inputs and organic matter decomposition. This study addresses the potential for a priming effect, an interaction between these changes in which root-derived carbon inputs alter SOM decomposition rates via microbial biomass increases, co-metabolism of substrates, induced nitrogen limitation, or other possible mechanisms. The priming effect has been observed in numerous laboratory and greenhouse experiments, and is increasingly included in ecosystem models. Few studies, however, have evaluated the priming effect with in situ field manipulations. In a two-year field experiment in Barrow, Alaska, we tested for a priming effect under natural environmental variability. In September 2014 and August 2015, we added 6.1g of 13C-labeled glucose to 25cm diameter mesocosms, 15cm below the soil surface in the mineral soil layer. Over the following month, we quantified effects on the rate and temperature sensitivity of native (non-glucose) ecosystem respiration and GPP. Following the 2014 treatment, soil samples were collected at 1 and 3 weeks for microbial biomass carbon and 13C/12C analysis, and ion exchange membranes were buried for one week to assess nitrate and ammonium availability. In contrast with many laboratory incubation studies using soils from a broad range of ecosystems, we observed no significant priming effect. In spite of a clear signal of 13C-glucose decomposition in respired CO2 and microbial biomass, we detected no treatment effect on background ecosystem respiration or total microbial biomass carbon. Our findings suggest that glucose taken up by microbes was not used for production of additional SOM-decomposing enzymes, possibly due to stoichiometric limitations on enzyme production. To best inform models representing complex and dynamic ecosystems, this study calls for further research relating theory, laboratory findings, and field

  5. [Effects of CO2 storage flux on carbon budget of forest ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mi; Wen, Xue-fa; Yu, Gui-rui; Zhang, Lei-ming; Fu, Yu-ling; Sun, Xiao-min; Han, Shi-jie

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage flux in the air space below measurement height of eddy covariance is very important to correctly evaluate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between forest ecosystem and atmosphere. This study analyzed the dynamic variation of CO2 storage flux and its effects on the carbon budget of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountains, based on the eddy covariance flux data and the vertical profile of CO2 concentration data. The CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem had typical diurnal variation, with the maximum variation appeared during the transition from stable atmospheric layer to unstable atmospheric layer. The CO2 storage flux calculated by the change in CO2 concentration throughout a vertical profile was not significantly different from that calculated by the change in CO2 concentration at the measurement height of eddy covariance. The NEE of this forest ecosystem was underestimated by 25% and 19% at night and at daytime, respectively, without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour scale, and was underestimated by 10% and 25% at daily scale and annual scale, respectively. Without calculating the CO2 storage flux in this forest ecosystem, the parameters of Michaelis-Menten equation and Lloyd-Taylor equation were underestimated, and the ecosystem apparent quantum yield (alpha) and the ecosystem respiration rate (Rref) at the reference temperature were mostly affected. The gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) of this forest ecosystem were underestimated about 20% without calculating the CO2 storage flux at half-hour, daily scale, and annual scale.

  6. Uncertainties in mapping forest carbon in urban ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ozelkan, Emre; Singh, Kunwar K; Zhou, Jun; Brown, Marilyn R; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2017-02-01

    Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina. The remote sensing data for carbon mapping were resampled to a range of resolutions, i.e., LiDAR point cloud density - 5.8, 4.6, 2.3, and 1.2 pt s/m(2), aerial optical NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery - 1, 5, 10, and 20 m. Urban spatial patterns were extracted to represent area, shape complexity, dispersion/interspersion, diversity, and connectivity of landscape patches across the residential neighborhoods with built-up densities from low, medium-low, medium-high, to high. Through statistical analyses, we found that changing remote sensing data resolution introduced noticeable uncertainties (variation) in forest carbon estimation at the neighborhood level. Higher uncertainties were caused by the change of LiDAR point density (causing 8.7-11.0% of variation) than changing NAIP image resolution (causing 6.2-8.6% of variation). For both LiDAR and NAIP, urban neighborhoods with a higher degree of anthropogenic disturbance unveiled a higher level of uncertainty in carbon mapping. However, LiDAR-based results were more likely to be affected by landscape patch connectivity, and the NAIP-based estimation was found to be significantly influenced by the complexity of patch shape.

  7. Tracing pyrogenic carbon (PyC) beyond terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Hanke, Ulrich M.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2015-04-01

    Combustion-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction. Due to its aromatic and condensed nature (Wiedemeier et al., 2015), it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation in the environment, leading to a comparatively slow turnover, which would support carbon sequestration. PyC is produced on large scales (hundreds of teragrams) in biomass burning events such as wildfires, and by combustion of fossil fuel in industry and traffic. PyC is an inherently terrestrial product and thus has predominantly been investigated in soils and the atmosphere. Much fewer studies are available about the subsequent transport of PyC to rivers and oceans. Recently, awareness has been rising about the mobility of PyC from terrestrial to marine systems and its fate in coastal and abyssal sediments was recognized (Mitra et al, 2014). It is therefore crucial to extend our knowledge about the PyC cycle by tracing PyC through all environmental compartments. By comparing its biogeochemical behavior and budgets to that of other forms of organic carbon, it will eventually be possible to elucidate PyC's total spatiotemporal contribution to carbon sequestration. In this study, we are using a state-of-the-art PyC molecular marker method (Wiedemeier et al., 2013, Gierga et al., 2014) to trace quantity, quality as well as 13C and 14C signature of PyC in selected major river systems around the globe (Godavari, Yellow, Danube, Fraser, Mackenzie and Yukon river). Different size fractions of particulate suspended sediment are being analyzed and compared across a north-south gradient. Previous studies suggested a distinct relationship between the age of plant-derived suspended carbon and the latitude of the river system, indicating slower cycling of plant biomarkers in higher latitudes. We discuss this pattern with respect to PyC, its isotopic signature and quality and the resulting implications for the global carbon and PyC cycle. Gierga et al., 2014

  8. Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Zhu, Z.; Key, C.H.; Sleeter, B.M.; Price, D.T.; Chen, J.M.; Cochrane, M.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Howard, S.M.; Bliss, N.B.; Jiang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Land use change, natural disturbance, and climate change directly alter ecosystem productivity and carbon stock level. The estimation of ecosystem carbon dynamics depends on the quality of land cover change data and the effectiveness of the ecosystem models that represent the vegetation growth processes and disturbance effects. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of 30- to 60-m resolution fire and land cover change data to examine the carbon changes of California's forests, shrublands, and grasslands. Simulation results indicate that during 1951–2000, the net primary productivity (NPP) increased by 7%, from 72.2 to 77.1 Tg C yr−1 (1 teragram = 1012 g), mainly due to CO2 fertilization, since the climate hardly changed during this period. Similarly, heterotrophic respiration increased by 5%, from 69.4 to 73.1 Tg C yr−1, mainly due to increased forest soil carbon and temperature. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was highly variable in the 50-year period but on average equalled 3.0 Tg C yr−1 (total of 149 Tg C). As with NEP, the net biome production (NBP) was also highly variable but averaged −0.55 Tg C yr−1 (total of –27.3 Tg C) because NBP in the 1980s was very low (–5.34 Tg C yr−1). During the study period, a total of 126 Tg carbon were removed by logging and land use change, and 50 Tg carbon were directly removed by wildland fires. For carbon pools, the estimated total living upper canopy (tree) biomass decreased from 928 to 834 Tg C, and the understory (including shrub and grass) biomass increased from 59 to 63 Tg C. Soil carbon and dead biomass carbon increased from 1136 to 1197 Tg C.Our analyses suggest that both natural and human processes have significant influence on the carbon change in California. During 1951–2000, climate interannual variability was the key driving force for the large interannual changes of ecosystem carbon source and sink at the state level, while logging and fire

  9. Counterintuitive carbon-to-nutrient coupling in an Arctic pelagic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Thingstad, T F; Bellerby, R G J; Bratbak, G; Børsheim, K Y; Egge, J K; Heldal, M; Larsen, A; Neill, C; Nejstgaard, J; Norland, S; Sandaa, R-A; Skjoldal, E F; Tanaka, T; Thyrhaug, R; Töpper, B

    2008-09-18

    Predicting the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle requires an understanding of the stoichiometric coupling between carbon and growth-limiting elements in biogeochemical processes. A recent addition to such knowledge is that the carbon/nitrogen ratio of inorganic consumption and release of dissolved organic matter may increase in a high-CO(2) world. This will, however, yield a negative feedback on atmospheric CO(2) only if the extra organic material escapes mineralization within the photic zone. Here we show, in the context of an Arctic pelagic ecosystem, how the fate and effects of added degradable organic carbon depend critically on the state of the microbial food web. When bacterial growth rate was limited by mineral nutrients, extra organic carbon accumulated in the system. When bacteria were limited by organic carbon, however, addition of labile dissolved organic carbon reduced phytoplankton biomass and activity and also the rate at which total organic carbon accumulated, explained as the result of stimulated bacterial competition for mineral nutrients. This counterintuitive 'more organic carbon gives less organic carbon' effect was particularly pronounced in diatom-dominated systems where the carbon/mineral nutrient ratio in phytoplankton production was high. Our results highlight how descriptions of present and future states of the oceanic carbon cycle require detailed understanding of the stoichiometric coupling between carbon and growth-limiting mineral nutrients in both autotrophic and heterotrophic processes.

  10. Ecosystem services and climate change: Understanding the differences and identifying opportunities for forest carbon

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Crystal Raymond; David L. Peterson; Cindy. Glick

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of misunderstandings about “ecosystem services” and “climate change” and these terms are often used incorrectly to describe different concepts. These concepts address different issues and objectives but have some important integrating themes relating to carbon and carbon sequestration. In this paper, we provide definitions and distinctions between...

  11. Simulating the effects of fire disturbance and vegetation recovery on boreal ecosystem carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Jones, L. A.; Zhao, M.

    2011-12-01

    Fire related disturbance and subsequent vegetation recovery has a major influence on carbon storage and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes in boreal ecosystems. We applied a synthetic approach combining tower eddy covariance flux measurements, satellite remote sensing and model reanalysis surface meteorology within a terrestrial carbon model framework to estimate fire disturbance and recovery effects on boreal ecosystem carbon fluxes including gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE). A disturbance index based on MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI was found to coincide with vegetation recovery status inferred from tower chronosequence sites. An empirical algorithm was developed to track ecosystem recovery status based on the disturbance index and used to nudge modeled net primary production (NPP) and surface soil organic carbon stocks from baseline steady-state conditions. The simulations were conducted using a satellite based terrestrial carbon flux model driven by MODIS NDVI and MERRA reanalysis daily surface meteorology inputs. The MODIS (MCD45) burned area product was then applied for mapping recent (post 2000) regional disturbance history, and used with the disturbance index to define vegetation disturbance and recovery status. The model was then applied to estimate regional patterns and temporal changes in terrestrial carbon fluxes across the entire northern boreal forest and tundra domain. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the relative importance of fire disturbance and recovery on regional carbon fluxes relative to assumed steady-state conditions. The explicit representation of disturbance and recovery effects produces more accurate NEE predictions than the baseline steady-state simulations and reduces uncertainty regarding the purported missing carbon sink in the high latitudes.

  12. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands’ contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency’s land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal. PMID:26417074

  13. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands’ contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency’s land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  16. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J

    2015-10-13

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands' contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency's land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  17. Trade-offs in water and carbon ecosystem services with land-use changes in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Kim, John H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-09-01

    Increasing pressures for food, fiber, and fuel continue to drive global land-use changes. Efforts to optimize ecosystem services under alternative land uses are often hampered by the complex interactions and trade-offs among them. We examined the effects of land-use changes on ecosystem carbon storage and groundwater recharge in grasslands of Argentina and the United States to (1) understand the relationships between both services, (2) predict their responses to vegetation shifts across environmental gradients, and (3) explore how market or policy incentives for ecosystem services could affect land-use changes. A trade-off of ecosystem services was evident in most cases, with woody encroachment increasing carbon storage (+29 Mg C/ha) but decreasing groundwater recharge (-7.3 mm/yr) and conversions to rain-fed cultivation driving opposite changes (-32 Mg C/ha vs. +13 mm/yr). In contrast, crops irrigated with ground water tended to reduce both services compared to the natural grasslands they replaced. Combining economic values of the agricultural products together with the services, we highlight potentials for relatively modest financial incentives for ecosystem services to abate land-use changes and for incentives for carbon to drive land-use decisions over those of water. Our findings also identify key opportunities and caveats for some win-win and lose-lose land-use changes for more integrative and sustainable strategies for land management. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Use of Remote Sensing Products in a Terrestrial Ecosystems Verified Full Carbon Account: Experiences from Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; McCallum, Ian; Santoro, Maurizio; Schmullius, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the specifics, strengths and weaknesses of available remote sensing products within major steps and modules of a verified terrestrial ecosystems full carbon account (FCA) of Russia’s land. The methodology used is based on system integration of all available information sources and major methods of carbon accounting using IIASA’s landscape-ecosystem approach for overall designing of the account. A multi-sensor remote sensing concept is a corner stone of the methodology being substantially used for (1) georeferencing and parametrization of land cover and its change, (2) assessment of important biophysical and ecological parameters of ecosystems and landscapes, and (3) assessment of the impacts of environmental conditions on ecosystem productivity and disturbance regimes. System integration and mutual constraints of remote sensing and ground information allow for substantially decreasing uncertainty of the FCA. In the Russian case-study, the net ecosystem carbon balance of Russia for an individual year (2009) is estimated with uncertainty at 25-30% (CI 0.9), that presumably should satisfy current requirements to the FCA at the national (continental) scale.

  19. TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY OF SOIL RESPIRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET: NONLINEARITY BEGETS SURPRISES. (R827676)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonlinearity is a salient feature in all complex systems, and it certainly characterizes biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems across a wide range of scales. Soil carbon emission is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the terrestrial carbon budget at the ecosystem level ...

  20. TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY OF SOIL RESPIRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET: NONLINEARITY BEGETS SURPRISES. (R827676)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonlinearity is a salient feature in all complex systems, and it certainly characterizes biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems across a wide range of scales. Soil carbon emission is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the terrestrial carbon budget at the ecosystem level ...

  1. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with increasing mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Treesearch

    Paul Selmants; Creighton Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Greg P. Asner

    2014-01-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem...

  2. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  3. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem-an econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a long-term food security and preventing hunger include a better nutrition through sustainable systems of production, distribution, and consumption. Nonetheless, the quest for an alternative to increasing global food supply to meet the growing demand has led to the use of poor agricultural practices that promote climate change. Given the contribution of the agricultural ecosystem towards greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study investigated the causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2012. Evidence from long-run elasticity shows that a 1 % increase in the area of rice paddy harvested will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.49 %, a 1 % increase in biomass-burned crop residues will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.00 %, a 1 % increase in cereal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.38 %, and a 1 % increase in agricultural machinery will decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 0.09 % in the long run. There was a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions, cereal production, and biomass-burned crop residues. The Granger causality shows that the agricultural ecosystem in Ghana is sensitive to climate change vulnerability.

  4. Photodegradation alleviates the lignin bottleneck for carbon turnover in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Amy T.; Méndez, M. Soledad; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the controls on carbon storage and losses is essential for our capacity to predict and mitigate human impacts on the global carbon cycle. Plant litter decomposition is an important first step for carbon and nutrient turnover, and litter inputs and losses are essential in determining soil organic matter pools and the carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems. Photodegradation, the photochemical mineralization of organic matter, has been recently identified as a mechanism for previously unexplained high rates of litter mass loss in arid lands; however, the global significance of this process as a control on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is not known. Here we show that, across a wide range of plant species, photodegradation enhanced subsequent biotic degradation of leaf litter. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanism for this enhancement involves increased accessibility to plant litter carbohydrates for microbial enzymes. Photodegradation of plant litter, driven by UV radiation, and especially visible (blue–green) light, reduced the structural and chemical bottleneck imposed by lignin in secondary cell walls. In leaf litter from woody species, specific interactions with UV radiation obscured facilitative effects of solar radiation on biotic decomposition. The generalized effect of sunlight exposure on subsequent microbial activity, mediated by increased accessibility to cell wall polysaccharides, suggests that photodegradation is quantitatively important in determining rates of mass loss, nutrient release, and the carbon balance in a broad range of terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:27044070

  5. Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems: do browsing and grazing herbivores matter?

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Coomes, David A

    2012-02-01

    Large mammalian herbivores manifest a strong top-down control on ecosystems that can transform entire landscapes, but their impacts have not been reviewed in the context of terrestrial carbon storage. Here, we evaluate the effects of plant biomass consumption by large mammalian herbivores (>10 kg adult biomass), and the responses of ecosystems to these herbivores, on carbon stocks in temperate and tropical regions, and the Arctic. We calculate the difference in carbon stocks resulting from herbivore exclusion using the results of 108 studies from 52 vegetation types. Our estimates suggest that herbivores can reduce terrestrial above- and below-ground carbon stocks across vegetation types but reductions in carbon stocks may approach zero given sufficient periods of time for systems to respond to herbivory (i.e. decades). We estimate that if all large herbivores were removed from the vegetation types sampled in our review, increases in terrestrial carbon stocks would be up to three orders of magnitude less than many of the natural and human-influenced sources of carbon emissions. However, we lack estimates for the effects of herbivores on below-ground biomass and soil carbon levels in many regions, including those with high herbivore densities, and upwards revisions of our estimates may be necessary. Our results provide a starting point for a discussion on the magnitude of the effects of herbivory on the global carbon cycle, particularly given that large herbivores are common in many ecosystems. We suggest that herbivore removal might represent an important strategy towards increasing terrestrial carbon stocks at local and regional scales within specific vegetation types, since humans influence populations of most large mammals.

