Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier
This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49.
Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera. PMID:22152687
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa
The mark-recapture method allows analysis on the variation in the abundance of bat ectoparasites at consecutive captures. The objectives of this study were to compare the pattern of Streblidae parasitism between capture and recapture of C. perspicillata; ascertain whether the abundance of Streblidae varied with time after removal of ectoparasites at capture and analyze whether the intensity of parasitism remained the same in each individual at capture and recapture. Using bats netted in the State of Rio de Janeiro, 42 individuals of C. perspicillata parasitized by two Streblidae species, Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and Strebla guajiro (Garcia & Casal, 1965), were selected. The pattern of parasitism observed at capture was similar at recapture. No relationship was observed between the capture-recapture time interval and the abundance of ectoparasites. There was no relationship between the abundances of ectoparasites at capture and recapture of each individual.
Dick, Carl W.
Streblid bat flies are obligate and host-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats. While the bat flies of some American countries are well studied (e.g., Panama, Venezuela), little is known about Honduran Streblidae. Accumulation of substantial numbers of specimens, from several different collections, has enabled a relatively thorough treatment of the fauna. This study is based on 2,236 specimens representing 17 genera and 43 species of Streblidae. Of those presently reported, 11 genera and 32 species are new records for Honduras, increasing the number of known genera and species by 65% and 74%, respectively. Collection and host data are listed for all known Honduran streblid bat fly species. Comments regarding host associations and specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomic problems are given in the species accounts. PMID:23634295
Dick, Carl W
Streblid bat flies are obligate and host-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats. While the bat flies of some American countries are well studied (e.g., Panama, Venezuela), little is known about Honduran Streblidae. Accumulation of substantial numbers of specimens, from several different collections, has enabled a relatively thorough treatment of the fauna. This study is based on 2,236 specimens representing 17 genera and 43 species of Streblidae. Of those presently reported, 11 genera and 32 species are new records for Honduras, increasing the number of known genera and species by 65% and 74%, respectively. Collection and host data are listed for all known Honduran streblid bat fly species. Comments regarding host associations and specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomic problems are given in the species accounts.
Morse, Solon F; Bush, Sarah E; Patterson, Bruce D; Dick, Carl W; Gruwell, Matthew E; Dittmar, Katharina
Bat flies are a diverse clade of obligate ectoparasites on bats. Like most blood-feeding insects, they harbor endosymbiotic prokaryotes, but the origins and nature of these symbioses are still poorly understood. To expand the knowledge of bacterial associates in bat flies, the diversity and evolution of the dominant endosymbionts in six of eight nominal subfamilies of bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) were studied. Furthermore, the localization of endosymbionts and their transmission across developmental stages within the family Streblidae were explored. The results show diverse microbial associates in bat flies, with at least four ancestral invasions of distantly related microbial lineages throughout bat fly evolution. Phylogenetic relationships support the presence of at least two novel symbiont lineages (here clades B and D), and extend the geographic and taxonomic range of a previously documented lineage ("Candidatus Aschnera chinzeii"; here clade A). Although these lineages show reciprocally monophyletic clusters with several bat fly host clades, their phylogenetic relationships generally do not reflect current bat fly taxonomy or phylogeny. However, within some endosymbiont clades, congruent patterns of symbiont-host divergence are apparent. Other sequences identified in this study fall into the widely distributed, highly invasive, insect-associated Arsenophonus lineage and may be the result of symbiont replacements and/or transient infections (here clade C). Vertical transmission of endosymbionts of clades B and D is supported by fluorescent signal (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) and microbial DNA detection across developmental stages. The fluorescent bacterial signal is consistently localized within structures resembling bacteriomes, although their anatomical position differs by host fly clade. In summary, the results suggest an obligate host-endosymbiont relationship for three of the four known symbiont clades associated with bat flies
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Barbier, E; Prado-Neto, J G; Bernard, E
One of the largest gaps in the knowledge of ectoparasitic flies of the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae in Brazil is the northeastern region, where most states do not have any record. Here, we present the first records of those two bat fly families for the state of Paraíba. We recorded a total of 10 species of five genera parasitizing eight bat species of four families. Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel (Streblidae) was the most abundant species, found parasitizing Diphylla ecaudata (Phyllostomidae), and T. dugesioides dugesioides Wenzel, the second, found on Trachops cirrhosus (Phyllostomidae). Three species were recorded for the first time in northeastern Brazil and seven species are new for the semi-arid Caatinga. We collected T. galei Wenzel and T. pallidus (Curran) on Natalus macrourus (Natalidae) and Furipterus horrens (Furipteridae), respectively, two endangered bat species, and the species-specific relationship with their hosts points out to some degree of vulnerability. In addition, we present information on host-parasite relationship, and data that extend the known geographic distribution of some species.
Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato
A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.
Geographical distribution of bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), including two new records, Nycteribia allotopa and N. formosana, collected from bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) in the Republic of Korea.
Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Dick, Carl W; Choi, Yong Gun; Chong, Sung Tae; Klein, Terry A; Rueda, Leopoldo M
As part of the 65(th) Medical Brigade, U.S. Army, arthropod-borne disease surveillance program and in collaboration with the Korea National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), bats were captured from caves and abandoned mines in the Republic of Korea. A total of 39 adult bat flies including five species of Nycteribiidae [Penicillidia jenynsii, Nycteribia parvula, N. formosana, N. allotopa mikado, and an unidentified species of Nycteribia (N. cf. formosana)], and one species of Streblidae, Brachytarsina kanoi, were collected from bats belonging to two families, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. This is the first report of N. allotopa mikado and N. formosana from the Republic of Korea.
Santos, Ciro L C; Dias, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Fernanda S; Lobato, Keliane S; Rosa, Luciana C; Oliveira, Tadeu G; Rebêlo, José M M
This study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family Streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of Maranhão. Specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of Quebra Pote, located in the south portion of the island of São Luís. A total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, A. phyllostomatis (Perty), Mastoptera minuta Costa Lima, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Séguy), Speiseria ambigua Kessel, Stizostrebla longirotris Jobling, Strebla guajiro (García & Casal), S. hertigi Wenzel, Trichobioides perspicillatus (Pessôa & Galvão), Trichobius costalimai Guimarães, T. dugesii Townsend, T. dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, T. joblingi Wenzel and T. longipes (Rudow)] were collected from 50 individuals of nine species of phyllostomid bats [Artibeus lituratus (Olfers), A. obscurus Schinz, Carollia perspicillata L., Glossophaga soricina Pallas, Lophostoma carrikeri J A Allen, Micronycteris minuta Gervais, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, P.hastatus Pallas and Sturnira lilium E Geoffroy)]. Mastoptera minuta, T. costalimai, T. longipes, A. falcata and S. longirostris, were the most frequently found ectoparasites, present in at least 50% of the infected bats. Two species of bats, C. perspicillata e P. discolor, showed the highest richness of ectoparasites, with four species of flies each, and an infection rate of 46% and 100%, respectively.
Dick, Carl W; Dick, Sonya C
Experimental approaches provide insight into the dynamics of species competition and coexistence, but studies of ectoparasitic arthropods are rare. Host choice experiments were undertaken in Amazonian Peru, by using obligate bat fly parasites of Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata (L.). The fly species Trichobius joblingi Wenzel strongly preferred clean hosts to those previously infested with individuals of T. joblingi. Abundance thresholds may limit conspecific parasites on host individuals, and similar morphologies and habitat use may increase intraspecific competition among individuals of T. joblingi. T. joblingi did not distinguish between clean hosts and those previously infested with flies of another species, Speiseria ambigua Kessel. Results suggest that the presence of a morphologically dissimilar species does not preclude subsequent colonization. Differential microhabitat selection, aided by adaptive morphology, may facilitate species coexistence among ectoparasitic bat fly species.
Dick, Carl W; Graciolli, Gustavo; Guerrero, Ricardo
This catalog presents 73 species distributed among 19 genera and three subfamilies of streblid bat flies recorded in Colombia. For each genus we present synonymies and type species, and for each species account we present synonymies, type host, disposition of type material, and specific localities and departments for records known from Colombia.
Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.
Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E
During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided.
Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo
A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small
An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...
Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger
62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...
The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo
Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.
Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris
Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.
Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris
Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221
Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016
Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT
Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763) were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.
Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A
The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.
O’Hara, James E.
Abstract The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera) is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically. PMID:23878512
Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...
Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...
Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo
The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.
The water saturated soils and wet feces in livestock feed lots support a variety of Diptera including Musca spp. and Culicoides spp. Aquatic insects that must regulate the ion concentrations of their haemolymph; and fresh water insects tend to loose ions to their aquatic environment. The larvae of C...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...
The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...
Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander
Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.
Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...
Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...
A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided.
A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...
Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.
COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGE.M) TO KEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Annual Report Terry L. Erwin June...GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Annual--1 September 1979- (SEIGEM) TO MEDICALLY ThWORTANT ARTHROPODS 30 May 1980 (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) 6
Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheies (A?~ssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South America L. P...appraisal of molecular , chromosomal, and morphological characters, we conclude herein that the 2 taxa are specifically distinct and remove An. trinkae...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheles( Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South
Le. GMC). interfor Dyar Harbach et al. 1986:141I (from synonymy of bidens). invidiosus Theobald chioroventer Theobald. 1909. Townsend 1990:59 (add 2...Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. En- and Culex interfor Dyar (Diptera: Culici- tomol. Soc. Wash. 90:153-163. dae) as separate species. Mosq. Syst. Huang, Y
Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane
Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886
Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.
Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique
Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families.
Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric
A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.
Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para
Keiper, Joe B; Walton, William E; Foote, Benjamin A
Although studies of freshwater entomofauna frequently do not include the biodiversity and ecological roles of higher Diptera, cyclorraphous flies are often numerous and species rich in wetlands. Seventeen families are commonly found in freshwater wetlands, with Ephydridae, Chloropidae, Sciomyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, and Scathophagidae being among the most important in terms of population size and species richness. Difficulty with sampling cryptic larval habitats and species identification challenges may account for the exclusion of acalyptrate and other dipterans from wetlands ecology studies. Large populations are facilitated by the high productivity of freshwater wetlands and the high intrinsic rate of increase characteristic of many species. Higher dipterans exist in all freshwater wetland types, are microhabitat selective, and play significant roles in food webs. The varied strategies for food acquisition and patterns of spatial and temporal distribution limit ecological overlap among the higher Diptera.
Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A
The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.
Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These
van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa
Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984
Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu
Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.
Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...
Kahanpää, Jere; Stuke, Jens-Hermann
Abstract A checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Conopoidea (Conopidae), Nerioidea (Micropezidae, Pseudopomyzidae) and Diopsoidea (Megamerinidae, Psilidae, Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae) from Finland in presented. Myopa vicaria Walker, 1849 is formally recorded for the first time from the country. PMID:25337021
Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...
Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....
Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025
Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi
Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae.
Among the insects which are typically considered of forensic interest, the family Piophilidae (Diptera) is frequently cited because of its common occurrence on carcasses in different stages of decay. Piophilids are mainly known from the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei, which can be also a major pest for the food industry and an agent of myiasis. However, many other species of Piophilidae occur frequently on carrion, including human corpses; hence, it is essential to ensure a careful identification of specimens. Reviews of relevant published information about the Piophilidae species of potential forensic use, including recent interesting records, are presented.
Irwin, Michael E.; Winterton, Shaun L.
Abstract Two new stiletto fly genera of Agapophytinae (Diptera: Therevidae) are described from Australia. Sidarena gen. n. comprises six new species (Sidarena aurantia sp. n., Sidarena flavipalpa sp. n., Sidarena geraldton sp. n., Sidarena hortorum sp. n., Sidarena macfarlandi sp. n., and Sidarena yallingup sp. n.) and is largely endemic to Western Australia. Zelothrix gen. n. is described based on two species; Zelothrix warrumbungles sp. n. is a locally abundant species in Eastern Australia, while Zelothrix yeatesi sp. n. is restricted to southwestern Western Australia. These sister genera are likely closely related to Taenogerella Winterton & Irwin and Actenomeros Winterton & Irwin. PMID:27853402
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena
We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846
Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena
We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included.
Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632
Agrawal, Sweta; Grimaldi, David; Fox, Jessica L
One of the primary specializations of true flies (order Diptera) is the modification of the hind wings into club-shaped halteres. Halteres are complex mechanosensory structures that provide sensory feedback essential for stable flight control via an array of campaniform sensilla at the haltere base. The morphology of these sensilla has previously been described in a small number of dipteran species, but little is known about how they vary across fly taxa. Using a synoptic set of specimens representing 42 families from all of the major infraorders of Diptera, we used scanning electron microscopy to map the gross and fine structures of halteres, including sensillum shape and arrangement. We found that several features of haltere morphology correspond with dipteran phylogeny: Schizophora generally have smaller halteres with stereotyped and highly organized sensilla compared to nematoceran flies. We also found a previously undocumented high variation of haltere sensillum shape in nematoceran dipterans, as well as the absence of a dorsal sensillum field in multiple families. Overall, variation in haltere sensillar morphology across the dipteran phylogeny provides insight into the evolution of a highly specialized proprioceptive organ and a basis for future studies on haltere sensory function.
Reeves, Will K; Beck, Jason; Orlova, Maria V; Daly, Jennifer L; Pippin, Kristi; Revan, Floyd; Loftis, Amanda D
Ectoparasites of bats and bat-associated pathogens are poorly studied in the Lesser Antilles Islands. We report on an 11-mo field study on Saint Kitts Island of bat populations, their associated ectoparasites, and pathogens. We report on five ectoparasite species, including four Streblidae (Diptera) and a Spinturnicidae (Acari). Several genotypes of unnamed Bartonella were isolated from bats and ectoparasites. Microfilaria of an undetermined Litomosoides spp. were detected in blood from Artibeus jamaicensis Leach (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) (and associated ectoparasites: Trichobius intermedius Peterson and Hurka (Diptera: Streblidae) and Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans (Acari: Spinturnicidae)). In addition, an Ehrlichia sp. and Rickettsia africae were detected in the blood of several bat species. Our study is one of the first surveys of ectoparasite-borne pathogens in wild mammals from St. Kitts.
Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon
Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.
Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens
Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.
Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja
Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity.
Chelbi, I; Zhioua, E
Details on the productivity and developmental times of a colony of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) over 14 generations are reported and compared with findings of previous studies. The average productivity (percentage of eggs laid that were reared to adults) over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 44.08 and 59.53%, respectively. The maximum productivity was 69.5%. The average developmental time over six generations at 26-27 and at 29 -30 degrees C was 35 and 26 d, respectively. The minimum developmental time from egg to adults was 25 d. The Tunisian strain of P. papatasi can reproduce autogenously or anautogenously, depending on the availability of a suitable bloodmeal source.
Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.
Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949
Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija
The Korean species of Limonia Meigen, 1803 crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) are taxonomically revised. Species L. annulata Lackschewitz, 1940 (Lackschewitz, Pagast, 1940), L. bidens Savchenko, 1979, L. episema Alexander, 1924, L. fusciceps fusciceps Alexander, 1924, L. juvenca Alexander, 1935, L. messaurea messaurea Mendl, 1971, L. nemoralis Savchenko, 1983 are new records for the Korean peninsula and L. pia n. sp. is described. Synonymy of L. venerabilis Alexander, 1938 with L. macrostigma (Schummel, 1829) is confirmed. L. tanakai (Alexander, 1921) is not confirmed for the Korean Peninsula. An identification key, redescriptions and illustrations of all species and both sexes of adults, if they were found in Korea, are presented. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larva and pupa of L. parvipennis Alexander, 1940. Distinguishing morphological characters of the last instar larvae of Korean Limonia are discussed. Keys to the known Korean Limonia larvae and pupae are compiled.
Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y
Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.
Fonseca, Dina M.
Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520
Briscoe, Andrew G; Sivell, Duncan; Harbach, Ralph E
Dixidae, meniscus midges, belong to the suborder Nematocera of the order Diptera. The family includes 197 known species classified in nine genera. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Dixella aestivalis (Meigen) from the United Kingdom is reported here, along with its annotation and comparison with the genome of an unidentified species of Dixella from China. The circular genome consists of 16 465 bp and has a gene content consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding, A + T-rich, control region. The mitochondrial genome of D. aestivalis can be used to identify genetic markers for species identification, and will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus, family Dixidae and suborder Nematocera.
