Science.gov

Sample records for ecuador reforma constitucional

  1. Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Background notes and statistics on Ecuador are provided in the document. 271,000 sq. km. of jungle are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 11 million growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. The work force total 3.4 million. Ecuador claims a population comprised of 4 ethnic groups, predominantly Roman Catholic, and speaking Spanish in addition to Indian languages. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 88% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 51/1,000, while life expectancy is 66 years. 1990 GDP was $10.9 billion, and was growing at the rate of 1.5%. Per capita income was $1,043, while 1990 figures reported 50% inflation. Agriculture accounts for 17% of GNP, industry for 16%; 1990 international trade surplus totalled $0.7 billion. Additional data are provided on Ecuador's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Structural reform brought economic improvement in 1989. Public sector spending was tightened, monetary growth slowed, and external accounts improved. While progress stalled in 1990, additional steps combined with higher oil prices were expected to reduce the deficit and moderate inflation. Further reductions in government control over the economy, movement toward free-market interest rates, privatization of selected companies, trade liberalization, labor law reform, and the promotion of domestic and foreign private investment are called for.

  2. Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    In 1986, Ecuador's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 76.3/1000; life expectancy was 62 years. Of the work force of 2.9 million, 34% were engaged in agriculture, 35% were in the service sector, 12% were employed in industry, 12% were in sales, and 7% were in other occupations. Ecuador's 16 legal political parties represent a variety of views, none of which predominates. The gross domestic product was US$12.1 billion in 1985, with a per capita income of $1299 and an inflation rate of 24%. The economy's impressive performance in 1984 and 1985 is largely attributable to the trade sector's surplus and improvements in the balance of payments. Rescheduling the external debt has been a government priority. An agreement has been signed with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation to encourage new foreign investment and subsidies have been reduced and price control ceilings have been raised to reform the domestic economy. However, the economic outlook for 1986 remains uncertain because of sharply lower petroleum prices.

  3. REFORMA Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first national conference of REFORMA, the National Association to Promote Library Services to the Spanish Speaking. Discusses REFORMA's activist history and describes conference programs geared toward promoting cultural awareness to help libraries build relationships with Hispanic and Latino communities. Attendees shared concerns…

  4. REFORMA Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first national conference of REFORMA, the National Association to Promote Library Services to the Spanish Speaking. Discusses REFORMA's activist history and describes conference programs geared toward promoting cultural awareness to help libraries build relationships with Hispanic and Latino communities. Attendees shared concerns…

  5. Spotlight: Ecuador.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes the vital statistics and population growth in Ecuador as of mid-1997. Mid-1997 population numbered about 12 million. Fertility was 3.6 births/woman; deaths were 6/1000 population; and births were 29/1000 population. Ecuador was primarily an agricultural country, until oil was discovered in the early 1970s. The country has worked to increase per capita income and confront environmental consequences. The capital city of Quito is situated in a valley between two mountains and has very high air pollution levels due to cars and factories. In contrast, indigenous populations live in the Andean mountains and farm small plots. Land shortages have pushed these farmers onto higher slopes and more marginal land that is becoming eroded. 22% of Ecuador's forests were cleared for farming during 1980-90. The city of Guayaquil, on the Pacific coast, has serious water pollution problems, sewage problems, and industrial pollution. Shrimp farming relies on high levels of fertilizer, which is damaging coastlines. Oil exploration in the interior of Ecuador, has resulted in disruption of indigenous population, loss of forests, and pollution of rivers. Texaco Oil is accused of spilling about 17 million gallons of crude oil, or 50 times more than the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Texaco argues that it met government environmental standards and agreed to a cleanup, which only partially meets the standards of its critics. Oil resources have funded improvements in education and health. About 90% of Ecuador's adult population is literate. Fertility has declined, but the population is still largely young and will be entering their reproductive years by 2025.

  6. Ecuador Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, the oil sector accounts for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues. Resource nationalism and debates about the economic, strategic, and environmental implications of oil sector development are prominent issues in the politics of Ecuador and the policies of its government. Ecuador is the smallest producer in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and it produced 556,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) of petroleum and other liquids in 2014, of which crude oil production was 555,000 bbl/d. A lack of sufficient domestic refining capacity to meet local demand has forced Ecuador to import refined products, limiting net oil revenue.

  7. Medical education in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  8. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-15

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  9. Pyomyositis in Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Fleming, Lila C; Ribeiro, Priscila S

    2010-06-01

    Pyomyositis occurs when intramuscular abscesses appear in one or more body sites. Analysis of data from 165 patients with tropical pyomyositis diagnosed at a hospital in rural Amazonian Ecuador from 1980 to 1989 and 1995 to 2005 found that pyomyositis is more likely to affect males than females and more likely to affect children than adults. Abscesses were most commonly located on a lower extremity. Significant changes in patients' profiles between 1980 and 1989 and 1995 and 2005 were not found.

  10. Ecuador project closes shop.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has discontinued its contraceptive social marketing project in Ecuador after 2 1/2 years without a sale. USAID had awarded a 3-year US$1.2 million grant to the program's contractor, the John Snow Public Health Group Inc. The project was run by Ecuador's national family planning association. This is only the 3rd time USAID has terminated a social marketing program since entering this field in 1973. Impediments to the program's operation included product price hikes and supply shortages as a result of teh inflation and currency devaluation in Ecuador in recent years. Government opposition to the sales of donated contraceptive supplies further set back the program. The name chosen for the condom distributed by the program, Liber, had to be changed since a company importing sanitary napkins was using the name Liberty and objected. The program's peculiar organizational structur is also considered to have played a role in the program's failure. Rather than having a single authority responsible for the program, a 2-headed organizational design was used. Program funds were controlled by the contractor, but the family planning organization managed day to day operations. Unified management has enabled programs in other countries to survive problems such as inflation, brand registration, and product and price approvals.

  11. Ecuador. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Designed for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Ecuador's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include the history of Ecuador's flag and coat of arms, geographic regions, food, Quito (the capital), recent wildlife…

  12. Ecuador. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Designed for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Ecuador's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include the history of Ecuador's flag and coat of arms, geographic regions, food, Quito (the capital), recent wildlife…

  13. First MAGDAS Equipment in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, E.; Maeda, G.; Vicente, K.; Yumoto, K.; Vasquez, N.; Matsushita, H.; Shishime, A.; Vasconez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) was installed in the protected Jerusalem Park in Malchingui- Ecuador in October of 2012, under the joint collabo ration between Kyushu University of Japan and the Quito Astronomical Observatory of the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador. In this paper, we describe the installation process and present the preliminary data obtained with the MAGDAS equip ment. The behavior of the four components, D, H, Z and F allow us to see the importance of having the Ecuador station where the magnetic field has not been systematically measured before, in valuable contribution to study the equatorial electrodynamics.

  14. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  15. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  16. ECUADOR: counting down the barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-09

    Within the world oil market, OPEC faces a reduced role as supplier and production/price dilemmas. One of its members, Ecuador, faces rapid drawdown of its reserves and ultimate loss of membership in the cartel. But Ecuador is tackling the problem by a variety of means and is still defending OPEC prices, as its OPEC Governor tells Energy Detente. The complete interview with Cesar Guerra Navarrete, the OPEC Governor is presented. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of February 1983 are included for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  17. Snake bite envenomation in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Fabricio; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of snake bite in Ecuador and to identify the difficulties of snake bite management in Ecuadorian health facilities. A survey based on national health statistics was carried out in Ecuador to estimate the overall incidence and mortality due to snake bites. During the period 1998-2007, the average annual incidence and mortality was respectively 11 and 0.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The at-risk population was represented mainly by males aged 10-54 years. Snake bite incidence increased during the rainy season and El Niño. According to one data source, the majority of snake bites occurred in the coastal region (56%) compared with the Amazonian rainforest (11%) and the highlands (33%). This geographical variation in snake bite incidence may reflect the distribution of venomous snakes and human population densities and activities. This preliminary national survey on the incidence of the envenomings due to snake bite in Ecuador showed a stable incidence over the time period studied but was heterogeneous in the three geographical regions of Ecuador. The incidence and mortality were higher in the lowland humid regions where Bothrops species are abundant.

  18. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-02-04

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  19. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  20. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  1. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques

  2. Secondary recovery development in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Arteaga, L.; Endara, J.; Alduja, F.

    1981-03-01

    The oil activity in Ecuador goes back to 1920 when the oil-bearing structures were discovered in the Peninsula of Santa Elena in the Ecuatorian coast. Since that time 2,700 oil wells have been drilled; at the present time, only 650 wells are still producing. Oil production has been decreasing in spite of artificial producing systems (sucker rod pumping, and gas lift). During the period of 1966 to 1969 a total of 8 pilot projects was performed to evaluate the possibility of using secondary recovery methods (waterflooding) in 3 different oil-bearing formations from 5 areas, and utilizing different injection patterns. The results from numerical simulation and pilot projects showed the convenience and easibility of the implmentation of secondary recovery systems (waterflooding) in the Shushufindi-Aguarico field. A detailed description is presented of the development of the secondary recovery methods in Ecuador - antecedents, pilot projects, results, etc.

  3. Language Planning and Policy in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.; Haboud, Marleen

    2002-01-01

    This monograph presents up-to-date information concerning language planning and policy in Ecuador, highlighting the country's cultural and linguistic diversity, historical context, current sociolinguistic situation and possible directions for the future. Taking into account Ecuador's particular sociopolitical conditions, it aims to provide a…

  4. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  5. Language Planning and Policy in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.; Haboud, Marleen

    2002-01-01

    This monograph presents up-to-date information concerning language planning and policy in Ecuador, highlighting the country's cultural and linguistic diversity, historical context, current sociolinguistic situation and possible directions for the future. Taking into account Ecuador's particular sociopolitical conditions, it aims to provide a…

  6. Developing Intercultural Science Education in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the recent development of intercultural science education in Ecuador. It starts by situating this development within the context of a growing convergence between Western and indigenous sciences. It then situates it within the larger historical, political, cultural, and educational contexts of indigenous communities in Ecuador,…

  7. Geology of Reforma-Campeche Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhoff, A.A.

    1980-04-21

    Approximately 23 large and giant oil and gas-condensate discoveries have been made since 1972 in the Reforma-Campeche areas of S. Mexico. In the onshore region, 15 discoveries have been made; in the offshore, 8 discoveries have been made. The discoveries are mainly in late Jurassic and early-middle Cretaceous Talus. However, in the offshore, Paleocene production also has been found. The discoveries to date show that the area is one of the largest oil and gas basins in the world. The Reforma-Campeche Shelf trend is stratigraphically analogous with the equivalent-age golden lane of the Tampico-Nautia embayment, farther north. Structurally, the area is very complex. The original trap from Copano to Bacab appears to have been stratigraphic. However, the present traps are structural - horst-and-graben features modified by salt pillowing. Thus, the principal fields produce from strongly faulted salt pillows. Proved reserves trough January 1, 1979, were 12,549 billion bbl of oil, 960 million bbl of condensate, and 15 TCF of associated and natural gas. Probable reserves were at least double - probably triple - these figures. The potential for developing additional major reserves is excellent.

  8. [The health system of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  9. An Energy Overview of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Ecuador. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  10. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16.

  11. Epidemiology of acromegaly in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López Gavilanez, Enrique; Guerrero Franco, Kempis; Solórzano Zambrano, Narcisa; Navarro Chávez, Manuel; López Estrella, Camilo; Vaca Burbano, Luis; Marriott Díaz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of acromegaly in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature. An analysis was made of retrospective and prospective data from all patients with acromegaly attending endocrinology clinics at the 4 main hospitals of the public health network of Guayaquil from January 2000 to December 2014. Age at diagnosis, estimated delay in diagnosis, imaging studies of pituitary gland, basal growth hormone (GH) level, GH after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-GH), and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were recorded. Incidence and prevalence of the disease were estimated using information from the 2010 census of population and housing. Forty-eight cases were recorded in the study period in 17 males (35.4%) and 31 females (64.5%); M/F ratio=1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.3±16.8 years (range 18-86). Delay in diagnosis was 7.3±6.3 years (range 1-30). Mean age at diagnosis was 47.9±18.2 years in males and 46.3±15.8 years in females. Delay in diagnosis was 10.2±7.9 and 5.7±3.9 years in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of acromegaly is 18.7 cases per million inhabitants, and incidence of acromegaly 1.3 cases per million people per year. Acromegaly predominates in females, and is diagnosed in the fourth decade with a delay of approximately 8 years, usually even longer in males. Incidence and prevalence are lower than reported in international series. The disease is underdiagnosed and underreported in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecuador holds National Immunization Day.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    Ecuador conducted its National Immunization Day on August 2-13, 1999, against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases, and distributed vitamin A supplementation to children between the ages of 6 to 36 months. The goals of the campaign were: 1) indiscriminate vaccination with oral polio vaccine of all children under 5 years old; 2) nationwide introduction of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines to all children aged 12-23 months; 3) hepatitis B vaccine introduction to all children below 1 year in the eastern part of the country, vaccination with dT of 60% of all women of childbearing age in 71 areas identified at risk for neonatal tetanus, and nationwide vaccination with dT of all pregnant women; and 4) yellow fever immunization of all children aged 1-14 years in the eastern provinces located in the Amazon Basin and of all adults aged 15-49 years in the provinces of Sucumbios, Napo, Orellana, and the area of Mumullacta in Pastanza.

  13. Unintended pregnancy and low birthweight in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, E; Tsui, A O; Kotelchuck, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the relationship between unintended pregnancy and infant birthweight in Ecuador, differentiating between unwanted and mistimed pregnancies. METHODS: Analyses focused on a subsample of women (n = 2490) interviewed in the 1994 Ecuador Demographic and Maternal-Child Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between pregnancy intention status and low birthweight after control for other factors. RESULTS: Infants from unwanted pregnancies were more likely than infants from planned pregnancies to have low birthweight (odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.20). Mistimed pregnancy was not associated with low birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Unwanted pregnancy, but not mistimed pregnancy, is associated with low birthweight in Ecuador. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism through which pregnancy intention status affects birthweight. PMID:11344894

  14. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  15. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  16. Is there oil after OPEC : Ecuador's Pasaje

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    Since 1973 when Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, crude oil production increased by nearly half and domestic petroleum consumption has more than tripled. Oil's percent of Gross Domestic Product was just 3% in 1972, peaked at 17.3% in 1974, and has since declined to 11.71% in 1991. In 1992 the national perspective changed and found that OPEC membership was working against, not in favor of, economic growth. This issue addresses Ecuador's status change and its plans for its petroleum and economic future.

  17. Design of Reforma 509 with High Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stuart; Whitby, William; Easton, Marc

    Reforma 509 is a high-rise building located in the heart of the Central Business District of Mexico City. The building is comprised of office, hotel, residential and parking and forms part of a cluster of tall buildings in the area. If completed today, Reforma 509 would be the tallest building in Mexico, at 238m. All of the building's gravity and lateral (wind and seismic) loads are carried by an architecturally expressed perimeter frame that is formed from highly efficient Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) columns coupled together by steel tube perimeter bracing. This paper investigates the implications of substituting a grade 50 (fy=345 MPa) carbon steel with a higher strength micro-alloyed grade 70 (fy=480 MPa) steel in the design of Reforma 509.

  18. Plesiomonas shigelloides infection, Ecuador, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan C; Bhavnani, Darlene; Trueba, Gabriel; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Eisenberg, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Diarrheal risk associated with Plesiomonas shigelloides infection was assessed in rural communities in northwestern Ecuador during 2004-2008. We found little evidence that single infection with P. shigelloides is associated with diarrhea but stronger evidence that co-infection with rotavirus causes diarrhea.

  19. Ecuador: Accessing oil and gas opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.

    1996-12-31

    Developments in the oil and natural gas production industries in Ecuador and on the goal of attracting private investment into the formerly state-dominated industries are discussed. The need to improve the efficiency of oil and gas extraction in order to remain competitive is described.

  20. Space Radar Image of North Ecuador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this radar image of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the image.

  1. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  2. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  3. REFORMA/UCLA Mentor Program: A Mentoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauler, Sandra

    Although mentoring dates back to Greek mythology, the concept continues to thrive in today's society. Mentoring is a strategy that successful people have known about for centuries. The REFORMA/UCLA Mentor Program has made use of this strategy since its inception in November 1985 at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the…

  4. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

  5. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. Conclusions: This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the

  6. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cardenas, Washington Bolivar

    2015-07-12

    Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the implementation of reverse genetics to

  7. New Aradidae from Ecuador (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Aradidae)

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As an addition to the presently poorly known aradid fauna of Ecuador, 3 new genera and 4 new species are described: Osellaptera setifera gen. n., sp. n.; Kormilevia ecuadoriana sp. n. both belonging to Mezirinae; and Carventinae Cotopaxicoris cruciatus gen. n., sp. n. and Onorecoris piceus gen. n., sp. n. An updated key is provided for all species of the Neotropical genus Kormilevia Usinger & Matsuda, 1959. PMID:24039516

  8. Rapid changes in rotaviral genotypes in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hasing, Maria Eloisa; Trueba, Gabriel; Baquero, Maria Ines; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Solberg, Owen D; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the emerging G9P[8] genotype was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype in Ecuador during 2005. This present study provides a temporal analysis of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in two locations within Ecuador by adding additional years (2006 - early 2008) to the originally reported 2005 data. Data were collected in a rural (northern coastal Ecuador) and urban (Quito) area. In the rural area, a community sample of cases (those presenting diarrhea) and controls (those not presenting diarrhea) were collected between August 2003 and March 2008 resulting in a total of 3,300 stool samples (876 cases and 2,424 controls). Of these samples, 260 were positive for rotavirus by an immunochromatographic test (196 cases and 64 controls). In Quito, 59 fecal samples were collected from children presenting diarrhea and diagnosed with rotavirus. An RT-PCR analysis of samples collected between 2005 and 2007 suggested that G9 was replaced by G1 and G2 in the rural and urban settings. During this period G9 decreased from 79% to 9% while G2 increased from 0% to 43% in the rural communities, and G9 decreased from 79% to 37% while G2 increased from 3% to 57% in the urban area of Quito. This rapid replacement of G9 by G1 and G2 reinforces the necessity of surveillance to inform vaccination programs.