  6. Fighting carbon loss of degraded peatlands by jump-starting ecosystem functioning with ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Kareksela, Santtu; Haapalehto, Tuomas; Juutinen, Riikka; Matilainen, Rose; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2015-12-15

    Degradation of ecosystems is a great concern on the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecological restoration fights degradation aiming at the recovery of ecosystem functions such as carbon (C) sequestration and ecosystem structures like plant communities responsible for the C sequestration function. We selected 38 pristine, drained and restored boreal peatland sites in Finland and asked i) what is the long-term effect of drainage on the peatland surface layer C storage, ii) can restoration recover ecosystem functioning (surface layer growth) and structure (plant community composition) and iii) is the recovery of the original structure needed for the recovery of ecosystem functions? We found that drainage had resulted in a substantial net loss of C from surface layer of drained sites. Restoration was successful in regaining natural growth rate in the peatland surface layer already within 5 years after restoration. However, the regenerated surface layer sequestered C at a mean rate of 116.3 g m(-2) yr(-1) (SE 12.7), when a comparable short-term rate was 178.2 g m(-2) yr(-1) (SE 13.3) at the pristine sites. The plant community compositions of the restored sites were considerably dissimilar to those of pristine sites still 10 years after restoration. We conclude that ecological restoration can be used to jump-start some key peatland ecosystem functions even without the recovery of original ecosystem structure (plant community composition). However, the re-establishment of other functions like C sequestration may require more profound recovery of conditions and ecosystem structure. We discuss the potential economic value of restored peatland ecosystems from the perspective of their C sequestration function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for novel and specialized mycorrhizal parasitism: the orchid Gastrodia confusa gains carbon from saprotrophic Mycena

    PubMed Central

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Gebauer, Gerhard; Hashimoto, Toshimasa; Umata, Hidetaka; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the physiological ecology of the Asian non-photosynthetic orchid Gastrodia confusa. We revealed its mycorrhizal partners by using molecular identification and identified its ultimate nutritional source by analysing carbon and nitrogen natural stable isotope abundances. Molecular identification using internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA sequences showed that G. confusa associates with several species of litter- and wood-decomposer Mycena fungi. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of G. confusa were analysed together with photosynthetic plant reference samples and samples of the ectomycorrhizal epiparasite Monotropa uniflora. We found that G. confusa was highly enriched in 13C but not greatly in 15N, while M. uniflora was highly enriched in both 13C and 15N. The 13C and 15N signatures of G. confusa were the closest to those of the fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi. Our results demonstrate for the first time using molecular and mass-spectrometric approaches that myco-heterotrophic plants gain carbon through parasitism of wood or litter decaying fungi. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, several otherwise free-living non-mycorrhizal, Mycena can be mycorrhizal partners of orchids. PMID:19004757

  8. Evidence for novel and specialized mycorrhizal parasitism: the orchid Gastrodia confusa gains carbon from saprotrophic Mycena.

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Gebauer, Gerhard; Hashimoto, Toshimasa; Umata, Hidetaka; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2009-02-22

    We investigated the physiological ecology of the Asian non-photosynthetic orchid Gastrodia confusa. We revealed its mycorrhizal partners by using molecular identification and identified its ultimate nutritional source by analysing carbon and nitrogen natural stable isotope abundances. Molecular identification using internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA sequences showed that G. confusa associates with several species of litter- and wood-decomposer Mycena fungi. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of G. confusa were analysed together with photosynthetic plant reference samples and samples of the ectomycorrhizal epiparasite Monotropa uniflora. We found that G. confusa was highly enriched in (13)C but not greatly in (15)N, while M. uniflora was highly enriched in both (13)C and (15)N. The (13)C and (15)N signatures of G. confusa were the closest to those of the fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi. Our results demonstrate for the first time using molecular and mass-spectrometric approaches that myco-heterotrophic plants gain carbon through parasitism of wood or litter decaying fungi. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, several otherwise free-living non-mycorrhizal, Mycena can be mycorrhizal partners of orchids.

  9. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David

    2016-06-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  10. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  11. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  12. Carbon dioxide fluxes in a central hardwoods oak-hickory forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Lianhong Gu; Paul J. Hanson; Tilden Myers; Stan D. Wullschleger; Bai Yang; Jeffery S. Riggs; Kevin P. Hosman; Mark Heuer

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment to measure carbon and water fluxes was initiated in 2004 as part of the Ameriflux network in a second-growth oak-hickory forest in central Missouri. Ecosystem-scale (~ 1 km2) canopy gas exchange (measured by eddy-covariance methods), vertical CO2 profile sampling and soil respiration along with...

  13. Stock assessment and balance of organic carbon in the Eastern European steppe ecosystems tree windbreaks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reserves and balance of organic carbon in ecosystems of windbreaks planted in the mid-1950s within the Forest-Steppe of Central Eastern Europe were determined from field sampling. Windbreaks were represented by 5-6-row plantings of Populus nigra and Betula pendula ("Streletskaya Steppe"), Acer negun...

  14. Links Among Warming, Fungal Communities, and Carbon Fluxes in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Czimczik, C. I.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial responses to climate change could drive positive feedbacks to the carbon cycle, particularly in high latitude ecosystems. We used molecular and enzymatic approaches to determine whether fungal communities changed in response to experimental warming in boreal forest ecosystems. We also measured the flux and 14C signature of soil respiration from warmed and unwarmed soils to link microbial responses with the carbon cycle. In an early-successional site recovering from a 1999 fire, warming significantly increased the activities of cellulose- and chitin-degrading enzymes by 17% and 30%, respectively. In a second site dominated by mature black spruce trees, the activity of the chitin-degrading enzyme declined significantly by 24%. However, warming did not affect soil CO2 fluxes in either site, or the source of soil respiration as measured by 14C isotopic analyses in the mature forest site. Together, these results suggest that warming does alter fungal community composition and potentially carbon substrate utilization. However, the total amount and 14C age of microbially-respired carbon does not change. Despite shifts in fungal community composition, ecosystem processes driven by microbial activity may be resistant to climate warming in these well-drained boreal ecosystems.

  15. Glycine mineralization in situ closely correlates with soil carbon availability across six North American forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jack W. McFarland; Roger W. Ruess; Knut Kielland; Kurt Pregitzer; Ronald. Hendrick

    2010-01-01

    Free amino acids (FAA) constitute a significant fraction of dissolved organic nitrogen (N) in forest soils and play an important role in the N cycle of these ecosystems. However, comparatively little attention has been given to their role as labile carbon (C) substrates that might influence the metabolic status of resident microbial populations. We hypothesized that...

  16. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Treesearch

    Kimberly A. Novick; Darren L. Ficklin; Paul C. Stoy; Christopher A. Williams; Gil Bohrer; Andrew C. Oishi; Shirley A. Papuga; Peter D. Blanken; Asko Noormets; Benjamin N. Sulman; Russell L. Scott; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit-and profoundly affect-vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress1-4. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating...

  17. Sensitivity of Prosopis velutina to Summer Rainfall and Consequences for Seasonal Patterns of Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, D. L.; Cable, J. M.; Scott, R. L.; Williams, D. G.; Goodrich, D. C.; Huxman, T. E.

    2005-12-01

    Future changes in dryland vegetation composition will interact with climate variability to influence carbon and water cycling in unforeseen ways. Observed increases in the density of woody plants in North America's savanna ecosystems may be an important terrestrial carbon sink and could alter patterns of regional hydrologic cycling. During the 2005 growing season we compared seasonal patterns of Prosopis velutina plant water status and leaf gas exchange in upland and riparian savannas. Previous work suggested the plant size class constrained alluvial groundwater access and that mature individuals were less sensitive to the onset of summer rains at the riparian site. We predicted that at the upland site, where groundwater was unavailable, mature and juvenile plants would respond similarly to the onset of summer rains. Furthermore, we predicted that this increased sensitivity by the dominant vegetation to seasonal rainfall would be reflected in NEE data collected by eddy-covariance at both sites. Results indicate that mesquite performance and the duration and magnitude of ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly linked to precipitation at the upland site. Comparing upland and riparian sites demonstrates how seasonal pattern of precipitation, plant-available alluvial groundwater and vegetation structure interact to govern ecosystem carbon balance in savanna ecosystems.

  18. Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Changsheng Li; Jianbo Cui

    2004-01-01

    A process- based model, Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forested wetland ecosystems. The modifications included parameterization of management practices fe.g., forest harvest, chopping, burning, water management, fertilization, and tree planting),...

  19. Vulnerability of landscape carbon fluxes to future climate and fire in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Erica A. H. Smithwick; Anthony L. Westerling; Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme; Michael G. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    More frequent fires under climate warming are likely to alter terrestrial carbon (C) stocks by reducing the amount of C stored in biomass and soil. However, the thresholds of fire frequency that could shift landscapes from C sinks to C sources under future climates are not known. We used the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) as a case study to explore the conditions...

  20. Diurnal centroid of ecosystem energy and carbon fluxes at FLUXNET sites

    Treesearch

    Kell B. Wilson; Dennis Baldocchi; Eva Falge; Marc Aubinet; Paul Berbigier; Christian Bernhofer; Han Dolman; Chris Field; Allen Goldstein; Andre Granier; Dave Hollinger; Gabriel Katul; B.E. Law; Tilden Meyers; John Moncrieff; Russ Monson; John Tenhunen; Riccardo Valentini; Shashi Verma; Steve. Wofsy

    2003-01-01

    Data from a network of eddy covariance stations in Europe and North America (FLUXNET) were analyzed to examine the diurnal patterns of surface energy and carbon fluxes during the summer period across a range of ecosystems and climates. Diurnal trends were quantified by assessing the time of day surface fluxes and meteorological variable reached peak values, using the...

  1. Landscape and environmental controls over leaf and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes under woody plant expansion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many regions of the globe are experiencing a simultaneous change in the dominant plant functional type and regional climatology. We explored how atmospheric temperature and precipitation input control leaf- and ecosystem scale carbon fluxes within a pair of semiarid shrublands that had undergone woo...

  2. Benchmarking of two terrestrial ecosystem models using a parsimonious set of tests for carbon processes and vegetation phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmonech, D.; Zaehle, S.

    2010-12-01

    A large proportion of the uncertainty in coupled carbon-cycle climate models stems from uncertainty in the climate response of the terrestrial biosphere. Evaluation of terrestrial biosphere models (TEMs) coupled to climate models is therefore an important task to gain confidence in the predictive capability of these coupled models in response to climate change. Starting from recent works of global model benchmarks initiatives (Randerson et al. 2009, Cadule et al.2010), the present work address the definition of novel tests and quantitative performance measures to discriminate the capability of models to reproduce some observed pattern of carbon cycle as response to climate changes in the last two decades. Observed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and remote sensing data on vegetation greenness as were used valuable and precise benchmark to test and evaluate the performance of two models (JSBACH and O-CN) in terms of carbon processes and C exchange with the atmosphere at global spatial scales and on different temporal scales. A set of atmospheric carbon dioxide traits and phenological parameters to be tested and statistical evaluation of model results are defined. In particular, metrics are addressed to detect the capability of the models to reproduce the salient features of the observed processes at seasonal and decadal time scales and along biogeographical gradients. Benchmarking results of model performance are summarized in order to provide an objective and robust measure of ecosystem terrestrial model performance with the goal of facilitating a more direct comparison between models and the identification of structural modelweaknesses. The study highlights the importance to evaluate a wide spectrum of processes but with the need for the individuation of a subset of standard metrics. Ref. Randerson J.T. et al. Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models. Global Change Biology vol 15, 2009. Cadule et al

  3. The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of a Corn Ecosystem's Oxidative Ratio and Its Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; McSwiney, C. P.; Robertson, G. P.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most effective ways to estimate the size of carbon sinks in the terrestrial biosphere and oceans is through paired measurements of atmospheric CO2 and O2 concentrations (e.g. (Keeling et al. 1996)). Successful use of this technique requires knowledge of the oxidative ratio (OR) of the terrestrial biosphere (the ratio of moles of O2 released per moles of CO2 consumed in gas fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere.) Historically the terrestrial biosphere's OR has been assumed to be a constant, approximately 1.1 (e.g. Prentice et al. 2001). However, small shifts in the biosphere's OR values can lead to large variations in the calculated sizes of the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon sinks (Randerson et al. 2006). We have recently shown that it is possible to measure the OR of biomass to at least +/- 0.01 units (Masiello et al., 2008), and that there is significant natural variability in ecosystem OR. Ecosystem OR is impacted by human activities. In this presentation, we explore the effects of one major form of anthropogenic ecosystem alteration: nitrogen fertilization. We are measuring ecosystem OR in corn agricultural ecosystems under a range of nitrogen fertilization treatments at the Kellogg Biological Station- Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. We measure OR indirectly, through its relationship with organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) (Masiello et al. 2008). Here we present data showing the effects of varying corn ecosystem nitrogen fertilization rates (from 0 to 202 kg N/ha) on ecosystem OR and the implications it will have on apportionment calculations.

  4. Modeling carbon cycle dynamics and response to drought in semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Fox, A. M.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Litvak, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    The southwestern United States is presently experiencing a multi-year drought. Though the carbon uptake per unit area of the semi-arid biomes in this region is smaller than that of more temperate biomes, these biomes cover roughly 40 percent of the world's land surface, and thus make a significant contribution to the global terrestrial biological carbon cycle. Here we test the ability of two land surface model structures to diagnose the carbon cycle dynamics of semi-arid landscapes during the ongoing extreme drought. We use the New Mexico Elevation Gradient (NMEG) as a testbed for these modeling experiments. The NMEG comprises eight eddy covariance towers observing ecosystems ranging from desert grassland ( 1600 m elevation) to alpine mixed coniferous forest ( 3000 m elevation). During the drought the ecosystems observed by these towers saw their annual net carbon uptake decline between 33 and 100 percent (50 to 150 gC m^{-2} year^{-1}), with two of the eight sites becoming net sources of carbon to the atmosphere and one transitioning from a net carbon sink to carbon-neutral. We parametrize a simple light-use efficiency (LUE)-based model (Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model, VPRM) and a complex model which simulates many land surface processes (Community Land Model, CLM). We explore the capacity of both models to diagnose the terrestrial carbon cycle in semi-arid biomes where water availability is highly episodic.

  5. Heat waves reduce ecosystem carbon sink strength in a Eurasian meadow steppe.

    PubMed

    Qu, Luping; Chen, Jiquan; Dong, Gang; Jiang, Shicheng; Li, Linghao; Guo, Jixun; Shao, Changliang

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of global change, intensity and frequency of extreme events such as heat waves (HW) have been increasing worldwide. By using a combination of continuous 60-year meteorological and 6-year tower-based carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements, we constructed a clear picture of a HWs effect on the dynamics of carbon, water, and vegetation on the Eurasian Songnen meadow steppe. The number of HWs in the Songnen meadow steppe began increasing since the 1980s and the rate of occurrence has advanced since the 2010s to higher than ever before. HWs can reduce the grassland carbon flux, while net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) will regularly fluctuate for 4-5 days during the HW before decreasing. However, ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) decline from the beginning of the HW until the end, where Re and GEP will decrease 30% and 50%, respectively. When HWs last five days, water-use efficiency (WUE) will decrease by 26%, soil water content (SWC) by 30% and soil water potential (SWP) will increase by 38%. In addition, the soil temperature will still remain high after the HW although the air temperature will recover to its previous state. HWs, as an extreme weather event, have increased during the last two decades in the Songnen meadow steppe. HWs will reduce the carbon flux of the steppe and will cause a sustained impact. Drought may be the main reason why HWs decrease carbon flux. At the later stages of or after a HW, the ecosystem usually lacks water and the soil becomes so hot and dry that it prevents roots from absorbing enough water to maintain their metabolism. This is the main reason why this grassland carbon exchange decreases during and after HWs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of carbon on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the carbon balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the global scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat carbon on coastal ecosystems and on the global carbon cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different carbon emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all carbon stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat carbon is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the global ocean carbonate chemistry will be marginal.

  7. Carbon Sequestration and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and Adjacent Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienelt, T.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth and are expected to continually expand. They represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Between March and October of 2011 and 2012, eddy covariance measurements of net carbon dioxide exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for an irrigated, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Data for the 2011 season showed that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 600 mm for the urban lawn and 305 mm for the tallgrass prairie; cumulative carbon sequestration was calculated to be 172 and 85 g C/m2, respectively. Also, patterns of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. In 2011, both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. Preliminary data for the 2012 season (up to early July) indicated an earlier start of net carbon uptake and higher cumulative evapotranspiration for both locations, likely due to a warm spring. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

  8. Carbon dioxide exchange in a temperate grassland ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy correlation technique, over a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas, U.S.A., during a six-month period in 1987. The diurnal patterns of daytime and nocturnal CO2 fluxes are presented on eight selected days. These days were distributed throughout most of the growing season and covered a wide range of meteorological and soil water conditions. The midday CO2 flux reached a maximum of 1.3 mg/sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was near zero during the dry period in late July. The dependence of the daytime carbon dioxide exchange on pertinent controlling variables, particularly photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and soil water content is discussed. The nocturnal CO2 flux (soil plus plant respiration) averaged -0.4 m sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was about -0.2 mg sq/m during the dry period.

  9. Surficial gains and subsoil losses of soil carbon and nitrogen during secondary forest development.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Megan L; Lajtha, Kate; Kramer, Marc G; Bacon, Allan R; Heine, Paul R; Richter, Daniel Deb

    2015-02-01

    Reforestation of formerly cultivated land is widely understood to accumulate above- and belowground detrital organic matter pools, including soil organic matter. However, during 40 years of study of reforestation in the subtropical southeastern USA, repeated observations of above- and belowground carbon documented that significant gains in soil organic matter (SOM) in surface soils (0-7.5 cm) were offset by significant SOM losses in subsoils (35-60 cm). Here, we extended the observation period in this long-term experiment by an additional decade, and used soil fractionation and stable isotopes and radioisotopes to explore changes in soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen that accompanied nearly 50 years of loblolly pine secondary forest development. We observed that accumulations of mineral soil C and N from 0 to 7.5 cm were almost entirely due to accumulations of light-fraction SOM. Meanwhile, losses of soil C and N from mineral soils at 35 to 60 cm were from SOM associated with silt and clay-sized particles. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and little to no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We argue that the land use change from old field to secondary forest drove biogeochemical and hydrological changes throughout the soil profile that enhanced microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. However, when the pine stands aged and began to transition to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth eased due to pine mortality, and subsoil organic matter levels stabilized. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep measurements when characterizing soil C and N responses to land use change and the remarkable paucity of such long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The carbon balance pivot point of southwestern U.S. semiarid ecosystems: Insights from the 21st century drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Russell L.; Biederman, Joel A.; Hamerlynck, Erik P.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.