Kahanpää, Jere; Mutanen, Marko
This data release provides COI barcodes for 366 species of parasitic flies (Diptera: Tachinidae), enabling the DNA based identification of the majority of northern European species and a large proportion of Palearctic genera, regardless of the developmental stage. The data will provide a tool for taxonomists and ecologists studying this ecologically important but challenging parasitoid family. A comparison of minimum distances between the nearest neighbors revealed the mean divergence of 5.52% that is approximately the same as observed earlier with comparable sampling in Lepidoptera, but clearly less than in Coleoptera. Full barcode-sharing was observed between 13 species pairs or triplets, equaling to 7.36% of all species. Delimitation based on Barcode Index Number (BIN) system was compared with traditional classification of species and interesting cases of possible species oversplits and cryptic diversity are discussed. Overall, DNA barcodes are effective in separating tachinid species and provide novel insight into the taxonomy of several genera. PMID:27814365
Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah
Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.
George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes
Worldwide research into nocturnal colonization by blowflies has produced many contradictory findings, prompting investigation specific to southeastern Australia. Initial experiments showed that blowfly colonization begins shortly after sunrise and continues until sunset; nocturnal colonization never occurred. Colonization peaks occurred at mid-morning, midday, and in the hours preceding sunset. In an additional experiment, wild blowflies were captured and placed in cages with colonization medium supplied nocturnally. Colonization occurred on four of five nights, and Calliphora augur (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the main species colonizing baits nocturnally. Results suggest that colonization is most likely to occur during warm weather and when flies are able to walk or crawl to bait. In particular, blowflies trapped within a confined space (such as a room or car) with warmer-than-ambient temperature may be stimulated to colonize nearby remains. Entomologists should consider these findings when estimating minimum postmortem interval under these environmental conditions.
Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori
The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts.
Hydrelliaeucoila egeria, a new genus and species obtained from pupae of Hydrellia sp. nov. (Diptera: Ephydridae) mining in Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), is described. Diagnostic photographs and data about the biology of this parasitoid are included. ...
A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...
APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) I’ Annual Report...Bailey. 1981. Application of a com- puterized information management system (SELGEM) to medically important arthropods (National Museum Mosquito
Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...
Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....
A REDESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE MALE OF AEDES (STEGOMYIA) TONGAE EDWARDS WITH A NOTE ON TWO TOPOTYPIC FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) YIAU-MIN...Stegomyia) Tongae Edwards with a Note on Two Topotypic Females 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... FEMALES ( DIPTERA : CULICIDAE ) ‘v2 YIAU-MIN HUANG, Southeast Asia Mosquito Project, Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington
Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio
A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.
Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio
A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065
Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...
Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...
Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...
The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior. Midges were intrathoracically inoc...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior and fecundity. Blood feeding succes...
Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of Bluetongue virus in North America and a competent vector of Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects blood feeding behavior and how this might affect virus transmission....
O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A
The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).
Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre
Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.
Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini.
Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A
The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.
Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal dev...
Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...
A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...
In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...
Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...
Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...
BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...
Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...
The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...
Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031
A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...
incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315-319. Felsenstein, J. (1993). PHYLIP (Phylogeny inference package), ver- sion 3.5. Department of Genetics, University of...disease vectors (Diptera, Culicidae): Impact of molecular biology and cladistic analysis. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 351-369. Peyton, E. L
The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...
The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....
Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan
Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.
Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.
Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting
The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303
Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.
Evans, Richard K.; Toews, Michael D.
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity. Results show that D. suzukii reproductive success was significantly higher during the night (including dawn and dusk periods) than the day in terms of oviposition, pupation, adult eclosion, and the number of progeny per female. Female D. suzukii reproductive success was not significantly different between specific regions of a blueberry bush in relation to the amount of shade provided by the canopy. Our studies indicate that D. suzukii flight activity is crepuscular and is sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity. Results also suggest that the majority of fly activity during peak hours is concentrated in areas around the border and within the center of blueberry orchards with little activity in the surrounding wooded areas. These findings suggest that D. suzukii prefers microclimate with mild temperatures and high humidity, and does not function well when exposed to direct sunlight with extreme heat. The authors propose that D. suzukii management strategies should be implemented during the early morning and immediately before darkness to maximize efficacy. PMID:28187140
Benkova, Ivana; Volf, Petr
Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the most important vector of Leishmania major, and previous experiments revealed that Leishmania development in the sand fly midgut is significantly affected by temperature. Therefore, we maintained blood-fed P. papatasi females at 23 or 28 degrees C to understand the effect of temperature on bloodmeal digestion and developmental times of this sand fly. At the lower temperature, the metabolic processes were slower and developmental times were longer: defecation, oviposition, and egg hatch started later and took longer to complete. Also, the mortality of blood-fed females was significantly lower. The defecation of bloodmeal remains was delayed for 12-36 h at 23 degrees C compared with the group maintained at 28 degrees C. Such delay would provide more time for Leishmania to establish the midgut infection and could partially explain the increased susceptibility of P. papatasi to Leishmania major at 23 degrees C. In both experimental groups, blood-fed females laid similar numbers of eggs (mean 60 and 70, maximum 104 and 115 per female). Egg numbers were positively correlated with the amount of hematin excreted in feces of ovipositing females. In parallel experiments, autogeny was recorded in 8% of females. The autogenous egg batches were smaller (mean, 12; range, 1-39), but they all produced viable larvae.
Murungi, Edwin K; Kariithi, Henry M; Adunga, Vincent; Obonyo, Meshack; Christoffels, Alan
Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps), all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL) domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.
Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M
The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.
Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn
Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.
Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg
The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825
Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R
The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata.
Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting
The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.
Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna
To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285
Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860
Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed.
Bauernfeind, René; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg
Exechia and Bibio have retained several plesiomorphic groundplan features of Diptera and Bibionomorpha, including a fully exposed and sclerotized head capsule, the transverse undivided labrum, the absence of movable premandibles, and undivided mandibles without combs. The fusion of the hypostomal bridge with the head capsule and largely reduced antennae are derived features shared by both taxa. The absence of teeth at the anterior hypostomal margin is a potential autapomorphy of Bibionomorpha. A basal position of Anisopodidae is suggested by a number of plesiomorphies retained in this family. Apomorphies of Bibionomorpha excluding Anisopodidae are the reduction of tentorial elements, the partial fusion of the labrum and clypeus, one-segmented antennae, the absence of a separate submental sclerite, the loss of the labial palpus, and the reduction of the pharyngeal filter apparatus. Head structures of Bibio are largely unmodified. The subprognathous orientation is one of few autapomorphic features. In contrast, the mouthparts of Exechia are highly modified in correlation with the specialized food uptake. The rasping counterrotating movements of maxillae and mandibles with teeth oriented in opposite directions are carried out by strongly developed extensors and flexors of the paired mouthparts. The modified labium mechanically supports the "drill head" formed by the mandibles und maxillae. The necessary stability of the head capsule is provided by the hypostomal bridge which also compensates the far-reaching reduction of the tentorium.
Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani
Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."
Abstract Background Fungus gnats (Sciaroidea) are a globally species rich group of lower Diptera. In Europe, Fennoscandian peninsula in particular holds a notable diversity, ca. 1000 species, of which 10 % are still unnamed. Fungus gnats are predominantly terrestrial insects, but some species dwell in wetland habitats. New information Eight new fungus gnat species, belonging to the families Keroplatidae (Orfelia boreoalpina Salmela sp.n.) and Mycetophilidae (Sciophila holopaineni Salmela sp.n., S. curvata Salmela sp.n., Boletina sasakawai Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., B. norokorpii Salmela & Kolcsár sp.n., Phronia sompio Salmela sp.n., P. reducta Salmela sp.n., P. prolongata Salmela sp.n.), are described. Four of the species are known from Fennoscandia only whilst two are supposed to have boreo-alpine disjunct ranges, i.e. having populations in Fennoscandia and the Central European Alps. One of the species probably has a boreal range (Finnish Lapland and Central Siberia). Type material of Boletina curta Sasakawa & Kimura from Japan was found to consist of two species, and a further species close to these taxa is described from Finland. Phronia elegantula Hackman is redescribed and reported for the first time from Norway. DNA barcodes are provided for the first time for five species. PMID:28325987
Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G
Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.
Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose
Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.
Birmingham, Anna L; Kovacs, Ervin; Lafontaine, Jean Pierre; Avelino, Norman; Borden, John H; Andreller, Isak S; Gries, Gerhard
We conducted a series of nine laboratory experiments testing the response of "vinegar flies," Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae), released in bioassay chambers to experimental traps and lures. These experiments showed that an effective trap could be constructed from a clear 225-ml screw-cap jar fitted with a hollow 8-mm-diameter cylindrical cross bridge. Flies could enter the trap from either end of the cylindrical "gate" and in turn could enter the interior chamber of the trap through a cut out portion at mid-span of the cylinder. The experiments also showed that a natural-component lure could be made using a teabag containing freeze-dried banana powder, yeast, and carrageenan gum powder as a humectant. When dipped in water for 10-15 s and then placed in the bottom of a trap, the teabag provided effective attraction for at least 7 d. Captured flies were immobilized on a sticky card placed in the trap, allowing them to be easily seen. Unlike other traps that cannot be opened and have liquid lures, the cylindrical-gate trap can be reused repeatedly if the teabag and sticky card are replaced. A final two experiments showed that the prototype operational cylindrical-gate trap with a teabag lure captured 3.3 and 2.3 times more released flies, respectively, than the next best of three commercially available traps.
Aguiar, Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Antonini, Yasmine
We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla). Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla) were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i) accidental contamination during sampling, (ii) simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii) genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.
Shelley, A J; Coscarón, S
Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.
Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B
In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039
Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben
DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.
Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal
Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427 = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.
Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan
Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.
Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.
modifications for blackflies (see Mebrahtu et al. allele at a single locus (e.g., PG) were used to 1986). Electrophoresis equipment (Helena Lab... blackfly (Simuliidae: Diptera) larvae and an intraspecific enzyme polymorphism. Mere- pupae found in Ethiopia. Sinet: Ethiop. J. Sci. 2: dith and Townson...1970. Biology of immature stages of -of hlackflies in Simulium venustum and verecundum blackflies in parts of East Africa with special refer- species
Theobald) are herein des- cribed for the first time. Aedes vexans (Meigen) is the only other species in the subgenus Aedimorphus which has the eggs ...1972 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1972 to 00-00-1972 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus...ANSI Std Z39-18 60 Description of the Egg of Aedes (Aedimorphus) domesticus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)l John F. Reinert* Department of
Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın
Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452
Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker
This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.
Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N
The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.
Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest
The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chuntian; Wang, Xinhua
The genus Parerigone (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed. Five new species from China, P. atrisetosa sp. nov., P. flava sp. nov., P. flavisquama sp. nov., P. laxifrons sp. nov. and P. wangi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Parerigone flavihirta (Chao & Sun) is proposed as a new synonym of P. takanoi Mesnil. Diagnosis of species examined and a key to the 15 species of Parerigone are provided.
Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica
Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas
Rossi, Gustavo C; Stein, Marina; Almirón, Walter R
Psorophora (Grabhamia) varinervis Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) is redescribed in the adult stage. Pupa and fourth-stage larva are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about distribution, bionomics, and taxonomy also is included. Adults of Ps. varinervis can be separated from the closely related species Ps. (Gra.) discolor (Coquillett) on the basis of the wing characters, and the larva by the siphon and antenna characters.
Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and
populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de
J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 23, no. 2: 196-200 31 March 1986 AEDES (STEGOLMYIA) BROMELIAE (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE), THE YELLOW FEVER VIRUS VECTOR IN EAST...lilii, and Ae. bromeliae). The species from which Mahaffy, Had- dow, and others isolated yellow fever virus , and which is the most common and...and western Africa but is less prevalent than Ae. bromeliae, and no females have been recorded as biting man. Literature refer- ences to Ae
sandflies based on total collections in the area. Solid black bars. on R. H. and temperature rows represent average daily minimums per month and...and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...PSYCHODIDAE)’ 2860 By Laurence W. Quate2 Abstract: This report describes results of field studies on Phlebotomus sandflies from August 1962 to October
Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.
Chahad-Ehlers, S; Arthur, L P; Lima, A L A; Gesto, J S M; Torres, F R; Peixoto, A A; de Brito, R A
We expanded the view of Clock (Clk) and cycle (cyc) gene evolution in Diptera by studying the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Afra), a Brachycera. Despite the high conservation of clock genes amongst insect groups, striking structural and functional differences of some clocks have appeared throughout evolution. Clk and cyc nucleotide sequences and corresponding proteins were characterized, along with their mRNA expression data, to provide an evolutionary overview in the two major groups of Diptera: Lower Diptera and Higher Brachycera. We found that AfraCYC lacks the BMAL (Brain and muscle ARNT-like) C-terminus region (BCTR) domain and is constitutively expressed, suggesting that AfraCLK has the main transactivation function, which is corroborated by the presence of poly-Q repeats and an oscillatory pattern. Our analysis suggests that the loss of BCTR in CYC is not exclusive of drosophilids, as it also occurs in other Acalyptratae flies such as tephritids and drosophilids, however, but it is also present in some Calyptratae, such as Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae. This indicates that BCTR is missing from CYC of all higher-level Brachycera and that it was lost during the evolution of Lower Brachycera. Thus, we can infer that CLK protein may play the main role in the CLK\\CYC transcription complex in these flies, like in its Drosophila orthologues.
Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B
The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions.
Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa
Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969
Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc
In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into
Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno
Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color
The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...
A new species of Pseudacteon phorid fly Pseudacteon calderis (Diptera: Phoridae) is described from females attacking worker ants of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi in Salta and Jujuy provinces, northwestern Argentina. Pseudacteon calderis differs from almost all other South American Pseudacteon speci...
Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo
Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015
Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...
House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...
The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...
Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...
Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...
GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDICALLY 0 IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) oAnnual Report Terry L. Erwin July...APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE Annual Report INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO July 1981 to June 1982 MEDICALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...
Panov, A A
Nematoceran Diptera are nonuniform in the structure of their mushroom bodies. Members of the more basal families (Ptychopteridae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae) have bipartite mushroom bodies, characteristic of members of the other mecopteroid complex orders. In members of Bibionomorpha (Bibionidae and Anisopodidae), tripartite mushroom bodies have been found characteristic of Brachycera Orthorrhapha.
Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...
A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...
The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...
Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...
Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana
A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided.
House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...
Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...
Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...
Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...
Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...
Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A
In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and
Charron, Maud V P; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline
Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally.
Le Goff, Guillaume Jean; Nicolas, Aurore; Al Mohamad, Raki; Hance, Thierry
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is one of the most important predators used in the augmentative biological control of aphids worldwide. However, due to its particular life history, mass rearing A. aphidimyza remains difficult. Our results show that a high relative humidity level during pupation optimizes the development of A. aphidimyza By improving humidity levels during pupae storage, we improved the production efficiency and nearly achieved a 100% adult emergence rate. These results allow us to suggest a new rearing method for the aphid predator A. aphidimyza.
Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.
The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo
Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla
Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707
Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K
Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.
Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.
The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458
Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo
The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed.
Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E
The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.
El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M
This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.
Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D
The 27 Californian species of the genus Melanagromyza Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are reviewed, including descriptions of three new species (Melanagromyza californiana sp. nov., M. chemsaki sp. nov. and M. gonzalesina sp. nov.) and the first record for one species (Melanagromyza martini Spencer) for California and the USA. All species in California are described or redescribed, with illustrations and photographs, and a key to the species is presented. Maps for the species in California, along with host distributions, are provided, with comments on biology and host plants.
Lebart-Pedebas, M C
The origin and the development of the tubular tergo-trochanteral muscle (TTD) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera: Nematocera). Unlike the flight muscles, the TTD was found to develop from myoblasts located around a larval axon, without contribution from a larval muscle. The myoblasts fuse together to form myotubes. Innervation of the TTD arises from the larval axon. The myotubes send out sarcoplasmic extensions towards the axon branches issued from the larval axon. The first differentiated synapses are described. The TTD begins to grow later than the flight muscles. The implications of this developmental lag are discussed.
Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae
Al-Talafha, Hazem; Yaakop, Salmah Binti; Ghani, Idris Bin Abd
Horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Malaysia consists currently of 120 species belonging to eight genera. The present study added four new records to this hematophagous family. The new records were Tabanus crassus (Walker, 1850), T. griseipalpis Schuurmans Stekhoven (1926), T. melanognathus (Bigot, 1890), and T. mesogaus Burton (1978). Tabanus auricircus Philip (1979) was recorded here for the first time from peninsular Malaysia, whereas T. perakiensis Ricardo (1911) was recorded from Sabah for the first time. Key characters for new records were illustrated based on the examined materials and range of distribution for each species was given.
Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B
Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.
Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X
The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification.
Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2672 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Sur- geon General. 2 Immediate publication...Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Southeast Asia Mosquito Project,Smithsonian Institution,Washington,DC,20560 8
González, C R; Llanos, L; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, M
The terrestrial larva of the austral horsefly, Parosca latipalpis (Macquart), identified by molecular techniques, is described. The larva of P. latipalpis resembles Scaptia auriflua (Donovan), Copidapha vicina (Taylor), Myioscaptia muscula (English), and Osca lata (Guérin-Meneville) in many morphological characters, as well as in their terrestrial habitats. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique among Tabanidae and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin, suggesting a typical Gondwanaland group. Larvae of P. latipalpis were found 2-3 cm below of the soil surface and associated with larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera in southern Chile.
Kang, Zehui; Zhang, Xiao; Ding, Shuangmei; Tang, Chufei; Wang, Yuyu; de Jong, Herman; Cameron, Stephen L.; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding
Tipulomorpha has long been a problematic taxon in terms of familial composition, phylogenetic relationships among families and position relative to other ‘lower’ Diptera. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing provides a powerful basis for phylogenetic studies. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome datasets representing the families Pediciidae, Limoniidae and Cylindrotomidae using high-throughput sequencing technologies. We assembled cDNA libraries for Pedicia vetusta (Alexander) (Pediciidae), Rhipidia sejuga Zhang, Li and Yang (Limoniidae) and Liogma simplicicornis Alexander (Cylindrotomidae). Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 28,252, 44,152 and 44,281 unigenes, from the three respective species. Based on sequence similarity searches, 12,475 (44.16%), 20,334 (46.05%) and 17,478 (39.47%) genes were identified. Analysis of genes highly conserved at the amino acid sequence level revealed there were 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes across the analyzed species. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the 1,709 single-copy orthologs genes indicated that the relationship between the four major infraorders of lower Diptera was: Culicomorpha + (Tipulomorpha + (Psychodomorpha + (Bibionomorpha + Brachycera))). Trichoceridae belongs within Tipulomorpha as the sister-group of Tipuloidea. Highly supported relationships within the Tipuloidea are Pediciidae + (Limoniidae + (Cylindrotomidae + Tipulidae)). Four-cluster likelihood mapping was used to study potential incongruent signals supporting other topologies, however, results were congruent with the ML tree. PMID:28264066
Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda
Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data.
Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G
The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.
Carmo, R F R; Vasconcelos, S D
Islands act as natural laboratories for ecological studies to explain bioinvasion processes and, in this scenario, necrophagous Diptera have never been used as model organisms. This study aimed to (i) describe assemblages of necrophagous Diptera (Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in two insular environments of different origins and distances from mainland, (ii) investigate the effect of anthropogenic impact on the assemblage of carrion flies, (iii) to quantify the establishment of invasive species in the two islands, and (iv) to infer about the conservation status of the islands based on the ecological parameters. Sampling was performed in 2011-2012, in the dry and rainy season. Insects were collected by using traps with chicken liver or sardine baits. In each island, environments exposed to different degrees of human impact were sampled. Ecological analyses were carried out to characterize the assemblages of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, with emphasis on the relation between native and invasive species. In total, 99,862 adults of 21 species of blow flies and flesh flies were collected. Overall abundance in the oceanic island was higher than in the continental island, although the richness of species was higher in the latter. The type of bait did not influence diversity of species sampled in either island. No difference was observed in total richness of both families according to the gradient of anthropogenic impact, in both islands. The invasive species Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was classified as dominant in all environments, irrespective of the anthropogenic impact, which raises concern about the conservation status of each island.
Gracielle, I M S; Tidon, R; Báo, S N
The Drosophilidae family is formed by Brachycera Diptera distributed widely across different regions of the planet. It is composed of about 4000 species, 304 of which are found in Brazil. The objective of this work was to characterize morphologically the structure of the male internal reproductive apparatus and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon in four Neotropical (Drosophila cardini, D. mercatorum, D. nebulosa and D. sturtevanti) and two invasive (D. simulans and Zaprionus indianus) species of drosophilids. The structural aspect of the internal reproductive apparatus corresponds with that described for other drosophilids; however, there are differences in the size and coloration of the structures, such as the testes, in each species analyzed. The spermatozoon of these species was seen to be long and fine, presenting morphological variation. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon revealed that the morphological pattern is similar to that found in the majority of insects. The head region presents a nucleus with condensed chromatin and the acrosome positioned laterally to the nucleus. In the tail region, the axoneme presents the 9+9+2 pattern commonly described for other species of Diptera. The species presented differences regarding the shape and size of the mitochondrial derivatives. Cytochemical analysis using EPTA also revealed differences in terms of the location of the basic proteins in the mitochondrial derivates. The results obtained contribute to expanding the database for the Drosophilidae family, providing information that may contribute to intra- and inter-specific identification and supplying phylogenetic analyses.
Langer, Sarah V; Kyle, Christopher J; Beresford, David V
Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species. Both sexes were distinguishable to species, with the greatest difference between males: 12.34% P. terraenovae versus 1.62% P. regina, less so for females: 40.25% P. terraenovae, versus 33.65% P. regina. Incorporating this feature into future blow fly keys would help with distinguishing field-caught specimens when other features are obstructed.
Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M
A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.
Beckenbach, Andrew T
The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.
Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana
Abstract A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided. PMID:23653524
Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza
Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152
AD-A281 335 0 Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephaliti Vi 4 by Strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynch &1j (Diptera: Culicidae...co m •strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus isolated from Ae. albopictus collected in Polk...County, Florida. Both species became infected with and transmitted EEE virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had _been inoculated with EEE
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes
A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.
Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio
This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.
Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V
A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to
Parry, N J; Mansell, M W; Weldon, C W
Seasonal, spatial, and habitat responses of carrion-associated Diptera assemblages can provide valuable information about the presence or absence of species and their relative abundance, and thereby enhance understanding of their responses to environmental variables and how this may have an impact on forensic investigations. Three different nature reserves (localities) within the Municipality of Tshwane, South Africa, were selected to determine whether species assemblages of carrion-feeding flies differ between seasons, localities, and habitat types. A total of 59,511 adult Diptera, identified to 35 species in eight different families, were collected using modified Redtop hanging traps, baited with liver and fish, during four seasons in three different habitat types. Species assemblages differed temporally, with season being the main factor determining species diversity and not locality or habitat. However, savanna and human-disturbed habitats supported a higher abundance and species richness than grassland habitats. Areas adjacent to the localities, such as large urban expanses in Dinokeng or agricultural holdings in Rietvlei, led to an increase in the abundance and mean species richness of carrion-associated Diptera, and in increased numbers of pest or invasive species such as Chrysomya megacephala (F.). Despite this, the overall species assemblages present in human-disturbed areas were very similar to those recorded in natural habitats.
Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.
Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136
Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W
A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927
Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.
Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth
During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera.
Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J
From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.
Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L
Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.
Winterton, Shaun L.
Abstract The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurum sp. n., Panops danielsi sp. n., Panops jade sp. n. and Panops schlingeri sp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included. PMID:22448114
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes
The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490
Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A
The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.
Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne endemic diseases in Turkey. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the developmental rates of one important vector of leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Eggs from laboratory-reared colonies of Phlebotomus papatasi were exposed to six constant temperature regimes from 15 to 32 degrees C with a daylength of 14 h and relative humidity of 65-75%. No adult emergence was observed at 15 degrees C. Complete egg to adult development ranged from 27.89 +/- 1.88 days at 32 degrees C to 246.43 +/- 13.83 days at 18 degrees C. The developmental zero values were estimated to vary from 11.6 degrees C to 20.25 degrees C depending on life stages, and egg to adult development required 440.55 DD above 20.25 degrees C.
Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N
Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.
De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano
This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details.
Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro
Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105
Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.
Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255
De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano
Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes
The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej
Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Hashim, Rosli; Yacob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee-Dhang
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.
Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos
The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.
Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.
Censier, F; Chavalle, S; Knor, S; De Proft, M; Bodson, B; Skuhravá, M
The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought.
Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.
The circadian changes in morphology of the first visual neuropil or lamina of Diptera represent an example of the neuronal plasticity controlled by the circadian clock (circadian plasticity). It is observed in terminals of the compound eye photoreceptor cells, the peripheral oscillators expressing the clock genes. However, it has been found also in their postsynaptic partners, the L1 and L2 monopolar cells, in which the activity of the clock genes have not yet been detected. The circadian input that the L1 and L2 receive seems to originate not only from the retina photoreceptors and from the circadian pacemaker neurons located in the brain, but also from the glial cells that express the clock genes and thus contain circadian oscillators. This paper summarizes the morphological and biochemical rhythms in glia of the optic lobe, shows how they contribute to circadian plasticity, and discusses how glial clocks may modulate circadian rhythms in the lamina. PMID:23986707
Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan
Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514
Silvestri, L; Antoniazzi, L R; Couri, M S; Monje, L D; Beldomenico, P M
Species of Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae) are Neotropical dipterans that include species with parasitic larvae which feed on nestling birds. To date, all Philornis species that have been recorded from Argentina have parasitic subcutaneous larvae. Here, for the first time for Argentina, we report the finding of Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968, a fly with a nest-dwelling, semi-haematophagous larva. This record, from the humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina in the nest of a saffron finch Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, substantially extends the known distribution of this species. We also report the consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 regions of three of the specimens for future reference and comparison. Further investigation is needed to determine whether Argentina is part of the historical range of P. downsi or, alternatively, represents a recent expansion of its range, perhaps due to climatic changes or other factors of global environmental variation.
Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.
The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104
Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe
The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October), marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.
Tee, R D; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B
Chironomid midges are small (2-15 mm) non-biting flies, characteristically seen swarming by water at dusk. Allergens of the "green nimitti" midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi (Freeman) (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by Sephacryl S200 chromatography. The allergenicity of the fractions was identified by "rocket" autoradiography, RAST inhibition, skin "prick" tests, and the immunoblot technique. The fractions were further analysed by isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE. Two major allergens with pI's ranging from 4.3 to 6.0 were identified and had molecular weights of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 daltons, sizes compatible with their being monomeric and dimeric haemoglobins. Since chironomids occur in nuisance numbers worldwide and their haemoglobins have been shown to produce severe hypersensitivity reactions in man, they should be seen as an important potential cause of environmental and occupational allergy.
Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.
Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188
El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al
Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533
Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick
The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455
Although insects have been objects of observation in French-speaking countries since the seventeenth century, and were illustrated by Reaumur and other scientists during the eighteenth, specialized dipterology only emerged in the first half of the nineteenth century. The two main divisions of the Order Diptera were defined by French entomologists, namely Nemocera (currently Nematocera) by Latreille in 1817, and Brachocera (currently Brachycera) by Macquart in 1834. Insects as a whole were rarely studied until the late nineteenth century, when the discovery of their role in the transmission of important diseases resulted in the creation of a new discipline: medical entomology. From this time on, medically important groups (mosquitoes, tsetse flies, etc.) have been objects of intense concern and study, especially at the Pasteur Institute and the Paris Faculté de médecine. But the most important French dipterist* in the twentieth century has probably been the Museum specialist Eugène Séguy.
Wagner, Rüdiger; Bellstedt, Ronald
The aquatic insect collection of the late Dr. W. Joost contained two new species of Thaumaleidae (Diptera) from the Caucasus Mountains: Thaumalea monikae sp. n. and Thaumalea biacuminata sp. n. These two new species are herein described, and the most abundant species in Dr. Joost's collection, Thaumalea martinovskyi Joost, 1979, is redescribed based on the type material. Figures of male and female genitalia for all species are provided. All three species show morphological similarities to taxa from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Thaumalea monikae is related to the European T. bezzii-species group, T. biacuminata to the T. serrata-group, and T. martinovskyi to T. kyladica Wagner, 1981 and T. malickyi Theischinger, 1979 from the Eastern Mediterranean area.
Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan
Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.
Versteirt, V; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Dekoninck, W; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
The establishment of the potential vector species Aedes (Finlaya) japonicusjaponicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Belgium is reported. The species was most likely introduced through the international trade in used tires. It was first collected in 2002 on the premises of a second-hand tire company and was sampled using different sampling methods in the two consecutive years (2003-2004). It was only in 2007 and 2008, during a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK), that its presence as adults and larvae at the above-mentioned site and at another tire company in the area was confirmed based on morphological and molecular identification. This discovery is the first record for Belgium of an exotic mosquito species that established successfully and raises the question on the need for monitoring and control. Considering the accompanying species found during the surveys, we also report here the first observation of Culex (Maillotia) hortensis hortensis (Ficalbi) in Belgium.
Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad
The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given.
Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro
Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.
Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy
For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.
Samayoa, Ana Clariza; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), ﬁnite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.
dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786
Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José
The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the "Coleção de Flebotomíneos" of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female "allotype" and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female "syntypes"), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female "allotype" and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype).
Martín-Vega, Daniel; Baz, Arturo
The use of carrion-baited traps is a common and widely extended practice in the study of sarcosaprophagous Diptera. However, it implies different areas of bias, one of them being the different responses of males and females to carrion bait, which results in possible biased sex ratios in the captures. In the present study, the use of carrion-baited traps revealed significant female-biased captures in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae, whereas the collected species of the families Piophilidae, Heleomyzidae, and Ulidiidae showed different patterns in the observed sex ratios. Possible explanations according to existing literature and the types of mating behaviors of the different families are discussed. PMID:23885859
Barnes, Jeffrey K.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.
Abstract Background This is the fourth in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months in 2013 using twelve trap types, including Malaise and canopy traps, Lindgren multifunnel traps, and pan traps. New information We provide collection records for 38 species of Asilidae and other Diptera, 7 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Asilidae) Lasiopogon opaculus Loew, 1874; (Lygistorrhinidae) Lygistorrhina sancthecatharinae Thompson, 1975; (Stratiomyidae) Cephalochrysa nigricornis (Loew, 1866), Gowdeyana punctifera (Malloch, 1915), Sargus decorus Say, 1824; (Ulidiidae) Callopistromyia annulipes Macquart, 1855; and (Xylophagidae) Rachicerus obscuripennis Loew, 1863. PMID:27660536
Kaspřák, David; Mantič, Michal; Fitzgerald, Scott; Ševčíková, Tereza; Tóthová, Andrea; Jaschhof, Mathias
The phylogeny of the insect infraorder Bibionomorpha (Diptera) is reconstructed based on the combined analysis of three nuclear (18S, 28S, CAD) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, COI) gene markers. All the analyses strongly support the monophyly of Bibionomorpha in both the narrow (sensu stricto) and the broader (sensu lato) concepts. The major lineages of Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Sciaroidea, Bibionoidea, Anisopodoidea, and Scatopsoidea) and most of the included families are supported as monophyletic groups. Axymyiidae was not found to be part of Bibionomorpha nor was it found to be its sister group. Bibionidae was paraphyletic with respect to Hesperinidae and Keroplatidae was paraphyletic with respect to Lygistorrhinidae. The included Sciaroidea incertae sedis (except Ohakunea Edwards) were found to belong to one clade, but the relationships within this group and its position within Sciaroidea require further study. PMID:27781163
Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico
Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies.
Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M
Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22808369
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David
The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.
Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity.