  9. Exploration and development at crossroads in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Ecuador's oil and gas sector has reached a pivotal point in its history. After several years of fairly brisk activity, foreign operators recently began scaling back exploration in Ecuador. They cited results that haven't met expectations and persistent delays in obtaining approval by state owned Petroecuador for development of reserves that have been discovered. Foreign oil companies had anticipated the pace of development would accelerate in Ecuador in early 1992, but major projects generally remained in limbo for most of this year. At presstime, however, there were signs of an encouraging follow-through in promised reforms in the permitting process. Petroecuador in April-May approved two of those projects and a third in June. Of the 13 oil companies or groups that had signed exploration contracts with the state oil company since 1985, several companies have terminated their operations in the country, and only one company, Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, is producing a small volume of oil. Two other companies have been negotiating exploration rights for about 2 years, with contracts yet to be signed.

  10. Rapid Changes in Rotaviral Genotypes in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Hasing, Maria Eloisa; Trueba, Gabriel; Baquero, Maria Ines; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Solberg, Owen D.; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the emerging G9P[8] genotype was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype in Ecuador during 2005. This present study provides a temporal analysis of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in two locations within Ecuador by adding additional years (2006 – early 2008) to the originally reported 2005 data. Data were collected in a rural (northern coastal Ecuador) and urban (Quito) area. In the rural area, a community sample of cases (those presenting diarrhea) and controls (those not presenting diarrhea) were collected between August 2003 and March 2008 resulting in a total of 3,300 stool samples (876 cases and 2,424 controls). Of these samples, 260 were positive for rotavirus by an immunochromatographic test (196 cases and 64 controls). In Quito, 59 fecal samples were collected from children presenting diarrhea and diagnosed with rotavirus. An RT-PCR analysis of samples collected between 2005 and 2007 suggested that G9 was replaced by G1 and G2 in the rural and urban settings. During this period G9 decreased from 79% to 9% while G2 increased from 0% to 43% in the rural communities, and G9 decreased from 79% to 37% while G2 increased from 3% to 57% in the urban area of Quito. This rapid replacement of G9 by G1 and G2 reinforces the necessity of surveillance to inform vaccination programs. PMID:19856474

  11. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador.

  12. Ecuador: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-21

    plastics are the leading U.S. exports to Ecuador, while oil, bananas , and shrimp account for the bulk of U.S. imports from Ecuador. Since joining the World...Ecuador’s export market, other goods, such as seafood and cut flowers , have benefitted from the program. The ATPA was reauthorized and expanded by the

  13. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador. PMID:26491385

  14. Schooling, Blackness and National Identity in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    In Esmeraldas, Ecuador, students of African descent make sense of racial identity and discrimination in multiple and contradictory ways as they negotiate the dominant discourse of national identity. In Ecuador two simultaneous processes shape the dominant discourse of national identity: racial mixture and the movement towards Whiteness. This study…

  15. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  16. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  17. Schooling, Blackness and National Identity in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    In Esmeraldas, Ecuador, students of African descent make sense of racial identity and discrimination in multiple and contradictory ways as they negotiate the dominant discourse of national identity. In Ecuador two simultaneous processes shape the dominant discourse of national identity: racial mixture and the movement towards Whiteness. This study…

  18. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and the Socialist... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  19. A new species of Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) from Ecuador (Especie nueva de Eritrachys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Ochlerini) de Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of to the genus Eritrachys Ruckes, E. brailovskyi, collected in Ecuador, is described and illustrated. The male of E. bituberculata Ruckes is described and illustrated, with new records from Panama and Ecuador. A key to the species of the genus is provided....

  20. Stratigraphy of Reforma Caldera, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Sánchez, L.; Macias, J. L.; Osorio, L. S.; Pola, A.; Avellán, D. R.; Arce, J. L.; Saucedo, R.; Sánchez, J. M.; García-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros, G.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Cardona, S.; Jimenez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Reforma caldera is located at ~35 km to the northwest of Santa Rosalía in the central part of the Baja California peninsula. It has 10 km in diameter and a maximum height of 1200 masl in the center and between 100 and 500 masl in its slopes. Reforma is within a tectonic zone affected by two fault systems: A NW-SE normal fault system linked to the opening of the Gulf of California, and a NNW-SSE and NW-SE strike-slip fault system associated with an active Riedel system. Reforma was built upon Cretaceous granites that outcrop at the caldera center, Miocene to Pliocene volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Comondú group, and Miocene marine sediments of the Santa Rosalía basin. On top of these rocks outcrop at least four submarine to subaerial ignimbrites interbedded with marine fossiliferous beds and the lower Pleistocene deposits associated to the Reforma caldera. These deposits are formed by a ignimbrite that shifts to different lithofacies that change gradually their welding, here dubbed basal, transitional, intermediate, and upper (all of then enriched in black fiammes), followed by a pumice-rich, white fiammes, and vitrophyre lithofacies, which are distributed around the 9 km wide caldera and have been associated to the caldera formation episode. Deposits related to post-caldera volcanism are andesite-basaltic lava flows erupted along the caldera rim through localized feeding dikes and andesitic and rhyolitic domes, and scoria cinder cones exposed inside and outside the caldera. On top of these deposits rest the middle Pleistocene Aguajito caldera deposits.

  1. 1990s bright for post-OPEC Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Ecuador, in its first full year outside the fold of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, stands poised for a significant expansion of production in the 1990s. While preparing for Ecuador's eventual withdrawal from OPEC last fall, the government since early summer 1992 has moved quickly to approve a number of key development projects. It was, perhaps, no coincidence that the most important conference on Ecuadorian petroleum prospects in recent years was timed to coincide with the government's public confirmation of the pullout. All foreign companies operating in Ecuador attended, with details disclosed of projects planned or under way. This article summarizes these projects and other key issues raised at the conference.

  2. Snakebites in the rainforests of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Praba-Egge, Anita D; Cone, Stephen W; Araim, Omar; Freire, Isabel; Paida, Galo; Escalante, Johnny; Carrera, Favio; Chavez, Mirian; Merrell, Ronald C

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologic information about snakebites in Ecuador is scarce. Snakebites are more common in the lowlands east of the Andes, in the Amazon basin. In the present study, a retrospective review of all ( n = 142) snakebite admissions to Hospital Pio XII, a regional health center/hospital in the canton of Sucúa, Morona Santiago, Ecuador was carried out between the years of 1996 and 2000. Bites occurred more frequently during the months of March to May. The largest group of patients were in the 15- to 49-year-old range (52.5%), and agricultural workers were the most affected of all patients by occupation (> 40%). In most cases of snakebite, patients could not identify the type of snake that had bitten them. A small number of patients ( n = 60, 42.3%) received some type of treatment prior to arrival at the hospital. Bites occurred most frequently on the left lower extremity (31.7%). Typical symptoms included pain and local edema at the snakebite site; generalized symptoms such as fever, nausea, and vomiting were less frequent. Most patients (almost 90%) received antivenin during hospitalization in addition to supportive care. The mean hospital stay was 4.3 days. More than 90% of all 142 patients recovered, about 8% with local abscesses. Mortality was 2.9% and occurred as a result of complications, including renal failure, respiratory failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  3. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    SciTech Connect

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. )

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  4. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Magdalena M.; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador. PMID:27904814

  5. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis.

  6. A qualitative view of the HIV epidemic in coastal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Adam L; Wilson, Magdalena M; Prabhu, Vishaal; Soekoe, Nicola; Mata, Humberto; Grau, Lauretta E

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador. We conducted interviews with 15 patients at Manglaralto Hospital. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed widespread negative attitudes towards PLWH, prevalent risk behaviors such as multiple sex partners and lack of condom use, and low individual risk-perception of contracting HIV. These findings underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent further growth of the HIV epidemic in Ecuador.

  7. Is the US Investing Wisely in Latin America? Let Us Take a Closer Look at Ecuador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Mandato Constitucional que prohibe establecimiento de bases militares o extranjeras”, www.elciudadano.gov.ec 65 Agencias Washington/Caracas, “Las...20, 2009. El Ciudadano. “Este año se emitirá Mandato Constitucional que prohibe establecimiento de bases militares o extranjeras

  8. Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L; Domeisen, H; Narvaez, M; Tixi, R; Vivar, N

    2000-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT) are uncommon. Age-standardized incidence rates are 0.5 and 0.3 per 100,000 in Quito, Ecuador; and 1.0 and 0.7 per 100,000 in the USA (SEER Program), for males and females, respectively. The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions. From 1982 to 1998, 308 salivary gland tumors were surgically treated at the Hospital 'Carlos Andrade Marin' of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security in Quito, Ecuador, an Andean city of approximately 2 million inhabitants. Malignant lesions were found in 58 cases (19%): 37 out of 194 parotid gland tumors (19%), 7 out of 86 submandibular tumors (8%) and 14 out of 28 minor salivary gland tumors (50%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types. Twenty-two cases were classified as stage I, 13 as stage II, 1 as stage III and 20 as stage IV (UICC TNM staging classification). Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%). Local (LR) and/or regional recurrences were detected in 13 patients (22%). Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura. Thirty-five patients are alive, 33 disease free. Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 75 and 68%, respectively. There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003). The surgical or multimodality

  9. Ecuador still grappling over privatization as oil flow rises

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-08

    Ecuador continues to grapple with efforts to privatize its petroleum sector a year after disclosing its plans to withdraw from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. One of OPEC's smallest members, Ecuador last year said it would leave the group in March 1993, citing high membership costs and minimal benefits. Industry observers also noted at the time Ecuador's plans to sharply boost production this century might run afoul of its OPEC quota. Political controversy is stalling efforts to implement a new reform oriented hydrocarbon law in Ecuador that would open the country's petroleum sector to greater participation by foreign companies and privatize state petroleum companies, including Petroleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador). That comes even as foreign contractors' participation in Ecuador's upstream sector are making a significant contribution to boosting the country's oil production, which had remained flat for a number of years. The paper discusses the status of the new law, the controversy surrounding reforms, the master plan, environmental concerns, reserves and production, Petroecuador activity, planned pipeline work, service contracts, start-up of Oxy, details of Oxy development, and Elf's start-up.

  10. Critical Phenomena of Rainfall in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Sh.; Vasquez, N.; Jacome, P.; Basile, L.

    2014-02-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is characterized by a power law behavior over complex systems like earthquakes and avalanches. We study rainfall using data of one day, 3 hours and 10 min temporal resolution from INAMHI (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia) station at Izobamba, DMQ (Metropolitan District of Quito), satellite data over Ecuador from Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM,) and REMMAQ (Red Metropolitana de Monitoreo Atmosferico de Quito) meteorological stations over, respectively. Our results show a power law behavior of the number of rain events versus mm of rainfall measured for the high resolution case (10 min), and as the resolution decreases this behavior gets lost. This statistical property is the fingerprint of a self-organized critical process (Peter and Christensen, 2002) and may serve as a benchmark for models of precipitation based in phase transitions between water vapor and precipitation (Peter and Neeling, 2006).

  11. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.

  12. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered. PMID:28097062

  13. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  14. Diversity and distribution of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Holzenthal, Ralph W; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity "hotspots." We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.

  15. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  16. [Cancer of the larynx in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L; de la Torre, M; Guerrón, M; Letort, M

    1997-04-01

    A retrospective review was made of 75 cases of laryngeal cancer evaluated and treated at the Social Security Hospital of Quito (Ecuador). No exclusively supraglottic lesions were found; 67% of cases, were glottic or glottic-supraglottic. Thirty-two per cent of cases were T1 and T2 and 23% had palpable lymph nodes in neck. Most T1 and T2 tumors were treated with radiotherapy (RT) and most T3 and T4 tumors with a combination of surgery and RT. The 5 and 10-year overall survival rates were 55% and 47%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were: 81% for T1 and T2 tumors and 36% for T3 and T4 tumors (p = 0.0008), 76% for N- and 42% for N+, 53% for well-differentiated and 58% for moderately or poorly differentiated tumors, 85% for T1 and T2 lesions treated with RT and 67% for T1 and T2 lesions treated with partial surgery, and 14% for T3 and T4 lesions treated with RT and 49% for T3 and T4 lesions treated surgically (non-significant differences).

  17. Country experience in organizing for quality: Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Marquez, L; Madubuike, C

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of Ecuador's efforts to maintain quality assurance (QA) in the care and delivery of health services. The Ministry of Health (MOH) established the National QA Program (QAP) in March 1996. Most of the efforts have been directed toward 7 of the 21 provinces. QAP's permanent resident advisor has coached teams in implementing QA microprojects. QAP has worked with district level officials in development of action plans and to define basic quality standards. MOH is moving to incorporate QA within a larger health sector reform process. New draft policies include ways to improve quality of care. A coordinator provides supervision and support to pilot projects and will strengthen the integration of QA within health sector reforms. QA pilot projects in Azuay and Bolivar have led to formation of QA teams at provincial, hospital, and health district levels. The first year of GAP was spent developing capacity by training QA facilitators at the national level. Azuay and Bolivar provinces have held provincial level training in problem solving, process improvement, strategic planning for quality, and standards development. Technical assistance was provided by JHPIEGO to revise national norms and clinical standards for reproductive health (RH). The MOH is piloting a training program in the new RH standards in Cotopaxi province. QAP conducted QA design efforts and development of local quality indicators under a new World Bank funded project. A newsletter was started in 1997 to disseminate QA information and progress reports. QA has been institutionalized within MOH.

  18. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  19. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members.

  20. A Primary Care System to Improve Health Care Efficiency: Lessons from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Aldulaimi, Sommer; Mora, Francisco E

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with few resources to spend on health care. Historically, Ecuador has struggled to find a model for health care that is efficient, effective, and available to all people in the country, even those in underserved and rural communities. In 2000, the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health implemented a new system of health care that used primary care as its platform. Since then, Ecuador has been able to increase its health care efficiency, increasing its ranking from 111 of 211 countries worldwide in 2000, to 20 of 211 countries in 2014. This article briefly reviews the new components of the system implemented in Ecuador and examines the tools used to accomplish this. The discussion also compares and contrasts the Ecuador and US systems, and identifies concepts and policies from Ecuador that could improve the US system. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  1. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2010-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).

  2. Ecuador rural electrification. Project impact evaluation report 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.L.; Ballantyne, J.; Maushammer, R.; Simancas, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    The direct and indirect benefits of rural electrification in Ecuador warrant A.I.D.'s continued sponsorship of such programs. This assessment of A.I.D.'s 1964-75 sponsorship of four electrification projects in Ecuador concludes that, although implemented along with other development projects such as road construction, the program was a key factor in upgrading the towns of Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Daule, and Ambato into regional market and service centers. The main benefits of this program, which was not originally designed to benefit the poor, were job creation, access to agricultural product processing facilities, and increased opportunities for small commercial enterprises.

  3. Space Radar Image of North Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this radar image of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the image. These volcanoes are, clockwise from upper left, Mojanda, Imabura and Cusin. A lake partially fills the summit crater of Mojanda and a group of lava domes can be seen on the north flank. Geologists believe the most recent eruption of Mojanda was about 3,400 years ago. Much more recent activity has occurred at Cayambe, the large volcano at the bottom of the image. Massive mudflow deposits can be seen filling the valleys on the east (right) side of Cayambe. Cayambe last erupted about 600 years ago. Geologists are using radar to study volcanoes in the Andes to determine the history of eruptions and to identify potential threats the volcanoes pose to local communities. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The image is centered at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 78.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 50 km (31 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  4. 2016 Ecuador earthquake and rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Yoshimoto, M.; Acero, W.; Gabriela, P.; Vasconez, F.; Arrais, S.; Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Chamorro, O.; Maeda, Y.; Nakano, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred on 16 April 2016 within the source region of the 1906 earthquake, which has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942 (Mw 7.8), 1958 (Mw 7.7), and 1979 (Mw 8.1). We analyzed the mainshock and aftershocks of the 2016 earthquake using regional broadband seismic data in Ecuador and Colombia. We performed teleseismic slip inversion of the mainshock of the 2016 earthquake using waveform data from the global broadband seismic networks. Our CMT inversion of the 2016 earthquake indicated an Mw 7.7 event with a dip-slip mechanism at a depth of 25 km. Our slip inversion indicated that the rupture propagated from north to south with the maximum slip of 2.2 m. CMT solutions of the aftershocks were characterized dominantly by dip-slip mechanisms, and large aftershocks occurred north and south of the mainshock slip region at shallow depths. The spatial distribution of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks correlated with patches of high interplate coupling strength and was similar to the distribution of the 1942 earthquake and aftershocks, suggesting that the 2016 earthquake ruptured the same asperity as the 1942 earthquake for a recurrence interval of 74 years. If this asperity was ruptured by the 1906 earthquake, the 1942 earthquake occurred only 36 years after the 1906 earthquake. Yoshimoto and Kumagai [2016 AGU Meeting] performed tsunami waveform inversion of the 1906 earthquake, which indicated Mw around 8.4 and showed that the main slip occurred near the trench off the source regions of the three historical and 2016 earthquakes. The tsunami inversion results indicate that the 1906 earthquake did not rupture the source region of the 1942 earthquake, which explains the discrepancy in the recurrence interval. These results suggest that the existence of a depth-dependent complex rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone.

  5. Transmission of Norovirus Within Households in Quininde, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico, Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper, Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-09-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  6. Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  7. Hantavirus nephropathy as a pseudo-import pathology from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Demeester, R; Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M; Pourkarim, M R; Maes, P; Clement, J

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hantavirus infection (nephropathia epidemica) diagnosed in a Belgian backpacker returning from a trekking expedition in Ecuador, after likely heavy exposure to rodents. Because of epidemiological inconsistency, molecular investigation was performed and revealed a Puumala infection acquired during very limited exposure in Belgium upon return.