    2015-12-01

    Global-scale studies indicate that semiarid regions strongly regulate the terrestrial carbon sink. However, we lack understanding of how climatic shifts, such as decadal drought, impact carbon sequestration across the wide range of structural diversity in semiarid ecosystems. Therefore, we used eddy covariance measurements to quantify how net ecosystem production of carbon dioxide (NEP) differed with relative grass and woody plant abundance over the last decade of drought in four Southwest U.S. ecosystems. We identified a precipitation "pivot point" in the carbon balance for each ecosystem where annual NEP switched from negative to positive. Ecosystems with grass had pivot points closer to the drought period precipitation than the predrought average, making them more likely to be carbon sinks (and a grass-free shrubland, a carbon source) during the current drought. One reason for this is that the grassland located closest to the shrubland supported higher leaf area and photosynthesis at the same water availability. Higher leaf area was associated with a greater proportion of evapotranspiration being transpiration (T/ET), and therefore with higher ecosystem water use efficiency (gross ecosystem photosynthesis/ET). Our findings strongly show that water availability is a primary driver of both gross and net semiarid productivity and illustrate that structural differences may contribute to the speed at which ecosystem carbon cycling adjusts to climatic shifts.

  11. Contrasting and interacting changes in simulated spring and summer carbon cycle extremes in European ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Forkel, Matthias; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Flach, Milan; Heimann, Martin; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Reichstein, Markus; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2017-07-01

    Climate extremes have the potential to cause extreme responses of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. However, it is neither straightforward to quantify and predict extreme ecosystem responses, nor to attribute these responses to specific climate drivers. Here, we construct a factorial experiment based on a large ensemble of process-oriented ecosystem model simulations driven by a regional climate model (12 500 model years in 1985-2010) in six European regions. Our aims are to (1) attribute changes in the intensity and frequency of simulated ecosystem productivity extremes (EPEs) to recent changes in climate extremes, CO2 concentration, and land use, and to (2) assess the effect of timing and seasonal interaction on the intensity of EPEs. Evaluating the ensemble simulations reveals that (1) recent trends in EPEs are seasonally contrasting: spring EPEs show consistent trends towards increased carbon uptake, while trends in summer EPEs are predominantly negative in net ecosystem productivity (i.e. higher net carbon release under drought and heat in summer) and close-to-neutral in gross productivity. While changes in climate and its extremes (mainly warming) and changes in CO2 increase spring productivity, changes in climate extremes decrease summer productivity neutralizing positive effects of CO2. Furthermore, we find that (2) drought or heat wave induced carbon losses in summer (i.e. negative EPEs) can be partly compensated by a higher uptake in the preceding spring in temperate regions. Conversely, however, carry-over effects from spring to summer that arise from depleted soil moisture exacerbate the carbon losses caused by climate extremes in summer, and are thus undoing spring compensatory effects. While the spring-compensation effect is increasing over time, the carry-over effect shows no trend between 1985-2010. The ensemble ecosystem model simulations provide a process-based interpretation and generalization for spring-summer interacting carbon cycle effects

  12. Process contributions of Australian ecosystems to interannual variations in the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Smith, Benjamin; Trudinger, Cathy

    2016-05-01

    New evidence is emerging that semi-arid ecosystems dominate interannual variability (IAV) of the global carbon cycle, largely via fluctuating water availability associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Recent evidence from global terrestrial biosphere modelling and satellite-based inversion of atmospheric CO2 point to a large role of Australian ecosystems in global carbon cycle variability, including a large contribution from Australia to the record land sink of 2011. However the specific mechanisms governing this variability, and their bioclimatic distribution within Australia, have not been identified. Here we provide a regional assessment, based on best available observational data, of IAV in the Australian terrestrial carbon cycle and the role of Australia in the record land sink anomaly of 2011. We find that IAV in Australian net carbon uptake is dominated by semi-arid ecosystems in the east of the continent, whereas the 2011 anomaly was more uniformly spread across most of the continent. Further, and in contrast to global modelling results suggesting that IAV in Australian net carbon uptake is amplified by lags between production and decomposition, we find that, at continental scale, annual variations in production are dampened by annual variations in decomposition, with both fluxes responding positively to precipitation anomalies.

  13. Molecular Insights into Plant-Microbial Processes and Carbon Storage in Mangrove Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, I. C.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M.; Jacobson, M.; Fuhrman, J. A.; Capone, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Mangrove forests, in tropical and subtropical coastal zones, are among the most productive ecosystems, representing a significant global carbon sink. We report new molecular insights into the functional relationship among microorganisms, mangrove trees and sediment geochemistry. The interactions among these elements were studied in peat-based mangrove sediments (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization experiment with N and P, providing an analog for eutrophication. The composition and δ13C of bacterial PLFA showed that bacteria and mangrove trees had similar nutrient limitation patterns (N in the fringe mangrove zone, P in the interior zone), and that fertilization with N or P can affect bacterial metabolic processes and bacterial carbon uptake (from diverse mangrove sources including leaf litter, live and dead roots). PCR amplified nifH genes showed a high diversity (26% nifH novel clones) and a remarkable spatial and temporal variability in N-fixing microbial populations in the rhizosphere, varying primarily with the abundance of dead roots, PO4-3 and H2S concentrations in natural and fertilized environments. Our results indicate that eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems has the potential to alter microbial organic matter remineralization and carbon release with important implications for the coastal carbon budget. In addition, we will present preliminary data from a new study exploring the modern calibration of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of plant leaf waxes as a proxy recorder of past environmental change in mangrove ecosystems.

  14. Modeling forest ecosystem responses to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter E; Cseke, Leland J; Miller, R Michael; Collart, Frank R

    2014-10-21

    Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone will impact productivity and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. The scale of this process and the potential economic consequences provide an incentive for the development of models to predict the types and rates of ecosystem responses and feedbacks that result from and influence of climate change. In this paper, we use phenotypic and molecular data derived from the Aspen Free Air CO2 Enrichment site (Aspen-FACE) to evaluate modeling approaches for ecosystem responses to changing conditions. At FACE, it was observed that different aspen clones exhibit clone-specific responses to elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone. To identify the molecular basis for these observations, we used artificial neural networks (ANN) to examine above and below-ground community phenotype responses to elevated carbon dioxide, elevated ozone and gene expression profiles. The aspen community models generated using this approach identified specific genes and subnetworks of genes associated with variable sensitivities for aspen clones. The ANN model also predicts specific co-regulated gene clusters associated with differential sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in aspen species. The results suggest ANN is an effective approach to predict relevant gene expression changes resulting from environmental perturbation and provides useful information for the rational design of future biological experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved determination of daytime net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide at croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Lüers, J.

    2012-03-01

    The eddy-covariance technique is applied worldwide to acquire information about carbon exchange between a variety of ecosystems and atmosphere, but the data acquisition only covers, on average, two-thirds of the whole year due to system failures and data rejection. Therefore, data must be corrected and data gaps must be filled to provide seasonal or annual budgets. The gap-filing strategies, however, are still under discussion within the research community. Presently the major gap-filling methods work quite well for long-time running sites over slow-developing biosphere surfaces such as long-living evergreen forests, but difficulties appear for short-living and fast-growing croplands. In this study we developed a new Multi-Step Error Filter procedure to gain good-quality data as input for different parameterizations of the light response function of plants for two cropland sites (rice and potatoes), and we could prove that the conventional temperature binning approach is inadequate. The presented time-window scheme showed best results with a four-day time window for the potato field and an eight-day time window for the rice field. The influence of vapor pressure deficit was tested as well, but in our case it plays a minor role at both the potato and the rice fields with the exception of the early growing stage of the potatoes. Completing our research, we suggest an innovative method by introducing a Leaf Area Index factor to capture the seasonal vegetation development. With this method we are now able to fill the large gaps between observation periods when conventional methods are invalid.

  16. The effects of teleconnections on carbon fluxes of global terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Xu, Yaoya; Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Peng, Shushi

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e., teleconnections) influence global climate variability patterns and can be studied to provide a simple framework for relating the complex response of ecosystems to climate. This study analyzes the effects of 15 major teleconnections on terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes during 1951-2012 using an ensemble of nine dynamic global vegetation models. We map the global pattern of the dominant teleconnections and find that these teleconnections significantly affect gross primary productivity variations over more than 82.1% of the global vegetated area, through mediating the global temperature and regional precipitation and cloud cover. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation are strongly correlated with global, hemispherical, and continental carbon fluxes and climatic variables, while the Northern Hemisphere teleconnections have only regional influences. Further research regarding the interactions among the teleconnections and the nonstationarity of the relationship between teleconnections and carbon fluxes is needed.

  17. Precipitation legacy effects on dryland ecosystem carbon fluxes: direction, magnitude and biogeochemical carryovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Jenerette, G. D.; Hui, D.; Scott, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation legacy effect, defined as the impact of historical precipitation (PPT) on extant ecosystem dynamics, has been recognized as an important driver in shaping the temporal variability of dryland aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and soil respiration. How the PPT legacy influences whole ecosystem-level carbon (C) fluxes has rarely been quantitatively assessed, particularly at longer temporal scales. We parameterized a process-based ecosystem model to a semiarid savanna ecosystem in the southwestern USA, calibrated and evaluated the model performance based on 7 years of eddy-covariance measurements, and conducted two sets of simulation experiments to assess interdecadal and interannual PPT legacy effects over a 30-year simulation period. The results showed that decreasing the previous period/year PPT (dry legacy) always increased subsequent net ecosystem production (NEP) whereas increasing the previous period/year PPT (wet legacy) decreased NEP. The simulated dry-legacy impacts mostly increased subsequent gross ecosystem production (GEP) and reduced ecosystem respiration (Re), but the wet legacy mostly reduced GEP and increased Re. Although the direction and magnitude of GEP and Re responses to the simulated dry and wet legacies were influenced by both the previous and current PPT conditions, the NEP responses were predominantly determined by the previous PPT characteristics including rainfall amount, seasonality and event size distribution. Larger PPT difference between periods/years resulted in larger legacy impacts, with dry legacies fostering more C sequestration and wet legacies more C release. The carryover of soil N between periods/years was mainly responsible for the GEP responses, while the carryovers of plant biomass, litter and soil organic matter were mainly responsible for the Re responses. These simulation results suggest that previous PPT conditions can exert substantial legacy impacts on current ecosystem C balance, which should

  18. Responses of ecosystem carbon cycle to experimental warming: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Zhou, Xuhui; Yang, Qiang; Li, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Xin; Li, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Global warming potentially alters the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, likely feeding back to further climate warming. However, how the ecosystem C cycle responds and feeds back to warming remains unclear. Here we used a meta-analysis approach to quantify the response ratios of 18 variables of the ecosystem C cycle to experimental warming and evaluated ecosystem C-cycle feedback to climate warming. Our results showed that warming stimulated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) by 15.7%, net primary production (NPP) by 4.4%, and plant C pools from above- and belowground parts by 6.8% and 7.0%, respectively. Experimental warming accelerated litter mass loss by 6.8%, soil respiration by 9.0%, and dissolved organic C leaching by 12.1%. In addition, the responses of some of those variables to experimental warming differed among the ecosystem types. Our results demonstrated that the stimulation of plant-derived C influx basically offset the increase in warming-induced efflux and resulted in insignificant changes in litter and soil C content, indicating that climate warming may not trigger strong positive C-climate feedback from terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, the increase in plant C storage together with the slight but not statistically significant decrease of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) across ecosystems suggests that terrestrial ecosystems might be a weak C sink rather than a C source under global climate warming. Our results are also potentially useful for parameterizing and benchmarking land surface models in terms of C cycle responses to climate warming.

  19. Effects of drought - altered seasonality and low rainfall - in net ecosystem carbon exchange of three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. S.; Mateus, J. A.; Aires, L. M.; Pita, G.; Pio, C.; Andrade, V.; Banza, J.; David, T. S.; Rodrigues, A.; David, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    Droughts cause reductions in gross primary production (GPP) and also in net ecosystem exchange (NEE), contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean) droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and from changes in rain seasonality. In western Iberia, the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September) of 2004-2005 was extremely dry, with precipitation 50% below the long-term mean (691 mm in 1961-1990), but 2005-2006 was normal. We compared the carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique from three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like) with ca. 21% tree cover; a Mediterranean C3/C4 grassland; and a coppiced eucalyptus plantation. During the dry hydrological-year of 2004-2005, NEE was lowest, the highest sink strength was in the eucalypt plantation (NEE = -399 g C m -2 year-1) as compared to the oak woodland (NEE = -88 g C m -2 year-1), and the grassland (NEE = +49 g C m -2 year -1). The latter was a source of carbon dioxide. The NEE values of the dry year were, however, much lower than those for wetter years, e.g. NEE = -861 g C m-2 year -1 in 2002-2003 in the eucalypt plantation. The NEE of the grassland and the oak savannah in the 2005-2006 hydrological-year, with annual precipitation above the long term mean, were -190 and -120 g C m -2 year-1, respectively. All ecosystems studied increased their rain-use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume) increased in dry years. In the case of annual vegetation - grassland and low tree density woodland, however &ndash, rain-use efficiency decreased with severe drought. However, this was more pronounced in the eucalypt plantation due to greater GPP and the use of deep soil water resources. Although both calendar years of 2004 and 2005 had equally low rainfall, the effect of drought on the eucalypt plantation was delayed until the second dry year. This suggests that the

  20. Structural and functional variability within the canopyand its relevance for carbon gain and stress avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Ryel, Ronald J.; Correia, Otília; Beyschlag, Wolfram

    2001-04-01

    The functional variability in leaf angle distribution within the canopy was analysed with respect to regulation of light interception and photoprotection. Leaf orientation strongly determined the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (F v/F m) during summer: horizontal leaves were highly photoinhibited whereas vertical leaf orientation protected the leaves from severe photoinhibition. The importance of leaf orientation within the canopy was analysed in two Mediterranean macchia species with distinct strategies for drought and photoinhibition avoidance during summer. The semi-deciduous species ( Cistus monspeliensis) exhibited strong seasonal but minimal spatial variability in leaf orientation. Reversible structural regulation of light interception by vertical leaf orientation during summer protected the leaves from severe photoinhibition. The evergreen sclerophyll ( Quercus coccifera) exhibited high spatial variability in leaf angle distribution throughout the year and was less susceptible to photoinhibition. The importance of both strategies for plant primary production was analysed with a three-dimensional canopy photoinhibition model (CANO-PI). Simulations indicated that high variability in leaf angle orientation in Q. coccifera resulted in whole-plant carbon gain during the summer, which was 94 % of the maximum rate achieved by theoretical homogeneous leaf orientations. The high spatial variability in leaf angle orientation may be an effective compromise between efficient light harvesting and avoidance of excessive radiation in evergreen plants and may optimize annual primary production. Whole plant photosynthesis was strongly reduced by water stress and photoinhibition in C. monspeliensis; however, the simulations indicated that growth-related structural regulation of light interception served as an important protection against photoinhibitory reduction in whole-plant carbon gain.

  1. Photosynthetic properties of boreal bog plant species and their contribution to ecosystem level carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Hájek, Tomas; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Boreal bogs have a low number of plant species, but a large diversity of growth forms. This heterogeneity might explain the seasonally less varying photosynthetic productivity of these ecosystems compared to peatlands with vegetation consisting of fewer growth forms. The differences in photosynthetic properties within bog species and phases of growing season has not been comprehensively studied. Also the role of different plant species for the ecosystem level carbon (C) sink function is insufficiently known. We quantified the seasonal variation of photosynthetic properties in bog plant species and assessed how this variation accounts for the temporal variation in the ecosystem C sink. Photosynthetic light response of 11 vascular plant and 8 Sphagnum moss species was measured monthly over the growing season of 2013. Based on the species' light response parameters, leaf area development and areal coverage, we estimated the ecosystem level gross photosynthesis rate (PG) over the growing season. The level of upscaled PG was verified by comparing it to the ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) estimate calculated based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Although photosynthetic parameters differed within plant species and months, these differences were of less importance than expected for the variation in ecosystem level C sink. The most productive plant species at the ecosystem scale were not those with the highest maximum potential photosynthesis per unit of leaf area (Pmax), but those having the largest areal coverage. Sphagnum mosses had 35% smaller Pmax than vascular plants, but had higher photosynthesis at the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season. The contribution of the bog plant species to the ecosystem level PG differed over the growing season. The seasonal variation in ecosystem C sink was mainly controlled by phenology. Sedge PG had a sharp mid-summer peak, but the PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna remained rather stable over the growing season

  2. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-07-01

    pumped through the roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as defined by ecological theory.

  3. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-02-01

    roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as define by the ecological theory.

  4. Carbon-water Cycling in the Critical Zone: Understanding Ecosystem Process Variability Across Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Holly; Brooks, Paul

    2016-06-16

    One of the largest knowledge gaps in environmental science is the ability to understand and predict how ecosystems will respond to future climate variability. The links between vegetation, hydrology, and climate that control carbon sequestration in plant biomass and soils remain poorly understood. Soil respiration is the second largest carbon flux of terrestrial ecosystems, yet there is no consensus on how respiration will change as water availability and temperature co-vary. To address this knowledge gap, we use the variation in soil development and topography across an elevation and climate gradient on the Front Range of Colorado to conduct a natural experiment that enables us to examine the co-evolution of soil carbon, vegetation, hydrology, and climate in an accessible field laboratory. The goal of this project is to further our ability to combine plant water availability, carbon flux and storage, and topographically driven hydrometrics into a watershed scale predictive model of carbon balance. We hypothesize: (i) landscape structure and hydrology are important controls on soil respiration as a result of spatial variability in both physical and biological drivers: (ii) variation in rates of soil respiration during the growing season is due to corresponding shifts in belowground carbon inputs from vegetation; and (iii) aboveground carbon storage (biomass) and species composition are directly correlated with soil moisture and therefore, can be directly related to subsurface drainage patterns.