Abstract New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India), Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal), Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand); Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania), Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya); Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates) astrictus sp. n. (Kenya), Syllegomydas (Notobates) heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda), Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe). Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates) dispar (Loew, 1852), which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species. PMID
Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R
Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera.
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...
A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....
Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...
Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence
Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...
The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...
Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...
The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...
4 MOSQUITO INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROJECT (MIMP): *APPLICATION OF A COMPUTERIZED GENERAL PURPOSE I INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO...1983 to August 1984 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SELGEM) TO MEDI- 6 EFRIGOG EOTNME * CALLY IMPORTANT ARTHROPODS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) .v PEnRMN OG
Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...
Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...
Simpson, Karl W.
A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…
Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...
Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...
Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...
Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...
The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...
strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408
The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...
Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker
Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.
Leblanc, Luc; Rubinoff, Daniel; Vargas, Roger I
Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the nontarget impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with Cue-Lure and methyl eugenol were maintained and emptied weekly in a range of native and non-native forest and commercial orchard and backyard sites on Hawaii and Maui Islands. Lure trap captures were compared against those from unbaited control traps and traps artificially baited with decaying fruit flies to mimic the effect of accumulation of dead trapped target flies in male lure traps. Cue-Lure did not attract nontargets, and methyl eugenol attracted low but significant numbers of five species of flower-associated insects (honey bees, syrphid flies, nitidulid beetles, and endemic crambid moths) and two endemic Hawaiian species of sciarids (Diptera) and mirids (Hemiptera). Saprophagous nontargets, mostly Diptera, were abundant and diverse in traps baited with decaying flies and in male lure traps where accumulation of dead flies occurred but not in male lure traps with few or no fruit fly captures. Most of the previously published records of attraction to methyl eugenol are shown to actually be secondary attraction to decaying fruit flies. Endemic nontargets were collected in native and adjacent forest, but almost exclusively invasive species were attracted to traps placed in non-native habitats. Attraction of flower-associated species may be minimized if methyl eugenol traps are placed in trees after flowering season in orchards.
Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando
Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos
de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L
The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.
Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Al-Ahmadi, Z; Zaafouri, B; El Fahem, A; Zhioua, E
The population density of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae), vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), was assessed May-November 2005 in central Tunisia by using sticky traps. The densities of P. papatasi were found to peak in early spring and again in the autumn. The lowest densities were observed in August. Prevalence of ZCL in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid peaks in December, 3 to 3.5 mo after the fall sand fly population peak, suggesting a close temporal association with the abundance of P. papatasi.
Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; García, Rafael; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Presa, Juan-José; García, María-Dolores
This paper presents a forensic investigation that took place in the city of Murcia (SE Spain) and shows how the entomological specimens collected at the scene were extremely helpful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin). The occurrence of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is reported here for the first time in a forensic case. Additionally, the importance of other entomological evidence in this case is discussed. The first known images of the puparium are provided, as well as its redescription and that of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton recovered from the puparium.
Aibulatov, S V
In this paper, the data on fauna of Nevermanniini and Wilhelmiini tribes (Diptera: Simuliidae) were analyzed. All the accessible literature sources, institute collections and new materials recently collected in Yakutia were examined. Regional fauna was supplemented by two species: Schoenbaueria dendrofila (Patrusheva, 1962) and S. furculata Shewell, 1952, the latter being new for the Russian fauna also. The distribution of five more species from Simuliidae family was clarified. Processing of the collected material proved that 10 species previously registered in Yakutia can still be found in the region.
Gilasian, Ebrahim; Ziegler, Joachim; Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad
Minthodes susae Gilasian & Ziegler sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), from southwestern Iran, is described and illustrated, and compared with M. brevipennis (Brauer & Bergenstamm) from Turkey. A lectotype is recognised for Pseudomintho brevipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm (currently a species of Minthodes) and its designation is attributed to Mesnil. Minthodes pictipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm is newly recorded from Iran and Turkey, and M. latifacies Herting is reported from Iran for the first time. An identification key to the four Minthodes Brauer & Bergenstamm species known to occur in Iran is provided. Finally, new data are given on the intraspecific variation of Minthodes atra (Kugler).
Bounias, M; Nizeyimana, B; Vago, C
A study of the action of very low doses of the delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis israëlensis on the larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera) gave evidence for peculiar properties of the dose/effect relations based on the variations of the regression slopes of functional relationships between the pairs cysteine/serine and fatty acids/histidine, by contrast with the pair fatty acids/glucose which exhibited a classical shaped relation. This indicates "crypto-toxicological" processes, not lethal by themselves and without pathological symptoms, but able to initiate "pathogen-chaining" mechanisms leading, at the end, to a lethal secondary syndrome.
Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka
New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002.
Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy
The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given.
Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E
The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.
Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G
Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.
Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin
A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.
Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana
We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.
Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825
Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.
Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo
The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.
Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Yeates, David K
The first water snipe fly (Diptera: Tabanomorpha) fossil discovered in the Late Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Notoatherix antiqua gen. et sp. nov., described from a single wing specimen, is assigned to the family Athericidae based on the diagnostic feature of this family: the vein R2+3 ending very near to R1 (marginal cell closed). It is the first record of Athericidae from Australia and the oldest adult record of this family worldwide.
Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo
In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses.
Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun
The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679
Zayed, Alia; Soliman, Mustafa M; El-Shazly, Mohamed M
Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for approximately 20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 +/- 1 degrees C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 +/- 1 degrees C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.
Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Castellón, Eloy G; De Souza, Maria de Fátima; Menezes, Alexandre A Lara; Queiroz, José Wilton; Macedo e Silva, Virgínia Penéllope; Jerônimo, Selma M B
The resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil increases the need for studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Sand flies were captured in peridomestic habitats biweekly for 3 yr. Cross-correlation tests and spectral analysis were used to analyze the simultaneous and lag-time correlations between Lu. longipalpis population densities and abiotic factors of temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and rainfall. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed for males and females, with intervals of 6 mo between population peaks for males and 12 mo for females. Peak female population densities lagged 3 mo behind the maximum annual temperature. Female population density was negatively correlated with relative humidity. An increase in average wind velocity was followed by a decrease in the number of females for 2 wk. Understanding the relationship between the seasonal population dynamics of Lu. longipalpis and abiotic factors will contribute to the design of better control measures to decrease transmission of L. infantum and consequently the incidence of leishmaniasis.
Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.
We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588
Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior.
Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Ayala, Diego; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Allene, Xavier; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Maganga, Gael Darren; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe
Caves house pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In Africa, previous studies identified mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges as the main potential vectors of cave-dwelling pathogens. However, to understand their involvement in pathogen spillover, it is crucial to characterize their diversity, community composition and dynamics. Using CDC light traps, we collected hematophagous Diptera in six caves of Gabon during one-shot or longitudinal sampling, and investigated their species diversity and dynamics in relation with external rainfall. Overall, we identified 68 species of mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges, including 45 new records for Gabon. The dominant species were: Uranotaenia nigromaculata, Anopheles smithii s.l., Culex. rima group and Culex quasiguiarti for mosquitoes, Spelaeophlebotomus gigas and Spelaeomyia emilii for sand flies and the Culicoides trifasciellus group and Culicoides fulvithorax for biting midges. The survey revealed that species assemblages were cave-specific and included mainly troglophilous and trogloxenous species. Both diversity and abundance varied according to the cave and sampling time, and were significantly associated with rainfall. These associations were modulated by the cave specific environmental conditions. Moreover, the presence of trogloxenous and troglophilous species could be of high significance for pathogen transfers between cave and epigeous hosts, including humans.
Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-Juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y W; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chun-Tian
Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.
Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Gimeno, I M; Pérez de León, A A; Watson, D W
We investigated the acquisition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Stable flies were fed blood containing live virus, modified live vaccine virus, chemically inactivated virus, or no virus. Stable flies acquired PRRSV from the bloodmeal and the amount of virus in the flies declined with time, indicating virus did not replicate in fly digestive tissues. Virus RNA was recovered from the flies fed live virus up to 24 h postfeeding using virus isolation techniques and 96 h using qRT-PCR. We further examined the fate of PRRSV in the hemolymph of the flies following intrathoracic injection to bypass the midgut barrier. PRRSV was detected in intrathoracically inoculated adult stable flies for 10 d using qRT-PCR. In contrast to what we observed in the digestive tract, detectable virus quantities in the intrathoracically inoculated stable flies followed an exponential decay curve. The amount of virus decreased fourfold in the first 3 d and remained stable thereafter, up to 10 d.
Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M
Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.
Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations.
Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A
Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707
Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao
In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.
Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Sopaladawan, Piyamas Nanork; Wongpakam, Komgrit; Pramual, Pairot
The black fly Simulium aureohirtum Brunetti (Diptera: Simuliidae) is geographically widespread and utilizes diverse habitats. Previous studies revealed high genetic diversity, suggesting that this species could be a species complex. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II sequences to examine genetic structure and demographic history of S. aureohirtum in Thailand. High level of genetic variation was observed due to the existence of genetically divergent lineages (A, B, and C). Lineages A and C were geographically widespread, while lineage B was geographically restricted to the eastern part of Thailand. The geographic localization of lineage B suggested limitations in gene flow, which is most likely a result of ecologically different habitats. Large genetic differences between individuals of lineages A and C, but geographically sympatric distributions of the members of these lineages, are considered to represent an admixture of the populations that have evolved allopatrically. Historical environmental change during the Pleistocene glaciations is possibly the factor that drove the lineage divergence. Population demographic history analyses revealed recent population expansions in the three lineages dating back to the last glaciations. These observations further highlight the significance of the Pleistocene climatic change on current genetic structure and diversity of living organisms of the Southeast Asian mainland.
Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M
Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal and larval specimens collected from Southern Western Ghats India. The morphological data of two new species S. (Gomphostilbia) panagudiense sp. n. and S. (Gomphostilbia) kottoorense sp. n. are assigned to the batoense species group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. S. (Gomphostilbia) panagudiense sp.n. is characterized in the female by having the scutum without longitudinal vitta and arms of the genital fork wide basally and in the pupa by the stalk of ventral pair medium-long. S. (Gomphostilbia) kottoorense sp.n. is characterized by the arm of genital fork tapered near apex in the female and style in medial view 0.63 times as long as coxite in the male. Phylogeny of members in the genus Simulium was reconstructed based on DNA barcoding gene (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I). Tree analysis using new technology and maximum likelihood analyses are congruent with evidence of two new species in the subgenus Gomphostilbia and separated from other species.
Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C
Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia.
Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Wongpakam, Komgrit
Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. We used human-biting specimens because they enabled us to link information with previous studies involving the immature stages. Three black fly taxa, Simulium nodosum, S. nigrogilvum and S. doipuiense complex, were collected. The S. doipuiense complex was confirmed for the first time as having human-biting habits. The COI sequences revealed considerable genetic diversity in all three species. Comparisons to a COI sequence library of black flies in Thailand and in a public database indicated a high efficiency for specimen identification for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum, but this method was not successful for the S. doipuiense complex. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two divergent lineages in the S. doipuiense complex. Human-biting specimens formed a separate clade from other members of this complex. The results are consistent with the Barcoding Index Number System (BINs) analysis that found six BINs in the S. doipuiense complex. Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify the species status of these human-biting specimens.
Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao
In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689
Confalonieri, Ulisses E. C.; Costa Neto, Cristina
This paper presents a study based on ecological parameters represented by diversity and richness indices applied in a community of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuanã, Melgaço municipality, state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8 m, 16 m, and 30 m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16 m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuanã. PMID:22997514
Jewiss-Gaines, A; Barelli, L; Hunter, F F
Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) were collected on sheep farms in southern Ontario to establish whether Culicoides spp pose a threat to the livestock industry. Specimens were collected in modified CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, returned to the laboratory, freeze-killed, and identified to species under a microscope. In addition to Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), we found that Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones occurred on a number of farms over a 2-yr period. These records represent a significant departure from C. sonorensis' previously known geographical distribution. We present spatial and temporal distribution data for both species, with an emphasis on C. sonorensis DNA sequence information is presented so that researchers lacking the necessary taxonomic skills can determine whether C. sonorensis is present in their collections. To differentiate C. sonorensis from C. variipennis, taxonomically reliable and informative traits were found in EF1α and, to a lesser extent, in ITS1, whereas the universal barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) was unsuitable.
Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.
Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias
Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments.
Holder, Peter; George, Sherly; Disbury, Mark; Singe, Monica; Kean, John M; McFadden, Andrew
A biosecurity response was triggered by the detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Port of Auckland, New Zealand. Ae. albopictus does not occur in New Zealand and is the most significant mosquito threat to this country. The possibility that a founding population had established, resulted in a large-scale biosecurity surveillance and control program. The response was initiated in early March 2007 and completed by mid-May 2007. No further exotic mosquitoes were detected. The response surveillance program consisted of larval habitat surveys and high density ovi- and light trapping. It was coordinated with a habitat modification and S-methoprene treatment control program. The response policies were guided by analysis of surveillance and quality assurance data, population modeling, and trace-back activities. Mosquito habitat and activity close to port were both more abundant than expected, particularly in storm water drain sumps. Sumps are difficult to treat, and during the response some modification was required to the surveillance program and the control regime. We were assured of the absence or eradication of any Ae. albopictus population, as a result of nil detection from surveillance, backed up by four overlapping rounds of insecticide treatment of habitat. This work highlights the importance of port surveillance and may serve as a guide for responses for future urban mosquito incursions.
Marcos-García, M A; García-López, A; Zumbado, M A; Rotheray, G E
When assessing the species richness of a taxonomic group in a specific area, the choice of sampling method is critical. In this study, the effectiveness of three methods for sampling syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests is compared: Malaise trapping, collecting adults with an entomological net, and collecting and rearing immatures. Surveys were made from 2008 to 2011 in six tropical forest sites in Costa Rica. The results revealed significant differences in the composition and richness of syrphid faunas obtained by each method. Collecting immatures was the most successful method based on numbers of species and individuals, whereas Malaise trapping was the least effective. This pattern of sampling effectiveness was independent of syrphid trophic or functional group and annual season. An advantage of collecting immatures over collecting adults is the quality and quantity of associated biological data obtained by the former method. However, complementarity between results of collecting adults and collecting immatures, showed that a combined sampling regime obtained the most complete inventory. Differences between these results and similar studies in more open Mediterranean habitats, suggest that for effective inventory, it is important to consider the effects of environmental characteristics on the catchability of syrphids as much as the costs and benefits of different sampling techniques.
Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G
This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.
LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.
Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654
Arcoverde, Alessandro Roberto; Rodrigues, André Flávio Soares Ferreira; Daemon, Erik
This study was aimed at making the bionomic aspects of Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart 1839) clear and at providing ways for keeping this diptera under laboratory conditions. A hundred and seventy-four flies were collected, of which 30% did not show hematophagy under laboratory conditions. The others were split into two groups with feeding intervals of 24 and 48 h. The individuals fed within a 24-h interval were found to live longer than the ones fed within a 48-h interval and blood meal time was decreased as feeding interval was increased. In the 48-h-feeding-interval group, females were found to live longer than the males, what could not be shown for the 24-h-feeding-interval group. Copulation was not observed in vitro, even after exposure to pigeon feathers and scraped skin. Data from this study suggest that daily feeding makes it possible to keep P. canariensis under laboratory conditions for a period of time longer than the one found for the 48-h feeding interval.
Follett, Peter A
The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.
Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B
Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.
Magni, Paola A; Pacini, Tommaso; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Dadour, Ian R
Entomotoxicology is the study of using insects for the detection of drugs and other chemical substances in decomposing tissues. One research aspect in particular is the effects of these substances on arthropod development and morphology, and their consequences on the post mortem interval estimation. Since methamphetamine (MA) is becoming commonplace as an illegal recreational drug, a GC-MS method for the detection of MA in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly was investigated. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of MA (5 ng/g and 10 ng/g) based on typical concentrations found in human tissue in cases of death caused by MA overdose. The experimental results demonstrated that (i) MA produced a significant increase in the developmental time from egg to adult in C. vomitoria, (ii) approximately 60% of larvae exposed to either dose of MA died during the pupation period and (iii) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae were on average significantly larger than the controls.
Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751
Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan
Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.
Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E
Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.
Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.
A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.
Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James
Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.
Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.
Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231
Wormington, Jillian D.; Juliano, Steven A.
Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (SBM). Goal To determine whether three Aedes mosquito species have similar plasticity in SSD, attain sexual dimorphism through similar strategies, and whether SSD and SBM are associated. Organisms Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods In four different food availability environments, we quantified plastic responses of relative growth rate (RGR), development time, and adult body size in individually reared males and females. Results Food availability affected RGR differently for the sexes for all three species. The RGR of males and females differed significantly in the 0.1 g/L food treatment. This difference did not account for observed SSD. Food levels over which the largest changes in RGR were observed differed among the species. Male and female adult mass and development time were jointly affected by food availability in a pattern that differed among the three species, so that degree of SSD and SBM changed differentially with food availability for all three species. Development time was generally less sexually dimorphic than mass, particularly in A. albopictus. At lower food levels, A. aegypti and A. triseriatus had accentuated dimorphism in development time. These results, combined with our knowledge of mosquito life history, suggest that a direct benefit of SBM is improbable for mosquitoes and that the observed intersexual differences in development time are more likely byproducts of selection for SSD. PMID:25663826
Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna
Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.
Lee, Jana C; Burrack, Hannah J; Barrantes, Luz D; Beers, Elizabeth H; Dreves, Amy J; Hamby, Kelly A; Haviland, David R; Isaacs, Rufus; Richardson, Tamara A; Shearer, Peter W; Stanley, Cory A; Walsh, Doug B; Walton, Vaughn M; Zalom, Frank G; Bruck, Denny J
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a recent invasive pest of small and stone fruits, has been detected in more than half of the U.S. states, and in Canada, Mexico, and Europe. Upon discovery, several different trap designs were recommended for monitoring. This study compared the trap designs across seven states/provinces in North America and nine crop types. Between May and November 2011, we compared a clear cup with 10 side holes (clear); a commercial trap with two side holes (commercial); a Rubbermaid container with mesh lid and rain tent (Haviland), and with 10 side holes and no tent (modified Haviland); a red cup with 10 side holes (red); and a white container with mesh lid and rain tent (Van Steenwyk). Although fly catches among traps varied per site, overall, the Haviland trap caught the most D. suzukii, followed by the red, Van Steenwyk, and clear trap. The modified Haviland and commercial trap had low captures. Among five crop types in Oregon, a clear cup with mesh sides (Dreves) also was tested and caught the most flies. Traps with greater entry areas, found in mesh traps, caught more flies than traps with smaller entry areas. In terms of sensitivity and selectivity, traps that caught more flies likewise caught flies earlier, and all traps caught 26-31% D. suzukii out of the total Drosophila captured. Future trap improvements should incorporate more entry points and focus on selective baits to improve efficiency and selectivity with regard to the seasonal behavior of D. suzukii.
Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich
An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.
Tee, R D; Cromwell, O; Longbottom, J L; Cranston, P S; Kay, A B
Allergens in extracts of the 'green nimitti' midge, Cladotanytarsus lewisi Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae), a cause of widespread hypersensitivity in the Sudan, were isolated and partially characterized by assays which depend on the binding of 125I-anti-IgE to allergen-IgE complexes. These methods included RAST inhibition, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and rocket radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RRIE). Following Sephadex G100 chromatography the 'major peak' of allergenicity as determined by RAST inhibition, RRIE and SDS-PAGE was associated with molecules of approximately 17 000 daltons. The peak eluting at Vo contained material of molecular weight 66 000 daltons which also bound 125I-anti-IgE, but had only 61% of the activity of the 'major peak' by RAST inhibition. By isoelectric focusing and RRIE of fractions obtained by chromatofocusing with polybuffer exchanger 94, the 'major peak' was associated with multiple bands with a pI range of 3.5-5.5. These results indicate that the major allergens from C. lewisi are a group of closely related acidic peptides.
Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D
Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation.
Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem
House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.
Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.
De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V
Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.
Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano
In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field.
Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C
This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.
Hackenberger, Branimir K; Jarić, Davorka; Krcmar, Stjepan
The pattern of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) distribution and correlations among biodiversity, abundance, abiotic factors, and altitude were determined along a two-sided altitudinal transect. The sampling was carried out on five 3-d periods during tabanid seasonal activity. Linen canopy traps with 1-octen-3-ol as an attractant were used at 20 sampling sites along the transect. The results showed that the qualitative composition of tabanid species can be distinguished by altitude and, especially, between southeastern and northwestern mountain slopes. The peaks of horse fly species richness and abundance were indicated at middle elevations of both slopes, where horse fly distributional groups were overlapping and most rare and infrequent species were sampled. All expected species were sampled according to species accumulation curve. The canonical correlation analysis separated species and sampling sites into three clusters; two were positively correlated with the temperature and the wind but differed in sensitivity toward them, and the third cluster was correlated with the humidity. The horse fly distribution was nonhomogenous, and the distributional patterns were only partially determined by altitude and vegetation. The determining environmental variables were different for each slope: temperature and wind for the southern slope (Mediterranean climatic zone) and humidity for the northern slope (continental climatic zone).
Lantova, Lucie; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are important vectors of human pathogens. Moreover, they possess monoxenous parasites, including gregarines of the genus Psychodiella Votypka, Lantova, and Volf, which can negatively affect laboratory-reared colonies, and have been considered as potential candidates in biological control. In this study, effects of the gregarine Psychodiella sergenti Lantova, Volf, and Votypka on its natural host Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot were evaluated. The gregarines increased the mortality of immature sand fly stages, and this effect was even more apparent when the infected larvae were reared in more dense conditions. Similarly, the gregarines negatively affected the survival of adult males and females. However, no impact was observed on the mortality of blood-fed females, the proportion of females that laid eggs, and the number of eggs oviposited. The 10-times higher infection dose (50 versus five gregarine oocysts per one sand fly egg) led to -10 times more gamonts in fourth-instar larvae and two or three times more gamonts in females and males, respectively. Our study clearly shows that Ps. sergenti is harmful to its natural host under laboratory conditions. However, its potential for use in biological control is questionable as a result of several factors, including this parasite's strict host specificity.
Shukle, Richard H; Cambron, Sue E; Moniem, Hossam Abdel; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Redding, Julie; David Buntin, G; Flanders, Kathy L; Reisig, Dominic D; Mohammadi, Mohsen
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant wheat results in the selection of pest genotypes that can overcome formerly resistant wheat. We have evaluated the effectiveness of 16 resistance genes for protection of wheat from Hessian fly infestation in the southeastern United States. Results documented that while 10 of the genes evaluated could provide protection of wheat, the most highly effective genes were H12, H18, H24, H25, H26, and H33. However, H12 and H18 have been reported to be only partially effective in field evaluations, and H24, H25, and H26 may be associated with undesirable effects on agronomic traits when introgressed into elite wheat lines. Thus, the most promising new gene for Hessian fly resistance appears to be H33. These results indicate that identified highly effective resistance in wheat to the Hessian fly is a limited resource and emphasize the need to identify novel sources of resistance. Also, we recommend that the deployment of resistance in gene pyramids and the development of novel strategies for engineered resistance be considered.
Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza
Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980
Dang, X L; Wang, Y S; Huang, Y D; Yu, X Q; Zhang, W Q
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is involved in phoretic movement of pathogenic agents, but it has a very efficient defense mechanism against infection. It is believed that antimicrobial peptides play a significant role in the defense system of the house fly. Here, we isolated a peptide from the immunized house fly pupae, measured its molecular mass (3987.6 Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry, and determined its amino acid sequence by using the Procise Protein Sequencing System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The peptide was confirmed as a member of the insect defensin family. It displayed high activity against gram-positive bacteria but lower activity against gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the house fly defensin gene was constitutively expressed in naive pupae and strongly up-regulated after immunization. House fly defensin is an amphiphilic peptide with a structure similar to that of the CSalphabeta scaffold of insect defensin A from the flesh fly, Phormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated and characterized house fly antimicrobial peptide, and our work may provide useful information for developing pharmacologically active antimicrobial agents.
Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheo N; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shin, Sang-Chul
Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.
Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Umirah, Nur Shahirul; Abas, Ahmad
Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.
Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge
Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.
Zhang, Chun-Tian; Shima, Hiroshi; Wang, Qiang; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter
The species of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae) from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions are revised. Ten described species are recognized, viz. B. atkinsoni (Baranov) (new records for Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand), B. ficorum (Townsend), B. fortis (Rondani), B. impigra Kolomiets (new record for China), B. kolomyetzi Mesnil, B. malayana Malloch, B. morosa Mesnil, B. robusta Malloch, B. steini (Brauer et Bergenstamm) and B. triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and nine species are described as new to science, B. brevicauda Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. carinata Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China), B. chinensis Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Vietnam), B. flava Zhang et Wang sp. nov. (China), B. kurahashii Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Laos and Thailand), B. micronychia Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China and Japan; previously misidentified from China as B. irrorata (Meigen)), B. papei Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (Malaysia), B. setigera Zhang et Shima sp. nov. (China) and B. verticalis Shima et Zhang sp. nov. (China). Billaea fasciata (Townsend, 1928) is treated as a junior synonym of B. ficorum (Townsend, 1916), syn. nov. Billaea irrorata is no longer recorded from the eastern Palearctic. A key to 19 species of Billaea from the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions and 101 figures of male terminalia, bodies, heads and abdomens are given.
Thompson, Rhoe A.
Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.
Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan
To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.
Negre, B; Simpson, P
The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) has been a useful paradigm for the study of pattern formation and its evolution. achaete-scute genes have duplicated and evolved distinct expression patterns during the evolution of cyclorraphous Diptera. Are the expression patterns in different species driven by conserved regulatory elements? If so, when did such regulatory elements arise? Here, we have sequenced most of the AS-C of the fly Calliphora vicina (including the genes achaete, scute and lethal of scute) to compare noncoding sequences with known cis-regulatory sequences in Drosophila. The organization of the complex is conserved with respect to Drosophila species. There are numerous small stretches of conserved noncoding sequence that, in spite of high sequence turnover, display binding sites for known transcription factors. Synteny of the blocks of conserved noncoding sequences is maintained suggesting not only conservation of the position of regulatory elements but also an origin prior to the divergence between these two species. We propose that some of these enhancers originated by duplication with their target genes.
Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ståhls, Gunilla
Three species of genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae: Eristalinae) from China are described as new to science, Cheilosia bullabucca Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n., C. lamproptera Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. and C. yunnanensis Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. We provide species descriptions and keys for their identification. The phylogenetic placements of the taxa was estimated based on their morphological characteristics and by analysing the taxa under parsimony using a mtDNA COI sequence dataset including a comprehensive set of Palaearctic previously generated Cheilosia spp. sequences representing all major subgenera. Based on both their morphological affinities and the molecular data. The Chinese taxa were placed in the subgenera Eucartosyrphus (C. bullabucca), Cheilosia s. str. (C. oblonga), Floccocheila (C. versicolor) while C. yunnanensis was not resolved as member of Cheilosia s. str. based on DNA despite sharing morphological characteristics with the subgenus. As the name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) prima Barkalov & Cheng from China is a junior homonym of Cheilosia (Cartosyrphus) prima Hunter, 1896 from the Nearctic region, for the Chinese species the new name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) primaria Barkalov & Ståhls nomen nov. is proposed.
Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György
Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.
Lebart-Pedebas, M C
The origin and development of the dorso-ventral flight muscles (DVM) was studied by light and electron microscopy in Chironomus (Diptera; Nematocera). Chironomus was chosen because unlike Drosophila, its flight muscles develop during the last larval instar, before the lytic process of metamorphosis. Ten fibrillar DVM were shown to develop from a larval muscle associated with myoblasts. This muscle is connected to the imaginal leg disc so that its cavity communicates with the adepithelial cells present in the disc; but no migration of myoblasts seems to take place from the imaginal leg disc towards the larval muscle or vice versa. At the beginning of the last larval instar, the myoblasts were always present together with the nerves in the larval muscle. In addition, large larval muscle cells incorporated to the imaginal discs were observed to border on the area occupied by adepithelial cells, and are probably involved in the formation of 4 other fibrillar DVM with adepithelial cells. Three factors seem to determine the number of DVM fibres: the initial number of larval fibres in the Anlage, the fusions of myoblasts with these larval fibres and the number of motor axons in the Anlage. The extrapolation of these observations to Drosophila, a higher dipteran, is discussed.
Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L
Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.
Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P
Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.
Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R
Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds.
Blosser, Erik M; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period. Culex iolambdis (1109 males, 3072 females) constituted more than half (56.76%) of all mosquitoes sampled (24 species) and was active year-round. Unfed females and gravid females of Cx. iolambdis were significantly more abundant in mangrove habitat, while males and blood-fed females were not. PCR-based bloodmeal analysis of 305 females revealed that Cx. iolambdis has very wide host breadth, feeding on birds (37.0% overall), reptiles (26.6%), amphibians (23.3%) and mammals (13.1%). Green heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts. Bloodmeals from different host classes varied significantly with season, suggesting that Cx. iolambdis may play a role in the amplification and epidemic transmission of zoonotic arboviruses affecting human health.
Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L
Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.
Martínez-Guitarte, J L; de la Fuente, M; Morcillo, G
Although there are alternative telomere structures, most telomeres contain DNA arrays of short repeats (6-26 bp) maintained by telomerase. Like other diptera, Chironomus riparius has noncanonical telomeres and three subfamilies, TsA, TsB and TsC, of longer sequences (176 bp) are found at their chromosomal ends. Reverse transcription PCR was used to show that different RNAs are transcribed from these sequences. Only one strand from TsA sequences seems to render a noncoding RNA (named CriTER-A); transcripts from both TsB strands were found (CriTER-B and αCriTER-B) but no TsC transcripts were detected. Interestingly, these sequences showed a differential transcriptional response upon heat shock, and they were also differentially affected by inhibitors of RNA polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. A computer search for transcription factor binding sites revealed putative regulatory cis-elements within the transcribed sequence, reinforcing the experimental evidence which suggests that the telomeric repeat might function as a promoter. This work describes the telomeric transcriptome of an insect with non-telomerase telomeres, confirming the evolutionary conservation of telomere transcription. Our data reveal differences in the regulation of telomeric transcripts between control and stressful environmental conditions, supporting the idea that telomeric RNAs could have a relevant role in cellular metabolism in insect cells.
Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E
Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.
Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree L; Lugo, Emperatriz del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Kuan, Guillermina M; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Harris, Eva
To characterize the production patterns of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culcidae), pupal surveys were conducted in selected neighborhoods of two major cities in Nicaragua. In León, 833 houses were visited in July and September 2003, corresponding to the beginning and middle of the dengue season; in Managua, 1,365 homes were visited in July 2003. In total, 7,607 containers were characterized, of which 11% were positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and 4% for pupae. In addition to barrels, potted plants and superficial water on tarps and in puddles were identified as highly productive sites. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed frequency of container use, use of a lid, and rainwater filling as key variables affecting pupal positivity. Importantly, this survey demonstrated the risk associated with the presence of lids, the limited temporal efficacy of temephos, and the lack of association of water availability with risky water storage practices. Finally, we introduce the concept of an efficiency value and an accompanying graphical display system that can facilitate development of targeted pupal control strategies. These data underscore the importance of entomological surveillance of pupal productivity to gather information from which to derive streamlined, efficient, and effective vector control measures to reduce the density of Aedes mosquito larvae and pupae and thus the risk for dengue.
Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192
Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D
Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.
Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai
The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.