  8. Ecuador--Land of Contrasts. Kindergarten-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsen, Mary Lou

    This primary social studies unit, designed to teach an awareness of the Americas, is appropriate for teaching kindergarten through third grade students about Ecuador. The activities could easily be adapted to fit Mexico and many other countries in Central and South America. Eleven basic concepts are developed in this unit. The concepts are: (1)…

  9. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  10. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  11. Impact of two policy interventions on dietary diversity in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.

  12. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  13. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  14. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... experience, along with our PRAs, our RMD, and our knowledge of the conditions in Colombia and Ecuador... must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or fewer Medflies per trap per week... papayas from that production area must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or...

  15. Ecuador--Land of Contrasts. Kindergarten-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsen, Mary Lou

    This primary social studies unit, designed to teach an awareness of the Americas, is appropriate for teaching kindergarten through third grade students about Ecuador. The activities could easily be adapted to fit Mexico and many other countries in Central and South America. Eleven basic concepts are developed in this unit. The concepts are: (1)…

  16. Leptobasis linda sp. nov. from Ecuador (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jim T

    2016-09-28

    Leptobasis linda is described from the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador. The coloration of mature individuals is superficially similar to the widespread L. vacillans, but structural and color characteristics differentiate L. linda from all congeneric species. The male caudal appendages and the female posterior margin of the prothorax are unique among Leptobasis.

  17. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  18. Voices of Contact: Politics of Language in Urban Amazonian Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroblewski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of diverse linguistic resources and contentious identity politics among indigenous Amazonian Kichwas in the city of Tena, Ecuador. Tena is a rapidly developing Amazonian provincial capital city with a long history of interethnic and interlinguistic contact. In recent decades, the course of indigenous Kichwa identity…

  19. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  20. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  1. Citizenship Education in Ecuador: Perceptions of Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Andres Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review literature about citizenship education in order to develop a framework for transformative citizenship education and compare that framework to the intended and implemented citizenship education curriculum in Ecuador. This study presents qualitative research carried out in eight schools in four provinces of…

  2. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-12-02

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  4. Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.

    2003-04-01

    lahar-hazard-zones using a digital elevation model (DEM), was used to construct a hazard map for the volcano. The 10 meter resolution DEM was constructed for Tungurahua Volcano using scanned topographic lines obtained from the GIS Department at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. The steep topographic gradients and rapid downcutting of most rivers draining the edifice prevents the deposition of lahars on the lower flanks of Tungurahua. Modeling confirms the high degree of flow channelization in the deep Tungurahua canyons. Inundation zones observed and shown by LAHARZ at Baños yield identification of safe zones within the city which would provide safety from even the largest magnitude lahar expected.

  5. Cohort Profile: The Ecuador Life (ECUAVIDA) study in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Philip J; Chico, Martha E; Platts-Mills, Thomas Ae; Rodrigues, Laura C; Strachan, David P; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-10-01

    The ECUAVIDA birth cohort is studying the impact of exposures to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) parasites and early-life microbial exposures on the development of atopy, allergic diseases and immune responses in childhood. A total of 2404 newborns were recruited between 2006 and 2009 in a public hospital serving the rural district of Quininde, Esmeraldas Province, in a tropical region of coastal Ecuador. Detailed measurements were done around the time of the birth, at 7 and 13 months and at 2 and 3 years, and data collection is ongoing at 5 and 8 years. Data being collected include questionnaires for: sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial (at 4-6 years only) and dietary (at 6-7 years only) factors; childhood morbidity and clinical outcomes; stool samples for parasites; blood samples for DNA, measurements of vaccine responses and other measures of immune function/inflammation; and anthropometrics. Allergen skin prick test reactivity is done from 2 years and measures of airway function and inflammation at 8 years.

  6. Characteristics of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J; Reyes, Germán; Mulder, Janet; aan de Stegge, Birgit M; Peters, José T A M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Tanca, J; Peña, Amado S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2003-01-01

    In Ecuador, Helicobacter pylori infections are highly prevalent. A total of 42 H. pylori clinical isolates from 86 patients attending the outpatient clinic of the gastroenterology department of the university hospital of Guayaquil in Ecuador were characterized. Their susceptibility, and cagA and vacA status were determined. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 80.9% and 9.5% of strains, respectively. Neither amoxicillin- nor tetracycline-resistant strains were found. The most prevalent genotype was the cagA(+), vacA s1b,m1 type. This genotype was associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA showed no genetic relationship among the strains.

  7. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  8. Regional differences in living arrangements among the elderly in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    De Vos, S

    1998-01-01

    On the national level in Ecuador in 1982 roughly 61 percent of elderly people 60 years and over lived in complex family households, but this was 70 percent in the Coastal region (Costa) compared with only 54 percent in the Mountain region (Sierra), these two regions comprising over 95 percent of Ecuador's 1982 population. The regional difference could not be explained by standard demographic or socioeconomic characteristics available in the 1982 Census, either among all elderly people or unmarried women elderly. Rather, the regional difference may reflect underlying value and attitude differences not measured in the Census. As the marital structure of the adult population in the two areas has been quite different, consensual union being much more common in the Costa than the Sierra, we are left to wonder if there might be two different family systems at play. Such speculation will need to be addressed by future research.

  9. The current status of female physicists in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Ayala, Paola

    2015-12-01

    Although the number of female physicists in Ecuador is still relatively low, many of them have already obtained a postgraduate degree abroad. The return of these women to the country has begun to have a positive effect on the discipline as whole. In particular, the fields of particle physics, biophysics, and condensed matter have experienced significant development in the last few years. The policies for networking and collaboration among local and international universities have changed radically in Ecuador, a country with limited resources. This paper provides the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics with an overview of the work of Ecuadorian female physicists and the changes in laws that aid the development of science in general.

  10. Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Schoolchildren in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Játiva, Edgar; Velasco-Benítez, Carlos A; Koppen, Ilan J N; Játiva-Cabezas, Zahira; Saps, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children in Ecuador is unknown. We describe a survey study in 2 schools in Quito, Ecuador, using a Spanish translation of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII). A total of 417 children (51% boys) with a mean age of 12.0 years were included. FGIDs were present in 95 children (22.8%) and occurred in 25% of girls and in 20.7% of boys (P = 0.296). Functional defecation disorders were found in 12.0% of children, 9.4% had an abdominal pain-related FGID and 3.8% was diagnosed with a vomiting or aerophagia FGID.

  11. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  12. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Hussam; Arredondo, Juan C; Valencia, Jorge H; Arbeláez, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Altamirano-Benavides, Marco

    2014-04-04

    We describe a new species of Philodryas from the highlands of southern Ecuador. The new species is distinguished from all known species of Philodryas by a unique combination of coloration, scalation, and hemipenial characters. The new species resembles Philodryas simonsii in color pattern. However, they differ notoriously by their hemipenial morphology. The three other trans-Andean members of the genus (Philodryas simonsii, Philodryas chamissonis, and Philodryas tachymenoides), along with the new species, compose a probably monophyletic group that may be characterized by the presence of ungrooved postdiastemal teeth in the maxilla. Unlike most species of the genus Philodryas, the new species shows a restricted distribution, being apparently endemic to a small region of high-altitude (3150-4450m) grasslands in the southern Andes of Ecuador.

  13. Report on Follow-Up Visit to Ecuador, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-21

    nutrtion , Ecuador 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF... food composition tables for Central and Latin American countries. Miss Pazmino is scheduled to attend the INCAP School of Dietetics within the near...so that the exact intake of the nutrients involved.can be estimated, Questions regarding the Food Composition Tables of INNE from Dr. W. T. WuLeung

  14. Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja), Ecuador: A Strategic Black Spot?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    percent of Ecuadorian territory. The San Miguel River is located approximately just 30 kilometers from Lago Agrio where it serves as a tributary to the...Putumayo River and where both rivers serve as a natural boundary for most of the geo-political line that divides Ecuador from Colombia. Lago Agrio’s...jungle terrain that comprises the Amazon River Basin presents tough challenges for cross mobility movement and the FARC and drug traffickers use the

  15. Systemic canine histoplasmosis: A case report from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Yépez, Julio R; Ortega-Paredes, David A; Barba, Pedro M; Mafla-Endara, Paola M; Zurita, Jeannete

    2015-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a zoonotic systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a case of a female canine, 4 years old, presenting multifocal lymphadenitis and skin and gingival lesions, in Ecuador. Based on cytological, histopathological, histochemical analyses, fungal culture and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the fungus, the diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. capsulatum as the agent of infection. The treatment plan included ketoconazole with a satisfactory outcome.

  16. The PC/Ecuador biogas program: considerations for future development

    SciTech Connect

    Warpeha, P.R.

    1980-06-28

    Biogas, the production of methane fuel and fertilizer through the process of controlled anaerobic decomposition, has been one of the most controversial of the new renewable energy technologies. The integrated approach to fuel and fertilizer production, conservation and sanitation on a decentralized community level potentially holds great promise as a truly appropriate technology for rural development. The report presents the research, development, and demonstration of biogas technology conducted by the Peace Corps in Ecuador for the past six years.

  17. Systemic canine histoplasmosis: A case report from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yépez, Julio R.; Ortega-Paredes, David A.; Barba, Pedro M.; Mafla-Endara, Paola M.; Zurita, Jeannete.

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a zoonotic systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a case of a female canine, 4 years old, presenting multifocal lymphadenitis and skin and gingival lesions, in Ecuador. Based on cytological, histopathological, histochemical analyses, fungal culture and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the fungus, the diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. capsulatum as the agent of infection. The treatment plan included ketoconazole with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26199868

  18. Report on Follow-up Visit to Ecuador, Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-21

    Servicio Cooperativo Interamericano de Salud Pdblica Mr, Milton Lobell, Director of the Servicio Cooperativo Interamericano de Agricultura Mr. David Luscombe, Chief of the Misicn Andina0 ...were familiar with the survey and were present in Ecuador in 1959 include Mr. Harold Conger, Director, Health Servicio , USOM; Mr. Milton Lobeli Director...Agriculture Servicio ; Mr. John Hummel, Head of USOM; Mrs. Leslie Smith, Home Econonrist, USOM; Dr. John J. Kevany, WHO Consultant to INNE;

  19. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  20. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  1. The complex influence of ENSO on droughts in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Aguilar, E.; Martínez, R.; Martín-Hernández, N.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; El Kenawy, A.; Tomás-Burguera, M.; Moran-Tejeda, E.; López-Moreno, J. I.; Revuelto, J.; Beguería, S.; Nieto, J. J.; Drumond, A.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the spatio-temporal variability of droughts in Ecuador for a 48-year period (1965-2012). Droughts were quantified from 22 high-quality and homogenized time series of precipitation and air temperature by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. In addition, the propagation of two different ENSO indices (El Niño 3.4 and El Niño 1 + 2 indices) and other atmospheric circulation processes (e.g., vertical velocity) on different time-scales of drought severity were investigated. The results showed a very complex influence of ENSO on drought behavior across Ecuador, with two regional patterns in the evolution of droughts: (1) the Andean chain with no changes in drought severity, and (2) the Western plains with less severe and frequent droughts. We also detected that drought variability in the Andes mountains is explained by the El Niño 3.4 index [sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central Pacific], whereas the Western plains are much more driven by El Niño 1 + 2 index (SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific). Moreover, it was also observed that El Niño and La Niña phases enhance droughts in the Andes and Western plains regions, respectively. The results of this work could be crucial for predicting and monitoring drought variability and intensity in Ecuador.

  2. Macroeconomic aspects of a petroleum boom: Ecuador, 1972-1980

    SciTech Connect

    de la Torre, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes Ecuador's macroeconomic experience during the period of petroleum bonanza (1972-1980). The first chapter describes salient adjustments to a booming-sector phenomenon in the context of a formal, two-sector model of a small open economy, adapted to the stylized facts of the Ecuadorean case. The remainder of the dissertation is a historical case study that reviews actual macroeconomic developments and policies in Ecuador. The review of Ecuador's experience is organized as follows. Chapter 2 analyzes the adjustments in income, absorption, and the current account to the oil boom. Chapter 3 examines the monetary implications of the sudden influx of foreign exchange and the nature of the policy responses to it. Chapter 4 turns to the fiscal and credit areas, focusing on how the boom gave rise to, on the one hand, a significant increase in the State's allocative and developmental roles and, on the other, a relaxation of domestic resource-mobilization efforts. Chapter 5 emphasizes the distinction between exposed (or traded) and sheltered (or nontraded) sectors in order to clarify the nature of the linkages between the oil boom, the real exchange-rate appreciation, and the observed pattern of change in sectoral output and employment during the 1970s.

  3. [Scientific output in the health sciences in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sisa, Iván; Espinel, Mauricio; Fornasini, Marco; Mantilla, Gonzalo

    2011-10-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics and trends of health sciences-related studies published in Ecuador from 1999-2009. Its objective is to contribute to the design and implementation of a research and development policy whose work is centered on the country's health priorities. Bibliometric indicators of production applied to publications in health sciences in Ecuador were used for the analysis. The publications were from the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. It was found that 625 articles were published from 1999-2009, primarily in the clinical-surgical areas (60%), followed by epidemiology (17.4%), basic sciences (14.1%), and health systems (8.5%). Only 4.3% and 7.2% of the production in this period was related to the primary causes of morbidity and mortality, respectively. It was found that private institutions generated more health research than public institutions, and hospitals (public, private, and mixed) produced a higher percentage than universities. The analysis showed that there was limited scientific production in health sciences in Ecuador during the study period, with a slight increase in the last two years that may be due in part to greater investment in research and development by the National Secretariat of Science and Technology (SENACYT). Investment increased from 0.20% to 0.44% of gross domestic product between 2006 and 2009.

  4. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  5. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  6. Oxy`s strategy on environment, community issues key to success of project in Ecuador`s rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1997-04-21

    Occidental Exploration and Production Co. has implemented a comprehensive strategy of strict environmental protection measures and aggressive community relations initiatives in its oil operations in the rain forests of eastern Ecuador. While such measures may not be unique by themselves, Oxy`s efforts to incorporate these measures as a cornerstone of its exploration and development campaign--at the earliest possible stage--can serve as something of a paradigm for oil and gas industry operations in the rain forest. The upshot is that Oxy has a world-class (at least from an environmental standpoint) oil drilling-production operation at the heart of a world-class biological reserve in a pristine rain forest. Even against a backdrop of politically charged concern over industry work in the Amazon region, the project is an unqualified success to Oxy, the government of Ecuador, and most importantly, the native inhabitants there. The paper describes the environmental management plan.

  7. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  8. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  9. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Márquez, S; Carrera, J; Pullan, S T; Lewandowski, K; Paz, V; Loman, N; Quick, J; Bonsall, D; Powell, R; Thézé, J; Pybus, O G; Klenerman, P; Eisenberg, J; Coloma, J; Carroll, M W; Trueba, G; Logue, C H

    2017-02-23

    Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador.

  10. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, S.; Carrera, J.; Pullan, S. T.; Lewandowski, K.; Paz, V.; Loman, N.; Quick, J.; Bonsall, D.; Powell, R.; Thézé, J.; Pybus, O. G.; Klenerman, P.; Eisenberg, J.; Coloma, J.; Carroll, M. W.; Trueba, G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador. PMID:28232448

  11. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  12. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, D M

    1978-01-13

    Soil samples from the archeological sites of Real Alto and OGCh-20, Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador, show the presence of cross-shaped silica bodies identifiable as maize (Zea mays L.) phytoliths by size comparison with known wild grass and maize phytoliths. These results support arguments for the cultivation of maize at 2450 B.C. in coastal Ecuador.

  13. Workshops in the Forest: A Model International Environmental Exchange Program in Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jean G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an environmental education workshop in which scientists, environmental educators, and elementary and secondary school teachers from the United States and Ecuador participate in workshops to raise the awareness of rural communities in Ecuador about conservation and environmental issues. Differences between U.S. and Ecuadorian schools are…

  14. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  15. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  16. Environmental Education in Ecuador: Conceptions and Currents in Quito's Private Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2013-01-01

    While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…

  17. Abortion, an increasing public health concern in Ecuador, a 10-year population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Simbaña, Katherine; Gómez, Lenin; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Scott, Lisa; Cevallos-Sierra, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the epidemiology of abortion in Ecuador from 2004 to 2014 and compare the prevalence between the public and the private health care systems. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of the overall mortality and morbidity rate due to abortion in Ecuador, based on public health records and other government databases. Results From 2004 to 2014, a total of 431,614 spontaneous abortions, miscarriage and other types of abortions were registered in Ecuador. The average annual rate of abortion was 115 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate was found to be 43 per 100,000 live births. Conclusions Abortion is a significant and wide-ranging problem in Ecuador. The study supports the perception that in spite of legal restrictions to abortion in Ecuador, women are still terminating pregnancies when they feel they need to do so. The public health system reported >84% of the national overall prevalence. PMID:28761387

  18. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  19. Hemagglutinin serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Arturo; Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Blackall, Patrick J; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2011-03-01

    Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza, an acute respiratory disease of chickens. In this study, a total of 28 isolates of A. paragallinarum from Ecuador were serotyped by the hemagglutinin scheme which recognizes nine serovars. Out of 28 isolates, 17 isolates belonged to serovar A-3, and five isolates to each serovars B-1 and C-1, whereas one isolate was non-typeable. This is the first report of A. paragallinarum serovar A-3 outside Brazil and serovar C-1 outside Japan.

  20. Agrarian change and labour migration in the Sierra of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Peek, P

    1980-01-01

    "Among the effects produced in the Sierra of Ecuador by the programme of land reforms launched in 1964 was a reduction in the incomes from small-scale farming. At the same time, the growth of productive employment in urban areas was insufficient to provide round-the-year work to the fast growing army of jobseekers. Analysis of the agrarian structure and migration patterns before and after 1964 suggests that it was primarily this combination of circumstances that produced a pronounced shift towards short-term rather than permanent migration, thereby providing industry and services with the labour they needed while avoiding the disadvantages of severe urban overpopulation."