  5. Modeling Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange of Alpine Grasslands with a Satellite-Driven Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Xianzhou; Fan, Yuzhi; Shi, Peili; He, Yongtao; Yu, Guirui; Li, Yingnian

    2015-01-01

    Estimate of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, the balance of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) has significant importance for studying the regional and global carbon cycles. Using models driven by satellite data and climatic data is a promising approach to estimate NEE at regional scales. For this purpose, we proposed a semi-empirical model to estimate NEE in this study. In our model, the component GPP was estimated with a light response curve of a rectangular hyperbola. The component Reco was estimated with an exponential function of soil temperature. To test the feasibility of applying our model at regional scales, the temporal variations in the model parameters derived from NEE observations in an alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau were investigated. The results indicated that all the inverted parameters exhibit apparent seasonality, which is in accordance with air temperature and canopy phenology. In addition, all the parameters have significant correlations with the remote sensed vegetation indexes or environment temperature. With parameters estimated with these correlations, the model illustrated fair accuracy both in the validation years and at another alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau. Our results also indicated that the model prediction was less accurate in drought years, implying that soil moisture is an important factor affecting the model performance. Incorporating soil water content into the model would be a critical step for the improvement of the model. PMID:25849325

  6. Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.; Sonderegger, D. L.; Charlet, T. N.; Newingham, B. A.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Harlow, B.; Jin, V. L.; Ogle, K.; Smith, S. D.; Nowak, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas inducing climate change. Increased global CO2 emissions, estimated at 8.4 Pg C yr-1 at present, have accelerated from 1% yr-1 during 1990-1999 to 2.5% yr-1 during 2000-2009 (ref. ). The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is the greatest unknown in the global C budget because the actual magnitude, location and causes of terrestrial sinks are uncertain; estimates of terrestrial C uptake, therefore, are often based on the residuals between direct measurements of the atmospheric sink and well-constrained models of ocean uptake of CO2 (ref. ). Here we report significant terrestrial C accumulation caused by CO2 enhancement to net ecosystem productivity in an intact, undisturbed arid ecosystem following ten years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Results provide direct evidence that CO2 fertilization substantially increases ecosystem C storage and that arid ecosystems are significant, previously unrecognized, sinks for atmospheric CO2 that must be accounted for in efforts to constrain terrestrial and global C cycles.

  7. Combining multiple ecosystem productivity measurements to constrain carbon uptake estimates in semiarid grasslands and shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, G. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Collins, S. L.; Litvak, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observational and modeling studies have indicated that semiarid ecosystems are more dynamic contributors to the global carbon budget than once thought. Semiarid carbon fluxes, however, are generally small, with high interannual and spatial variability, which suggests that validating their global significance may depend on examining multiple productivity measures and their associated uncertainties and inconsistencies. We examined ecosystem productivity from eddy covariance (NEE), harvest (NPP), and terrestrial biome models (NEPm) at two very similar grassland sites and one creosote shrubland site in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge of central New Mexico, USA. Our goal was to assess site and methodological correspondence in annual carbon uptake, patterns of interannual variability, and measurement uncertainty. One grassland site was a perennial carbon source losing 30 g C m-2 per year on average, while the other two sites were carbon sources or sinks depending on the year, with average net uptake of 5 and 25 g C m-2 per year at the grassland and shrubland site, respectively. Uncertainty values for cumulative annual NEE overlapped between the three sites in most years. When combined, aboveground and belowground annual NPP measurements were 15% higher than annual NEE values and did not confirm a loss of carbon at any site in any year. Despite differences in mean site carbon balance, year-to-year changes in cumulative annual NEE and NPP were similar at all sites with years 2010 and 2013 being favorable for carbon uptake and 2011 and 2012 being unfavorable at all sites. Modeled NEPm data for a number of nearby grid cells reproduced only a fraction of the observed range in carbon uptake and its interannual variability. These three sites are highly similar in location and climate and multiple carbon flux measurements confirm the high interannual variability in carbon flux. The exact magnitude of these fluxes, however, remains difficult to discern.

  8. The contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual global carbon cycle variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; Frank, D. C.; Ciais, P.; Myneni, R.; Andela, N.; Bi, J.; Broquet, G.; Canadell, J.; Chevallier, F.; Liu, Y.; Running, S. W.; Sitch, S.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Annual carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is on average equal to about 25% of emissions from anthropogenic fossil fuels and net land cover change. Large year-to-year variability in the terrestrial carbon sink influences the atmospheric CO2 growth rate with the underlying mechanisms of variability poorly constrained and thus the evolution of future land carbon uptake unclear. The exceptionally large land carbon sink in the year 2011, almost 40% of anthropogenic emissions, provided an opportunity to investigate this year-to-year variability using a variety of carbon cycle observation techniques, including a terrestrial biogeochemical model, an atmospheric inversion, and remote sensing data. We found that the global land sink anomaly was driven mainly by semi-arid vegetation activity in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 percent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. Since 1981, vegetation expansion over Australia was found to drive a four-fold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. These combined results suggest that the higher-turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability with implications for the paradigm that tropical rainforests drive carbon cycle variability at inter-annual timescales. More research in semi-arid regions is needed to identify mechanisms of carbon turnover at inter-annual scales and to determine the causes, and their possible interactions, in driving vegetation expansion over longer time scales.

  9. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. [Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, W.C.

    1989-12-31

    Predicting the response of northern ecosystems to increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} and associated climatic change is important for several reasons, including the fact that northern ecosystems contain large stores of carbon, most of which is below ground and because northern ecosystems could conceivably be either sources or sinks for CO{sub 2} under future climatic and atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The carbon in northern ecosystems is equal to about 20% of the world`s terrestrial carbon and about 70% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere. Eighty-three percent of this carbon is below ground in the seasonally-thawed upper soil layers and in the permanently frozen zone, the permafrost. Because of bogs and permafrost, northern ecosystems are unusual in that they can potentially store significant amounts of carbon over long time periods. Most other mature ecosystems have little capacity for long- term carbon storage. Given the right conditions, northern ecosystems can also release a significant amount of carbon. A substantial amount of the carbon stored in northern ecosystems, and much of the future storage potential, is in the tundra regions. These systems could conceivably act as sources or sinks depending on developing climatic and atmospheric conditions. Our recent work indicates that elevated CO{sub 2} alone will have little effect on carbon storage in the tundra. However, the combination of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (+ 340 ppm) and air temperature (+4{degrees}C) in the absence of any change in soil water table or soil moisture content, should result in significant increases in carbon sequestering in the tundra. However, if changing climate results in a decrease in the water table and soil moisture levels, this may lead to sizeable losses of carbon from the tundra soils.

  10. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjö, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of organic carbon is stored in high latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment comprising both mineral and peatland soils. The model is applied at 50 m resolution and is shown to be able to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of observed fluxes at this fine scale. The modelled magnitudes of CO2 uptake generally follow the descending sequence: birch forest, non-permafrost Eriophorum, Sphagnum and then tundra heath during the observation periods. The catchment-level carbon fluxes from aquatic systems are dominated by CO2 emissions from streams. Integrated across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present, and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modelled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, integrating comprehensive and diverse fluxes including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this

  11. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock.

    PubMed

    Morford, Scott L; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2011-08-31

    Nitrogen (N) limits the productivity of many ecosystems worldwide, thereby restricting the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to offset the effects of rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions naturally. Understanding input pathways of bioavailable N is therefore paramount for predicting carbon (C) storage on land, particularly in temperate and boreal forests. Paradigms of nutrient cycling and limitation posit that new N enters terrestrial ecosystems solely from the atmosphere. Here we show that bedrock comprises a hitherto overlooked source of ecologically available N to forests. We report that the N content of soils and forest foliage on N-rich metasedimentary rocks (350-950 mg N kg(-1)) is elevated by more than 50% compared with similar temperate forest sites underlain by N-poor igneous parent material (30-70 mg N kg(-1)). Natural abundance N isotopes attribute this difference to rock-derived N: (15)N/(14)N values for rock, soils and plants are indistinguishable in sites underlain by N-rich lithology, in marked contrast to sites on N-poor substrates. Furthermore, forests associated with N-rich parent material contain on average 42% more carbon in above-ground tree biomass and 60% more carbon in the upper 30 cm of the soil than similar sites underlain by N-poor rocks. Our results raise the possibility that bedrock N input may represent an important and overlooked component of ecosystem N and C cycling elsewhere.

  12. [Carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Kang, Wen-xing; Tian, Zheng; He, Jie-nan; Cui, Sha-sha

    2009-12-01

    Based on an extensive collection of information and experimental data, this paper studied the carbon cycle in ten kinds of forest ecosystem in Guangzhou, China, aimed to explore the carbon cycling patterns in, southern subtropical forest ecosystems. For the test ecosystems, their carbon density ranged from 108.35 to 151.85 t C x hm(-2), with 10. 85-48.86 t C x hm(-2) in tree layer and 87.74-99.01 t C x hm(-2) in soil layer (0-60 cm), being lower than the national average. There were 4. 41-9. 15 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) flowed from atmosphere to vegetation stratum, 0. 74-2.06 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from vegetation stratum to soil, and 3.94-5.42 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from soil to atmosphere, i.e., the forest systems absorbed 0.47-4.97 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) from atmosphere. The net ecosystem production (NEP) varied with forest stand, being higher for broadleaved forest than coniferous forest, mixed forest than pure forest, and natural secondary forest than artificial forest.

  13. The contribution of harvest residue to ecosystem carbon balance over the production cycle of managed forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, A.; McNulty, S.; Domec, J.; Gavazzi, M. J.; Treasure, E.; Sun, G.; King, J. S.; Chen, J.

    2010-12-01

    It has been proposed that forests could be managed for carbon sequestration to mitigate the increase in atmospheric CO2. However, intensive management tends to deplete ecosystem resources (e.g. nutrients and soil organic matter) that make high productivity possible, thus potentially undermining the sustainability of such practices. In forest ecosystems, we have seen soil carbon loss exceed new litter inputs. While the cause of this loss is not clear, the increased frequency of disturbance associated with harvests and management practices likely contributes to the accelerated decomposition rates. Furthermore, the additional pulse of harvest residue of leaves, branches, roots, and coarse woody debris is likely to contribute to enhanced CO2 emissions. Here we evaluate the magnitude of emissions from post-harvest debris in relation to total ecosystem C budget in two loblolly pine plantations in SE-US, and compare our results to three other pine harvest chronosequences in North America. The initial magnitude of ecosystem respiration decreased and the duration of the source phase increased with latitude such that the integrated source phase emissions were proportional (130-140%) to the amount of CWD left at the site following the harvest. However, this relationship may vary by existing soil carbon and moisture availability. The results will be evaluated in the context of potential sources of uncertainty.

  14. Detecting Disturbance and its Impact on Ecosystem Carbon Balance from Global to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Anderegg, W.; Poulter, B.; Cooper, L. A.; Smith, W. K.; Miller, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the terrestrial biosphere is the removal of approximately one quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. However, as patterns of temperature and precipitation change so is the frequency and intensity of ecosystem disturbance. Despite evidence that ecosystem disturbance regimes have shifted leading to widespread forest mortality, the net effect of disturbance on the carbon (C) balance of forest ecosystems remains uncertain. We will use satellite and atmospheric observations to deconvolve net carbon exchange (NEE) into its component fluxes of gross primary productivity and total respiration (e.g. NEE= GPP - R) at global to regional scales. At the global scale we find that NEE has increased over the last 50 years and appears to have accelerated as a result of diminished R over the last 15 years. However the variance in global NEE has also increased perhaps due to inter-annual variability in R, especially within semi-arid ecosystems. These global trends are not necessarily consistent with regional patterns in the net carbon balance, especially across the western US. Atmospheric mass balance suggests that ecosystems of North America have shifted from a net C sink to a net C source. While prolonged drought across the Western US has likely caused this shift in continental scale NEE, attributing this shift in the net C balance to any one mechanism of disturbance (e.g. drought, insect infestation, and fire) or their interactions is challenging. Lastly, we will evaluate existing observing networks, such as NOAA/ESRL and Ameriflux, and how they can be combined with nascent networks, such as NEON, EarthNetworks, and OCO-2, to identify regional disturbance processes that may be causing increasing variance in the global C cycle.

  15. Disturbance and Recovery in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Cycling-a Global Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, S.; Li, D.; Hararuk, O.; Yan, L.; Chen, X.; Ali, E.; Luo, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Disturbances have been shown by many studies to trigger the release of large amounts of carbon and then influence climate change. Ecosystems usually recover after disturbances, potentially compensating the released carbon. However, it's not clear what states the ecosystems would recover to after disturbances and how long it takes to recover. We synthesized results from peer-reviewed papers that examined ecosystem recovery following disturbances. A total of 94 case studies that had complete cycles of predistrubance-disturbance-recovery were included in this synthesis. Disturbance severity, recovery time, and state shifts were quantified for each variable. The results showed that most variables recovered to their pre-disturbance states. But the recovery time changed greatly among variables, ecosystems, and disturbance types, with long recovery time for soil C (101 years) and short time for NPP (56 years) and litter accumulation (34 years) after fire. Recovery time was shorter in grasslands than forests, and shorter from droughts (climate extremes) than fire and deforestation. Moreover, the recovery time was related to disturbance severity. The severer the disturbance, the longer the recovery time is. State changes that after disturbances ecosystems recovered to states that differ from the pre-disturbance ones was detected for many variables. NPP and litter accumulation after the full recovery following fire disturbances exceeded the pre-disturbance states while the fully recovered total aboveground biomass and soil carbon after the disturbances differed little from the pre-disturbance ones. The results indicate that it's crucial to quantify the disturbance impacts on ecosystems by considering the disturbance severity and state shifts.

  16. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Oren, R; Ellsworth, D S; Johnsen, K H; Phillips, N; Ewers, B E; Maier, C; Schäfer, K V; McCarthy, H; Hendrey, G; McNulty, S G; Katul, G G

    2001-05-24

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a large terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in particular nitrogen. Here we present evidence that estimates of increases in carbon sequestration of forests, which is expected to partially compensate for increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, are unduly optimistic. In two forest experiments on maturing pines exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2, the CO2-induced biomass carbon increment without added nutrients was undetectable at a nutritionally poor site, and the stimulation at a nutritionally moderate site was transient, stabilizing at a marginal gain after three years. However, a large synergistic gain from higher CO2 and nutrients was detected with nutrients added. This gain was even larger at the poor site (threefold higher than the expected additive effect) than at the moderate site (twofold higher). Thus, fertility can restrain the response of wood carbon sequestration to increased atmospheric CO2. Assessment of future carbon sequestration should consider the limitations imposed by soil fertility, as well as interactions with nitrogen deposition.

  17. Ecosystem Model Performance at Wetlands: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, B. N.; Desai, A. R.; Schroeder, N. M.; NACP Site Synthesis Participants

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands contain a significant fraction of the global carbon pool, and their responses to hydrological change are likely to be important factors in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global-scale carbon cycle modeling studies typically use general ecosystem models with coarse spatial resolution, often without peatland-specific processes. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2 fluxes at three field sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor, sphagnum-dominated bog, from 2002-2006. Flux residuals (simulated - observed) were positively correlated with measured water table for both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at the two fen sites for all models, and were positively correlated with water table at the bog site for the majority of models. Modeled diurnal cycles at fen sites agreed well with eddy covariance measurements overall. Eddy covariance GEP and ER were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while model results predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP had no significant dependence on water table, while models predicted higher GEP during wet periods. All models significantly over-estimated GEP at the bog site, and all but one over-estimated ER at the bog site. Carbon cycle models in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating better models or measurements of hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER rates under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct treatments in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  18. Comparing carbon storage of Siberian tundra and taiga permafrost ecosystems at very high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Matthias B.; Hanisch, Jessica; Weiss, Niels; Kuhry, Peter; Maximov, Trofim C.; Hugelius, Gustaf

    2015-10-01

    Permafrost-affected ecosystems are important components in the global carbon (C) cycle that, despite being vulnerable to disturbances under climate change, remain poorly understood. This study investigates ecosystem carbon storage in two contrasting continuous permafrost areas of NE and East Siberia. Detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) is analyzed for one tundra (Kytalyk) and one taiga (Spasskaya Pad/Neleger) study area. In total, 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 in the respective areas) have been sampled for PC and SOC, including the upper permafrost. Landscape partitioning of ecosystem C storage was derived from thematic upscaling of field observations using a land cover classification from very high resolution (2 × 2 m) satellite imagery. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to explore patterns in C distribution. In both environments the ecosystem C is mostly stored in the soil (≥86%). At the landscape scale C stocks are primarily controlled by the presence of thermokarst depressions (alases). In the tundra landscape, site-scale variability of C is controlled by periglacial geomorphological features, while in the taiga, local differences in catenary position, soil texture, and forest successions are more important. Very high resolution remote sensing is highly beneficial to the quantification of C storage. Detailed knowledge of ecosystem C storage and ground ice distribution is needed to predict permafrost landscape vulnerability to projected climatic changes. We argue that vegetation dynamics are unlikely to offset mineralization of thawed permafrost C and that landscape-scale reworking of SOC represents the largest potential changes to C cycling.

  19. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D; Evans, Dave; Ogle, Kiona; Fenstermaker, Lynn

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  20. Association genetics, geography and ecophysiology link stomatal patterning in Populus trichocarpa with carbon gain and disease resistance trade-offs.