Wang, Qi-Ke; Zhang, Ming; Li, Kai; Zhang, Dong
The Fanniidae is one of four families in the superfamily Muscoidea (Diptera), including some important medical and hygienic flies. There is a paucity of reports on the ultrastructure of olfactory sensilla for the fanniid species. To provide more information on the morphology of the antennal and palpal sensilla of fanniid fly, Fannia hirticeps (Stein, 1892) has been studied using scanning electron microscopy. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are covered by microtrichiae and several chaetic sensilla. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla are recorded on the antennal funiculus, including one trichoid, two basiconic, two coeloconic sensilla, and one clavate sensilla. The measurement and density of each sensilla type are also provided. The trichoid sensilla tend to be longer and denser toward the apex of antennal funiculus. Basiconic sensilla spread all over the funicular surface. F. hirticeps bears two types of coeloconic sensilla, type 2 coeloconic sensilla distributed on the distal part of the anterior surface, whereas type 1 distributed on the rest of the funiculus. Clavate sensilla are found on the base of antennal funiculus. Only one large sensory pit is located on the posterior surface. Maxillary palps bear one type of basiconic sensilla. These results are compared with eight other muscid flies. Our findings provide a morphological basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behavior of this group.
Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D
Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage.
Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah
Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.
Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.
Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P
Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.
Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C
True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.
LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.
Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025
Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R
The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval.
Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K
Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.
Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G
Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption.
Chore, Judith K; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Mireji, Paul O
Management of mosquito vectors by current classes of mosquitocides is relatively ineffective and necessitates prospecting for novel insecticides with different modes of action. Larvicidal activities of 15 crude extracts from three geographically isolated Aloe ngongensis (Christian), Aloe turkanensis (Christian), and Aloe fibrosa (Lavranos & L.E.Newton) (Xanthorrhoeaceae) species (five each) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist) (Diptera: Culiciade L.) yellow fever mosquito. Freshly collected leaves were separately shade-dried to constant weight at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and powdered. Each powder was macerated in solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) for 72 h and subsequently filtered. Third-instar larvae (n = 25) of the mosquito were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations for 24 h to establish dose response relationships. All the fractions of A. ngongensis were active below 1 mg/ml except A. fibrosa and A. turkanensis. The highest activity (LC50) mg/ml was obtained with extracts of A. fibrosa hexane (0.05 [0.04-0.06]), followed by A. ngongensis hexane (0.11 [0.08-0.15]) and A. turkanensis ethyl acetate (0.11 [0.09-0.12]). The activities are apparently Aloe species specific and extraction solvent dependent. These findings suggest that extracts from selected Aloe species have mosquitocidal principles that can be exploited in development of new insecticides.
Zajac, Barbara Karolina; Martin-Vega, Daniel; Feddern, Nina; Fremdt, Heike; e Castro, Catharina Prado; Szpila, Krzysztof; Reckel, Frank; Schütt, Svenja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard
Species identification plays an important role in forensic entomology and is mandatory for an accurate calculation of the minimum post-mortem interval. Many important Diptera and Coleoptera taxa of the cadaver community can already be identified by common barcoding approaches, i.e., by sequencing a 658bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) gene. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of reference barcodes for species, in particular, that can be found on cadavers at later decomposition stages. Flies of the family Piophilidae illustrate this gap of knowledge perfectly. Due to the fact that a reliable morphological identification key for the immature stages of this flies is still missing and the immature stages of many piophilids cannot be assigned to a certain species, there is need for additional tools to identify forensically relevant taxa. We collected adult piophilid specimens at 10 locations in five European countries: Spain (n=3 locations), Germany (n=3), Portugal (n=2), Poland (n=1) and Switzerland (n=1). Apart from the coI barcoding region, we additionally analyzed a 398bp long region of the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1a) and subsequently established the molecular identifier for nine piophilid species. In addition, we present the molecular phylogeny of the examined taxa.
Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.
Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J
Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin.
Tan, Siew Hwa; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Mohd-Aris, Edah; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain
Insect larvae and adult insects found on human corpses provide important clues for the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). Among all necrophagous insects, flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are considered as carrion flies of forensic importance. DNA variations of 17 Malaysian, two Indonesian and one Japanese flesh fly species are analysed using the mitochondrial COI and COII. These two DNA regions were useful for identifying most species experimented. However, characterisation of the species was not sufficiently made in the case of Sarcophaga javanica. Seventeen Malaysian species of forensic importance were successfully clustered into distinct clades and grouped into the six species groups: peregrina, albiceps, dux, pattoni, princeps and ruficornis. These groups correspond with generic or subgeneric taxa of the subfamily Sarcophaginae: Boettcherisca, Parasarcophaga, Liosarcophaga, Sarcorohdendorfia-Lioproctia, Harpagophalla-Seniorwhitea and Liopygia. The genetic variations found in COI and COII can be applied not only to identify the species of forensic importance, but also to understand the taxonomic positions, generic or subgeneric status, of the sarcophagine species.
Szpila, Krzysztof; Villet, Martin H
Scanning electron microscopy images of the first instars of Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke, 1876; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818); Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann, 1830); and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are presented for the first time, and the following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antenna, maxillary palpus, facial mask, labial lobe, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles, and anal pads. Light microscopy photographs and line illustrations are provided for the cephaloskeleton in lateral and ventral views, and the "ectostomal sclerite" and "chitinized teeth" of the cephaloskeleton are recognized as integral parts of the mouthhooks. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. These results allow refinement, clarification, and correction of earlier descriptions, which are reviewed. The relative taxonomic importance of various morphological characters of the first instars of necrophagous blow flies is discussed, and details of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are highlighted as the characters most useful for species identification. Finally, a key for identifying first instars of common African carrion blow flies is provided.
Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.
Xu, Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Xu, Ying; Hu, Cui; Zhu, Guang-Hui
Necrophagous flies, comprising the first wave of insects present in a cadaver, provide a great potential for more accurate determination of the late postmortem interval (PMI) based on their age. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) are a promising age indicator in some insect species, especially for the larvae of necrophagous flies. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the age-dependent, quantitative changes in CHs of larval Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at 24°C. The majority of low-molecular-weight alkanes (≤C25) and almost all of the alkenes decreased in abundance with larval development. By contrast, the abundance of high-molecular-weight alkanes of chain length greater than C25 gradually increased with age. For several peaks, including peak 28 (pentacosene a), peak 31 (n-C25), peak 43 (n-C27) and peak 68 (n-C31), a highly significant correlation was found between peak ratio (n-C29 divided by each chromatographic peak) and chronological age of the larvae. A mathematical model, derived from multivariate linear regression analysis, was developed for determining age of the larvae based on age-dependent changes in CHs. The estimated larval age based on the CHs had a good linear correlation with the chronological age (R(2)>0.9). These results indicate that CHs has a great potential for determining the age of fly larvae, and concomitantly for the PMI in forensic investigation.
Zhong, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Luo, Baihua; Wu, Chang; Wen, Jifang
More than 1400 scuttle flies species in worldwide comprise the Megaselia genus, the largest genus in the family Phoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of Megaselia scalaris, a medically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 15,599 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was identical with other insect. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.87%, G: 13.74%, C: 9.46%, T: 37.93% and the A + T content 76.80%. The mitochondrial genome of M. scalaris presented may be valuable for determining phylogenetic relationships within the order Diptera and especially for the family Phoridae. These sequences could also be used to select reliable molecular markers for species identification in forensic entomology.
Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S
A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.
Guo, Yadong; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Yan, Weitao; Li, Pei; Cai, Jifeng; Wu, LiXiang
Unequivocal identification of insect specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. With the development of molecular identification, spate of discussions about the feature of the DNA fragments have been raised. Relying solely on single DNA fragment for delimiting closely related species is supposed to be dangerous. Aiming at obtaining more reliable markers that might be universally used, we explore the utility of 700-bp COI fragment and 678-bp period gene fragment in the identification of Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Thirty-six sarcophagid fly specimens were collected from 19 locations in 11 Chinese provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into nine species with relatively strong supporting values, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with COI and period gene fragments. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed that the combination of nuclear and mitochondrial genes for species identification is much more accurate. The results of this research will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae database.
Toledo, Jorge; Campos, Sergio E; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Barrera, Juan F; Villaseñior, Antonio; Montoya, Pablo
The virulence of two products of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (LCPP and Bassianil) on adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their effect on the mating performance of infected males was evaluated in laboratory and field cage tests. The horizontal transmission capacity of the fungus during copulation or attempted copulation also was quantified using inoculated males as well as the impact of infection on female fecundity and longevity. Both fungal products were found to be highly virulent (LCPP, mortality = 98.7% at 1 x 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.20 d, LC50 = 9.35 x 10(5) conidia per ml; Bassianil, mortality = 99.3% at 1 X 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.04 d, LC50 = 2.69 x 10(7) conidia per ml). Mating success of inoculated males was not affected compared with the control group during the 3 d postinoculation. Horizontal transmission to females during the first day was 80.6 and 84.3% through mating and 15.4 and 21.6% through attempts to mate and contact during courtship for the LCPP and Bassianil products, respectively. The fertility of infected females was notably reduced, and longevity did not extend beyond 15 d. Our results suggest the possibility of using sterile flies as fungus vectors in sterile insect technique programs, but the potential benefits and shortcomings of this approach require further investigation.
Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J
An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.
Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge
We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.
González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A
The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.
Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A
Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens.
Rotheray, Graham E
Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided.
Chaudhury, M F; Chen, H; Sagel, A; Skoda, S R
Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of spray-dried blood, research was conducted to identify alternative, locally available, inexpensive, dietary ingredients which could reduce cost of rearing and eliminate concerns of short supply. Experimental diets were prepared without blood component and with various ratios of bovine blood or blood cell product and defatted soy flour. Results indicate that spray-dried bovine blood can be replaced by a readily available and less expensive blood cell product. When the quantity of whole dried blood or blood cell component was reduced or removed completely from the diet, the larvae did not feed adequately, resulting in high mortality. Those larvae that survived produced pupae that were of unacceptable quality. When the milk product was replaced by soy flour, pupae were slightly smaller than those reared using the current diet; however, replacement of egg product with soy flour produced even smaller pupae. Longevity of adult flies that emerged from these small pupae was short and the females deposited few eggs. These results indicate that soy flour cannot replace the blood component from the diet, but can replace the milk product successfully. It is likely that some factor or a combination of factors in the blood act as feeding stimulants, without which larvae are unable to feed normally, resulting in high larval mortality.
Ramos, Walkyria Rodrigues; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia María; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Desmouliére, Sylvain J M; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa
Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are responsible for the transmission of protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniases. They are found predominantly in forests, but some species exploit environments that have been subject to deforestation and subsequent human colonization. Studies conducted in Brazil over the past 30 years show that some species are adapting to peri-urban and urban settings. We evaluated sand fly diversity and abundance in the rural settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Settlement households were divided into four categories. These categories were determined by the human population density and the degree of deforestation in the immediate area. We used CDC light traps to sample the area surrounding 24 households (6 households in each category). Samples were taken on six occasions during September-November 2009 and June-August 2010. A total of 3074 sand fly specimens were collected, including 1163 females and 1911 males. These were classified into 13 genera and 52 species. The greatest abundance of sand flies and the greatest richness of species were observed in areas where human population density was highest. Our results show that changes in the human occupancy and vegetation management in rural settlements may affect the population dynamics and distribution of sand fly species, thereby affecting the local transmission of cutaneous leishmaniases.
Dosdall, L M; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Blackshaw, R E; Kutcher, H R; Gan, Y; Johnson, E N
Strong market demand for canola, Brassica napus L., has prompted some western Canadian producers to increase the frequency of this crop in rotations with other crop species, but the impact of this practice on canola insect pests has not been determined. Here, we investigate 12 cropping sequences involving canola over a 3-yr period (2008-2010 inclusive) at five locations across western Canada. Cropping sequences varied from continuous production of two herbicide-tolerant canola varieties, to production in two of 3 yr, to canola production in one of the 3 yr. Treatments analyzed were the frequency and timing of canola within the rotational sequence. Damage by larvae of root maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) to canola taproots increased as the study progressed, particularly in 2010 after canola had been grown continuously for 3 yr. Yield declined with continuous canola production, and differences were greatest in 2010. At mean canola crop prices for 2010, the yield reduction from continuous production amounted to economic losses of approximately Can$282-$377/ha. Crop quality, in terms of oil and protein concentrations of harvested seed, was affected more by crop variety than cropping sequence. Crop sequence effects for root maggot damage, yield, and seed quality were relatively stable in the presence of environmental (location) variation. Results of our study suggest that continuous canola production could be unsustainable over the long-term even though market forces currently provide incentive for this practice.
Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.
Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R
A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal.
Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M
Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe and a new invasive pest in North America, causes severe damage to cruciferous crops. Currently, many counties in Canada and the United States in which C. nasturtii has not been previously reported are at risk of being infested by C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of chemical control is limited, especially under high population pressure in fields, because the cryptic habits of C. nasturtii protect them from insecticidal sprays. Alternative management strategies against C. nasturtii that are needed to protect crucifers and soil management for the pupal stage were studied as one option. Six different types of soils (loam fine sand, fine sand, clay loam, muck, Chenango shale loam, and silt loam soil) were collected from commercial cabbage fields in New York and studied in the laboratory for their impact on C. nasturtii pupation and emergence. The results indicated that extremely wet or dry soils significantly hindered C. nasturtii emergence, regardless of soil type, suggesting that soil type alone may not be a major factor regulating C. nasturtii abundance. Optimal moisture content for C. nasturtii emergence varied for different soils. Most C. nasturtii pupated within the top 1 cm of soil. Furthermore, we found that >5 cm of soil cover effectively reduced the emergence number and delayed the time of emergence. Based on these results, we suggest that soil manipulation (moisture content and cultivation practices) should be considered as an important component in an overall integrated pest management program for C. nasturtii.
Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David
A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.
Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won
Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764
Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.
Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu
Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487
Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C
We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.
McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H
The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.
Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Zhu, Chao-dong; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Chun-tian
Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene. PMID:23626734
Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.
Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791
Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo
In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.
Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline
A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://188.8.131.52:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.
Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla
The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618
Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M
Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are severe pests of vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Previous studies revealed low leafminer parasitism across different agroecological zones in Kenya. The present paper reports on the composition of leafminer parasitoids at different elevations, in different seasons, and on different host crops. Surveys were conducted monthly from January to November 2012, and nine parasitoid species were recovered. Total mean parasitism in the study sites was 31.23 ± 1.03% from a total of 20 different vegetable Liriomyza-infested crops belonging to seven families. Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Phaedrotoma scabriventris, a newly released parasitoid, and Opius dissitus Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the most abundant at all elevations, accounting for 67.3, 18.6, and 9.2% of total parasitoids, respectively. Elevation, season, and host crop significantly affected the parasitoid species present and their abundance. Diglyphus isaea was more abundant at the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons compared with the low-elevation, whereas the lower-elevation favored higher abundance of P. scabriventris and O. dissitus during the long rainy season compared with the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons. Of all the host crops surveyed, parasitoids were more abundant on tomato, local kidney bean, snow pea and French bean than other crops. The total parasitism rate observed in this study suggests a considerable improvement in leafminer parasitism compared with previous surveys in Kenya. The implications of these findings for leafminer management in vegetable and ornamental production in Kenya are discussed.
Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.
Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811
Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A
From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.
Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei
Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964
Astakhova, L N; Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G
The heat shock proteins belonging to the Hsp90 family (Hsp83 in Diptera) play a crucial role in the protection of cells due to their chaperoning functions. We sequenced hsp90 genes from three species of the family Stratiomyidae (Diptera) living in thermally different habitats and characterized by extraordinarily high thermotolerance. The sequence variation and structure of the hsp90 family genes were compared with previously described features of hsp70 copies isolated from the same species. Two functional hsp83 genes were found in the species studied, that are arranged in tandem orientation at least in one of them. This organization was not previously described. Stratiomyidae hsp83 genes share a high level of identity with hsp83 of Drosophila, and the deduced protein possesses five conserved amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of the Hsp90 family as well as the C-terminus MEEVD sequence characteristic of the cytosolic isoform. A comparison of the hsp83 promoters of two Stratiomyidae species from thermally contrasting habitats demonstrated that while both species contain canonical heat shock elements in the same position, only one of the species contains functional GAF-binding elements. Our data indicate that in the same species, hsp83 family genes show a higher evolution rate than the hsp70 family.
Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.
Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)
Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie
Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.
Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.
Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.