  1. Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Stothert, Karen E

    2003-02-14

    Cucurbita (squash and gourd) phytoliths recovered from two early Holocene archaeological sites in southwestern Ecuador and directly dated to 10,130 to 9320 carbon-14 years before the present (about 12,000 to 10,000 calendar years ago) are identified as derived from domesticated plants because they are considerably larger than those from modern wild taxa. The beginnings of plant husbandry appear to have been preceded by the exploitation of a wild species of Cucurbita during the terminal Pleistocene. These data provide evidence for an independent emergence of plant food production in lowland South America that was contemporaneous with or slightly before that in highland Mesoamerica.

  2. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  3. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family. PMID:25685003

  4. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  5. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  6. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  7. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  8. Food insecurity and household food supplies in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Michelle; Zubieta, Ana Claudia; Hernandez, Kattya; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the validity of a modified US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) through its correlation with food supply and demographic factors, and its fitness using Rasch model analysis in rural Ecuador. This study examines the relationship between household food insecurity and household food supplies in 52 Ecuadorian households. The sample was drawn from four rural communities participating in the project PLAN in Cantón Quijos. Questionnaires included a modified HFSSM, a household food shelf-inventory and demographic characteristics. Multiple ANOVA analysis resulted in statistically significant inverse relationships between household food insecurity and total food supply, as well as the supply of meat, vegetables, legumes, oils, and other food products (p=0.05). Rasch model measure values on the HFSSM illustrated food insecurity at different levels of severity. The majority of the items (>75%) presented adequate infit values. This study affirms that the proposed modified HFSSM may be useful to measure food insecurity and thus be used as a tool to monitor and evaluate programs aimed at improving quantity and variety of food items in rural Ecuador.

  9. Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Carlos; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Economic inequality has been hypothesized to be a determinant of population health, independent of poverty and household income. We examined the association between economic inequality and child malnutrition in Ecuador. Economic inequality was measured by the Gini coefficient of household per capita consumption, estimated from the 1990 Census. Childhood stunting, assessed from height-for-age z scores, was obtained from the 1998 Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS). We controlled for a range of individual and household covariates, including per capita food consumption, education, housing, ethnicity, fertility, access to health services, diarrhea morbidity, child care, mother's age and diet composition. Stunting still affects 26% of children under five in Ecuador, with higher prevalence in the rural Highlands and among indigenous peoples. Maternal education, basic housing conditions, access to health services, ethnicity, fertility, maternal age and diet composition were independently associated with stunting. However, after controlling for relevant covariates, economic inequality at the provincial scale had a statistically significant deleterious effect on stunting. At municipal or local levels, inequality was not associated with stunting.

  10. Hydrological and glaciological balances on Antizana Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, V.; Cadier, E.; Coudrain, A.; Francou, B.; Maisincho, L.; Praderio, E.; Villacis, M.; Wagnon, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water supply for Quito, the capital of Ecuador, is partly fed by the water collected at the piedmont of Antizana ice covered stratovolcano. In order to assess the contribution of glaciers to the local water resources, a comparison of hydrological and glaciological datasets collected over the 1995-2005 period on Antizana Glacier 15 watershed was realized. Over the study period, Antizana glacier 15 retreated quickly, inducing an important water contribution to lower altitude discharges. However, comparison of hydrological and glaciological balances allowed observation of important missing runoffs due to underground circulations. Subsuperficial circulations were initially questioned due to the total disappearance of surface streams at the level of the frontal moraine, a surface stream being observed again downstream the moraine. Brine injections were performed upstream the moraine and in a small lake located on the moraine and restitution rates of salt were computed. Tracer experiments demonstrated a complete restitution of discharges implying that missing runoff were not involved in subsuperficial circulations but in deeper ones that may have flown through the fractured rock environment of the stratovlocano. Experiments also demonstrated that infiltrations occurred directly at the bedrock of the glaciers. Then, taking into account the weak discharges observed at the glacier front would induce computation of a strongly underestimated value of the actual water contribution from glaciers to lower altitude discharges. Finally, assessing water contribution from glaciers of Ecuador requires a comparison of glaciological and hydrological data.

  11. [Food labeling in Ecuador: implementation, results, and pending actions].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Veliz, Paula Mariana; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Mafla, Carina Vance; Altamirano, Luz María Martínez; Jones, Cecilia Vaca

    2017-06-08

    Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines. One of these is implementation of a traffic-light nutritional labeling system for processed foods, in late 2014, aimed at guaranteeing people's right to timely, clear, accurate, and non-deceptive information on the content and characteristics of these foods. This article analyzes implementation of processed food labeling and results to date, and proposes complementary measures needed to reach the goal in the National Plan for Good Living, in light of new scientific evidence and different agreements and regulatory frameworks in our Region. Methods included a literature and documentary review, key informant interviews, and analysis and processing of secondary sources.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates for two cities in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauval, C.; Yepes, H.; Monelli, D.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.

    2013-05-01

    The whole territory of Ecuador is exposed to seismic hazard. Great earthquakes can occur in the subduction zone (e.g. Esmeraldas, 1906, Mw 8.8), whereas lower magnitude but shallower and potentially more destructive earthquakes can occur in the highlands. This study focuses on the estimation of probabilistic seismic hazard for two cities: the capital Quito (˜2.5 millions inhabitants) in the Interandean Valley, and the city of Esmeraldas on the coast close to the subduction trench (location of the oil refineries and export facilities which are key for Ecuador economy). The analysis relies on a seismotectonic model developed for the Ecuadorian territory and borders (Alvarado, 2012; Yepes et al. in prep). Seismic parameters are determined using a recently published unified earthquake catalog extending over five centuries in the Cordillera region, and over 110 years in the subduction zone (Beauval, Yepes, et al. 2010, 2013). Uncertainties are explored through a simple logic tree. All uncertainties identified in the process are taken into account: source zone limits, recurrence time of large earthquakes, equivalent moment magnitude of historical events, maximum magnitudes, declustering algorithm, decisions for homogenizing magnitudes, seismic parameters, ground-motion prediction equations. The aim is to quantify the resulting uncertainty on the hazard curves and to identify the controlling parameters. Mean hazard estimates for the PGA at 475 years reach around 0.4-0.45g in Quito and 0.9-1.0g in Esmeraldas.

  13. Mass wasting triggered by the 5 March 1987 Ecuador earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, R.L.; Nieto, A.S.; O'Rourke, T. D.; Crespo, E.; Plaza-Nieto, G.

    1996-01-01

    On 5 March 1987, two earthquakes (Ms=6.1 and Ms=6.9) occurred about 25 km north of Reventador Volcano, along the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains in northeastern Ecuador. Although the shaking damaged structures in towns and villages near the epicentral area, the economic and social losses directly due to earthquake shaking were small compared to the effects of catastrophic earthquake-triggered mass wasting and flooding. About 600 mm of rain fell in the region in the month preceding the earthquakes; thus, the surficial soils had high moisture contents. Slope failures commonly started as thin slides, which rapidly turned into fluid debris avalanches and debris flows. The surficial soils and thick vegetation covering them flowed down the slopes into minor tributaries and then were carried into major rivers. Rock and earth slides, debris avalanches, debris and mud flows, and resulting floods destroyed about 40 km of the Trans-Ecuadorian oil pipeline and the only highway from Quito to Ecuador's northeastern rain forests and oil fields. Estimates of total volume of earthquake-induced mass wastage ranged from 75-110 million m3. Economic losses were about US$ 1 billion. Nearly all of the approximately 1000 deaths from the earthquakes were a consequence of mass wasting and/ or flooding.

  14. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  15. Panniculitis caused by Mycobacterium monacense mimicking erythema induratum: a case in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Herrera, P; Cartelle, M; Barba, P; Tello, S; Zurita, J

    2016-03-01

    We report the first case of recently characterized species M. monacense associated with chronic nodular vasculitis, infecting a young woman. This case represents the first isolation of M. monacense from Ecuador. The isolate was identified by conventional and molecular techniques.

  16. A new species of Molynocoelia Giglio-Tos (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....

  17. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. Aims In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Results Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Conclusion Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide. PMID:26394405

  19. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide.

  20. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Janzac, Bérenger; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Palloix, Alain; Moury, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing 2,951 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV). Phylogeny reconstruction showed that this isolate clustered with potato virus V (PVV), Peru tomato virus and wild potato mosaic virus into a monophyletic group, and was closest to PVV. The isolate was shown to be infectious in tobacco, tomato and, contrary to PVV, in pepper. The pvr2(1), pvr2(2), and Pvr4 genes present in many pepper cultivars conferred resistance toward this isolate and could help control ERV.

  1. Fungi associated with food and feed commodities from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pacin, A M; González, H H L; Etcheverry, M; Resnik, S L; Vivas, L; Espin, S

    2003-01-01

    Freshly harvested soybean, rice and corn from farms and corn-based pelleted feeds were collected from ranches from the coastal and mountain regions in Ecuador during 1998, and assessed for fungal contamination. The most prevalent fungi on pelleted feed were Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum. The prevalent fungi recovered from soybean were F. verticillioides, F. semitectum, Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus. In rice, F. oxysporum was the most prevalent toxigenic fungal species recorded, followed by F. verticillioides and A. flavus. In corn, F. verticillioides was the most prevalent fungus isolated in both the coastal and mountain regions, with high isolation frequencies of A. flavus and A. parasiticus at the coast. Based on the toxigenic species recovered, ochratoxin A may pose a contamination risk for soybean. A higher probability of aflatoxin contamination of corn was found in the coastal samples compared to those of the mountain region, while a risk of fumonisin contamination of corn exists in both regions.

  2. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Guayasamin, Juan M.; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Maynard, Ross J.; Lynch, Ryan L.; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yaku sp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3–5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yaku sp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities. PMID:28769670

  3. A marvelous new glassfrog (Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium) from Amazonian Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Maynard, Ross J; Lynch, Ryan L; Culebras, Jaime; Hamilton, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Hyalinobatrachium is a behaviorally and morphologically conserved genus of Neotropical anurans, with several pending taxonomic problems. Using morphology, vocalizations, and DNA, a new species from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador is described and illustrated. The new species, Hyalinobatrachium yakusp. n., is differentiated from all other congenerics by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27-0.4 s, with a dominant frequency of 5219.3-5329.6 Hz. Also, a mitochondrial phylogeny for the genus is presented that contains the new species, which is inferred as sister to H. pellucidum. Conservation threats to H. yakusp. n. include habitat destruction and/or pollution mainly because of oil and mining activities.

  4. Acoustic engineering at Universidad de las Americas, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Luis A.; Naranjo, Jaime O.; Tassara, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics, like science, an instrument to develop new technologies, comfortable atmospheres, and pleasant sounds, has not had a sufficient push in Ecuador. The shortage of professionals in the area, and the social ignorance of the advances and benefits of acoustics have been part of the problem. The University of the Americas has taken the initiative to develop an undergraduate program-only in the country-of sound and acoustics engineering, to contribute to the formation of professional futures that fortify the recent labor market in the areas of audio, professional, and acoustic engineering. This work presents/displays the results of the studies made for the creation of the race, the curricular mesh, and its projections.

  5. [Serratia marcescens outbreak in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Guayaquil, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Soria, Claudia; Nieto, Nelson; Villacís, José E; Lainez, Sara; Cartelle, Mónica

    2016-12-01

    We report a Serratia marcescens outbreak occurred in the NICU of a pediatric hospital in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Nine cases of infection were detected, from which septicemia was developed in 55.5%. The index case was a newborn derived from another institution with septic arthritis caused by the outbreak strain. The infection rate was 17.6% and mortality rate was 33.3%. All isolates were resistant to aminoglycosides and susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Clonality analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed the presence of two closely related clones confirming the horizontal spread. Measures were taken by the committee such as: strengthening the hand hygiene, patient hygiene and cohort studies of gastrointestinal colonization, which allowed the control of the outbreak.

  6. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis “Chiclero's Ulcer” in Subtropical Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Martinez, Leonardo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old female presented with a severe ulcerative lesion on her right ear of 6 weeks duration. Her right ear was edematous and erythematous with a large, painless ulcerative lesion covering a third of the pinna and satellite papular lesions on the posterior. She was diagnosed with chiclero's ulcer. A skin smear stained with Diff-quik showed abundant Leishmania parasites. Chiclero's ulcer is a rare clinical presentation and is typically severe and difficult to treat. Physicians in Ecuador recommend administering prolonged intramuscular Glucantime. Side effects are common and can be severe resulting in low patient compliance. Because of preferences of the patient and the large volume needed for her weight, we recommended topical treatment with a lotion of Glucantime mixed half and half with white Merthiolate. After applying this lotion to the lesion 3 to 4 times a day for 6 weeks, the lesion healed. PMID:23926136

  7. Radio and the commodification of natural medicine in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Miles, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper explores the discourse that is being created around medical commodities in one Ecuadorian city in an effort to understand how desire for new medical products is generated and sustained. Commercial natural medicine, which includes vitamins, herbal remedies and tonics is a relatively new addition to the medical marketplace in Ecuador, yet the popularity of these products seems to be growing rapidly. Much of the success of natural medicines is due to promotional campaigns, most notably radio programs, that emphasize and manipulate, important cultural themes about the body, identity, morality and social success. Although on the surface natural medicine seems to be creating a radically new discourse about the body and illness causation, that discourse ultimately serves only to reinforce the unequal social relations associated with capitalist marketplaces.

  8. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes.

  9. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  10. Field Geophysics Class at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Ecuador's erupting Volcán Tungurahua was the recent site of a 3-week graduate-level geophysical course on volcanoes, hosted by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IG-EPN) and the Department of Earth Science at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT). Sixteen students from 12 universities and four countries participated in the intensive course, which entailed broadband seismometer and infrasound sensor deployment followed by subsequent data processing, analysis, interpretation, and result synthesis. Hardware for the course was provided by the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) through the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) as well as the IG-EPN and NMT geophysics programs. Since the start of its most recent eruptive period (in 1999), Tungurahua has proved itself a reliable source of both seismicity and infrasound radiating from its typically open vent. As such, Tungurahua provides the ultimate outdoor teaching laboratory where students can deploy instruments for just a few days and then collect earthquake and explosion data. Tungurahua's activity in June 2009 did not disappoint class participants: Frequent earthquakes included long-period and volcano tectonic events, various types of tremor events, and explosion earthquakes manifested by booming “cannon-shot” blasts. Some of the explosion shock waves were recorded 10 kilometers from the vent with excess pressure amplitudes greater than 50 pascals in the infrasonic band. Had these intense sounds been audible, their sound pressure levels at 10 kilometers would have been in excess of about 130 decibels!

  11. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  12. Cost-effectiveness of inguinal hernia surgery in northwestern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; Sanders, David L; Teresa Butrón-Vila, M; Kingsnorth, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness of tension-free inguinal hernia repair at a private 20-bed rural hospital in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador, was calculated relative to no treatment. Lichtenstein repair using mosquito net or polypropylene commercial mesh was provided to patients with inguinal hernia by surgeons from Europe and North America. Prospective data were collected from provider, patient, and societal perspectives, with component costs collected on site and from local supply companies or published literature. Patient outcomes were forecasted using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Uncertainty in patient-level data was evaluated with Monte-Carlo simulation. Surgery was provided to 102 patients with inguinal hernias of various sizes. Local anesthesia was used for 80 % of operations during the first mission, and spinal anesthesia was used for 89 % in the second mission. Few complications were observed. An average 6.39 DALYs (3,0) were averted per patient (95 % confidence interval: 6.22-6.84). The average cost per patient was US$499.33 (95 % CI: US$490.19-$526.03) from a provider perspective, US$118.79 (95 % CI: US$110.28-$143.72) from a patient perspective, and US$615.46 (95 % CI: US$603.39-$650.40) from a societal perspective. Mean cost-effectiveness from a provider perspective was US$78.18/DALY averted (95 % CI: US$75.86-$85.78) according to DALYs (3,0) averted using the West Life Table level 26, well below the Ecuadorian per-capita Gross National Income (US$3,850). Results were robust to all sensitivity analyses. Inguinal hernia repair was cost-effective in western Ecuador through international collaboration.