    PubMed

    McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Quamme, Linda; Klápště, Jaroslav; La Mantia, Jonathan; Constabel, C P; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C; Zifkin, Michael; Azam, M S

    2014-12-01

    Stomata are essential for diffusive entry of gases to support photosynthesis, but may also expose internal leaf tissues to pathogens. To uncover trade-offs in range-wide adaptation relating to stomata, we investigated the underlying genetics of stomatal traits and linked variability in these traits with geoclimate, ecophysiology, condensed foliar tannins and pathogen susceptibility in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf stomatal traits were measured from 454 accessions collected throughout much of the species range. We calculated broad-sense heritability (H(2) ) of stomatal traits and, using SNP data from a 34K Populus SNP array, performed a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to uncover genes underlying stomatal trait variation. H(2) values for stomatal traits were moderate (average H(2) = 0.33). GWAS identified genes associated primarily with adaxial stomata, including polarity genes (PHABULOSA), stomatal development genes (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2) and disease/wound-response genes (GLUTAMATE-CYSTEINE LIGASE). Stomatal traits correlated with latitude, gas exchange, condensed tannins and leaf rust (Melampsora) infection. Latitudinal trends of greater adaxial stomata numbers and guard cell pore size corresponded with higher stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis (Amax ), faster shoot elongation, lower foliar tannins and greater Melampsora susceptibility. This suggests an evolutionary trade-off related to differing selection pressures across the species range. In northern environments, more adaxial stomata and larger pore sizes reflect selection for rapid carbon gain and growth. By contrast, southern genotypes have fewer adaxial stomata, smaller pore sizes and higher levels of condensed tannins, possibly linked to greater pressure from natural leaf pathogens, which are less significant in northern ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Environmental Controls and Management Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Grazed Temperate Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni Choncubhair, O.; Humphreys, J.; Lanigan, G.

    2013-12-01

    Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. However, this C sequestration is strongly influenced by soil characteristics and climatic variables. Furthermore, in managed pasture systems, carbon exchange across the soil-atmosphere boundary is additionally affected by management activities, such as biomass removal, grazing events and the deposition or application of organic amendments. These biotic and abiotic factors contribute greatly towards the large uncertainty associated with the carbon balance of grassland ecosystems and demand further analysis. In the present study, the controls and drivers of carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland were examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil texture classification and stocking rate. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. Our study showed that mild weather conditions and an extended growing season sustained net C accumulation at both sites for at least ten months of the year. Despite differing soil drainage characteristics, winter fluxes of net carbon exchange and its component fluxes, gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration, were highly comparable between the two sites. Management practices during the active growing season exerted a strong influence on both the direction and the rate of C exchange in the grassland systems, with a strong dependence, however, on the timing and

  2. An eddy covariance derived annual carbon budget for an arctic terrestrial ecosystem (Disko, Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Alistair; Lund, Magnus; Friborg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems with underlying permafrost cover nearly 25% of the ice-free land area in the northern hemisphere and store almost half of the global soil carbon. Future climate changes are predicted to have the most pronounced effect in northern latitudes. These Arctic ecosystems are therefore subject to dramatic changes following thawing of permafrost, glacial retreat, and coastal erosion. The most dramatic effect of permafrost thawing is the accelerated decomposition and potential mobilization of organic matter stored in the permafrost. This will impact global climate through the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen accompanied by release of greenhouses gases, including carbon dioxide. This study presents the initial findings and first full annual carbon (CO2) budget, derived from eddy covariance measurements, for an Arctic landscape in West Greenland. The study site, a terrestrial Arctic maritime climate, is located at Østerlien, near Qeqertarsuaq, on the southern coast of Disko Island in central West Greenland (69° 15' N, 53° 34' W) within the transition zone from continuous to discontinuous permafrost. The mean annual air temperature is -5 C and the annual precipitation as rain is 150-200 mm. Arctic ecosystem feedback mechanisms and processes interact on micro, local and regional scales. This is further complicated by several potential feedback mechanisms likely to occur in permafrost-affected ecosystems, involving the interactions of microorganisms, vegetation and soil. The eddy covariance method allows us to interrogate the processes and drivers of land-atmosphere carbon exchange at extremely high temporary frequency (10 Hz), providing landscape-scale measurements of CO2, H2O and heat fluxes for the site, which are processed to derive daily, monthly and now, annual carbon fluxes. We discuss the scientific methodology, challenges, and analysis, as well as the practical and logistic challenges of working in the Arctic, and present an annual carbon budget

  3. Dark inorganic carbon fixation sustains the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molari, Massimiliano; Manini, Elena; Dell'Anno, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    studies have provided evidence that dark inorganic carbon fixation is an important process for the functioning of the ocean interior. However, its quantitative relevance and ecological significance in benthic deep-sea ecosystems remain unknown. We investigated the rates of inorganic carbon fixation together with prokaryotic abundance, biomass, assemblage composition, and heterotrophic carbon production in surface sediments of different benthic deep-sea systems along the Iberian margin (northeastern Atlantic Ocean) and in the Mediterranean Sea. Inorganic carbon fixation rates in these surface deep-sea sediments did not show clear depth-related patterns, and, on average, they accounted for 19% of the total heterotrophic biomass production. The incorporation rates of inorganic carbon were significantly related to the abundance of total Archaea (as determined by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization) and completely inhibited using an inhibitor of archaeal metabolism, N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane. This suggests a major role of the archaeal assemblages in inorganic carbon fixation. We also show that benthic archaeal assemblages contribute approximately 25% of the total 3H-leucine incorporation. Inorganic carbon fixation in surface deep-sea sediments appears to be dependent not only upon chemosynthetic processes but also on heterotrophic/mixotrophic metabolism, as suggested by estimates of the chemolithotrophic energy requirements and the enhanced inorganic carbon fixation due to the increase in the availability of organic trophic resources. Overall, our data suggest that archaeal assemblages of surface deep-sea sediments are responsible for the high rates of inorganic carbon incorporation and thereby sustain the functioning of the food webs as well as influence the carbon cycling of benthic deep-sea ecosystems.

  4. How is climate warming altering the carbon cycle of a tundra ecosystem in the Siberian Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli Marchesini, Luca; (Ko) van Huissteden, Jacobus; van der Molen, Michiel; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Maximov, Trofim; Budishchev, Artem; Gallagher, Angela; (Han) Dolman, Albertus J.

    2015-04-01

    Climate has been warming over the the Arctic region with the strongest anomalies taking place in autumn and winter for the period 2000-2010, particularly in northern Eurasia. The quantification of the impact on climate warming on the degradation of permafrost and the associated potential release to the atmosphere of carbon stocked in the soil under the form of greenhouse gases, thus further increasing the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, is currently a matter of scientific debate. The positive trend in primary productivity in the last decades inferred by vegetation indexes (NDVI) and confirmed by observations on the enhanced growth of shrub vegetation represents indeed a contrasting process that, if prevalent could offset GHG emissions or even strengthen the carbon sink over the Arctic tundra. At the site of Kytalyk, in north-eastern Siberia, net fluxes of CO2 at ecosystem scale (NEE) have been monitored by eddy covariance technique since 2003. While presenting the results of the seasonal (snow free period) and inter-annual variability of NEE, conceived as the interplay between meteorological drivers and ecosystem responses, we test the role of climate as the main source of NEE variability in the last decade using a data oriented statistical approach. The impact of the timing and duration of the snow free period on the seasonal carbon budget is also considered. Finally, by including the results of continuous micrometeorological observations of methane fluxes taken during summer 2012, corroborated with seasonal CH4 budgets from two previous shorter campaigns (2008, 2009), as well as an experimentally determined estimate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux, we provide an assessment of the carbon budget and its stability over time. The examined tundra ecosystem was found to sequester CO2 during the snow free season with relatively small inter-annual variability (-97.9±12.1gC m-2) during the last decade and without any evident trend despite the carbon uptake

  5. A climate sensitive model of carbon transfer through atmosphere, vegetation and soil in managed forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Trichet, P.; Kumari, J.; Rabemanantsoa, T.; Balesdent, J.; Jolivet, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Cavaignac, S.; Nguyen-The, N.

    2012-12-01

    For predicting the future of the forest carbon cycle in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to account for both the climate and management impacts. Climate effects are significant not only at a short time scale but also at the temporal horizon of a forest life cycle e.g. through shift in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature and precipitation regimes induced by the enhanced greenhouse effect. Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests and untouched forests represents only one third of the present forest area. Predicting tools are therefore needed to project climate and management impacts over the forest life cycle and understand the consequence of management on the forest ecosystem carbon cycle. This communication summarizes the structure, main components and properties of a carbon transfer model that describes the processes controlling the carbon cycle of managed forest ecosystems. The model, GO+, links three main components, (i) a module describing the vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges in 3D, (ii) a plant growth module and a (iii) soil carbon dynamics module in a consistent carbon scheme of transfer from atmosphere back into the atmosphere. It was calibrated and evaluated using observed data collected on coniferous and broadleaved forest stands. The model predicts the soil, water and energy balance of entire rotations of managed stands from the plantation to the final cut and according to a range of management alternatives. It accounts for the main soil and vegetation management operations such as soil preparation, understorey removal, thinnings and clearcutting. Including the available knowledge on the climatic sensitivity of biophysical and biogeochemical processes involved in atmospheric exchanges and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems, GO+ can produce long-term backward or forward simulations of forest carbon and water cycles under a range of climate and management scenarios. This

  6. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  7. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  8. Carbon cycling in a high-arctic marine ecosystem - Young Sound, NE Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2006-10-01

    Young Sound is a deep-sill fjord in NE Greenland (74°N). Sea ice usually begins to form in late September and gains a thickness of ∼1.5 m topped with 0-40 cm of snow before breaking up in mid-July the following year. Primary production starts in spring when sea ice algae begin to flourish at the ice-water interface. Most biomass accumulation occurs in the lower parts of the sea ice, but sea ice algae are observed throughout the sea ice matrix. However, sea ice algal primary production in the fjord is low and often contributes only a few percent of the annual phytoplankton production. Following the break-up of ice, the immediate increase in light penetration to the water column causes a steep increase in pelagic primary production. Usually, the bloom lasts until August-September when nutrients begin to limit production in surface waters and sea ice starts to form. The grazer community, dominated by copepods, soon takes advantage of the increased phytoplankton production, and on an annual basis their carbon demand (7-11 g C m -2) is similar to phytoplankton production (6-10 g C m -2). Furthermore, the carbon demand of pelagic bacteria amounts to 7-12 g C m -2 yr -1. Thus, the carbon demand of the heterotrophic plankton is approximately twice the estimated pelagic primary production, illustrating the importance of advected carbon from the Greenland Sea and from land in fuelling the ecosystem. In the shallow parts of the fjord (<40 m) benthic primary producers dominate primary production. As a minimum estimate, a total of 41 g C m -2 yr -1 is fixed by primary production, of which phytoplankton contributes 15%, sea ice algae <1%, benthic macrophytes 62% and benthic microphytes 22%. A high and diverse benthic infauna dominated by polychaetes and bivalves exists in these shallow-water sediments (<40 m), which are colonized by benthic primary producers and in direct contact with the pelagic phytoplankton bloom. The annual benthic mineralization is 32 g C m -2 yr -1 of

  9. Introducing litter quality to the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS: Effects on short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Hanspeter; Wolf, Annett; Rühr, Nadine; Bugmann, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Many biogeochemical models have been applied to study the response of the carbon cycle to changes in climate, whereby the process of carbon uptake (photosynthesis) has usually gained more attention than the equally important process of carbon release by respiration. The decomposition of soil organic matter is driven by a combination of factors like soil temperature, soil moisture and litter quality. We have introduced dependence on litter substrate quality to heterotrophic soil respiration in the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS [Smith et al.(2001)]. We were interested in differences in model projections before and after the inclusion of the dependency both in respect to short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics. The standard implementation of heterotrophic soil respiration in LPJ-GUESS is a simple carbon three-pool model whose decay rates are dependent on soil temperature and soil moisture. We have added dependence on litter quality by coupling LPJ-GUESS to the soil carbon model Yasso07 [Tuomi et al.(2008)]. The Yasso07 model is based on an extensive number of measurements of litter decomposition of forest soils. Apart from the dependence on soil temperature and soil moisture, the Yasso07 model uses carbon soil pools representing different substrate qualities: acid hydrolyzable, water soluble, ethanol soluble, lignin compounds and humus. Additionally Yasso07 differentiates between woody and non-woody litter. In contrary to the reference implementation of LPJ-GUESS, in the new model implementation, the litter now is divided according to its specific quality and added to the corresponding soil carbon pool. The litter quality thereby differs between litter source (leaves, roots, stems) and plant functional type (broadleaved, needleleaved, grass). The two contrasting model implementations were compared and validated at one specific CarboEuropeIP site (Lägern, Switzerland) and on a broader scale all over Switzerland. Our focus lay on the soil respiration for the years 2006

  10. Can leaf net carbon gain acclimate to keep up with global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Way, Danielle; Hurry, Vaughan

    2016-04-01

    Plants are able to adjust their physiological activity to fluctuations and long-term changes in their growing environment. Nevertheless, projected increases in temperature will occur with unprecedented speed. Will global warming exceed the thermal acclimation capacity of leaves, thus reducing net CO2 assimilation? Such a reduction in net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) in response to warming may deplete ecosystems' net primary productivity, with global impacts on the carbon cycling. Here we combine data on net photosynthetic thermal acclimation to changes in temperature with a probabilistic description of leaf temperature variability. We analytically obtain the probability distribution of the net CO2 assimilation rate as a function of species-specific leaf traits and growing conditions. Using this approach, we study the effects of mean leaf temperature and its variability on average Anet and the frequency of occurrence of sub-optimal thermal conditions. To maximize the net CO2 assimilation in warmer conditions, the thermal optimum for Anet (Topt) must track the growing temperature. Observations suggest that plants' thermal acclimation capacity is limited, so that growing temperatures cannot be tracked by the Topt. It is thus likely that net CO2 assimilation rates will decline in the future. Furthermore, for set leaf traits, large fluctuations in leaf temperature reduce average Anet and increase the frequency of occurrence of sub-optimal conditions for net CO2 assimilation.

  11. Effects of invasive species on ecosystem carbon dynamics in a restored tallgrass prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Graham, S. L.; Cook, D. R.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Land cover is an important determinant of soil C storage and dynamics. Restoration of degraded ecosystems and soils represents a target sink for offsetting rising atmospheric CO2 levels by increasing carbon sequestration in soils. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and other initiatives to halt land degradation after cessation of cultivation present opportunities to assess the C sequestration potential of restoration practices. Our aim is to study what key ecosystem and climatic components exert the largest leverage for these lands to be sustainable C sinks. When considering controls on ecosystem C cycling, biodiversity has the potential to be a strong biotic influence. Invasive species can disrupt ecosystem processes by exhibiting functional characteristics which are distinct from their native counterparts. Invasive species, while affecting nearly all ecosystems, may pose a particular threat to restorations and impact rates of C accrual. We measured net ecosystem production (NEP) at a 18 years-old restored tallgrass prairie using the eddy covariance technique coupled to biometric estimates of biomass and soil C in a two year study where climatic conditions and plant species dominance varied. In 2005, the prairie restoration was a strong C sink with a NEP 438 gCm-2, despite a pronounced spring drought. In 2006, with above normal precipitation, a Melilotus alba dominance dramatically reduced NEP when compared to 2005. The loss of ecosystem functional diversity that resulted from the dominance of the invasive M. alba led to a 42% reduction in the length of the photosynthetically active season, as compared to the previous year. These results suggest that understudied biotic limitations to NEP may outweigh the effects of more commonly studied abiotic limitations. Ecosystem models and management strategies should consider biotic limitations to NEP in grasslands in order to maximize long term C sequestration of restorations and CRP management practices.

  12. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: patterns and causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Qingping; Zong, Ning; Li, Linghao; Niu, Shuli

    2017-09-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition can greatly stimulate ecosystem net carbon (C) sequestration through positive N-induced effects on plant productivity. However, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components respond to different N addition rates remains unclear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m-2 yr-1) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C fluxes to an N addition gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying the dynamic responses. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross ecosystem production (GEP) all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (-7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m-2 s-1) occurring under an N addition rate of 8 gN m-2 yr-1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to an N-induced saturation response of aboveground plant respiration and decreasing soil microbial respiration along the N addition gradient, while decreases in soil microbial respiration under high N addition were caused by N-induced reductions in soil pH. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. These results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift in ecosystem C fluxes from N limitation to N saturation. Our findings bring evidence of short-term initial shifts in responses of ecosystem C fluxes to increases in N deposition, which should be considered when predicting long-term changes in ecosystem net C sequestration.

  13. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  14. Soil Carbon-Fixation Rates and Associated Bacterial Diversity and Abundance in Three Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Tin Mar; Ge, Tida; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wei, Xiaomeng; Wu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Keqing; Kumaresan, Deepak; Yu, San San; Wu, Jinshui; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2017-04-01

    CO2 assimilation by autotrophic microbes is an important process in soil carbon cycling, and our understanding of the community composition of autotrophs in natural soils and their role in carbon sequestration of these soils is still limited. Here, we investigated the autotrophic C incorporation in soils from three natural ecosystems, i.e., wetland (WL), grassland (GR), and forest (FO) based on the incorporation of labeled C into the microbial biomass. Microbial assimilation of (14)C ((14)C-MBC) differed among the soils from three ecosystems, accounting for 14.2-20.2% of (14)C-labeled soil organic carbon ((14)C-SOC). We observed a positive correlation between the cbbL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large-subunit gene) abundance, (14)C-SOC level, and (14)C-MBC concentration confirming the role of autotrophic bacteria in soil carbon sequestration. Distinct cbbL-bearing bacterial communities were present in each soil type; form IA and form IC RubisCO-bearing bacteria were most abundant in WL, followed by GR soils, with sequences from FO soils exclusively derived from the form IC clade. Phylogenetically, the diversity of CO2-fixing autotrophs and CO oxidizers differed significantly with soil type, whereas cbbL-bearing bacterial communities were similar when assessed using coxL. We demonstrate that local edaphic factors such as pH and salinity affect the C-fixation rate as well as cbbL and coxL gene abundance and diversity. Such insights into the effect of soil type on the autotrophic bacterial capacity and subsequent carbon cycling of natural ecosystems will provide information to enhance the sustainable management of these important natural ecosystems.