Harrup, L E; Logan, J G; Cook, J I; Golding, N; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Sanders, C; Barber, J; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Purse, B V; Carpenter, S
The host kairomones carbon dioxide (CO2) and 1-octen-3-ol elicit a host seeking response in a wide range of haematophagous Diptera. This study investigates the response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to these cues using field-based experiments at two sites in the United Kingdom with very different species complements. Traps used for surveillance (miniature CDC model 512) and control (Mosquito Magnet Pro) were modified to release ratios of (R)- and (S)-1-octen-3-ol enantiomers in combination with CO2 and, in the case of the latter trap type, a thermal cue. Abundance and species diversity were then compared between these treatments and against collections made using a trap with a CO2 lure only, in a Latin square design. In both habitats, results demonstrated that semiochemical lures containing a high proportion of the (R)-enantiomer consistently attracted a greater abundance of host-seeking Culicoides females than any other treatment. Culicoides collected using an optimal stimulus of 500 ml/min CO2 combined with 4.1 mg/h (R)-1-octen-3-ol were then compared with those collected on sheep through the use of a drop trap. While preliminary in nature, this trial indicated Culicoides species complements are similar between collections made using the drop trap in comparison to the semiochemical-baited CDC trap, and that there are advantages in using (R)-1-octen-3-ol.
Guo, Y D; Cai, J F; Li, X; Xiong, F; Su, R N; Chen, F L; Liu, Q L; Wang, X H; Chang, Y F; Zhong, M; Wang, X; Wen, J F
Accurate species identication is a crucial step in forensic entomology, as the insect collected on a corpse can provide useful information for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). The utility of the forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera) for crime scene investigation has been severely restricted, as morphological identification is difficult, especially the identification of females and larvae. In this study, a method for using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and phylogenetic analysis was performed to distinguish the three Chinese sarcophagid species: Boerttcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) Parasarcophaga albiceps (Meigen, 1826) and Parasarcophaga dux (Thompson, 1869) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). DNA was extracted and analyzed by a 189 bp fragment of cytochrome coxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The monophyletic branches of the phylogenetic tree reveal that this marker is suitable for discrimination between these species, providing high support for separation on congeneric species. Therefore, the molecular method applied to the sarcophagid species identification is feasible.
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.
DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that
Toprak, Sahin; Ozer, Nurdan
The population dynamics of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied in Sanliurfa province in southeastern Turkey, in the country's largest focus of typical anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, during 2000-2002. Sand flies were collected at nine different sampling stations, located throughout the city, representing a cross section of urban and rural habitats. In total, 29,771 sand flies were collected, 45.35% of which were Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. In this study, the overall sand fly species diversity, relative abundance of each species, biodiversity, and similarity indices among sampling stations and efficiency of trapping methods were evaluated. Among the sampling stations, Sanliurfa city center and Suruç were shown to have the highest number of sand fly species; Harran-Akcakale and Hilvan habitats produced the largest number of individuals. The greatest similarity rates (80%) in terms of sand fly species were observed between Hilvan and city center, Harran-Akcakale and city center, Harran-Akcakale and Yenice, and Siverek and Viransehir. The lowest similarity rate (16%) was observed between Bozova-Birecik and city center. Comparison of biodiversity and similarity indices between the various sampling stations reveals the distribution of the suspected vector species and provides basic knowledge required to develop logical and effective control strategies. Among the trapping methods used, light traps showed the highest capture efficiency, above aspirators and sticky papers. It was concluded that light traps alone were sufficient to determine the sand fly fauna of the study area. It is recommended that the spatial and temporal dynamics of sand fly populations be monitored throughout the southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) construction period, considering the potential impact the project may have on mean temperature, humidity, and human population movements.
Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle.
Týč, Jiří; Votýpka, Jan; Klepetková, Helena; Suláková, Hana; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius
Widely distributed, highly prevalent and speciose, trypanosomatid flagellates represent a convenient model to address topics such as host specificity, diversity and distribution of parasitic protists. Recent studies dealing with insect parasites of the class Kinetoplastea have been focused mainly on trypanosomatids from true bugs (Heteroptera), even though flies (Diptera, Brachycera) are also known as their frequent hosts. Phylogenetic position, host specificity and geographic distribution of trypanosomatids parasitizing dipteran hosts collected in nine countries on four continents (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea and Turkey) are presented. Spliced leader (SL) RNA gene repeats and small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were PCR amplified from trypanosomatids infecting the gut of a total of forty fly specimens belonging to nine families. While SL RNA was mainly used for barcoding, SSU rRNA was utilized in phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different typing units (TUs) were revealed, of which 24 are described for the first time and represent potential new species. Multiple infections with several TUs are more common among brachyceran hosts than in true bugs, reaching one third of cases. When compared to trypanosomatids from heteropteran bugs, brachyceran flagellates are more host specific on the genus level. From seven previously recognized branches of monoxenous trypanosomatids, the Blastocrithidia and "jaculum" clades accommodate almost solely parasites of Heteroptera; two other clades (Herpetomonas and Angomonas) are formed primarily by flagellates found in dipteran hosts, with the most species-rich Leishmaniinae and the small Strigomonas and "collosoma" clades remaining promiscuous. Furthermore, two new clades of trypanosomatids from brachyceran flies emerged in this study. While flagellates from brachyceran hosts have moderate to higher host specificity, geographic distribution of at least some of them seems to be
Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H
Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.
Puckett, R T; Calixto, A A; Reed, J J; McDonald, D L; Drees, B Bart; Gold, R E
A variety of traps have been developed for monitoring introduced populations of Pseudacteon spp. phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) across their established range in the United States. Such traps typically exploit common aspects of phorid fly biology and behavior, such as their attraction to live or dead red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as the perching behavior of these parasitoids. However, populations of multiple species of phorid flies have been established in the United States to serve as biological control agents against S. invicta, and it is unclear if all trap designs are equally effective in sampling this variety of phorid species. This study investigated the effectiveness of six trap designs simultaneously during three sampling events in south-central Texas. Interactions between two species of phorid flies (Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier and P. curvatus B.) and their hosts have been intensively studied at this location for over eight years. When analyzed independently, there were no significant differences in the mean number of P. curvatus or P. tricuspis phorids collected by any of the trap designs during any of the sampling events. However, when the total number of phorids collected were combined, significant trap performance differentials were observed during the October 2010 sampling event. Furthermore, there were significant differences among male flies during the September 2012 observation. Additionally, a trap component cost comparison is provided. The consistent and relatively equivalent performance of the phorid traps investigated in these trials suggests that all are appropriate for phorid surveillance, and cost and ease-of-use considerations may be the most important criteria when selecting a trap design.
Winkler, Isaac S; Blaschke, Jeremy D; Davis, Daniel J; Stireman, John O; O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Moulton, John K
Molecular phylogenetic studies at all taxonomic levels often infer rapid radiation events based on short, poorly resolved internodes. While such rapid episodes of diversification are an important and widespread evolutionary phenomenon, much of this poor phylogenetic resolution may be attributed to the continuing widespread use of "traditional" markers (mitochondrial, ribosomal, and some nuclear protein-coding genes) that are often poorly suited to resolve difficult, higher-level phylogenetic problems. Here we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a representative set of taxa of the parasitoid fly family Tachinidae and related outgroups of the superfamily Oestroidea. The Tachinidae are one of the most species rich, yet evolutionarily recent families of Diptera, providing an ideal case study for examining the differential performance of loci in resolving phylogenetic relationships and the benefits of adding more loci to phylogenetic analyses. We assess the phylogenetic utility of nine genes including both traditional genes (e.g., CO1 mtDNA, 28S rDNA) and nuclear protein-coding genes newly developed for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic findings, based on a limited set of taxa, include: a close relationship between Tachinidae and the calliphorid subfamily Polleninae, monophyly of Tachinidae and the subfamilies Exoristinae and Dexiinae, subfamily groupings of Dexiinae+Phasiinae and Tachininae+Exoristinae, and robust phylogenetic placement of the somewhat enigmatic genera Strongygaster, Euthera, and Ceracia. In contrast to poor resolution and phylogenetic incongruence of "traditional genes," we find that a more selective set of highly informative genes is able to more precisely identify regions of the phylogeny that experienced rapid radiation of lineages, while more accurately depicting their phylogenetic context. Although much expanded taxon sampling is necessary to effectively assess the monophyly of and relationships among major tachinid lineages and
Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R
Tympanate hearing has evolved in at least 6 different orders of insects, but had not been reported until recently in the Diptera. This study presents a newly discovered tympanal hearing organ, in the parasitoid tachinid fly, Ormia ochracea. The hearing organ is described in terms of external and internal morphology, cellular organization of the sensory organ and preliminary neuroanatomy of the primary auditory afferents. The ear is located on the frontal face of the prothorax, directly behind the head capsule. Conspicuously visible are a pair of thin cuticular membranes specialized for audition, the prosternal tympanal membranes. Directly attached to these membranes, within the enlarged prosternal chamber, are a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae. These sensory organs are unique among all auditory organs known so far because both are contained within an unpartitioned acoustic chamber. The prosternal chamber is connected to the outside by a pair of tracheae. The cellular anatomy of the fly's scolopophorous organ was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The bulba acustica is a typical chordotonal organ and it contains approximately 70 receptor cells. It is similar to other insect sensory organs associated with tympanal ears. The similarity of the cellular organization and tympanal morphology of the ormiine ear to the ears of other tympanate insects suggests that there are potent constraints in the design features of tympanal hearing organs, which must function to detect high frequency auditory signals over long distances. Each sensory organ is innervated by a branch of the frontal nerve of the fused thoracic ganglia. The primary auditory afferents project to each of the pro-, meso-, and metathoracic neuropils. The fly's hearing organ is sexually dimorphic, whereby the tympanal membranes are larger in females and the spiracles larger in males. The dimorphism presumably reflects differences in the acoustic behavior in the two sexes.
Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C.; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc
We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods. PMID:22359600
Iankovskiĭ, A V
Four new species of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are described. Helodon rezidentsii Yankovsky, sp. n., Khabarovsk Territory, differs from all known species of the genus with morphology of eyes consisting only of microommatidii in male; from related species H. kamtshaticus (Rubzov, 1940) with large triangular posteromedial lobes of branches of genital fork in female; with number of rays of primary fan of premandibles (20-22, when in H. kamtshaticus 30-32) in larva. Helodon submulticaulis Yankovsky, sp. n., Transbaikalia, differs from related species H. multicaulis (Popov, 1968) with number of rays of primary fan of mandibles (36-40, when in H. multicaulis 26-28), narrow anterior branches of anal sclerite, number of rows of hooks in posterior attachment organ (88-92, when in H. multicaulis 78-80) in larva; with morphology of respiratory organ, consisting of 5-8 lobes bearing 40-60 tune filaments (in H. multicaulis 3-4 lobes bearing more than 150 filaments) in pupa. Sch. samarkandica Yankovsky, sp. n., Uzbekistan, differs from related species Sch. pseudopusilla Rubzov, 1956 with 3 (not 2 as in Sch. pseudopusilla) hooks in parameres, bifurcated lateral branches of X sternite, long projection of gonostyles in male. Schoenbaueria ivdelensis Yankovsky, sp. n., Middle Ural, differs from related species Sch. rangiferina (Rubzov, 1956) with prolonged gonostyles bearing narrow projection in male; with number of rays of secondary fan of premandibles (20-28, when in Sch. rangiferina 44-48), deep ventral groove of cephalic capsule, number of rows of hooks in posterior attachment organ (80-82, when in Sch. rangiferina 70-72) in larva; with morphology of respiratory organ (very long stems of 2 and 3 pairs of filaments) in pupa.
Singh, Baneshwar; Crippen, Tawni L; Zheng, Longyu; Fields, Andrew T; Yu, Ziniu; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K; Dowd, Scot E; Flores, Micah; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M
Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata were also characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study suggest that the majority of bacteria associated with these flies belong to phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, and most bacteria are maintained intragenerationally, with a considerable degree of turnover from generation to generation. In both species, second-generation eggs exhibited the highest bacterial phylum diversity (20 % genetic distance) than other life stages. The Lucilia sister species shared the majority of their classified genera. Of the shared bacterial genera, Providencia, Ignatzschineria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Morganella, and Myroides were present at relatively high abundances. Lactobacillus, Proteus, Diaphorobacter, and Morganella were the dominant bacterial genera associated with a survey of the salivary gland of L. sericata. TEM analysis showed a sparse distribution of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the salivary gland of L. sericata. There was more evidence for horizontal transmission of bacteria than there was for trans-generational inheritance. Several pathogenic genera were either amplified or reduced by the larval feeding on decomposing liver as a resource. Overall, this study provides
Morrison, Amy C; Gray, Kenneth; Getis, Arthur; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Focks, Dana; Watts, Douglas; Stancil, Jeffrey D; Olson, James G; Blair, Patrick; Scott, Thomas W
Large-scale longitudinal cohort studies are necessary to characterize temporal and geographic variation in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) production patterns and to develop targeted dengue control strategies that will reduce disease. We carried out pupal/demographic surveys in a circuit of approximately 6,000 houses, 10 separate times, between January 1999 and August 2002 in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We quantified the number of containers positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and/or pupae, containers holding pupae, and the absolute number of pupae by 4-mo sampling circuits and spatially by geographic area by using a geographic information system developed for the city. A total of 289,941 water-holding containers were characterized, of which 7.3% were positive for Ae. aegypti. Temporal and geographic variations were detected for all variables examined, and the relative importance of different container types for production of Ae. aegypti was calculated. Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae were detected in 64 types of containers. Consistent production patterns were observed for the lid status (lids: 32% wet containers, 2% pupal production), container location (outdoor: 43% wet containers, 85% pupal production), and method by which the container was filled with water (rain filled: 15% wet containers, 88.3% pupal production); these patterns were consistent temporally and geographically. We describe a new container category (nontraditional) that includes transient puddles, which were rare but capable of producing large numbers of pupae. Because of high variable pupal counts, four container categories (large tank, medium storage, miscellaneous, and nontraditional) should be targeted in addition to outdoor rain-filled containers that are not covered by a lid. The utility of targeted Ae. aegypti control is discussed, as well as the ability to achieve control objectives based on published but untested threshold values.
Venter, Gert Johannes
The aim of this paper is to consolidate vector competence studies on Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) done over a period 25 years at the ARC‑Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa. In 1944, it was demonstrated for the first time in South Africa that Culicoides midges transmit BTV. In 1991, field‑collected Culicoides imicola were fed on blood containing BTV‑3 or ‑6 and the infection rates were established as being 31% and 24%, respectively. In 1998, Culicoides bolitinos was shown to have a higher infection prevalence and virus titre/midge than C. imicola. This species was then shown to have a higher transmission potential for BTV‑1 over a range of incubation temperatures wider than the one showed by C. imicola. Attenuation of BTV also does not reduce its ability to infect competent Culicoides species. Oral susceptibility studies, involving 29 BTV isolates of various serotypes, indicated differences between various geographic virus isolates and Culicoides populations evaluated. While low recovery rates of European BTV strains from South African Culicoides species suggest co‑adaptation between orbiviruses and vectors in a given locality, co‑adaption was shown not to be essential for virus transmission. Cumulative results since 1991 provide evidence that at least 13 livestock‑associated Culicoides species are susceptible to BTV. Susceptibility results are supported by field isolations from 5 of these species. This implies that multi‑vector potential for the transmission of BTV will complicate the epidemiology of BT. It must be emphasised that neither oral susceptibility nor virus isolation/detection from field‑collected specimens is proof that a species is a confirmed field vector.