  13. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  14. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20'S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape-Tahuı´n Provinces to the west. One hundred fifty zircon fission-track analyses has established a detailed chronostratigraphy for the sedimentary and volcanic formations and several small intrusions. The Paleogene to early Miocene formations are dominated by intermediate and acidic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. In addition, relics of Eocene continental sedimentary series have been identified. The Neogene sedimentary series lie unconformably on deformed and eroded metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic formations. They were deposited in two stages, which are separated by a major unconformity dated at ≈10-9 Ma. (1) During the middle and early late Miocene (≈15-10 Ma) marginal marine deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine and fluvial environments prevailed, which we group under the heading "Pacific Coastal sequences". They presumably covered a greater surface area in southern Ecuador than their present occurrence in small topographic depressions. We suggest that they were deposited in the shallow marine Cuenca and Loja Embayments. Deposition in a marginal marine environment is also supported by the occurrence of brackish water ostracods and other fauna. (2) Above the regional (angular) unconformity, the coastal facies are overlain by late Miocene (≈9-5 Ma) continental alluvial fan and fluvial facies which are in turn covered by mainly airborne volcanic material. They represent the "Intermontane sequences" of the basins of Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic results are used to discuss the tectonic setting of Neogene sedimentation in the forearc

  15. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  16. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  17. Information and Communication Technologies and Social Mobilization: The Case of the Indigenous Movement in Ecuador, 2007-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Barber, Lindsay N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades Indigenous people in Ecuador have faced government policies threatening their internationally recognized Indigenous human rights. Although a national social movement emerged in Ecuador in 1990, the level of mobilization has since varied. This dissertation project proposes to address the question, under what conditions…

  18. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM’s ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. Methods All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student’s T or chi-square, as appropriate. Results Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Conclusion Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in

  19. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM's ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student's T or chi-square, as appropriate. Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in the developing world and also provides a

  20. Modelling Ecuador's rainfall distribution according to geographical characteristics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, Vladimiro; Wyseure, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is known that rainfall is affected by terrain characteristics and some studies had focussed on its distribution over complex terrain. Ecuador's temporal and spatial rainfall distribution is affected by its location on the ITCZ, the marine currents in the Pacific, the Amazon rainforest, and the Andes mountain range. Although all these factors are important, we think that the latter one may hold a key for modelling spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall. The study considered 30 years of monthly data from 319 rainfall stations having at least 10 years of data available. The relatively low density of stations and their location in accessible sites near to main roads or rivers, leave large and important areas ungauged, making it not appropriate to rely on traditional interpolation techniques to estimate regional rainfall for water balance. The aim of this research was to come up with a useful model for seasonal rainfall distribution in Ecuador based on geographical characteristics to allow its spatial generalization. The target for modelling was the seasonal rainfall, characterized by nine percentiles for each one of the 12 months of the year that results in 108 response variables, later on reduced to four principal components comprising 94% of the total variability. Predictor variables for the model were: geographic coordinates, elevation, main wind effects from the Amazon and Coast, Valley and Hill indexes, and average and maximum elevation above the selected rainfall station to the east and to the west, for each one of 18 directions (50-135°, by 5°) adding up to 79 predictors. A multiple linear regression model by the Elastic-net algorithm with cross-validation was applied for each one of the PC as response to select the most important ones from the 79 predictor variables. The Elastic-net algorithm deals well with collinearity problems, while allowing variable selection in a blended approach between the Ridge and Lasso regression. The model fitting

  1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in ecuador: analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L A; Martínez, A L; Alvarez, M

    2001-01-01

    The highest incidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has been reported in countries with endemic goiter, such as in Ecuador. In this country, ATC is the third most common histologic type of thyroid cancer, following papillary and follicular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation and the results of treatment of a large consecutive series of ATC patients treated at the oncological department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador. This is a retrospective study of 30 patients diagnosed with ATC at the Social Security Hospital, from 1982 to 1998. Symptomatic rapidly growing neck masses were generally present. All the patients had histological diagnosis of ATC. Two patients with pulmonary metastases and pleural effusion died before treatment could be instituted. Twenty-eight patients received at least one type of treatment: surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or chemotherapy (CT). The two most frequently employed therapeutic modalities were surgery followed by RT and/or CT in 14 patients and surgery alone in 9 patients. Surgery was performed in 23 patients but a complete resection was possible in only 14 patients. RT, postoperatively or alone, was given to 17 patients. Only 5 patients received doses ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 cGy and 4 patients more than 5,000 cGy. CT was administered to 17 patients. Doxorubicin alone was given to 10 patients and different combinations to the remaining patients. Local control was obtained in 8 of 14 complete resections. The prognostic value of the following parameters was studied by univariate analysis: duration of symptoms, size of the tumor, extent of glandular involvement, type of treatment, and surgical margins. A statistically longer survival was found in cases of differentiated carcinoma with areas of ATC or tumor limited to one lobe, those patients who received a complete treatment of chemotherapy, and those patients with tumors smaller than 10 cm and with duration of symptoms longer than 4

  2. Global Conservation Significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Margot S.; Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kreft, Holger; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; McCracken, Shawn F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; English, Peter H.; Swing, Kelly; Villa, Gorky; Di Fiore, Anthony; Voigt, Christian C.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves—called “ITT”—lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I–IV): Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha) and landscape (gamma) diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. Conclusions/Significance Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1) large size and wilderness character, 2) intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3) IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4) likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in Yasun

  3. Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems

  4. Tephra fallout hazards at Quito International Airport (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra fallout is the most widespread hazard posed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland significantly exposed the vulnerability of aviation operations to volcanic ash. The presence of fine ash in the atmosphere forced authorities to close most of European airspace for almost a week. A worldwide study of airport operations disrupted by volcanic eruptions (Guffanti et al., Nat Hazards 51:287-302, 2009) showed significant past exposure to tephra fall of the old international airport (OUIO) in Quito, Ecuador. A new international airport, Mariscal Sucre International Airport (UIO), located 15 km due east to OUIO, started operations on February 20, 2013. Given its location close to the old airport, UIO is also at risk for tephra fallout in the future. We identified five volcanoes capable of producing tephra hazard at UIO. Three (Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, and Tungurahua) are currently active and have recently disrupted aviation operations in Ecuador. The other two (Cotopaxi and Pululagua) are not currently active, but any future eruption from these two volcanoes would probably be explosive, hence capable of producing tephra hazard to UIO. As eruption parameters and wind profiles cannot be forecast in advance, we used a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of tephra accumulation exceeding 1 mm and 1 cm (regarded as non-conservative and conservative bounds for airport disruption) following an explosive eruption from each volcano. Each eruptive parameter was randomly sampled within a predefined distribution, and wind profiles are randomly sampled within a 5-year dataset. The probability of tephra accumulation reaching 1 mm and 1 cm at UIO is 14.3-19.9 and 2.5-5.8 %, respectively, for Cotopaxi; 17.5-19.9 and 7-7.7 %, respectively, for Guagua Pichincha; and 44.3-44.8 and 18.8-24.9 %, respectively, for Pululagua. According to our results, Reventador and Tungurahua are not likely to yield tephra

  5. Epidemiology of malaria in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    San Sebastián, M; Játiva, R; Goicolea, I

    2000-01-01

    Malaria is reemerging in most endemic countries of South America. In Ecuador, malaria is endemic on the Pacific coast, in the inter-Andean valleys, and in the Amazon River basin. In the Lower-Napo region of northeastern Ecuador, malaria was considered eliminated in the 1970s, but the disease has reemerged in recent years. Three organizations are involved in malaria-related work in the area, but they are not coordinating their efforts. This study was designed to describe the epidemiology of malaria incidence in the Lower-Napo region for the period of January 1992 through December 1995, and to determine the extent of seasonality in transmission in the area. To determine malaria incidence, data were collected for that 4-year period from the records of the three malaria-related organizations: the office of the National Center for Malaria Eradication (NCME) in the town of Coca, the district hospital in Nuevo Rocafuerte (DHNR), and an association of community health workers called Sandi Yura. Data on climatic conditions for the same period were collected from the Ecuadorian Air Force and civil aviation authorities. During the 1992-1995 period, NCME diagnosed a total of 773 malaria cases, DHNR diagnosed 485, and Sandi Yura clinically diagnosed 859. For the 4-year period, an annual parasite index of 40.4 was found with the DHNR data, 35.8 with the Sandi Yura data, and 6.2 with the NCME data. The predominant parasite in the area was Plasmodium vivax (92% of all the cases). Twenty-eight percent of the infected persons were under 10 years old. No discernible differences between the genders were found. There was also no seasonal variation among the cases. Further research is needed in order to confirm these findings and better understand malaria transmission in the region. The study highlights the need for a closer coordination among the area's malaria-control organizations so as to have an improved understanding of malaria epidemiology and to design and implement effective

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador: popular perceptions, knowledge, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Racines, R J; Zurita, C; Izurieta, R; Herrera, E; Hinojsa, E

    1994-06-01

    Popular perceptions and knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis and its treatment were studied in an endemic area of subtropical Northwest Ecuador. Although most of the adults surveyed were familiar with the disease, the vector, and traditional treatments, many showed a lack of knowledge about transmission of the disease, ulcer healing, and conventional treatment. Gender was found to have a significant impact on disease risk, perceptions, and treatment knowledge. Males experienced a risk of contracting cutaneous leishmaniasis that was almost triple that of women. Men were also more likely to perceive that the disease seriously diminished the victim's capacity to work. Women, on the other hand, were more prone to perceive that cutaneous leishmaniasis was a serious disease that significantly decreased self-esteem. Although 80% of the subjects knew at least one method of treating the disease, women tended to know more methods than men. Most of 150 different therapies reported involved the use of indigenous plants, chemicals, acids, antibiotics, heat treatments, or petroleum by-products. Some of these treatments could have clinical value. However, only 7% of the subjects knew about pentavalent antimonials. Almost 70% of the subjects with a past or present infection history were treated solely by traditional methods; only 12% received a full course of Glucantime, while 7.5% got an incomplete course. The findings indicate that it will be important to consider the identified gaps in knowledge and gender perceptions regarding the disease and its treatment when planning future control programs.

  7. Aging, health, and identity in Ecuador's indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Middle-income countries like Ecuador are in the process of demographic and epidemiological transitions, and their populations are aging. The challenges associated with providing services to growing numbers of citizens who experience the inevitable deterioration associated with aging are mirrored by the manner in which aging is perceived in a culturally heterogeneous society. This paper presents the results of qualitative research conducted among older men and women in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian highlands in order to investigate the perceptions regarding the ability of family and community networks to provide adequate and appropriate support for older persons in the context of their perceptions of health, health care, and aging. The principal findings are that: (i) perceptions of aging are shaped by chronic illness, fatigue, deteriorating sensory capacities, and vulnerability to accidents; (ii) barriers to health care are exacerbated among aging members of indigenous communities, although in some cases they can be addressed through traditional alternatives; (iii) the sense of identity shifts as aging people are increasingly unable to work the land and participate in community activities; and (iv) family and community support networks for older adults are not as strong as is generally thought. These findings represent the context within which issues related aging in a culturally heterogeneous society can be best understood and addressed.

  8. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  9. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas.

  10. Preliminary observations on Mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Proaño-Perez, Freddy; Rigouts, Leen; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre; Ron, Jorge; Chavez, Maria-Augusta; Rodriguez, Richar; Fissette, Krista; Van Aerde, Anita; Portaels, Françoise; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated bovine tuberculosis in Mejia canton, a major dairy cattle production region in Ecuador. Randomly selected cattle (1,012 from 59 farms) classified according to herd size were tested by the single tuberculin test (STT). Sixty days later, positive reactors were tested again by the comparative tuberculin test (CTT). In addition, tissue samples from two STT-CTT-positive reactors detected on a farm were obtained in a local slaughterhouse and analyzed bacteriologically. A total of 4.24% of the cattle were positive in the STT and 3.85% were positive in the CTT, with the highest number (7.95%) in large herds versus 3.4% in medium herds and 0.3% in small herds. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs of one animal. A 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction confirmed culture results and differentiated mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis. This study confirms the zoonotic importance of tuberculosis in Ecuadorian dairy cattle with herd size likely to be a crucial parameter in the prevalence of the disease. The implementation of a national control program is necessary and should be based on the detection of positive cattle by STT in combination with CTT.

  11. The species of Hemiancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro

    2017-05-29

    At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.

  12. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Diego; Palacio, Ana; Nuñez, Jose; Briones, Wladimir; Beier, John C.; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the April 2016 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador on the incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) cases. Methods. We used the national public health surveillance system for reportable transmissible conditions and included suspected and laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases. We compared the number of cases before and after the earthquake in areas closer to and farther from the epicenter. Results. From January to July 2016, 2234 patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were reported in both affected and control areas. A total of 1110 patients had a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and 159 were positive for ZIKV. The cumulative incidence of ZIKV in the affected area was 11.1 per 100 000 after the earthquake. The odds ratio of having ZIKV infection in those living in the affected area was 8.0 (95% CI = 4.4, 14.6; P < .01) compared with the control area and adjusted for age, gender, province population, and number of government health care facilities. Conclusions. A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care. PMID:28520489

  13. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Diego; Palacio, Ana; Nuñez, Jose; Briones, Wladimir; Beier, John C; Pareja, Denisse C; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the April 2016 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Ecuador on the incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) cases. We used the national public health surveillance system for reportable transmissible conditions and included suspected and laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases. We compared the number of cases before and after the earthquake in areas closer to and farther from the epicenter. From January to July 2016, 2234 patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were reported in both affected and control areas. A total of 1110 patients had a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and 159 were positive for ZIKV. The cumulative incidence of ZIKV in the affected area was 11.1 per 100 000 after the earthquake. The odds ratio of having ZIKV infection in those living in the affected area was 8.0 (95% CI = 4.4, 14.6; P < .01) compared with the control area and adjusted for age, gender, province population, and number of government health care facilities. A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care.

  14. Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: evolution of chorioretinopathy after amocarzine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, P J; Proaño, R; Beltran, C; Anselmi, M; Guderian, R H

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the macrofilaricidal drug, amocarzine, on the evolution of chorioretinopathy in onchocerciasis. METHODS: A prospective uncontrolled cohort study was performed using subjects infected with Onchocerca volvulus in a hyperendemic onchocerciasis focus in Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Study subjects were recruited into four cohorts in which ophthalmic and parasitological data were collected for 2, 3, 4, and 5 years respectively. RESULTS: Complete ophthalmic follow up was obtained for 294 individuals in the four cohorts. The incidence of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy tended to remain constant between cohorts while that of chorioretinal scarring with a greater observation period. The incidence rate of cases with new or extending chorioretinal lesions was greater with an increasing period of follow up. An association was seen between the cumulative microfilarial loads in the skin and the development of new chorioretinal lesions (p < 0.05). No relation was noted between cumulative microfilarial loads and the progression of existing disease. CONCLUSION: Amocarzine therapy did not prevent the natural evolution of chorioretinal disease. It was suggested that ocular microfilariae were necessary for the induction of chorioretinopathy in previously unaffected eyes and that extension of existing disease might also be related to the presence of ocular microfilariae or to other immunological mechanisms. PMID:8703886

  15. The implementation of language policy: The case of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossío, Consuelo Yánez

    1991-03-01

    Ecuador is implementing a programme of indigenous bilingual intercultural education. Work began systematically in 1978 through a research centre of the Catholic University, and throughout the 1980s the government has become increasingly committed to the principle of indigenous education. In 1980 agreement was reached on a common alphabet for all indigenous languages. In the same year the government accepted that vernacular languages might be used for education, and the "Macac" educational model was devised by the Catholic University's research centre. By 1984 there were 300 bilingual primary schools, but the government then suspended its experiment. This was restored four years later, with the addition of secondary education and teacher training colleges. What is stressed by NGOs active in promoting indigenous education is not only its use of vernacular languages, but the need for intercultural exchange, recognizing in a modified curriculum the cultural values of the indigenous population and their socioeconomic reality. This change has not been understood by all government agencies, although a new Directorate for Bilingual Intercultural Education was established in 1988 to provide education for people of all ages in indigenous communities. The traditional Spanish-language formal education system has exercised a restricting influence on innovation, and the response of the dominant Spanish-speaking majority has generally been indifference.

  16. Subducted Seamount Locks the Shallow Megathrust in Central Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J. M.; Collot, J. Y.; Lepetre, A.; Ribodetti, A.; Sanclemente, E.; Jarrin, P.; Chlieh, M.; Graindorge, D.; Charvis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Among the factors that have been proposed to control the stress accumulation at subduction zones, the role of subducted seamounts is still disputed. Mechanical models suggest that subducted seamounts locally increase the inter-seismic coupling (ISC) along the megathrust and act as seismic asperities. Conversely, seamount subduction has also been associated with weak inter-plate coupling, and highly fractured media, a situation that favors aseismic slip and relatively small earthquakes. However, correlating the location of a subducted seamount with a shallow locked zone has remained a challenge because, where shallow subducted seamounts (< 15 km depth) are imaged, ISC is usually poorly resolved due to the absence of near-trench geodetic data. Here, we use seismic imaging offshore Central Ecuador and detect a shallow, rugged, low-drag shape subducted seamount. Owing to an island and a coastline located respectively 35 km and 50-60 km from the trench, we demonstrate using GPS measurements that the subducted seamount spatially correlates to a local highly coupled asperity within an otherwise dominantly creeping subduction segment. We show that the highly jagged subducted seamount-topography, the absence of a seismically imaged subduction channel and a stiff erosive oceanic margin are the principal long-term characteristics associated with shallow locking of the megathrust. This model may have significant implications on tsunami hazard, and could be tested at worldwide subduction zones.

  17. Oil, power, and rural change in Ecuador: 1972-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Zevallos, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the role of the State in Ecuador's agriculture during the period of oil boom and military rule (1972-1979). It focuses on: (1) how the availability of oil revenues affected formation and implementation of agricultural policies; (2) the impact of oil-financed policies on agrarian structure, agricultural production, and rural inequality. Historical analysis is based on interviews with policy makers, newspaper chronology, and government documents. Policy impact assessment is based on macroeconomic evidence and microlevel studies. Although agrarian reform was central to the military's development plan, the 1973 Agrarian Reform Law imposed no farm size limits and postponed enforcement of efficiency requirements until 1976. Oil revenues eliminated some political and economic incentives for reform. State action shifted away from land redistribution towards colonization and promotion of agricultural production. The oil boom had an overall negative impact on rural income distribution. It removed incentives for reform. Increased state spending benefitted primarily medium and large landowners. Macroeconomic trends favored adoption of capital intensive methods in livestock and industrial crop production and decapitalization of food and export agriculture, harming wage-dependent laborers.

  18. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.

    2017-06-01

    Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  19. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  20. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia. PMID:28936066

  1. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-08-01

    The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32-27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1-63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5-53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2-49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.

  2. Environmental Influences on Human Migration in Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change. PMID:23319207

  3. Environmental influences on human migration in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change.

  4. Maternal Deaths Databases Analysis: Ecuador 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Pino, Antonio; Albán, María; Rivas, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Erika

    2016-08-19

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC). Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC's website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women's socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet.