  15. Ecosystem scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckard, R.; Hernes, P.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2006-12-01

    In the context of global carbon cycling, rivers are typically modeled as spatial integrators of all sources and processes within the watershed. However, substantial evidence in many scientific fields, including soils science, ecology, and hydrology, indicate that spatial variation is significant at sub-watershed scales. Thus it is reasonable to assume that spatial heterogeneity also occurs with respect to carbon sources and dynamics, and that not all features within a watershed are equally important toward determining riverine carbon concentration and composition. Presented are the results of a fine scale investigation of lignin and DOC dynamics within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Specifically, DOC concentration ranged from 1.3 to 39.9 mg/L (median 3.0 mg/L), with significant differences in concentration among ecosystems and sampling stations. Lignin concentration ranged from 3.0 to 110 μg/L (median 11.6 μg/L), with significant differences among ecosystems and sampling stations. Lignin carbon normalized yields ranged from 0.07 to 0.84 mg/100 mg OC (median 0.36 mg 100/mg OC), with significant differences among ecosystems. A simple mass balance model utilized lignin phenol ratio parameters to determine the ecosystem scale sources of lignin at the intake to the California State Water Project pumps. Results indicated temporal variation in source, with riverine source signatures predominating from early spring through early autumn, and wetland signatures predominating through the remainder of the year. Finally, Delta-derived sources of DOC appear to overwhelm upstream source signatures, potentially significantly influencing carbon export across the estuary.

  16. Modeled Climate and Disturbance Impacts to Carbon Sequestration of Recent Interior Boreal Alaska Ecosystem Productivity Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigh, C. S.; Carvalhais, N.; Collatz, G. J.; Tucker, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial Higher Northern Latitude Boreal ecosystems over the past half century have and are expected to incur substantial future climate warming altering long-term biophysical processes that mediate carbon sink status. Boreal ecosystems are one of the primary terrestrial pools with high organic and mineral soil carbon concentrations due to reduced decomposition from extended periods below freezing. Direct impacts of changing local to regional climate have altered Interior Alaska disturbance regimes shifting patterns of net primary production (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP = NPP - Rh) and net biome production (NBP = NEP - De) which includes disturbance events (De). We investigated ecosystem dynamics with a satellite remote sensing driven model accounting for fine-scale heterogeneous events observed from multi temporal-spectral index vectors derived from Landsat. Our intent was to elucidate local to regional processes which have resulted in negative trends observed from the NOAA series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) over the past decade. The Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) model was run with changing fractional burned area to simulate bi-monthly patterns of net plant carbon fixation, biomass and nutrient allocation, litterfall, soil nitrogen mineralization, combustion emissions, and microbial CO2 production. Carbon reallocation was based on fire disturbances identified with remote sensing data (Landsat, IKONOS, and aerial photography) and disturbance perimeter maps from land management agencies. Warming coupled with insect and fire disturbance emissions reduced interior Boreal forest recalcitrant carbon pools for which losses greatly exceed the North Slope Tundra sink. Our multi spatial-temporal approach confirms substantial forested NPP declines in Landsat and AVHRR while distinguishing abiotic and biophysical disturbance frequency impacts upon NBP.

  17. Estimating Ecosystem Carbon Stock Change in the Conterminous United States from 1971 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Sleeter, B. M.; Zhu, Z.; Loveland, T. R.; Sohl, T.; Howard, S. M.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Liu, S.; Heath, L. S.; Cochrane, M. A.; Key, C. H.; Jiang, H.; Price, D. T.; Chen, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is significant geographic variability in U.S. ecosystem carbon sequestration due to natural and human environmental conditions. Climate change, natural disturbance and human land use are the major driving forces that can alter local and regional carbon sequestration rates. In this study, a comprehensive environmental input dataset (1-km resolution) was developed and used in the process-based Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to quantify the U.S. carbon stock changes from 1971-2010, which potentially forms a baseline for future U.S. carbon scenarios. The key environmental data sources include land cover change information from more than 2,600 sample blocks across U.S. (10-km by 10-km in size, 60-m resolution, 1973-2000), wildland fire scar and burn severity information (30-m resolution, 1984-2010), vegetation canopy percentage and live biomass level (30-m resolution, ~2000), spatially heterogeneous atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen deposition (~50-km resolution, 2003-2009), and newly available climate (4-km resolution, 1895-2010) and soil variables (1-km resolution, ~2000). The IBIS simulated the effects of atmospheric CO2 fertilization, nitrogen deposition, climate change, fire, logging, and deforestation/devegetation on ecosystem carbon changes. Multiple comparable simulations were implemented to quantify the contributions of key environmental drivers.

  18. Determining the Carbon Transport Rate of an Enclosed Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y. A.; Van Haren, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Determining how carbon moves through a tropical rainforest ecosystem is an important step towards understanding its role as a carbon sink system in the global carbon cycle. The paths by which carbon moves through forest ecosystems are reasonably well known. However, very little is known about how quickly this happens. We will present data from experiments where we isotopically pulse label the atmospheric carbon dioxide within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome with natural gas derived CO2 (∂13C ~ -40‰ vs. ~ -8.5‰ for ambient air). We are continually monitoring the CO2 concentration and isotope composition of the ambient air along a vertical profile to measure ecosystem gas exchange, and that of six branch-bag and five soil-chamber locations within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest, with an Aerodyne Quantum Cascade Laser to trace the labeled carbon (precision for ∂13C = 0.02‰ and CO2 = 0.07ppm, calibrated to NOAA air standards). Environmental parameters such as light, relative humidity, soil moisture, and temperature are monitored at fifteen-minute intervals. We have selected one vine species and three different tree species for branch bag enclosures at two canopy heights that we expect represent the bulk photosynthetic biomass of the rainforest. The soil chambers are distributed randomly. By treating the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome, a glass enclosed ecosystem with 1900m2 of ground, 26700m3 of air, and 92 different plant species, as a model ecosystem, we anticipate to determine carbon transport rates that would otherwise be practically impossible to determine in the real world due to the difficulty of isotopically labeling and monitoring entire canopies or even individual trees, which can reach heights over 60m. The data we have collected thus far will provide a baseline comparison for the labeling data. Comparing the branch bag data with the ecosystem data has helped us determine how well small branches represent the canopy and whole

  19. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  20. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the

  1. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Beverly E. Law; Andrew D. Richardson; Jiquan Chen; Ram Oren; Gegory Starr; Asko Noormets; Siyan Ma; Sashi B. Verma; Sonia Wharton; Steven C. Wofsy; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; David R. Cook; Peter S. Curtis; Bert G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; David Y. Hollinger; Gabriel G. Katul; Marcy Litvak; Timothy Martin; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; Russell K. Monson; J. William Munger; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Hans Peter Schmid; Russell L. Scott; Ge Sun; Andrew E. Suyker; Margaret S. Torn

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents,...

  2. Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States

    Treesearch

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Kenneth E. Skog; Richard A. Birdsey

    2006-01-01

    This study presents techniques for calculating average net annual additions to carbon in forests and in forest products. Forest ecosystem carbon yield tables, representing stand-level merchantable volume and carbon pools as a function of stand age, were developed for 51 forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for...

  3. Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Jinxun; Dahal, Devendra; Young, Claudia; Davis, Brian; Sohl, Terry L.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundClimate change and the concurrent change in wildfire events and land use comprehensively affect carbon dynamics in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The purpose of this study was to project the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) under these changes from 2006 to 2050. We selected three emission scenarios and produced simulations with the CENTURY model using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) for each scenario. We also incorporated projected land use change and fire occurrence into the carbon accounting.ResultsThe three GCMs showed increases in maximum and minimum temperature, but precipitation projections varied among GCMs. Total ecosystem carbon increased steadily from 7,942 gC/m2 in 2006 to 10,234 gC/m2 in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 53 gC/m2/year. About 56.6% and 27% of the increasing rate was attributed to total live carbon and total soil carbon, respectively. Net Primary Production (NPP) increased slightly from 260 gC/m2/year in 2006 to 310 gC/m2/year in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 1.22 gC/m2/year. Forest clear-cutting and fires resulted in direct carbon removal; however, the rate was low at 2.44 gC/m2/year during 2006–2050. The area of clear-cutting and wildfires in the GYE would account for 10.87% of total forested area during 2006–2050, but the predictive simulations demonstrated different spatial distributions in national forests and national parks.ConclusionsThe GYE is a carbon sink during 2006–2050. The capability of vegetation is almost double that of soil in terms of sequestering extra carbon. Clear-cutting and wildfires in GYE will affect 10.87% of total forested area, but direct carbon removal from clear-cutting and fires is 109.6 gC/m2, which accounts for only 1.2% of the mean ecosystem carbon level of 9,056 gC/m2, and thus is not significant.

  4. Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengli; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Jinxun; Dahal, Devendra; Young, Claudia; Davis, Brian; Sohl, Terry L; Hawbaker, Todd J; Sleeter, Ben; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the concurrent change in wildfire events and land use comprehensively affect carbon dynamics in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The purpose of this study was to project the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) under these changes from 2006 to 2050. We selected three emission scenarios and produced simulations with the CENTURY model using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) for each scenario. We also incorporated projected land use change and fire occurrence into the carbon accounting. The three GCMs showed increases in maximum and minimum temperature, but precipitation projections varied among GCMs. Total ecosystem carbon increased steadily from 7,942 gC/m(2) in 2006 to 10,234 gC/m(2) in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 53 gC/m(2)/year. About 56.6% and 27% of the increasing rate was attributed to total live carbon and total soil carbon, respectively. Net Primary Production (NPP) increased slightly from 260 gC/m(2)/year in 2006 to 310 gC/m(2)/year in 2050 with an annual rate increase of 1.22 gC/m(2)/year. Forest clear-cutting and fires resulted in direct carbon removal; however, the rate was low at 2.44 gC/m(2)/year during 2006-2050. The area of clear-cutting and wildfires in the GYE would account for 10.87% of total forested area during 2006-2050, but the predictive simulations demonstrated different spatial distributions in national forests and national parks. The GYE is a carbon sink during 2006-2050. The capability of vegetation is almost double that of soil in terms of sequestering extra carbon. Clear-cutting and wildfires in GYE will affect 10.87% of total forested area, but direct carbon removal from clear-cutting and fires is 109.6 gC/m(2), which accounts for only 1.2% of the mean ecosystem carbon level of 9,056 gC/m(2), and thus is not significant.

  5. Detecting a Terrestrial Biosphere Sink for Carbon Dioxide: Interannual Ecosystem Modeling for the Mid-1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Klooster, Steven A.; Brooks, Vanessa; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty as to whether interannual variability in climate and terrestrial ecosystem production is sufficient to explain observed variation in atmospheric carbon content over the past 20-30 years. In this paper, we investigated the response of net CO2 exchange in terrestrial ecosystems to interannual climate variability (1983 to 1988) using global satellite observations as drivers for the NASA-CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) simulation model. This computer model of net ecosystem production (NEP) is calibrated for interannual simulations driven by monthly satellite vegetation index data (NDVI) from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 1 degree spatial resolution. Major results from NASA-CASA simulations suggest that from 1985 to 1988, the northern middle-latitude zone (between 30 and 60 degrees N) was the principal region driving progressive annual increases in global net primary production (NPP; i.e., the terrestrial biosphere sink for carbon). The average annual increase in NPP over this predominantly northern forest zone was on the order of +0.4 Pg (10 (exp 15) g) C per year. This increase resulted mainly from notable expansion of the growing season for plant carbon fixation toward the zonal latitude extremes, a pattern uniquely demonstrated in our regional visualization results. A net biosphere source flux of CO2 in 1983-1984, coinciding with an El Nino event, was followed by a major recovery of global NEP in 1985 which lasted through 1987 as a net carbon sink of between 0.4 and 2.6 Avg C per year. Analysis of model controls on NPP and soil heterotrophic CO2 fluxes (Rh) suggests that regional warming in northern forests can enhance ecosystem production significantly. In seasonally dry tropical zones, periodic drought and temperature drying effects may carry over with at least a two-year lag time to adversely impact ecosystem production. These yearly patterns in our model-predicted NEP are consistent in

  6. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  7. Integrating flux, satellite, and proximal optical data for an improved understanding of ecosystem carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Garrity, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The different scales and methods of satellite observations and flux measurements present challenges for data integration that can be partly addressed by the addition of scale-appropriate optical sampling. Proximal optical measurement facilitates experimental approaches that can inform upscaling, satellite validation, and lead to better understanding of controls on carbon fluxes and other ecosystem processes. Using the framework of the light-use efficiency model, this presentation will review efforts to explore the controls on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon fluxes using a variety of novel optical sensors and platforms. Topics of appropriate sampling methodology, scaling and data aggregation will also be considered, with examples of how information content and interpretation of optical data can be scale-dependent. Key challenges include informatics solutions that handle large, multi-dimensional data volumes and contextual information, including information about sampling protocols and scale. Key opportunities include the assessment of vegetation functional diversity with optical sensors.

  8. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  9. Global sensitivity analysis, probabilistic calibration, and predictive assessment for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon model

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, C.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Williams, M.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification (UQ) study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) study indicates the parameters and parameter couplings that are important at different times of the year for quantities of interest (QoIs) obtained with the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model. We then employ a Bayesian approach and a statistical model error term to calibrate the parameters of DALEC using net ecosystem exchange (NEE) observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are employed in the second part of the paper to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.

  10. Global sensitivity analysis, probabilistic calibration, and predictive assessment for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon model

    DOE PAGES

    Safta, C.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Sargsyan, Khachik; ...

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification (UQ) study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) study indicates the parameters and parameter couplings that are important at different times of the year for quantities of interest (QoIs) obtained with the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model. We then employ a Bayesian approach and a statistical model error term to calibrate the parameters of DALEC using net ecosystem exchange (NEE) observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are employedmore » in the second part of the paper to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.« less

  11. Continuous In-situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) and Carbon Dioxide Isotopes to Constrain Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, B.; Still, C. J.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Whelan, M.; Lai, C. T.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J. B.; Huang, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon and water are critical for examining the role of forested ecosystems in changing climates. A small but increasing number of studies have identified Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) as a potential tracer for photosynthesis. OCS is hydrolyzed by an irreversible reaction in leaf mesophyll cells that is catalyzed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Leaf- level field and greenhouse studies indicate that OCS uptake is controlled by stomatal activity and that the ratio of OCS and CO2 uptake is reasonably constant. Existing studies on ecosystem OCS exchange have been based on laboratory measurements or short field campaigns and therefore little information on OCS exchange in a natural ecosystem over longer timescales is available. The objective of this study is to further assess the stability of OCS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis in an active forested ecosystem and also to assess its utility for constraining transpiration, since both fluxes are mediated by canopy stomatal conductance. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W). Canopy air was sampled from four heights as well as the soil to measure vertical gradients of OCS within the canopy, and OCS exchange between the forest and the atmosphere for the growing season. Here we take advantage of simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopologues of H2O and CO2 at corresponding heights as well as NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) from eddy covariance measurements to compare GPP (Gross Primary Production) and transpiration estimates from a variety of independent techniques. Our findings also seek to allow assessment of the environmental and ecophysicological controls on evapotranspiration rates, which are projected to change in coming decades, and are otherwise poorly constrained.

  12. Impacts of Precipitation Diurnal Timing on Ecosystem Carbon Exchanges in Grasslands: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Xu, X.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands have been found playing an important role regulating the seasonality of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Precipitation is a primary control of ecosystem carbon exchanges in drylands where a large proportion of the annual total rainfall arrives through a small number of episodic precipitation events. While a large number of studies use the concept of "precipitation pulses" to explore the effects of short-term precipitation events on dryland ecosystem function, few have specifically evaluated the importance of the diurnal timing of these events. The primary goal of this study was to determine how the diurnal timing of rainfall events impacts land-atmosphere net ecosystem CO2 exchanges (NEE) and ecosystem respiration in drylands. Our research leverages a substantial and existing long-term database (AmeriFlux) that describes NEE, Reco and meteorological conditions at 11 sites situated in different dryland ecosystems in South West America. All sites employ the eddy covariance technique to measure land-atmosphere the CO2 exchange rates between atmosphere and ecosystem. Data collected at these sites range from 4 to 10 years, totaling up to 73 site-years. We found that episodic precipitation events stimulate not only vegetation photosynthesis but also ecosystem respiration. Specifically, the morning precipitation events decrease photosynthesis function at daytime and increase ecosystem respiration at nighttime; the afternoon precipitation events do not stimulate ecosystem photosynthesis at daytime, while stimulate ecosystem respiration; the night precipitations suppress photosynthesis at daytime, and enhance ecosystem respiration at nighttime.

  13. Subsurface Intertidal Microbes: A Cryptic Source Of Organic Carbon For Beach Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Giver, Lorraine J.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some freshwater, marine or hotspring beaches have no visible source of primary production, yet beneath the surface is an interstitial photosynthetic microbial community. To assess the significance of this source of organic carbon, we measured in situ carbon fixation rates in an intertidal marine beach through a diurnal cycle. Gross fixation for a transect (99 x 1 m) perpendicular to the shore was approx. 4041 mg C fixed/ day, or approx. 41 mg C fixed/ sq m day. In contrast, an adjacent well-established cyanobacterial (Lyngbya) mat was approx. 12 x as productive (approx. 490 mg C fixed/sq m day). Thus, subsurface sand mats may be an overlooked, yet important, endogenous source of organic carbon for intertidal ecosystems, as well as a sink in the global carbon cycle.