Langner, Kathrin F A; Darpel, Karin E; Denison, Eric; Drolet, Barbara S; Leibold, Wolfgang; Mellor, Philip S; Mertens, Peter P C; Nimtz, Manfred; Greiser-Wilke, Irene
Salivary proteins of hematophagous Culicoides spp. are thought to play an important role in pathogen transmission and skin hypersensitivity. Analysis of these proteins, however, has been problematic due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of secreted Culicoides saliva. In the current study, a collection method for midge saliva was developed. Over a 3-d period, 3- to 5-d-old male and female Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly placed onto the collection system and allowed to deposit saliva into a filter. Salivary products were eluted from the filters and evaluated by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry as well as by intradermal testing and determination of clotting time. Gel electrophoresis revealed approximately 55 protein spots displaying relative molecular masses from 5 to 67 kDa and isoelectric points ranging from 4.5 to 9.8. The majority of molecular species analyzed by mass spectrometry showed high convergence with salivary proteins recently obtained from a cDNA library of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones, including proteins involved in sugarmeal digestion, defense, and coagulation inhibition as well as members of the D7 family and unclassified salivary proteins. In addition, the proteome analysis revealed a number of peptides that were related to proteins from insect species other than Culicoides. Intradermal injection of the saliva in human skin produced edema, vasodilatation, and pruritus. The anticoagulant activity of the saliva was demonstrated by significantly prolonged clotting times for human platelets. The potential role of the identified salivary proteins in the transmission of pathogens and the induction of allergies is discussed.
Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.
Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A
Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (lambda') was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti lambda' was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field.
Salem, A.; Franc, M.; Jacquiet, P.; Bouhsira, E.; Liénard, E.
Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515
Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.
Yee, Wee L
Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.
Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F
The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.
Shelly, T; Nishimoto, J; Diaz, A; Leathers, J; War, M; Shoemaker, R; Al-Zubaidy, M; Joseph, D
The genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes approximately 70 polyphagous species that are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops. Most Bactrocera species have limited geographic distributions, but several species are invasive, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect infestations. In the United States, California maintains approximately 25,000 traps (baited with male lures) specifically for Bactrocera detection distributed over an area of approximately 6,400 km2 (2,500 miles2) in the Los Angeles area. Although prior studies have used male lures to describe movement of Bactrocera males, they do not explicitly relate capture probability with fly distance from lure-baited traps; consequently, they do not address the relative effectiveness of male lures in detecting incipient populations of Bactrocera species. The objective of this study was to measure the distance-dependent capture probability of marked, released males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (methyl eugenol- and cue lure-responding species, respectively) within the detection trapping grid operating in southern California. These data were then used to compute simple probability estimates for detecting populations of different sizes of the two species. Methyl eugenol was the more powerful attractant, and based on the mark-recapture data, we estimated that B. dorsalis populations with as few as approximately 50 males would always (>99.9%) be detected using the current trap density of five methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.6 km2 (1 mile2). By contrast, we estimated that certain detection of B. cucurbitae populations would not occur until these contained approximately 350 males. The implications of the results for the California trapping system are discussed, and the findings are compared with mark-release-recapture data obtained for the same two species in Hawaii.
Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.
Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep
Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is
Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R
Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.
Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley.
Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Marinho, Marco Antonio Tonus; Monfardini, Raquel Dietsche; Espin, Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo
Background The genotype-phenotype interactions among traits governing feeding preference are of fundamental importance to behavioral genetics and evolutionary biology. The genetic basis of behavioral traits has been explored in different taxa using different approaches. However, the complex nature of the genetic mechanisms undergirding behavior is poorly understood. Here, we present an evolutionary study of candidate genes related to parasitism in Calliphoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae). Closely related species in this family exhibit distinct larval feeding habits, most notably necro-saprophagy and obligate parasitism. Methods To understand the genetic and molecular bases underlying these habits, expression levels of eight candidate genes for feeding behavior—Cyp6g2, foraging, glutamate dehydrogenase, Jonah65aiv, Malvolio, PGRP-SC2, RPS6-p70-protein kinase, and smooth—were measured in four species using qPCR. Moreover we used expression values and sequence information to reconstruct the relationship among species and the dN/dS rate to infer possible sites under selection. Results For most candidate genes, no statistically significant differences were observed, indicating a high degree of conservation in expression. However, Malvolio was differentially expressed between habits. Evolutionary analyses based on transcript levels and nucleotide sequences of Malvolio coding region suggest that transcript levels were correlated to feeding habit preferences among species, although deviations under a strictly neutral model were also observed in statistical tests. Discussion Malvolio was the only gene demonstrating a possible connection to feeding habit. Differences in gene expression may be involved in (or be a result of) the genetic regulation of Calliphoridae feeding habit. Our results are the first steps towards understanding the genetic basis and evolution of feeding behavior in Calliphoridae using a functional approach. PMID:27812410
Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter
Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.
Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O
Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.
De Jesús, Antonio J; Olsen, Alan R; Bryce, John R; Whiting, Richard C
The housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is recognized as an important factor in the dissemination of various infectious diseases such as cholera, shigellosis, and salmonellosis. They can also serve as a cross-contamination vector for other foodborne pathogens. However, the potential for bacterial transfer by houseflies has been demonstrated in a qualitative rather than quantitative manner. In this study, the numbers of bacteria a housefly can carry on its body and transfer to a clean surface after exposure to a sugar-milk aqueous solution, steak, and potato salad contaminated with a fluorescent gene Escherichia coli (8 log10 CFU/ml) were determined. In the first series of experiments to quantify bacterial numbers on the flies, about 40-60 flies were transferred into a sterile cage, exposed to the food for 30 min, the flies immobilized and the attached E. coli on each fly enumerated. Detectable E. coli (>1.7 log10 CFU/fly) were found on 43% (29/67), 53% (23/43), and 62% (32/52) of the flies in the cages with sugar/milk, steak, and potato salad, respectively. For the positive flies, the geometric mean carriage (log10 CFU/fly) was 2.93+/-1.24 for sugar-milk, 3.77+/-1.28 for steak, and 2.25+/-0.64 for the potato salad. In the second series of experiments, the transfer of bacteria by individual flies from contaminated food to the inner surface of a sterile jar per each landing was determined. E. coli transferred from the sugar-milk was 3.5+/-0.7 log10 CFU/fly-landing, 3.9+/-0.7 for steak and 2.61+/-1.16 for the potato salad. From the initial contamination levels of bacteria and the number of transferred bacteria, it can be calculated that flies contaminate clean surfaces with approximately 0.1 mg of food per landing.
Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa
Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.
Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue
In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.
Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.
Kostreski, Nicholas I.
In the quest to understand the forces generated by micro aerial systems powered by oscillating appendages, it is necessary to study the kinematics that generate those forces. Automated and manual tracking techniques were developed to extract the complex wing and body motions of dipteran insects, ideal micro aerial systems, in free flight. Video sequences were captured by three high speed cameras (7500 fps) oriented orthogonally around a clear flight test chamber. Synchronization and image-based triggering were made possible by an automated triggering circuit. A multi-camera calibration was implemented using image-based tracking techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the insect were generated from the 2-D images by shape from silhouette (SFS) methods. An intensity based segmentation of the wings and body was performed using a mixture of Gaussians. In addition to geometric and cost based filtering, spectral clustering was also used to refine the reconstruction and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to find the body roll axis and wing-span axes. The unobservable roll state of the cylindrically shaped body was successfully estimated by combining observations of the wing kinematics with a wing symmetry assumption. Wing pitch was determined by a ray tracing technique to compute and minimize a point-to-line cost function. Linear estimation with assumed motion models was accomplished by discrete Kalman filtering the measured body states. Generative models were developed for different species of diptera for model based tracking, simulation, and extraction of inertial properties. Manual and automated tracking results were analyzed and insect flight simulation videos were developed to quantify ground truth errors for an assumed model. The results demonstrated the automated tracker to have comparable performance to a human digitizer, though manual techniques displayed superiority during aggressive maneuvers and image blur. Both techniques demonstrated
Yenice, Mustafa Gürkan; Demir, Tülin; Babür, Cahit; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Kılıç, Selçuk
Myiasis which is a parasitic disease of humans and vertebrates, is caused by dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it occurs relatively frequently in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and America. Myiasis is usually associated with poor general health and hygiene, restricted mobility and ulcerating lesions. The pathophysiology of the human infection differs depending on the fly species and where the larvae are located. It could be external or internal, and the invasion by the maggot could be obligatory, facultative and sometimes acci-dental. Myiasis is a self-limiting infestation with minimal morbidity in the vast majority of cases. Urogenital myiasis, associated with urinary obstruction, poor hygiene of the local site and ulcerating lesions has been infrequently reported. In this report, a case of 29 year-old male patient who presented with genitourinary myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Nematocera), was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of urinary incontinence of one week duration and presence of small, thin, motile, grayishwhite objects in his urine. Physical examination, blood and urine examination and stool microscopy revealed no pathology. No growth was detected in his urine culture. The examination of discharged larva in urine sample at Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory led to the diagnosis of urogenital myiasis. No risk factor was identified in the patient who had proper hygienic conditions, was living in urban area and was of high socioeconomic status. This case was presented to withdraw attention to myiasis which is frequent in Turkey, however, is usually overlooked.
Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia M.; Guz, Nurper; Attardo, Geoffrey; Aksoy, Serap
The regulation of iron is critical for maintaining homeostasis in the tsetse fly (Diptera:Glossinidae), in which both adult sexes are strict blood feeders. We have characterized the cDNAs for two putative iron-binding proteins (IBP) involved in transport and storage; transferrin (GmmTsf1) and ferritin from Glossina morsitans morsitans. GmmTsf1 transcripts are detected in the female fat body and in adult reproductive tissues, and only in the adult developmental stage in a bloodmeal independent manner. In contrast, the ferritin heavy chain (GmmFer1HCH) and light chain (GmmFer2LCH) transcripts are expressed ubiquitously, suggesting a more general role for these proteins in iron transport and storage. Protein domain predictions for each IBP suggest both the conservation and loss of several motifs present in their vertebrate homologues. In concert with many other described insect transferrins, putative secreted GmmTsf1 maintains 3 of the 5 residues necessary for iron-binding in the N-terminal lobe, but exhibits a loss of this iron-binding ability in the C-terminal role as well as a loss of large sequence blocks. Both putative GmmFer1HCH and GmmFer2LCH proteins have signal peptides, similar to other insect ferritins. GmmFer2LCH has lost the 5’UTR iron-responsive element (IRE) and, thus, translation is no longer regulated by cellular iron levels. On the other hand, GmmFer1HCH maintains both the conserved ferroxidase center and the 5’UTR IRE; however, transcript variants suggest a more extensive regulatory mechanism for this subunit. PMID:17098167
Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2).
Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J
Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest.
Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D
The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed.
Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J
We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.
Yousef, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E
We determined the virulence and insecticidal activity of the hypocrealean fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain EAMb 09/01-Su and its crude extract against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and we evaluated the combined use of the fungus with its crude extract. We also determined the effect of fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH of the M. brunneum culture medium on the insecticidal activity of the crude extract. When C. capitata adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension, the strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 100% mortality with a mean lethal time (LT50) of 5.6 d and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.84 f#x2013; 10(7) conidia per milliliter. Fermentation time significantly affected the lethality of the crude extract when it was provided to C. capitata per os. The highest level of mortality (73.3%) and the shortest median survival time (25.5 h) was obtained from 15-d-old cultures. The crude extract was demonstrated to be thermostable, given that the mortality was >50% at 48 h when the extract had been heated to 100°C for 3 h. Lastly, the optimum initial pH for maximum crude extract activity in terms of mortality ranged between 7 and 9. Additivity was observed for all M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain crude extract combinations tested, indicating compatibility between products. We concluded that the M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain is a promising tool for medfly control alone or in combination with its crude extract.
Rolo, Eva A; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dourado, Catarina G; Farinha, Ana; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Dias, Deodália
In recent years, forensic entomology has been applied in wildlife crimes, such as neglect cases, animal cruelty and illegal poaching. Likewise in human death investigations, in which insects can help to provide information about postmortem interval (PMI) and corpse transfer, entomology may be an important source of information in animal murder suspicion. The use of insects in forensic context relies primarily on its identification at the species level. To overcome some problems of morphological determination, molecular identification has gained relevance and has been applied frequently in forensic areas. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was adopted in DNA barcoding approach. This methodology intends to unify the DNA-based identification using a specific region of mitochondrial DNA. COI sequences have been collected into the BOLD online database, allowing the molecular identification of sequences from unknown specimens. Nonetheless, to achieve a correct identification of an unknown sample, it is necessary that sequences from species under study exist, for comparison, in online databases. Due to the geographic differences, it is of huge importance to have samples from a certain species from its distribution range. In that sense, the aim of this research is to contribute to the potential and accuracy improvement of such databases in identification of species commonly found in wildlife carcasses. A portion of COI was sequenced from 95 specimens of seven species belonging to two families of Diptera (Calliphoridae and Muscidae) found in wildlife carcasses-baited traps in Serra da Estrela (Portugal). All specimens were identified at species level with a high specimen similarity and maximum identity percentage (through BOLD Systems and GenBank online databases, respectively). We also demonstrate the correct discrimination of all species through phylogenic and sequence divergence analyses proposed in DNA barcoding studies, reinforcing the suitability of this marker.
Slone, D H; Gruner, S V
The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.
Salem, Abeer M; Adham, Fatma K; Picard, Christine J
Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis-C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps-C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps-C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.
Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.
Lasa, Rodrigo; Velázquez, Olinda E; Ortega, Rafael; Acosta, Emilio
One of the most important factors for the success of a mass trapping strategy to control a fruit fly involves the selection of an effective trap-lure combination. Because different species of fruit flies respond differently to the physical characteristics of a trap and to bait volatiles, the evaluation of commercial traps and lures that have proved useful against other tephtrids is necessary to determine their efficacy for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Under caged conditions, a commercial hemispherical trap with lateral holes (Maxitrap Plus) proved more attractive to A. ludens (both sexes) than five other commercial traps that were all baited with hydrolyzed protein. Among these traps, bottom invaginated traps and traps with invaginated lateral holes constructed with transparent cylinders had the best physical retention properties. When evaluated under field conditions, the lure was critical for the efficacy of the trap, and one of the traps that performed poorly in attraction and retention cage tests (MS2) resulted as one of the most effective traps when baited with CeraTrap lure. Considering the use of different trap models under field conditions, CeraTrap liquid bait was more effective in A. ludens capture than Biolure dry synthetic bait, but both lures were not replaced during the entire course of the experiment. The percentage of captured females was also slightly higher using CeraTrap lure (67.2%) than using Biolure baits (54.5-58.8%). In field tests, 75-81% of females were mated and no significant differences were observed among trap-lure combinations. Trap selectivity against nontarget adult lacewings also differed among trap-lure combinations.
Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc
We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods.
Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M
Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons.
Lapointe, D A
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.
Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana
Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.
Brodin, Y; Ejdung, G; Strandberg, J; Lyrholm, T
As for many other regions, environmental and biodiversity monitoring of the brackish Baltic Sea suffers from low species resolution for several taxa. One such case is the benthic larvae of midges Chironomidae (Diptera), which are estimated to constitute about 30% of the macrozoobenthos species of the Baltic Sea and are important indicators of environmental quality. We assessed the usefulness of COI (cytochrome oxidase I) gene barcoding to improve species resolution and its potential for implementation in monitoring programmes. Neighbour-Joining, Maximum parsimony and Bayesian-inference analyses all provided high congruency with morphological analyses of adult males for almost all 42 species studied. Barcoding was helpful to elucidate some cases of taxonomical difficulties, such as synonyms. In contrast to the high identification accuracy when using our local database, there were a number of cases where matching with GenBank and BOLD provided puzzling results. For reliable species identification at least 15-30 specimens from 5-10 well-distributed sites within the geographical range of the species might be needed in a database to adequately cover the intraspecific variability of chironomids. Implementation of DNA barcoding, as applied here, in monitoring would result in an increase from at present less than 10% to more than 90% successful chironomid species identification of Baltic Sea benthic samples, as it also would for many nearby lakes. Routine monitoring of benthic environmental samples based on Next-Generation sequencing techniques would provide a cost effective way to obtain a taxonomically much more complete assessment of environmental quality and biodiversity, as required by EU directives and national legislation.
Thompson, F Christian; Skevington, Jeffrey H
A new genus and species of flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae: Syrphini) are described from central Africa (Kenya & Uganda), Afrostoma quadripunctatum. A key to the Afrotropical genera of the subfamily Syrphinae is given. A review of the melanostomine [Bacchini] genera and subgenera is provided along with a key to them. Phylogenetic placement of Afrostoma is included based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data.
Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A
The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.
Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin
Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the