  5. A Bayesian analysis of the 2016 Pedernales (Ecuador) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, Baptiste; Duputel, Zacharie; Jolivet, Romain; Rivera, Luis; Simons, Mark; Jiang, Junle; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Ecuador on April 16, 2016, causing significant damage and casualties. Long period W-phase and Global CMT solutions suggest that fault slip for this event agrees with the convergence obliquity of the Ecuadorian subduction. We present a new co-seismic kinematic slip model obtained from the joint inversion of multiple observations in an unregularized and fully Bayesian framework. We use a comprehensive static dataset composed of several SAR interferograms, GPS static offsets, and tsunami waveforms from two nearby DART stations. The kinematic component of the rupture process is constrained by an extensive set of high-rate GPS and seismic data. Our solution includes the ensemble of all plausible slip models that are consistent with our prior information and fit the available observations within data and prediction uncertainties. We analyze the source process in light of the historical seismicity, in particular the Mw 7.8 1942 earthquake for which the rupture extent overlaps with the 2016 event. In addition, we conduct a probabilistic comparison of co-seismic slip with a stochastic interseismic coupling model obtained from GPS data. This analysis gives new insights on the processes at play within the Ecuadorian subduction margin.

  6. Managing nontechnical risks associated with seismic operations in the tropical rain forests of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.; Smith, G.R.; Vacas, F.J.; Swingholm, E.K.; Yuill, R.M.; Aleman, M.A.

    1997-04-21

    Companies operating in sensitive areas are being challenged to address the environmental and social issues while preserving these areas for future generations. This increased international attention on environmental and sociocultural issues has led Amoco to focus efforts on developing new ideas and strategies to facilitate environmental and cultural management. In Ecuador, the major oil producing region is the Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, referred to locally as the Oriente. Amoco Ecuador BV recently completed a seismic acquisition program in the Oriente with minimum impact to the environment and the communities within the project area. The goal of this article is to describe Amoco`s experience in managing environmental, social, and public perception issues associated with seismic operations in the rain forests of Ecuador.

  7. Intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the eastern Amazonic region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Amunárriz, M

    1991-09-01

    A study was done to determine the intermediate hosts of Paragonimus mexicanus (P. peruvianus, P. ecuadoriensis) in the northeastern amazonic region of Ecuador. The first intermediate host belongs to the molluscan family Hydrobiidae, similar to the findings reported in other parts of Latin America. One of 2350 specimens of the hydrobiid snail Aroapyrgus colombiensis examined was found to be naturally infected with rediae containing microcercous cercariae of Paragonimus, this being the first naturally infected first intermediate host reported in Ecuador. The crustacean family, Trichodactylidae, was found as the second intermediate host of paragonimiasis, this being the first time reported in Ecuador. The freshwater crab Zilchiopsis ecuadoriensis was found to be heavily parasitized by Paragonimus metacercariae.

  8. Challenges for an Active Role of Women in Physics in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Paola; Guaño, Sonia; Apolo, Alberto Celi

    2009-04-01

    The social reality of Ecuador is not far from the experience of most countries of the Andean region in South America. Many factors contribute to a preference for short-learning-curve or business-oriented careers, and also make traditional and time-demanding careers less appealing. Physics is one of the least attractive professions in a country like Ecuador. However, in the last few years, the number of bachelor's-degree candidates in physics has increased significantly. This result, together with the new postgraduate courses offered inland, show promising changes for the future of this career. Developed countries face challenges that involve mainly gender issues in the scientific daily routine, whereas in Ecuador the challenge is still to attract students to this scientific path regardless of their gender.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance with the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Giacomazzi, C G; Cespedes-Alvarado, C G; Losada-Cabruja, E A; McDermott, J L; Rojas-Andrade, C A; Varnier, O E

    2010-06-01

    A collaborative project was established between the Alli Causai Foundation in Ambato, Ecuador, and the University of Genoa, Italy, to introduce the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ecuador. A total of 507 samples were evaluated during a 10-month period, and DNA was extracted from each isolate and sent to Genoa for confirmatory molecular analysis. M. tuberculosis was identified in 45 samples by MODS, and drug resistance was observed in approximately 21% of the isolates, with four multidrug-resistant strains detected in two patients.

  10. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands.

    PubMed

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-22

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands.

  11. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  12. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands. PMID:19161618

  13. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  14. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-01-01

    Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocaniabravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniaerwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniatrifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocanialamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated.

  15. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  16. Plio-pleistocene volcano-tectonic evolution of la Reforma Caldera, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demant, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc

    1981-01-01

    La Reforma volcanic complex, in east-central Baja California, shows a characteristic caldera structure, 10 km in diameter. The first eruptive stage, during the Pliocene, was manifested by ash and pumice falls and by subaqueous pumitic flows. In a second stage basic flows were deposited in a near-shore environment (subaerial and pillow lavas). During the early Pleistocene a large ignimbritic eruption, producing mainly pantelleritic tuffs, immediately predated the formation of the caldera itself. Afterwards, along marginal fractures of the caldera, some rhyolitic domes and flows partially covered the thick ignimbritic sheet. A block of Miocene substratum, in the center of the caldera, has been uplifted, nearly 1 km, by "resurgent doming". Small outcrops of diorite might constitute the top of coarse-grained crystallized magmatic bodies, and thus support the "resurgent doming" interpretation. A few basaltic cones were finally built on the flanks of the caldera complex; the latter are not related to the caldera history but to the extension tectonics of the Gulf of California which are also responsible for the Tortuga Island and the Holocene Tres Virgenes tholeiitic cones. South of la Reforma are found the highest (+300 m) Pleistocene marine deposits of the Gulf coast of Baja California. The uplift of this area is due in part to the positive epeirogenic movements of the whole peninsular crustal block, and also to the late doming of the caldera. On the coastal (eastern) flank of La Reforma complex up to seven stepped wave-cut terraces have been preserved, the highest reaching more than +150 m and the lowest ones +25 m. Lateral correlations of the marine terraces along the whole Gulf of California suggest that this volcano-tectonic uplift, that is still active, is of the order of 240 mm/10 3 y. The set of terraces is interpreted to be Middle (700-125 × 10 3y) to Upper (125-80 × 10 3y) Pleistocene, and is tentatively correlated with the paleoclimatic chronology of deep

  17. OSRP Source Repatriations-Case Studies: Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ray Jr.; Abeyta, Cristy; Matzke, Jim; Wald-Hopkins, Mark; Streeper, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) began recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources (sources) in 1999. As of February 2012, the project had recovered over 30,000 sources totaling over 820,000 Ci. OSRP grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover disused excess Plutonium- 239 (Pu-239) sources that were distributed in the 1960's and 1970's under the Atoms for Peace Program. Source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity. However, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the interagency community began to recognize that excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources pose a national security threat, particularly those that lack a disposition path. After OSRP's transfer to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, its mission was expanded to include all disused sealed sources that might require national security consideration. Recognizing the transnational threat posed by porous borders and the ubiquitous nature of sources, GTRI/OSRP repatriates U.S. origin sources based on threat reduction prioritization criteria. For example, several recent challenging source repatriation missions have been conducted by GTRI/OSRP in South America. These include the repatriation of a significant amount of Cs-137 and other isotopes from Brazil; re-packaging of conditioned Ra-226 sources in Ecuador for future repatriation; and, multilateral cooperation in the consolidation and export of Canadian, US, and Indian Co-60/Cs-137 sources from Uruguay. In addition, cooperation with regulators and private source owners in other countries presents opportunities for GTRI/OSRP to exchange best practices for managing disused sources. These positive experiences often result in long-term cooperation and information sharing with key foreign counterparts. International source recovery operations are essential to the preservation of U.S. national security

  18. [Mutant alleles associated to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethanime resistance in Plasmodium falciparum of the Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia borders].

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Nancy; Hijar-Guerra, Gisely; de Mora, Doménica; Diaz-Cortéz, César Eduardo; Veloz-Perez, Raúl; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas-Sánchez, César

    2014-04-01

    The frequency of mutations in pfCRT and DHFR/DHPS genes of Plasmodium falciparum associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was evaluated in 83 strains from the districts of Esmeralda and Machala, located on the borders of Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia in 2002. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional and its variants, was used. Mutations in the pfCRT gene were found in more than 90% of the samples from Esmeralda and Machala. For the DHFR gene, 90% of the strains were mutant samples from Esmeralda, 3 were double mutations and 1 was a triple mutation. In Machala, 25% were simple mutant forms and 75% mixed mutant forms (wild forms/mutant). In conclusion, resistance to chloroquine has been fixed in strains carrying K76T pfCRT mutation, whereas genetic imprinting for resistance to pyrimethamine is evolving, particularly in the district of Esmeralda.

  19. Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt-sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization "nose" for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear-thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity.

  20. Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    PubMed Central

    Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B.; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt‐sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time‐Temperature‐Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization “nose” for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear‐thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity. PMID:27656114

  1. High local genetic diversity of canine parvovirus from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Jaime; García-Díaz, Juan; Calleros, Lucía; Sosa, Katia; Iraola, Gregorio; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Martín; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2013-09-27

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) that are distributed globally with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. CPVs from central Ecuador were herein analyzed to characterize the strains and to provide new insights into local viral diversity, evolution, and pathogenicity. Variant prevalence was analyzed by PCR and partial sequencing for 53 CPV-positive samples collected during 2011 and 2012. The full-length VP2 gene was sequenced in 24 selected strains and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using both Ecuadorian and worldwide strains. Ecuadorian CPVs have a remarkable genetic diversity that includes the circulation of all three variants and the existence of different evolutionary groups or lineages. CPV-2c was the most prevalent variant (54.7%), confirming the spread of this variant in America. Ecuadorian CPV-2c strains clustered in two lineages, which represent the first evidence of polyphyletic CPV-2c circulating in South America. CPV-2a strains constituted 41.5% of the samples and clustered in a single lineage. The two detected CPV-2b strains (3.8%) were clearly polyphyletic and appeared related to Ecuadorian CPV-2a or foreign CPV-2b strains. Besides the substitution at residue 426 that is used to identify the variants, two amino acid changes occurred in Ecuadorian strains: Val139Iso and Thr440Ser. Ser(440) occurred in a biologically relevant domain of VP2 and is here described for the first time in CPV. The associations of Ecuadorian CPV-2c and CPV-2a with clinical symptoms indicate that dull mentation, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and hypothermia occurred more frequently in infection with CPV-2c than with CPV-2a.

  2. Subducted oceanic relief locks the shallow megathrust in central Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Sanclemente, Eddy; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Leprêtre, Angélique; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Jarrin, Paul; Chlieh, Mohamed; Graindorge, David; Charvis, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Whether subducted oceanic reliefs such as seamounts promote seismic rupture or aseismic slip remains controversial. Here we use swath bathymetry, prestack depth-migrated multichannel seismic reflection lines, and wide-angle seismic data collected across the central Ecuador subduction segment to reveal a broad 55 km × 50 km, 1.5-2.0 km high, low height-to-width ratio, multipeaked, sediment-bare, shallow subducted oceanic relief. Owing to La Plata Island and the coastline being located, respectively, 35 km and 50-60 km from the trench, GPS measurements allow us to demonstrate that the subducted oceanic relief spatially correlates to a shallow, 80 km × 55 km locked interplate asperity within a dominantly creeping subduction segment. The oceanic relief geometrical anomaly together with its highly jagged topography, the absence of a subduction channel, and a stiff erosive oceanic margin are found to be long-term geological characteristics associated with the shallow locking of the megathrust. Although the size and level of locking observed at the subducted relief scale could produce an Mw >7+ event, no large earthquakes are known to have happened for several centuries. On the contrary, frequent slow slip events have been recorded since 2010 within the locked patch, and regular seismic swarms have occurred in this area during the last 40 years. These transient processes, together with the rough subducted oceanic topography, suggest that interplate friction might actually be heterogeneous within the locked patch. Additionally, we find that the subducted relief undergoes internal shearing and produces a permanent flexural bulge of the margin, which uplifted La Plata Island.

  3. High resolution precipitation climatology for the Andes of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The climate of Ecuador is strongly dominated by the complex structure of the Andes Mountains. Due to their heights and north-south orientation they act like a barrier, which cause delineation between the western and eastern flanks, as well as the inner-Andean areas. Commonly the Ecuadorian climate is classified in three zones, Costa, Interandina and Oriente. Existing precipitation products such as the GPCC or TRMM data are enabled to represent these climate zones, but because of their spatial resolution, they pass to capture the different regimes within a zone. Especially the inner-Andean region (Interandina) with its characteristic complex terrain shows spatially high climate variability. Local circulation systems, e.g. mountain-valley breezes as well as effects of windward and lee-side, drive the climate conditions allowing for the differentiation of air temperature and rainfall distribution on relative small scales. These highly variable patterns are also reflected by the diversity of ecosystems, e.g. rainforest, dry forest and Paramo, in a relative small area. In order to represent the local systems a dynamical downscaling approach for the Ecuadorian region is applied. In doing so the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used. A suitable model setup was evaluated within a sensitivity study, where various parametrization schemes were tested. The most suitable physics combination was used for a 30 year hint cast simulation. The poster presents first results of the high resolution climate simulations. On the basis of the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns distinct precipitation regimes within the Interandina will be shown. The aim is to highlight and discuss the importance of the adequately representation of the terrain in mountainous regions like the Andean Mountains.

  4. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  5. Tsunami source estimate of the 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Kumagai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A great earthquake occurred in 1906 along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone. The 1906 earthquake has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942, 1958, and 1979 [Kanamori and McNally, BSSA, 1982]. However, the slip distribution of the 1906 earthquake has not been estimated. Recent advancement in the tsunami simulation method opened a way to perform quantitative analysis of tsunami waveforms of the 1906 earthquake recorded only at trans-Pacific distances. In this study, we inverted the tsunami source of the 1906 earthquake using far-field tsunami data. We used 3 tide gauge records at Honolulu (Hawaii), San Francisco (California), and Ayukawa (Japan). We assumed 11 × 3 sub-faults along strike and dip direction, respectively, each with dimensions of 50 km × 50 km. We used the phase-corrected tsunami waveforms computed by the method proposed by Watada et al. [JGR, 2014]. Our analysis of tsunami waveforms of the 1906 event indicated Mw 8.4. The large-slip area was estimated in the shallow region, where the resolution was better as shown by our checkerboard test. We compared the observed tsunami waveform at Honolulu station with the simulated tsunami waveforms generated from each sub-fault. This comparison indicated that the arrival times of the simulated tsunami waveforms from this large-slip area were consistent with the observed waveform, supporting our inversion results. Our results show that the source region of the 1906 earthquake did not overlap those of the 1942, 1958, and 1979 earthquakes.

  6. Viscosity measurements of crystallizing andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Cimarelli, Corrado; deBiasi, Lea; Hanson, Jonathan B.; Lavallée, Yan; Arzilli, Fabio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity has been determined during isothermal crystallization of an andesite from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador). Viscosity was continuously recorded using the concentric cylinder method and employing a Pt-sheathed alumina spindle at 1 bar and from 1400°C to subliquidus temperatures to track rheological changes during crystallization. The disposable spindle was not extracted from the sample but rather left in the sample during quenching thus preserving an undisturbed textural configuration of the crystals. The inspection of products quenched during the crystallization process reveals evidence for heterogeneous crystal nucleation at the spindle and near the crucible wall, as well as crystal alignment in the flow field. At the end of the crystallization, defined when viscosity is constant, plagioclase is homogeneously distributed throughout the crucible (with the single exception of experiment performed at the lowest temperature). In this experiments, the crystallization kinetics appear to be strongly affected by the stirring conditions of the viscosity determinations. A TTT (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram illustrating the crystallization "nose" for this andesite under stirring conditions and at ambient pressure has been constructed. We further note that at a given crystal content and distribution, the high aspect ratio of the acicular plagioclase yields a shear-thinning rheology at crystal contents as low as 13 vol %, and that the relative viscosity is higher than predicted from existing viscosity models. These viscosity experiments hold the potential for delivering insights into the relative influences of the cooling path, undercooling, and deformation on crystallization kinetics and resultant crystal morphologies, as well as their impact on magmatic viscosity.

  7. Use of media for recruiting clinical research volunteers in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Peñaherrera, Carlos Andrés; Palacios, Michael; Duarte, María Carolina; Santibáñez, Rocío; Tamariz, Leonardo; Palacio, Ana

    2015-12-10

    Up to this date, there are no reports made about the use of media for recruiting research volunteers in Latin American populations. Given the emergence of clinical research in Ecuador, a study of this kind in the local population will be beneficial for future research, and is probably applicable to other countries in the region. Two public calls were made for a cross-sectional study on cognitive function and diabetes. We only included people between 55 and 65 years of age without previous neurocognitive conditions. We invited individuals through interviews on the radio, television broadcasts and local newspapers, along with social media ads. Each individual was asked about the method by which they learned of the project. We calculated the frequency in which each method was reported and a chi-square test was used to assess gender differences in the results. A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study, 64.2% are women and 35.8% men. We found that 29.93% learned of it from third persons, 20.8% through radio, 8.76% through social media, 8.39% by newspaper, and 5.11% by television, while a remaining 27.01% had not previously heard of the recruitment call. Methods reported varied significantly between men and women (p = 0.03). Traditional media were the most common method of recruitment, with radio interviews being the most frequently reported. Individually, none of them surpassed the frequency of people learning of the project from other people (snowball effect). Social networks play an important role, exceeding certain traditional media. We have described for the first time in Latin America the use of media as methods to recruit volunteers for research, and the importance of project dissemination by the participants to reach more people.

  8. Implementation of a General Reform Plan in the Army of the Dominican Republic (IMPLEMENTACI N DE UNA REFORMA INTEGRAL EN EL EJ RCITO DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UNA REFORMA INTEGRAL EN EL EJÉRCITO DE LA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA. Una tesis presentada a la Facultad de la...PAGINA DE APROBACION DE LA TESIS Nombre del Candidato: Teniente Coronel Manuel A. Carrasco Guerrero Titulo de la Tesis : Implementación de una...Reforma Integral en el Ejército de la República Dominicana Aprobado por: , Presidente del Comité de Tesis Prisco R. Hernandez, Ph.D

  9. Transition in the cause of fever from malaria to dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Sara G; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Milbrath, Meghan; Baldeón, Manuel E; Coloma, Josefina; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2013-10-01

    In tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. However by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern Ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. This finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue.