  14. Herbivory makes major contributions to ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Daniel B; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Silva Espejo, Javier E; Huasco, Walter Huaraca; Farfán Amézquita, Felix F; Carranza-Jimenez, Loreli; Galiano Cabrera, Darcy F; Baca, Liliana Durand; Sinca, Felipe; Huaraca Quispe, Lidia P; Taype, Ivonne Alzamora; Mora, Luzmila Eguiluz; Dávila, Angela Rozas; Solórzano, Marlene Mamani; Puma Vilca, Beisit L; Laupa Román, Judith M; Guerra Bustios, Patricia C; Revilla, Norma Salinas; Tupayachi, Raul; Girardin, Cécile A J; Doughty, Christopher E; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2014-03-01

    The functional role of herbivores in tropical rainforests remains poorly understood. We quantified the magnitude of, and underlying controls on, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycled by invertebrate herbivory along a 2800 m elevational gradient in the tropical Andes spanning 12°C mean annual temperature. We find, firstly, that leaf area loss is greater at warmer sites with lower foliar phosphorus, and secondly, that the estimated herbivore-mediated flux of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus from plants to soil via leaf area loss is similar to, or greater than, other major sources of these nutrients in tropical forests. Finally, we estimate that herbivores consume a significant portion of plant carbon, potentially causing major shifts in the pattern of plant and soil carbon cycling. We conclude that future shifts in herbivore abundance and activity as a result of environmental change could have major impacts on soil fertility and ecosystem carbon sequestration in tropical forests.

  15. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimel, D.; Melillo, J.; Tian, H.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.; Kittel, T.; Rosenbloom, N.; Running, S.; Thornton, P.; Ojima, D.; Parton, W.; Kelly, R.; Sykes, M.; Neilson, R.; Rizzo, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO2 and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year. The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO2 and climate. The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.

  16. Subsurface Intertidal Microbes: A Cryptic Source Of Organic Carbon For Beach Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Giver, Lorraine J.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some freshwater, marine or hotspring beaches have no visible source of primary production, yet beneath the surface is an interstitial photosynthetic microbial community. To assess the significance of this source of organic carbon, we measured in situ carbon fixation rates in an intertidal marine beach through a diurnal cycle. Gross fixation for a transect (99 x 1 m) perpendicular to the shore was approx. 4041 mg C fixed/ day, or approx. 41 mg C fixed/ sq m day. In contrast, an adjacent well-established cyanobacterial (Lyngbya) mat was approx. 12 x as productive (approx. 490 mg C fixed/sq m day). Thus, subsurface sand mats may be an overlooked, yet important, endogenous source of organic carbon for intertidal ecosystems, as well as a sink in the global carbon cycle.

  17. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schimel, D; Melillo, J; Tian, H; McGuire, A D; Kicklighter, D; Kittel, T; Rosenbloom, N; Running, S; Thornton, P; Ojima, D; Parton, W; Kelly, R; Sykes, M; Neilson, R; Rizzo, B

    2000-03-17

    The effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate on net carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the period 1895-1993 were modeled with new, detailed historical climate information. For the period 1980-1993, results from an ensemble of three models agree within 25%, simulating a land carbon sink from CO2 and climate effects of 0.08 gigaton of carbon per year. The best estimates of the total sink from inventory data are about three times larger, suggesting that processes such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land or in forests harvested before 1980 have effects as large as or larger than the direct effects of CO2 and climate. The modeled sink varies by about 100% from year to year as a result of climate variability.

  18. [Carbon accumulation in soils of forest and bog ecosystems of southern Valdai in the Holocene].

    PubMed

    Minaeva, T Iu; Trofimov, S Ia; Chichagova, O A; Dorofeeva, E I; Sirin, A A; Glushkov, I V; Mikhaĭlov, I D; Kromer, B

    2008-01-01

    Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in humus and peat horizons of the contiguous soil series of forest and bog ecosystems have been studied in the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (CFSBR, Tver region). Upland soil types (soddy podzolic, brown, and white podzolic) have been compared to waterlogged (peaty gley podzolic and peaty gley) and bog soils differing in trophic status, including those of raised, transitional, and lowland bogs. The results show that carbon stocks in mineral soils are many times smaller than in waterlogged soils and an order of magnitude smaller than in bog soils. Mineral and bog soils are characterized by similar rates of carbon accumulation averaged over the entire period of their existence. The highest rate of carbon accumulation has been noted for the soils of waterlogged habitats, although this process may be periodically disturbed by fires and other stress influences.

  19. Patterns of total ecosystem carbon storage with changes in soil temperature in boreal black spruce forests

    Treesearch

    E.S. Kane; J.G. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    To understand how carbon (C) pools in boreal ecosystems may change with warming, we measured above- and belowground C pools and C increment along a soil temperature gradient across 16 mature upland black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. [B•S.P]) forests in interior Alaska. Total spruce C stocks (stand and root C) increased from 1.3 to 8.5 kg C m

  20. Carbon account of forest ecosystems as a fuzzy system: a case study for Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Kraxner, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider practicality of a verified account of Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget for forest ecosystems (FCA) that supposes reliable assessment of uncertainties, i.e. understanding "uncertainty of uncertainties". The FCA is a fuzzy (underspecified) system, of which membership function is inherently stochastic. Thus, any individually used method of FCA is not able to estimate structural uncertainties and usually reported "within method" uncertainties are inevitably partial. Attempting at estimation of "full uncertainties" of the studied system we follow the requirements of applied systems analysis integrating the major methods of terrestrial ecosystems carbon account, assessing the uncertainties "within method" for intermediate and final indicators of FCA with their following mutual constrains. Landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) 1) serves for strict systems designing the account, 2) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 3) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data (12 RS products used) within GEO-wiki platform and other relevant information based on special optimization algorithms. Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. "Within method" results and uncertainties (including LEA, process-based models, eddy covariance, and inverse modelling) are harmonized based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000-2010; uncertainties of the FCA for individual years were estimated in limits of 25%. We discussed strengths and weaknesses of the approach, system requirements to different methods of FCA, information

  1. Seasonal variation of carbon uptake in a primary forest ecosystem in southwestern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Gonçalves, J. F.; Cirino, G. G.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical rainforests possess a large carbon stock and their dynamics are strongly dependent on climatic factors. Carbon assimilation by tropical forests can be meaningfully altered by seasonal changes in rainfall regime. Considering the interactions of the plant-atmosphere system, this study evaluated the effect of the precipitation seasonality on the photosynthesis of a primary forest, located in the state of Rondônia (Rebio Jaru), southwest of the Amazon, Brazil. Precipitation data from Instituto Nacional de Metereologia (INMET) from five years (2006-2010) were analyzed and the NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) of CO2 was calculated for ten years (1999-2009) using data from the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon (LBA). Furthermore, leaves gas exchanges were measured in 48 individual in three forest strata (canopy, sub-canopy and understory) using a infrared gas analyzer (IRGA model LI-6400, Li-cor, USA) during two distinct precipitation periods: at the end of the wet (May) and dry (Sept.) seasons. The climatological data exhibited an accentuated dry season between the months of June and August. The lower water availability inhibited the forest primary production and altered the CO2 assimilation observed in the variation in the NEE values (Fig. 1). The NEE values were larger in the dry season and showed a smaller carbon uptake in the ecosystem, when compared with the values from the wet season. In the period that succeeds the dry season, the photosynthetic rates measured in canopy leaves were 44,49% lower than the values measured in the period prior to the dry season. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the accentuated dry season strongly controls the seasonal photosynthesis variation in the studied area, decreasing the carbon uptake into the ecosystem. Fig. 1: Seasonal cycle of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 between the forest and atmosphere, in Rebio Jaru (1999-2009, monthly averages).

  2. Variation in phenolic root exudates and rhizosphere carbon cycling among tree species in temperate forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwetsloot, Marie; Bauerle, Taryn; Kessler, André; Wickings, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Temperate forest tree species composition has been highly dynamic over the past few centuries and is expected to only further change under current climate change predictions. While aboveground changes in forest biodiversity have been widely studied, the impacts on belowground processes are far more challenging to measure. In particular, root exudation - the process through which roots release organic and inorganic compounds into the rhizosphere - has received little scientific attention yet may be the key to understanding root-facilitated carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent by which tree species' variation in phenolic root exudate profiles influences soil carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. In order to answer this question, we grew six temperate forest tree species in a greenhouse including Acer saccharum, Alnus rugosa, Fagus grandifolia, Picea abies, Pinus strobus, and Quercus rubra. To collect root exudates, trees were transferred to hydroponic growing systems for one week and then exposed to cellulose acetate strips in individual 800 mL jars with a sterile solution for 24 hours. We analyzed the methanol-extracted root exudates for phenolic composition with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined species differences in phenolic abundance, diversity and compound classes. This information was used to design the subsequent soil incubation study in which we tested the effect of different phenolic compound classes on rhizosphere carbon cycling using potassium hydroxide (KOH) traps to capture soil CO2 emissions. Our findings show that tree species show high variation in phenolic root exudate patterns and that these differences can significantly influence soil CO2 fluxes. These results stress the importance of linking belowground plant traits to ecosystem functioning. Moreover, this study highlights the need for research on root and rhizosphere processes in order to improve

  3. Land Use and Ecosystems Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Land Use and Ecosystems information includes Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets, data sets from Africa and Asia, the Worldwide Organic Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dataset, and much more.

  4. Carbon cycle. The dominant role of semi-arid ecosystems in the trend and variability of the land CO₂ sink.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Anders; Raupach, Michael R; Schurgers, Guy; Smith, Benjamin; Arneth, Almut; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Canadell, Josep G; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jain, Atul K; Kato, Etsushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Sitch, Stephen; Stocker, Benjamin D; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Ying Ping; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2015-05-22

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations since industrialization is characterized by large interannual variability, mostly resulting from variability in CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (typically termed carbon sink). However, the contributions of regional ecosystems to that variability are not well known. Using an ensemble of ecosystem and land-surface models and an empirical observation-based product of global gross primary production, we show that the mean sink, trend, and interannual variability in CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems are dominated by distinct biogeographic regions. Whereas the mean sink is dominated by highly productive lands (mainly tropical forests), the trend and interannual variability of the sink are dominated by semi-arid ecosystems whose carbon balance is strongly associated with circulation-driven variations in both precipitation and temperature.

  5. Can We Make Use of Abandoned Land for Carbon Management and Ecosystem Restoration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Shoyama, K.

    2014-12-01

    Potential conflicts between biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation can result in trade-offs in multiple-use land management. This study aimed to detect possible changes in land-use patterns in response to biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation measures and the effects on ecosystem services across a watershed. For that purpose, we have developed a new method to combine land-use change scenarios and ecosystem service assessments. We analyzed land-cover change based on past and future scenarios in the rural Kushiro watershed in northern Japan. The analysis showed that if no conservation measures were implemented and the timber and agricultural industry remained small until 2060, supporting and provisioning services would decline due to less land management. Although biodiversity conservation measures are predicted to improve three of the ecosystem services that we studied, carbon sequestration and timber production would be improved to a greater degree by climate-change mitigation measures. The greatest land-cover changes are likely to occur in the unprotected area around the middle reaches of the Kushiro River, and such changes could affect the provision of ecosystem services throughout the entire watershed. Thus, our findings indicate that land-use decisions for the middle reaches of the watershed are particularly important for managing the integrated ecosystem services of the entire watershed for the future.

  6. Stoichiometric flexibility as a regulator of carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems under change.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Schimel, Joshua P

    2012-10-01

    Ecosystems across the biosphere are subject to rapid changes in elemental balance and climatic regimes. A major force structuring ecological responses to these perturbations lies in the stoichiometric flexibility of systems - the ability to adjust their elemental balance whilst maintaining function. The potential for stoichiometric flexibility underscores the utility of the application of a framework highlighting the constraints and consequences of elemental mass balance and energy cycling in biological systems to address global change phenomena. Improvement in the modeling of ecological responses to disturbance requires the consideration of the stoichiometric flexibility of systems within and across relevant scales. Although a multitude of global change studies over various spatial and temporal scales exist, the explicit consideration of the role played by stoichiometric flexibility in linking micro-scale to macro-scale biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems remains relatively unexplored. Focusing on terrestrial systems under change, we discuss the mechanisms by which stoichiometric flexibility might be expressed and connected from organisms to ecosystems. We suggest that the transition from the expression of stoichiometric flexibility within individuals to the community and ecosystem scales is a key mechanism regulating the extent to which environmental perturbation may alter ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling dynamics. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Drought resistance across California ecosystems: Evaluating changes in carbon dynamics using satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, Sparkle; Tulbure, Mirela; Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bremer, Leah; Drucker, Debora; Hillis, Vicken; Varela, Sara; Goulden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a global issue that is exacerbated by climate change and increasing anthropogenic water demands. The recent occurrence of drought in California provides an important opportunity to examine drought response across ecosystem classes (forests, shrublands, grasslands, and wetlands), which is essential to understand how climate influences ecosystem structure and function. We quantified ecosystem resistance to drought by comparing changes in satellite-derived estimates of water-use efficiency (WUE = net primary productivity [NPP]/evapotranspiration [ET]) under normal (i.e., baseline) and drought conditions (ΔWUE = WUE2014 − baseline WUE). With this method, areas with increasing WUE under drought conditions are considered more resilient than systems with declining WUE. Baseline WUE varied across California (0.08 to 3.85 g C/mm H2O) and WUE generally increased under severe drought conditions in 2014. Strong correlations between ΔWUE, precipitation, and leaf area index (LAI) indicate that ecosystems with a lower average LAI (i.e., grasslands) also had greater C-uptake rates when water was limiting and higher rates of carbon-uptake efficiency (CUE = NPP/LAI) under drought conditions. We also found that systems with a baseline WUE ≤ 0.4 exhibited a decline in WUE under drought conditions, suggesting that a baseline WUE ≤ 0.4 might be indicative of low drought resistance. Drought severity, precipitation, and WUE were identified as important drivers of shifts in ecosystem classes over the study period. These findings have important implications for understanding climate change effects on primary productivity and C sequestration across ecosystems and how this may influence ecosystem resistance in the future.

  8. Impacts of droughts on carbon sequestration by China's terrestrial ecosystems from 2000 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Ju, W.; Wang, S.; Wu, X.; He, M.; Zhu, G.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, China's terrestrial ecosystems have experienced frequent droughts. How these droughts have affected carbon sequestration by the terrestrial ecosystems is still unclear. In this study, the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, driven by remotely sensed vegetation parameters, was employed to assess the effects of droughts on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of terrestrial ecosystems in China from 2000 to 2011. Droughts of differing severity, as indicated by a standard precipitation index (SPI), hit terrestrial ecosystems in China extensively in 2001, 2006, 2009, and 2011. The national total annual NEP exhibited the slight decline of -11.3 Tg C yr-2 during the aforementioned years of extensive droughts. The NEP reduction ranged from 61.1 Tg C yr-1 to 168.8 Tg C yr-1. National and regional total NEP anomalies were correlated with the annual mean SPI, especially in Northwest China, North China, Central China, and Southwest China. The reductions in annual NEP in 2001 and 2011 might have been caused by a larger decrease in annual gross primary productivity (GPP) than in annual ecosystem respiration (ER). The reductions experienced in 2009 might be due to a decrease in annual GPP and an increase in annual ER, while reductions in 2006 could stem from a larger increase in ER than in GPP. The effects of droughts on NEP lagged up to 3-6 months, due to different responses of GPP and ER. In eastern China, where is humid and warm, droughts have predominant and short-term lagged influences on NEP. In western regions, cold and arid, the drought effects on NEP were relatively weaker but prone to lasting longer.

  9. Initial shifts in nitrogen impact on ecosystem carbon fluxes in an alpine meadow: Patterns and causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bing

    2017-04-01

    It is proposed that rising nitrogen (N) deposition could increase ecosystem net carbon (C) sequestration. However, as a direct measure of ecosystem net C sequestration, how net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its different components respond to rising N deposition is still far from clear. Using an N addition gradient experiment (six levels: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 gN m-2 year-1) in an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau, we explored the responses of different ecosystem C cycle processes to increasing N loading gradient and revealed mechanisms underlying response dynamics. Results showed that NEE, ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross ecosystem production (GEP) all increased linearly with N addition rates in the first year of treatment, but shifted to N saturation responses in the second year with the highest NEE (-7.77 ± 0.48 µmol m-2 s-1) occurring under N addition rate of 8 gN m-2 year-1. The saturation responses of NEE and GEP were caused by N-induced accumulation of standing litter, which limited light availability for plant growth under high N addition. The saturation response of ER was mainly due to decreases in aboveground plant respiration and soil microbial respiration under high N addition, while the N-induced reduction in soil pH caused declines in soil microbial respiration. We also found that various components of ER, including aboveground plant respiration, soil respiration, root respiration, and microbial respiration, responded differentially to the N addition gradient. The results reveal temporal dynamics of N impacts and the rapid shift of ecosystem C cycle from N limitation to N saturation. These findings are helpful for better understanding and model projection of future terrestrial C sequestration under rising N deposition.

  10. Fire Severity and Soil Carbon Combustion in Boreal and Tundra Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, X. J.; Mack, M. C.; Baltzer, J. L.; Cummings, S.; Day, N.; Goetz, S.; Johnstone, J. F.; Rogers, B. M.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate warming in northern latitudes has led to an intensification of wildfire disturbance. Increased fire frequency, extent, and severity is expected to strongly impact the structure and function of northern ecosystems. In this study, we examined 50 sites in a recently burned tundra ecosystem of Alaska, USA and 250 sites in recently burned boreal conifer forest ecosystems of Northwest Territories, Canada. The majority of organic carbon (C) in both boreal and tundra ecosystems resides in the soil organic layer (SOL) and combustion of this layer can lead to large C emissions. Through examining multiple fire scars in different regions, ranging in moisture, elevation, and pre-fire vegetation communities, we can determine the ecosystem, landscape, and regional controls on SOL combustion and the potential shift in C storage. In this research, we use scalable SOL consumption metrics to estimate depth of burn and the associated C emissions. Preliminary results from boreal conifer sites indicate that nearly 50% of the pre-fire soil C pool was combusted and that over 75% of the total C emitted from the extreme fire year of 2014 can be attributed to combustion of the SOL. Increased combustion of SOL associated with an intensifying fire regime could shift boreal and tundra ecosystems across a C cycle threshold: from net accumulation of C from the atmosphere over multiple fire cycles, to a net loss. Understanding changes in SOL combustion and C storage is essential for assessing the consequences of an altered fire regime on permafrost dynamics, vegetation regeneration, and the initiation of successional trajectories in tundra and boreal ecosystems.

  11. Irrigation and Fertilization Controls on Critical Zone Carbon and Nitrogen cycles in Harvested Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Feedbacks between hydrology, soil biogeochemistry, and primary productivity raise questions regarding the broader impact of human modifications to one or more of these critical zone processes. In particular, irrigation and nitrogen fertilization are used simultaneously to stimulate agricultural productivity and biomass export; however, together they may lead to unintended downstream consequences such as increased nitrogen leaching or greenhouse gas release. To quantify such trade-offs among ecosystem services and to identify optimal agricultural management practices, an ecosystem model coupling the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles is studied. The model is forced by stochastic climate and periodic management interventions that include irrigation, fertilization, and harvest. Steady-state solutions of ecosystems under rotational harvest are developed, demonstrating that these ecosystems operate in a limit-cycle. Under constant fertilization and soil moisture conditions, the model predicts an optimal rotation length associated with maximum yield and maximum ecosystem nitrogen use efficiency. Through plant-soil feedbacks mediated by the harvest, intermediate rotation lengths promote short periods of immobilization, which stimulates mineral nitrogen retention. In these systems, increased soil moisture increases non-productive nitrogen losses, especially under long rotations, where mineral nitrogen availability is greatest. Time-variable water and nitrogen input scenarios are also considered and suggest the possibility of an optimal irrigation-fertilization strategy that balances productivity, which provides an economic benefit, and leaching, which may have consequences for aquatic ecosystems in receiving waters. These results highlight several soil C-N cycle responses to management practices that influence the provision of and trade-off between ecosystem services, namely primary productivity and mineral nitrogen export.

  12. A Source of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to Investigate the Browning of Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jay T.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Wickings, Kyle; Jones, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that terrestrial ecosystems are exporting more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems than they did just a few decades ago. This “browning” phenomenon will alter the chemistry, physics, and biology of inland water bodies in complex and difficult-to-predict ways. Experiments provide an opportunity to elucidate how browning will affect the stability and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, it is challenging to obtain sources of DOC that can be used for manipulations at ecologically relevant scales. In this study, we evaluated a commercially available source of humic substances (“Super Hume”) as an analog for natural sources of terrestrial DOC. Based on chemical characterizations, comparative surveys, and whole-ecosystem manipulations, we found that the physical and chemical properties of Super Hume are similar to those of natural DOC in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, Super Hume attenuated solar radiation in ways that will not only influence the physiology of aquatic taxa but also the metabolism of entire ecosystems. Based on its chemical properties (high lignin content, high quinone content, and low C:N and C:P ratios), Super Hume is a fairly recalcitrant, low-quality resource for aquatic consumers. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that Super Hume can subsidize aquatic food webs through 1) the uptake of dissolved organic constituents by microorganisms, and 2) the consumption of particulate fractions by larger organisms (i.e., Daphnia). After discussing some of the caveats of Super Hume, we conclude that commercial sources of humic substances can be used to help address pressing ecological questions concerning the increased export of terrestrial DOC to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24124511

  13. Impact of the 2012 US drought on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Fisher, J. B.; Keenan, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Drought severely impacts biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems by reducing productivity, carbon uptake and water transport to the atmosphere. The 2012 US drought was among the most intense and widespread drought events in the US since the ';Dust Bowl' period in the 1930s. Drought conditions started developing during an exceptionally warm spring, intensified throughout the summer and were most severe in the Central US (Midwest), with devastating effects on agricultural production. Here we synthesize the impact of the 2012 drought on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes across the Contiguous United States using eddy covariance data from 30 AmeriFlux sites and remote sensing data from MODIS. We found widespread reductions in gross primary production and evapotranspiration of up to 50% in the Midwest during the summer months. Drought intensity and duration are directly linked to changes in ecosystem fluxes. As drought frequencies and intensities are predicted to increase in the future, we discuss the implications of our results regarding drought susceptibilities of different land-use types.

  14. Characterization of Eurasian Wetlands Using Microwave Remote Sensing for Ecosystem Carbon Flux Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Chen, X.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature of the northern high latitudes. Because of their effect on land-atmosphere carbon (CO2 and CH4) exchange, wetlands have a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and in the global climate system. Characterizing wetland biomes in terms of their extent and dynamics is extremely important to understanding the role of these ecosystems in the global climate. Microwave remote sensing is an effective geophysical tool for these purposes because it enables monitoring of large inaccessible areas on a temporally consistent basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. Here we employ multi-temporal high resolution (~100m) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from ALOS-PALSAR (L-band) to map wetland type and extent within sub-regions in Eurasia. We combine this information with time series inundated area estimates derived from AMSR-E, SSM/I, QuikScat and ASCAT to assess surface inundation patterns. We present details on the decision tree based classification approach used to generate the high resolution SAR based wetland maps as well as details of cross-product harmonization between fine and coarse resolution wetland/surface inundation products. Finally, we show the applicability of the wetland maps in an ecosystem carbon flux model. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Drought alters carbon fluxes in alpine snowbed ecosystems through contrasting impacts on graminoids and forbs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Vachon, Jérémie; Britton, Andrea J; Helliwell, Rachel C

    2011-05-01

    • Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of drought events in alpine ecosystems with the potential to affect carbon turnover. • We removed intact turfs from a Nardus stricta alpine snowbed community and subjected half of them to two drought events of 8 d duration under controlled conditions. Leachate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured throughout the 6 wk study period, and a (13)CO(2) pulse enabled quantification of fluxes of recent assimilate into shoots, roots and leachate and ecosystem CO(2) exchange. • The amount of DOC in leachate from droughted cores was 62% less than in controls. Drought reduced graminoid biomass, increased forb biomass, had no effect on bryophytes, and led to an overall decrease in total above-ground biomass compared with controls. Net CO(2) exchange, gross photosynthesis and the amount of (13)CO(2) fixed were all significantly less in droughted turfs. These turfs also retained proportionally more (13)C in shoots, allocated less (13)C to roots, and the amount of dissolved organic (13)C recovered in leachate was 57% less than in controls. • Our data show that drought events can have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon fluxes, and that the principal mechanism behind this is probably changes in the relative abundance of forbs and grasses.

  16. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Kimberly A.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Stoy, Paul C.; Williams, Christopher A.; Bohrer, Gil; Oishi, A. Christopher; Papuga, Shirley A.; Blanken, Peter D.; Noormets, Asko; Sulman, Benjamin N.; Scott, Russell L.; Wang, Lixin; Phillips, Richard P.

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit--and profoundly affect--vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating atmospheric demand in the field are lacking. Consequently, the role of atmospheric demand is often not adequately factored into experiments or represented in models. Here we show that atmospheric demand limits surface conductance and evapotranspiration to a greater extent than soil moisture in many biomes, including mesic forests that are of particular importance to the terrestrial carbon sink. Further, using projections from ten general circulation models, we show that climate change will increase the importance of atmospheric constraints to carbon and water fluxes in all ecosystems. Consequently, atmospheric demand will become increasingly important for vegetation function, accounting for >70% of growing season limitation to surface conductance in mesic temperate forests. Our results suggest that failure to consider the limiting role of atmospheric demand in experimental designs, simulation models and land management strategies will lead to incorrect projections of ecosystem responses to future climate conditions.

  17. Ecosystem development and carbon cycle on a glacier foreland in the high Arctic, Ny-Alesund, Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Bekku, Yukiko Sakata; Uchida, Masaki; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Masuzawa, Takehiro; Kanda, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    The Arctic terrestrial ecosystem is thought to be extremely susceptible to climate change. However, because of the diverse responses of ecosystem components to change, an overall response of the ecosystem carbon cycle to climate change is still hard to predict. In this review, we focus on several recent studies conducted to clarify the pattern of the carbon cycle on the deglaciated area of Ny-Alesund, Svalbard in the high Arctic. Vegetation cover and soil carbon pools tended to increase with the progress of succession. However, even in the latter stages of succession, the size of the soil carbon pool was much smaller than those reported for the low Arctic tundra. Cryptogams contributed the major proportion of phytomass in the later stages. However, because of water limitation, their net primary production was smaller than that of the vascular plants. The compartment model that incorporated major carbon pools and flows suggested that the ecosystem of the later stages is likely to be a net sink of carbon at least for the summer season. Based on the eco-physiological characteristics of the major ecosystem components, we suggest several possible scenarios of future changes in the ecosystem carbon cycle.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Marcus; Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    For germination and establishment, orchids depend on carbon (C) and nutrients supplied by mycorrhizal fungi. As adults, the majority of orchids then appear to become autotrophic. To compare the proportional C and nitrogen (N) gain from fungi in mycoheterotrophic seedlings and in adults, here we examined in the field C and N stable isotope compositions in seedlings and adults of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Using a new highly sensitive approach, we measured the isotope compositions of seedlings and adults of four orchid species belonging to different functional groups: fully and partially mycoheterotrophic orchids associated with narrow or broad sets of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and two adult putatively autotrophic orchids associated exclusively with saprotrophic fungi. Seedlings of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi were enriched in (13) C and (15) N similarly to fully mycoheterotrophic adults. Seedlings of saprotroph-associated orchids were also enriched in (13) C and (15) N, but unexpectedly their enrichment was significantly lower, making them hardly distinguishable from their respective adult stages and neighbouring autotrophic plants. We conclude that partial mycoheterotrophy among saprotroph-associated orchids cannot be identified unequivocally based on C and N isotope compositions alone. Thus, partial mycoheterotrophy may be much more widely distributed among orchids than hitherto assumed. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Aging yeast gain a competitive advantage on non-optimal carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Stephen; Pizza, Grazia; Walker, Rachael V; Houseley, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animals, plants and fungi undergo an aging process with remarkable physiological and molecular similarities, suggesting that aging has long been a fact of life for eukaryotes and one to which our unicellular ancestors were subject. Key biochemical pathways that impact longevity evolved prior to multicellularity, and the interactions between these pathways and the aging process therefore emerged in ancient single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, we do not fully understand how aging impacts the fitness of unicellular organisms, and whether such cells gain a benefit from modulating rather than simply suppressing the aging process. We hypothesized that age-related loss of fitness in single-celled eukaryotes may be counterbalanced, partly or wholly, by a transition from a specialist to a generalist life-history strategy that enhances adaptability to other environments. We tested this hypothesis in budding yeast using competition assays and found that while young cells are more successful in glucose, highly aged cells outcompete young cells on other carbon sources such as galactose. This occurs because aged yeast divide faster than young cells in galactose, reversing the normal association between age and fitness. The impact of aging on single-celled organisms is therefore complex and may be regulated in ways that anticipate changing nutrient availability. We propose that pathways connecting nutrient availability with aging arose in unicellular eukaryotes to capitalize on age-linked diversity in growth strategy and that individual cells in higher eukaryotes may similarly diversify during aging to the detriment of the organism as a whole.

  20. Century-Scale Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Flux to Multiple Environmental Changes in the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Hanqin Tian; Guangsheng Chen; Chi Zhang; Mingliang Liu; Ge Sun; Arthur Chappelka; Wei Ren; Xiaofeng Xu; Chaoqun Lu; Shufen Pan; Hua Chen; Dafeng Hui; Steven McNulty; Graeme Lockaby; Eric Vance

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the southern United States (SUS) have experienced a complex set of changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, tropospheric ozone (O3), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) during the past century. Although each of these factors has received attention for its alterations on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics,...

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide alters impacts of precipitation pulses on ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration in a semi-arid grassland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicting net carbon (C) balance under future global change scenarios requires a comprehensive understanding of photosynthetic (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and water availability. We measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), GPP and Re prior to...

  2. Effects of precipitation variability on carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a nitrogen-limited montado ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Marjan; Unger, Stephan; Santos Pereira, João

    2014-12-01

    To date the implications of greater intra-annual variability and extremes in precipitation on ecosystem functioning have received little attention. This study presents results on soil and vegetation carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a Mediterranean oak woodland in response to increasing precipitation variability, with an extension of the dry period between precipitation events from 3 to 6 weeks, without altering total annual precipitation inputs. With prolonged dry periods soil moisture did breach the stress thresholds for ecosystem processes, which led to short-term treatment differences in photosynthesis, but not in system carbon losses, with subsequent short-term decreases in net ecosystem exchange. Independent of treatment, irrigation events rapidly increased carbon and water fluxes. However, contradicting the predictions drawn from the 'bucket model', over the course of the growing season no all-over treatment differences were found in system assimilation and respiration, nor in evapotranspiration and ecosystem water use efficiency. This lack of responsiveness is attributed to the ecosystem's resilience to low soil moisture during the growing season of the herbaceous understorey, with temperature rather than soil moisture controlling key ecosystem processes. Moreover, severe nitrogen limitation of the studied ecosystem may explain the lack of moisture effects on net system carbon dynamics. Thus, although the bucket model predicts changes in soil water dynamics with increasing precipitation variability, ecosystem responses to more extreme precipitation regimes may be influenced by additional factors, such as inter-annual variability in nutrient availability.

  3. Carbon lost and carbon gained: a study of vegetation and carbon trade-offs among diverse land uses in Phoenix, Arizona.

    PubMed

    McHale, Melissa R; Hall, Sharon J; Majumdar, Anandamayee; Grimm, Nancy B

    2017-03-01

    Human modification and management of urban landscapes drastically alters vegetation and soils, thereby altering carbon (C) storage and rates of net primary productivity (NPP). Complex social and ecological processes drive vegetation cover in cities, leading to heterogeneity in C dynamics depending on regional climate, land use, and land cover. Recent work has demonstrated homogenization in ecological processes within human-dominated landscapes (the urban convergence hypothesis) in soils and biotic communities. However, a lack of information on vegetation in arid land cities has hindered an understanding of potential C storage and NPP convergence across a diversity of ecosystem types. We estimated C storage and NPP of trees and shrubs for six different land-use types in the arid metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and compared those results to native desert ecosystems, as well as other urban and natural systems around the world. Results from Phoenix do not support the convergence hypothesis. In particular, C storage in urban trees and shrubs was 42% of that found in desert vegetation, while NPP was only 20% of the total NPP estimated for comparable natural ecosystems. Furthermore, the overall estimates of C storage and NPP associated with urban trees in the CAP ecosystem were much lower (8-63%) than the other cities included in this analysis. We also found that C storage (175.25-388.94 g/m(2) ) and NPP (8.07-15.99 g·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ) were dominated by trees in the urban residential land uses, while in the desert, shrubs were the primary source for pools (183.65 g/m(2) ) and fluxes (6.51 g·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ). These results indicate a trade-off between shrubs and trees in arid ecosystems, with shrubs playing a major role in overall C storage and NPP in deserts and trees serving as the dominant C pool in cities. Our research supports current literature that calls for the development of spatially explicit and standardized methods for analyzing C dynamics associated

  4. The impact of intensive forest management on carbon stores in forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Krankina, O.N.; Harmon, M.E. . Dept. of Forest Science)

    1994-06-01

    The expansion of intensive management of forest resources for timber production with the human population growth may have a profound effect on the role forests play in the global carbon cycle. First, the transition from old-growth to intensively managed second-growth forest with short rotations entails major long-term ecosystems changes including the reduction of total woody biomass. Although the biomass of living trees can be restored within a relatively short period of time, dead wood biomass takes considerably longer to reach pre-harvest levels; therefore commonly used rotations are too short for the latter part of ecosystem to recover fully. As dead trees account for 14--18% of the total woody biomass stores in a natural forest, a considerable amount of carbon can be released if this material is not replaced. Second, economically efficient, intensive forest management systems that include commercial thinning and wood salvage can further reduce the total biomass loading of second-growth forests. Long-term study of live and dead wood in thinning trials in the Pacific Northwest and in northwestern Russia suggest that intensive practices can reduce total woody biomass averaged over rotation to 10--25% that found in a natural old-growth forest. Therefore intensive forest management practices may maximize the supply of raw materials, but they may also generate a major carbon flux into the atmosphere. This flux may be significant despite the fact the land-use type remains the same. Effect of intensive forest management practices should be included in future carbon budgets and in developing forest management strategies aimed at increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems.

  5. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  6. Nitrogen feedbacks increase future terrestrial ecosystem carbon uptake in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, D.; Smith, B.; Hickler, T.; Arneth, A.

    2014-11-01

    Recently a considerable amount of effort has been put into quantifying how interactions of the carbon and nitrogen cycle affect future terrestrial carbon sinks. Dynamic vegetation models, representing the nitrogen cycle with varying degree of complexity, have shown diverging constraints of nitrogen dynamics on future carbon sequestration. In this study, we use LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic vegetation model employing a detailed individual- and patch-based representation of vegetation dynamics, to evaluate how population dynamics and resource competition between plant functional types, combined with nitrogen dynamics, have influenced the terrestrial carbon storage in the past and to investigate how terrestrial carbon and nitrogen dynamics might change in the future (1850 to 2100; one representative "business-as-usual" climate scenario). Single-factor model experiments of CO2 fertilisation and climate change show generally similar directions of the responses of C-N interactions, compared to the C-only version of the model as documented in previous studies using other global models. Under an RCP 8.5 scenario, nitrogen limitation suppresses potential CO2 fertilisation, reducing the cumulative net ecosystem carbon uptake between 1850 and 2100 by 61%, and soil warming-induced increase in nitrogen mineralisation reduces terrestrial carbon loss by 31%. When environmental changes are considered conjointly, carbon sequestration is limited by nitrogen dynamics up to the present. However, during the 21st century, nitrogen dynamics induce a net increase in carbon sequestration, resulting in an overall larger carbon uptake of 17% over the full period. This contrasts with previous results with other global models that have shown an 8 to 37% decrease in carbon uptake relati