  10. Panniculitis caused by Mycobacterium monacense mimicking erythema induratum: a case in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J.J.; Herrera, P.; Cartelle, M.; Barba, P.; Tello, S.; Zurita, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of recently characterized species M. monacense associated with chronic nodular vasculitis, infecting a young woman. This case represents the first isolation of M. monacense from Ecuador. The isolate was identified by conventional and molecular techniques. PMID:26933504

  11. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, where pineapple represents one of the most important export commodities, virus testing has been neglected. In July 2014, a total of twenty MD2 hybrid pineapple plants showing virus-like symptoms (Fig. 1) were collected from a commercial planting located at the border of Santo Domingo and...

  12. New cockroach species of the genus Panchlora Burmeister (Blaberidae, Panchlorinae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Ľubomír

    2016-06-08

    The genus Panchlora includes 49 species, but only 45 are widely distributed in Central and South America. Most of them are green. The new species herein described presents an ornamental coloration markedly different of all until now described species. Panchlora kozaneki sp. n. is similar to Panchlora pulchella Burmeister, 1838. The number of species known from Ecuador is increased to eight.

  13. A new species of Miconia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae) from the Ecuador-Peru border

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Carmen Ulloa; Neill, David A.; Dudek, Olivia A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Miconia machinazana C.Ulloa & D.A. Neill, sp. nov.,a new species of Melastomataceae from the Ecuador-Peru border is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the narrow, decussate leaves, dense reddish brown indument, small flowers in short panicles, pale yellow petals, and anthers opening by two large terminal pores. PMID:22645412

  14. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  15. A new genus and species of Micropterous Blissidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2015-10-12

    The new genus Barrerablissus and the new species B. strigosus are described from Napo Province, Ecuador. A key to the known genera of the Western Hemisphere Blissidae with apterous or micropterous condition is included. Dorsal and ventral view and digital photographs of head, pronotum, scutellum, metathoracic scent gland auricle and male genital capsule are added.

  16. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671d(b)) (the Act) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the...

  17. Encountering Culture through Gender Norms in International Education: The Case of Volunteers in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating how international education programs can be used to study theoretical issues relevant to comparative education, this article reports on a scholarly analysis of 83 handover letters written by US participants in a volunteer program in Ecuador to their incoming counterparts between 2006 and 2010. It applies Swidler's notion of…

  18. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  19. Transition in the Cause of Fever from Malaria to Dengue, Northwestern Ecuador, 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Sara G.; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Milbrath, Meghan; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Coloma, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    In tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. However by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern Ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. This finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue. PMID:24047566

  20. Ecuador's Efforts to Raise Its Research Profile: The Prometeo Program Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador's government understands that capable research universities can help in solving the country's pressing socio-economic problems. However, research capabilities and research productivity in its national universities have historically been low, as professors primarily teach and often do not have the inclination, the ability, or the time to do…

  1. Industry sector analysis, Ecuador: Thermal power generating equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Thermal Power Generation Equipment Market in Ecuador, dated April 1993, prepared by P. Zaldumbide, A. Moreno, and N. Ordonez, American Embassy - Quito. The article consists of 10 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  2. A Look at Early Childhood Writing in English and Spanish in a Bilingual School in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, JoEllen M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines 20 writing samples in English and Spanish selected from portfolios of first grade children at a bilingual school in Ecuador. Based on earlier findings that paragraphs composed in English and Spanish by children, adolescents and adults are different (Lux & Grabe, 1991; Montano-Harmon, 1991; Reid, 1990; Reppen &…

  3. Skills Development Training in the Consultancy Mode: An Experience in Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    A group of instructional planners from the United States was invited to help establish a vocational skills development project to help meet the need for adequately trained workers in Ecuador's small- and medium-sized enterprises in the industrial, service, commercial and agricultural sectors of the economy. A logicodialetical model called the CLER…

  4. An Evaluation of Non-Formal Education in Ecuador. Volume 4: Appendices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laosa, Luis M.; And Others

    As the final volume in a 4-volume evaluation report on the University of Massachusetts Non-Formal Education Project (UMass NFEP) initiated in rural Ecuador in 1973, this volume presents appendices to volumes I-III. Appendix A includes the following items: (1) Community Demographic Profile; (2) Description of Introduction to the Community; (3)…

  5. An Evaluation of Non-Formal Education in Ecuador. Volume 4: Appendices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laosa, Luis M.; And Others

    As the final volume in a 4-volume evaluation report on the University of Massachusetts Non-Formal Education Project (UMass NFEP) initiated in rural Ecuador in 1973, this volume presents appendices to volumes I-III. Appendix A includes the following items: (1) Community Demographic Profile; (2) Description of Introduction to the Community; (3)…

  6. The Social Profile of Students in Basic General Education in Ecuador: A Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, Olga Elizabeth Minchala; Stefos, Efstathios

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the social profile of students who are enrolled in Basic General Education in Ecuador. Both a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis was carried out based on the data provided by the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment in 2015. The descriptive analysis shows the…

  7. The early stages of Pedaliodes poesia ( Hewitson, 1862 ) in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae: Pronophilina).

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Devries, Philip J; Dyer, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages Pedaliodes poesia Hewitson, 1862 from northeastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly or in pairs on the bottom side of host plant leaves. The duration of the egg, larval, and pupal stages, combined, is 99-107 days.

  8. The Early Stages of Pedaliodes poesia (Hewitson, 1862) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae: Pronophilina)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Pyrcz, Tomasz W.; DeVries, Philip J.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages Pedaliodes poesia Hewitson, 1862 from northeastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly or in pairs on the bottom side of host plant leaves. The duration of the egg, larval, and pupal stages, combined, is 99–107 days. PMID:19619029

  9. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  10. Globalization and local response to epidemiological overlap in 21st century Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Waters, William F

    2006-01-01

    Background Third World countries are confronted by a complex overlay of two sets of health problems. Traditional maladies, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, and environmental health hazards coexist with emerging health challenges, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and increasing levels of obesity. Using Ecuador as an example, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for linking epidemiologic overlap to emerging social structures and processes at the national and global levels. Discussion Epidemiologic trends can be seen as part of broader processes related to globalization, but this does not imply that globalization is a monolithic force that inevitably and uniformly affects nations, communities, and households in the same manner. Rather, characteristics and forms of social organization at the subnational level can shape the way that globalization takes place. Thus, globalization has affected Ecuador in specific ways and is, at the same time, intimately related to the form in which the epidemiologic transition has transpired in that country. Summary Ecuador is among neither the poorest nor the wealthiest countries and its situation may illuminate trends in other parts of the world. As in other countries, insertion into the global economy has not taken place in a vacuum; rather, Ecuador has experienced unprecedented social and demographic change in the past several decades, producing profound transformation in its social structure. Examples of local represent alternatives to centralized health systems that do not effectively address the complex overlay of traditional and emerging health problems. PMID:16712722

  11. Two new emerald geometrid species of Telotheta Warren from Ecuador and Bolivia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae, Lophochoristini).

    PubMed

    Lindt, Aare; Viidalepp, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the lophochoristine genus Telotheta Warren found in Ecuador and Bolivia are described. The paper focuses on the morphological description and illustration of the wing pattern and genitalia structures of the typus generis Telothetamuscipunctata Dognin and the newly identified species Telothetaunoi and Telothetafresei. The distinguishing characters of the genera Telotheta and Paromphacodes are also briefly discussed.

  12. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  13. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  14. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W.; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E.; Loor, Mariana N.; Intriago, Bertha I.; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador. PMID:27151788

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi and Triatoma dimidiata in costal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yim Yan; Sornosa Macias, Karen Jeniffer; Guale Martínez, Doris; Solorzano, Luis F; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Ecuador, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis are the main vector species, responsible for over half of the cases of T. cruzi infection in the country. T. dimidiata is believed to have been introduced in Ecuador during colonial times, and its elimination from the country is thus believed to be feasible. We investigated here the molecular ecology of T. dimidiata and T. cruzi in costal Ecuador to further guide control efforts. Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) of 23 specimens from Progreso, Guayas, unambiguously supported the likely importation of T. dimidiata from Central America to Ecuador. The observation of a very high parasite infection rate (54%) and frequent feeding on humans (3/5) confirmed a continued risk of transmission to humans. All genotyped parasites corresponded to TcI DTU and Trypanosoma rangeli was not detected in T. dimidiata. TcI subgroups corresponded to TcIa (25%), and mixed infections with TcIa and TcId (75%). Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi genetic structure in the country, and the possible impact of the introduction of T. dimidiata on the circulating parasite strains. The elevated risk posed by this species warrants continuing efforts for its control, but its apparent mobility between peridomestic and domestic habitats may favor reinfestation following insecticide spraying.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E; Loor, Mariana N; Intriago, Bertha I; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel; Pearson, Talima

    2016-05-05

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador.

  18. A new subgenus and species of Oxaea from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new subgenus and species of Oxaea KLUG (Andrenidae: Oxaeinae) is described and figured from western Ecuador. Oxaea (Alloxaea) brevipalpis subg. n. et sp. n., is noteworthy for the retention of maxillary palpi (3-segmented), absence of metallic integumental coloration, and contrasting notal pubesce...

  19. Metabolic syndrome in elderly living in marginal peri-urban communities in Quito, Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The proportion of the population in Latin America above the age of 60 is expected to double during the next few decades. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, little is known about MetS in Latin America in general, and in Ecuador in particular....

  20. Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel, 1927 from Ecuador (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Giachino, Pier Mauro; Allegro, Gianni; Baviera, Cosimo

    2014-12-12

    Two new species of Oxytrechus Jeannel 1927 are described from the páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes in Pichincha province (Ecuador: Northern Sierra): O. osellai n. sp. from Cangahua at 3375 m a.s.l. and O. belloi n. sp. from Paso de la Virgen at 3515 m a.s.l.

  1. Ecuador's Efforts to Raise Its Research Profile: The Prometeo Program Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador's government understands that capable research universities can help in solving the country's pressing socio-economic problems. However, research capabilities and research productivity in its national universities have historically been low, as professors primarily teach and often do not have the inclination, the ability, or the time to do…

  2. Elimination of User-Fees in Tertiary Education: A Distributive Analysis for Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Loayza, Yessenia

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to eliminate user fees in public universities in Ecuador. The main argument to eliminate user fees in higher education is that it will increase enrollment among the poor. In this regard, eliminating tuition fees is supposed to be a…

  3. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  4. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  5. Encountering Culture through Gender Norms in International Education: The Case of Volunteers in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating how international education programs can be used to study theoretical issues relevant to comparative education, this article reports on a scholarly analysis of 83 handover letters written by US participants in a volunteer program in Ecuador to their incoming counterparts between 2006 and 2010. It applies Swidler's notion of…

  6. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  7. Learning from Elsewhere: Portrayal of Holistic Educators in Ecuador and Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yihong, Fan

    A phenomenological research project examined a holistic school in Ecuador and a creativity methodology program in Vietnam. The educators in these programs have dedicated themselves to implementing a holistic and humanistic vision and philosophy of education in their teaching practice. The study demonstrates how they have successfully created a…

  8. Constitutional Reform and the Opportunity for Higher Education Access in Ecuador since 1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    2011-01-01

    Ecuador's 2008 Constitution--and a subsequent law on higher education passed in its wake--effectively suspended student fees for public universities. The goal of this reform was to increase equality of opportunity. In this article I use newly-available individual-level retrospective information from the 2001 Census to explore gender and ethnic…

  9. Research in Special Education from the Perspective of a Country in Development: Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuecher, Uwe; Suarez, Jose

    2000-01-01

    This article describes problems affecting special education services in developing counties where economic challenges have harsh consequences on health, education, and welfare and force difficult ethical choices. Special education efforts in Ecuador are used as examples to describe inherent problems and give inspiration toward developing potential…

  10. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Ecuador: A Pilot Study in Quito

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekkers, Laura M.; Groot, Norbert A.; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N.; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P.; Delfos, Martine F.

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or…

  11. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Ecuador: A Pilot Study in Quito

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekkers, Laura M.; Groot, Norbert A.; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N.; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P.; Delfos, Martine F.

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or…

  12. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  13. Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna O

    2015-11-01

    A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.

  14. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    PubMed

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  15. Bimodal Seismic Anisotropy at Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador): Possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Ruiz, Mario; Robin, Claude

    2010-05-01

    A shear wave splitting analysis was performed on Cotopaxi volcano, one of Ecuador most active and hazardous volcanoes, in order to investigate the stress state under this volcano. Cotopaxi volcano is located in a highly populated area including the capital Quito. It's eruptive cycle is approximately 120 ±70 years and apart from possible minor eruptions in 1942 and 1903-1904, the last volcanic activity dates from 1878-1885. Moreover, 15 years of increasing seismicity with some major crisis during the 1995-2010 periods, lead to the current very high seismic level. Finally two years of gas monitoring suggest that the Cotopaxi's emissions are currently intermittent and passive, but non negligible. We analyzed 102 regional tectonic events recorded between 2006 and 2009 at a network of five broad-band three-component seismic stations. These stations are located on all flanks of Cotopaxi. The events used were from several seismic sources located inside a radius of 200 kilometers from the volcano and illuminate all space directions. Seismic events were manually chosen based on their clear shear wave component in regards to the compression wave and to the noise. The data were computed using Matlab software. Polarization directions and delay times of split shear waves were found using a method based on the cross correlation of displacement waveforms of shear-waves at all possible rotation angles. Our results show a bimodal anisotropic behavior. One of the fast-directions axes follows the regional Ecuadorian tectonic general strain with a ESE direction. The other trend was found to be perpendicular to the regional strain. Other studies have shown that a 90° flip may take place either prior, during, or just after the main eruptive phase, or during hydraulic injections. This 90° flip is probably relied to micro cracks filling and pressuring, creating a local reverse strain field. There is not clear trend on temporal evolution of anisotropy distribution on our data. Only one

  16. Modeling of the Guagua Pichincha volcano (Ecuador) lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuti, Paolo; Casagli, Nicola; Catani, Filippo; Falorni, Giacomo

    Lahars, here defined as debris flows of volcanic origin, are rapid mass movements that pose a serious threat to cities located in the vicinity of many volcanoes. Quito, capital city of Ecuador and placed at the foot of the Pichincha volcano complex, is exposed to serious inundation hazard as part of the city is built on numerous deposits of large lahars that have occurred in the last 10,000 years. The objective of this paper is to model the potential lahars of the Pichincha volcano to predict inundation areas within the city of Quito. For this purpose two models that apply different approaches were utilized and their results were compared. The programs used were LAHARZ, a semi-empirical model conceived by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and FLO-2D, a hydraulic model distributed by FLO Software Inc. LAHARZ is designed as a rapid, objective and reproducible automated method for mapping areas of potential lahar inundation (Proc. First Int. Conf. on Debris Flow Hazards Mitigation, San Francisco, USA, ASCE, 1998, p. 176). FLO-2D is a two-dimensional flood routing model for simulating overland flow on complex surfaces such as floodplains, alluvial fans or urbanized areas (FLO-2D Users manual, version 99.2). Both models run within geographical information systems (GIS). Fieldwork was focused on collecting all available information involved in lahar modeling. A total of 49 channel cross-sections were measured along the two main streams and stratigraphic investigations were carried out on the fans to estimate the volume of previous events. A global positioning system was utilized to determine the coordinates of each cross-section. Further data collection concerned topography, rainfall characteristics and ashfall thicknesses. All fieldwork was carried out in cooperation with the Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional. Modeling in a GIS environment greatly aided the exportation of results for the creation of thematic maps and facilitated model

  17. Maternal Deaths Databases Analysis: Ecuador 2003-2013

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Antonio; Albán, María; Rivas, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio in Ecuador is the only millennium goal on which national agencies are still making strong efforts to reach 2015 target. The purpose of the study was to process national maternal death databases to identify a specific association pattern of variable included in the death certificate. Design and methods: The study processed mortality databases published yearly by the National Census and Statistics Institute (INEC). Data analysed were exclusively maternal deaths. Data corresponds to the 2003-2013 period, accessible through INEC’s website. Comparisons are based on number of deaths and use an ecological approach for geographical coincidences. Results: The study identified variable association into the maternal mortality national databases showing that to die at home or in a different place than a hospital is closely related to women’s socioeconomic characteristics; there was an association with the absence of a public health facility. Also, to die in a different place than the usual residence could mean that women and families are searching for or were referred to a higher level of attention when they face complications. Conclusions: Ecuadorian maternal deaths showed Patterns of inequity in health status, health care provision and health risks. A predominant factor seems unclear to explain the variable association found processing national databases; perhaps every pattern of health systems development played a role in maternal mortality or factors different from those registered by the statistics system may remain hidden. Some random influences might not be even considered in an explanatory model yet. Significance for public health General agreement on maternal mortality reduction suggests that to reach the millennium target a health system must to be able to provide essential, and emergency obstetric care in a well allocate, geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic distribution of resources. Patterns of inequity in health status

  18. Influencing factors in the Earthquake Distribution in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, H. A.; Beauval, C.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.

    2013-05-01

    The seismicity distribution in Ecuador reflects the two major tectonic features in the country: the subduction of the Nazca Plate that generates great interface events and distributed intraslab seismicity, and the active crustal deformation occurring in the Andean Cordillera related to the expulsion of the North Andean Block (NAB) and the Andean growth. Along the subduction zone, the largest interface earthquakes are concentrated North of ~1S. Two Mw>8 earthquakes are related to this segment. North of 1S also, almost no earthquakes deeper than 120 km are found further East of the Western Cordillera (Lat. ~79W). To the contrary, South of 2S there is a lack of interface seismicity in the Guayaquil Gulf area and no major earthquakes with the exception of a conspicuous cluster in Talara, Perú, around 4S. South of 1S also, the distribution of earthquakes in the depth range of 40-120 km is almost uniform regardless the distance from the trench and deeper intraslab earthquakes (depth>120km) are concentrated around a cluster at ~1.5S - 78W. The crustal seismicity also shows different behavior North and South of ~2S. To the South, besides the Macas Mw7.1 earthquake sequence in the sub-Andean zone, there is very little shallow seismicity (<35 km) that could be related to the crustal deformation. It is clearly noticeable that the Andean Range is depleted of epicenters. North of 2S large earthquakes are the rule and mostly occur in the Cordillera, noticeably along the Interandean Valley. The largest historical crustal earthquakes seem to be related to the limit of the NAB with stable South America, while smaller events spread along a N-S alignment related to the eastern slopes of the Western Cordillera, facing the Interandean Valley. The analysis suggests that the Carnegie Ridge has no clear influence in the deep seismicity distribution, while Grijalva, Alvarado and Sarmiento ridges and the subduction of the older crust South of Sarmiento could be playing an important role.

  19. Rice crop risk map in Babahoyo canton (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde Arias, Omar; Tarquis, Ana; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, making agricultural and livestock production riskier. In order to reduce hazards and economic loses that could jeopardize farmer's incomes and even its business continuity, it is very important to implement agriculture risk management plans by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has a significant growth in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. Crop production risk is related with yield variation of crops and livestock, due to weather, pests, diseases, and other factors that affect both the quantity and quality of commodities produced. This is the risk which farmers invest more time managing, and it is completely under their control. The aim of this study is generate a crop risk map of rice that can provide risk manager important information about the status of crop facing production risks. Then, based on this information, it will be possible to make best decisions to deal with production risk. The rice crop risk map was generated qualifying a 1:25000 scale soil and climatic map of Babahoyo canton, which is located in coast region of Ecuador, where rice is one of the main crops. The methodology to obtain crop risk map starts by establishing rice crop requirements and indentifying the risks associated with this crop. A second step is to evaluate soil and climatic conditions of the study area related to optimal crop requirements. Based on it, we can

  20. A new species of blunt-headed vine snake (Colubridae, Imantodes) from the Chocó region of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H.; Quirola, Diego; Eric N. Smith; Almendáriz, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Imantodes from the Chocó region of northwestern Ecuador. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners in lacking a loreal scale. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Imantodes based on two mitochondrial genes, and postulate that the new species and Imantodes lentiferus are sister taxa. A key to the species of Imantodes from Ecuador is presented. PMID:23275746

  1. A new species of blunt-headed vine snake (Colubridae, Imantodes) from the Chocó region of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H; Quirola, Diego; Eric N Smith; Almendáriz, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Imantodes from the Chocó region of northwestern Ecuador. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners in lacking a loreal scale. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Imantodes based on two mitochondrial genes, and postulate that the new species and Imantodes lentiferus are sister taxa. A key to the species of Imantodes from Ecuador is presented.

  2. Parasitism of the isopod Artystone trysibia in the fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum from the Tena River (Amazonian region, Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Junoy, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The isopod Artystone trysibia Schioedte, 1866 is described by using a collection of specimens that were found parasitizing loricariid fish Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger, 1887 in the Tena River (Napo province, Ecuador, Amazonian region). Additionally to freshly collected specimens, complementary data of the parasite was obtained from preserved fishes at Ecuadorian museums. This is the first record of A. trysibia in Ecuador, and the most upstream location for the species. The new host fish, Chaetostoma dermorhynchum, is used locally as food.

  3. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like-illness in two cities of the tropical country of Ecuador: 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Douce, Richard W; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains.

  4. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like-Illness in Two Cities of the Tropical Country of Ecuador: 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Douce, Richard W.; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. PMID:21887216

  5. The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Armijos, R X; Weigel, M M; Izurieta, R; Racines, J; Zurita, C; Herrera, W; Vega, M

    1997-02-01

    An epidemiologic survey (n = 466) was conducted in an area of subtropical rainforest in north-west Ecuador with the following objectives: (1) to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), (2) to identify the Leishmania species causing human disease, (3) to investigate the major clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, (4) to study cellular and humoral immune response indicators associated with disease status and (5) to identify risk factors for CL. Fourteen percent of subjects had parasitologically confirmed CL; 33% had evidence of prior disease. However, 17.2% of subjects with a negative CL clinical history presented with a positive Montenegro skin test (MST), indicating the possibility of subclinical infection. The species isolated from subject lesions were L. guyanensis (63%), L. panamensis (33%), and L. brazilensis (4%). Mean specific anti-Leishmania IgG and IgM OD serum levels were highest in subjects diagnosed with current CL, followed by those with prior CL, and were lowest in healthy subjects, respectively (0.56 +/- 0.27 vs 0.33 +/- 0.2 vs 0.22 +/- 0.14; F-ratio = 74; P < 0.00001) and (665 +/- 270 vs 481 +/- 220 vs 301 +/- 128.5; F-ratio = 37; P < 0.00001). Likewise, subjects with present CL had measurably higher MST reactions (13 +/- 6.7 mm) than those with prior CL (10.9 +/- 7.8 mm) or healthy individuals (2.4 +/- 2.5 mm; F-ratio = 106; P < 0.00001). Serum concentrations of IgG were predicted by lesion number (t = 2.5; P = 0.018), size (t = 3.7; P = 0.0006), and duration (t = 3.5; P = 0.0013). Furthermore, the MST induration size increased as a function of lesion number (t = 3.0; P = 0.005) and size (t = 3.4; P = 0.022). Subject age and sex did not predict serum IgG or IgM concentrations or MST reactions in the 3 disease groups. Although no sex differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics, children < or = 12 years of age were almost 3 times more likely to have CL lesions or scars located on the face and head area

  6. US Military Presence in Latin America: Making the Manta Forward Operating Location work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Postgraduate School, 2003), 39. 144 Constitucion Politica de Ecuador, 1998. Article 171, Number 13. Available at: http://georgetown.edu/pdba...r/pa/ei/bgn/2906.htm; accessed on 3 July 2003. 151 Constitucion Politica de Ecuador, 1998. Article 163, Number 13. Available at: http

  7. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N.; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA–positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador. PMID:26583534

  8. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  9. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  10. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA-positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador.

  11. First report of orchitis in man caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Douce, Richard

    2012-09-01

    We present a 44-year-old man from a rural community in northern Ecuador who worked on a cattle farm where he was involved with primary veterinary care, including assistance during births (or calving) and placenta retention and artificial insemination, with minimal precautions. In September of 2009, quite abruptly, he developed asthenia and hypersomnia without any apparent cause or symptoms like fever, chills, or night sweats. On November 14, 2009, he suffered from pain and edema in the right testicle that coincided with pain in the abdomen. Clinical, serological, and bacteriological investigations confirmed the first case of unilateral orchitis in man in Ecuador caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1. Because brucellosis is a neglected disease, special attention should be given to it in the training of medical and veterinary students.

  12. Citizen empowerment in volcano monitoring, communication and decision-making at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, B. A.; Mothes, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to more than 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants conducted in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities; engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel; builds community; and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  13. Fruit production of Attalea colenda (Arecaceae) in coastal Ecuador - an alternative oil resource?

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    Attalea colenda is a monoecious palm found in pastures in coastal Ecuador. In dry regions, it is a valuable source of oil in self-sufficiency farming or in combination with cattle in pastures. The palm was studied over a gradient of dry to humid environments during two fruiting seasons. Palm growth, production of leaves, inflorescences, and infructescences, number of fruits per infructescence, and seed weight of five populations were evaluated. The individual of average size is 15 m tall, which corresponds to approximately 30-40 years of age. No difference in fruit production was recorded between wet and dry regions of coastal Ecuador. The average production of one hectare of pasture, with 50 palms, was 0.9 t of oil per year. One population that was part of an agroforestry system produced 50% more fruits than the average of all populations in pasture. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N. García

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocania bravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania erwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania trifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocania lamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated. PMID:26052241

  15. First Report of Orchitis in Man Caused by Brucella abortus Biovar 1 in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Douce, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We present a 44-year-old man from a rural community in northern Ecuador who worked on a cattle farm where he was involved with primary veterinary care, including assistance during births (or calving) and placenta retention and artificial insemination, with minimal precautions. In September of 2009, quite abruptly, he developed asthenia and hypersomnia without any apparent cause or symptoms like fever, chills, or night sweats. On November 14, 2009, he suffered from pain and edema in the right testicle that coincided with pain in the abdomen. Clinical, serological, and bacteriological investigations confirmed the first case of unilateral orchitis in man in Ecuador caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1. Because brucellosis is a neglected disease, special attention should be given to it in the training of medical and veterinary students. PMID:22826490

  16. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.

  17. Contrasting patterns of urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Parés-Ramos, Isabel K; Aide, T Mitchell

    2013-02-01

    The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country's history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52-63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R (2) > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.

  18. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively. PMID:28331911

  19. Hydrogeochemistry Characterization of Hot Springs Located in The Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicio Carrera-Villacrés, David; Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Alexander; Guevara-García, Paulina; Vivero-Balarezo, María; Delgado-Rodríguez, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    The formation of several sources of hot springs in the Andes from Ecuador is the result of an intense volcanic activity due to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate under the South American continental plate. The aim of this study was to describe the hydrogeochemistry water geothermal origin, its chemical classification and relationship with the complex geology of Ecuador, using different hydro chemical diagrams (Stiff, Piper and Schoeller-Berkaloff). Geothermal waters can be divided into two groups. The first group, associated with an extinct volcanic activity produced in the Cenozoic, represents the Na+-Cl- type. The second group is associated with a young Quaternary volcanic activity and its types of water are Mg2+-HCO3-, Na+-HCO3-, Na+-SO42-, Mg2+-SO42-.

  20. A national survey to determine prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among pregnant women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Costales, Jaime A; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A; Jacobson, Jerry O; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-04-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0-0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0-0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador.

  1. THE WIDESPREAD OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS OF ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M

    2015-01-01

    The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  3. Human brucellosis in northwest Ecuador: typifying Brucella spp., seroprevalence, and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Abatih, Emmanuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, Laura; Calva-Pacheco, Jaime; González-Andrade, Pablo; Berkvens, Dirk; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Fretin, David; Saegerman, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Human brucellosis in Ecuador is underreported and based only on passive surveillance. Since 2008, brucellosis was removed from the list of communicable diseases in the country. Until now, the true human brucellosis picture has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, identify risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity in humans, and isolate circulating strains of Brucella spp. in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Between 2006 and 2008, a large transect survey was conducted, based on blood sampling of people from the northwestern part of Ecuador (n=3733) together with an epidemiological inquiry. On the basis of three diagnostic tests used in parallel, the overall seroprevalence was estimated as 1.88% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-2.38). Based on a multivariable random effects logistic regression analysis, the main risk factors associated with human brucellosis seropositivity were contact with livestock (odds ratio [OR]=3.0; CI 1.25-7.08), consumption of fetus and placenta (OR=2.5; CI 1.18-5.22), and involvement in activities at risk for brucellosis infection (OR=1.8; CI 1.00-3.35). Noticeable variation in brucellosis seropositivity among humans within cantons was observed. The circulating strain was Brucella abortus biotype 4. This study emphasized that contact with livestock, consumption of fetus and placenta, and occupational hazard group were all significant risk factors for the transmission of brucellosis among individuals in the northwestern part of Ecuador. Alongside encouraging the launching of educational campaigns against brucellosis, especially in rural areas where 36% of the population lives, controlling this zoonotic disease in animals will directly benefit its prevention in humans, especially because there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against brucellosis in humans.

  4. Descriptions of twelve new species of ochyroceratids (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from mainland Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2015-05-12

    Twelve new species in three different genera from the spider family Ochyroceratidae are described from mainland Ecuador: Speocera bioforestae sp. n., Speocera violacea sp. n., Speocera musgo sp. n., Ochyrocera rinocerotos sp. n., Ochyrocera callaina sp. n., Ochyrocera italoi sp. n., Ochyrocera minotaure sp. n., Ochyrocera losrios sp. n., Ochyrocera zabaleta sp. n., Ochyrocera otonga sp. n., Ochyrocera cashcatotoras sp. n. and Psiloochyrocera tortilis sp. n. Speocera machadoi Gertsch 1977 is transferred to Ochyrocera.

  5. Gender differences in life expectancy with and without disability among older adults in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Egüez-Guevara, Pilar; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on disability's impact among older women and men in Ecuador is limited. This paper provides gender-specific estimates of disability prevalence, life expectancy with and without disability, and the factors associated with gender differences in disability at older age in Ecuador (2009-2010). Data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Survey (SABE) Ecuador 2009 was used. Participants were 4480 men and women aged 60 and over. Life expectancy with and without disability was calculated using the Sullivan method. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore gender differences in disability prevalence. Two disability measures, indicating limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were used. 60-year-old women in Ecuador can expect to live 16.3 years without ADL limitations compared to 16.9 years for men. Life expectancy without IADL limitations was 12.5 years for women and 15.5 years for men. At age 60, women's length of life with ADL and IADL disability was higher (7.9 years for women vs. 4.9 years for men with ADL, and 11.7 years for women vs. 6.3 years for men with IADL). After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, chronic conditions and lifestyle factors, gender differences in ADL disability were not statistically significant. However, older women were 58% more likely (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.27, 1.95) to report having IADL limitations than men, even after including control variables. Interventions should tackle chronic disease, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic differences to reduce women's vulnerability to disability in older age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The role of circular migration in urban dynamics: examples from Ecuador and India].

    PubMed

    Dupont, V; Dureau, F

    1994-01-01

    Using the examples of Ecuador and India, this article examines different forms of circular migration affecting the dynamics of urban populations, and considers their impact on how cities function. The authors look at the strategies of temporary migrants and commuters regarding how they fit into the geographic and occupational spaces available in cities, their residence characteristics, how they affect urban investment and infrastructure, and their contribution to the labor force.

  7. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and dengue early warning in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, A. M.; Lowe, R.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is one of the most important emerging tropical diseases. Dengue is hyper-endemic in coastal Ecuador, where all four serotypes co-circulate. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences climate in Ecuador, with positive phase ENSO (El Niño) associated with wetter and warmer conditions over the southern coastal region. In turn, greater rainfall increases the availability of mosquito breeding sites for the dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti), while warmer temperatures increase rates of larval development, mosquito biting, and viral replication in the mosquito. We report a statistical model for assessing the importance of climate as a driver for inter-annual variability in dengue fever in southern coastal Ecuador. Climate variables from a local meteorology station (precipitation, number of rainy days, minimum/maximum/mean air temperature), combined with gridded climate products, and anomalies of Pacific sea surface temperatures (Oceanic Niño Index, ONI) were used to predict monthly dengue standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) (1995-2010). Non-climatic confounding factors such as serotype introduction and vector control effort were also considered. Preliminary results indicated a statistically significant positive association between dengue risk and the number of rainy days during the previous month. Both the number of rainy days and dengue SMR were positively associated with the Pacific SST anomalies with a lead time of several months. Due to time lags involved in the climate-disease transmission system, monitoring El Niño / La Niña evolution in the Pacific Ocean could provide some predictive lead time for forecasting dengue epidemics. This is the first study of dengue fever and climate in this region. This research provides the foundation to develop a climate-driven early warning system for dengue fever in Ecuador.

  8. Two new emerald geometrid species of Telotheta Warren from Ecuador and Bolivia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae, Lophochoristini)

    PubMed Central

    Lindt, Aare

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the lophochoristine genus Telotheta Warren found in Ecuador and Bolivia are described. The paper focuses on the morphological description and illustration of the wing pattern and genitalia structures of the typus generis Telotheta muscipunctata Dognin and the newly identified species Telotheta unoi and Telotheta fresei. The distinguishing characters of the genera Telotheta and Paromphacodes are also briefly discussed. PMID:25349521

  9. International Boundary Study. Series A. Limits in the Seas. Number 42, Straight Baselines: Ecuador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-05-23

    DTIC reproduct- ions will be 132 black[ and whit’ IDISTRIBUTION STATZ 7*Nl---T A Approved for public releoasel Distribution Unlimited--] 0(j- STRAIGHT...Galera (Ecuador); (b) From this point a straight line passing through Punta Galera and meeting the northernmost point of Isla de la Plata ; (c) From this...nautical miles. The longest setment, 136 nautical miles, connects Punta Galera (Point 2) and Isla de la Plata (Point 3). The shortest baseline, 37

  10. Variability and predictability of the streamflows in Coastal and Andean Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quishpe-Vásquez, César; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the variability and the predictability in available water resources in Coastal and Andean Ecuador. For this aim, we use the streamflow data from a network of hydrological stations, provided by the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Ecuador (IHNAMI), distributed over the Ecuadorian territory and strategically located in the watersheds of its main rivers. A number of 20 stations with a continuous period of daily data covering a period of 42 years (1973-2015) were selected. To analyze the spatio-temporal variability of streamflow in Ecuador, principal component analysis (PCA) along with a study of trends have been applied to the streamflow data at monthly time scales. The significance and magnitude of trends have been analyzed using Man-Kendall test and Sen slope. Moreover, to analyze the predictability of the streamflow, the spatio-temporal effects of the ENSO phenomenon on the country have been evaluated through a correlation analysis using different lags between different El Niño indices (Niño 1+2, Niño Modoki, Trans-Niño and Niño 3.4) and the seasonal streamflow. The results show two main regions that differ in terms of variability. We found that the variations in water resources have a close relationship between the magnitude and the seasonal distribution of the streamflow and the ENSO. However, each index shows a different impact on the streamflow depending on the season and the region. In general, the higher correlations between the ENSO indices and the streamflow are observed in the stations closer to the coast. KEY WORDS: Ecuador streamflow; trends; PCA; variability; predictability; ENSO. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  11. Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, M.; Davis, A.; Dixon, H.; Pawlowski, Z. S.; Proano, J.

    1989-01-01

    A large-scale study in Loja and El Oro Provinces, Ecuador, demonstrated that population-based treatment of human taeniasis with a low dose of praziquantel is feasible and effective for the short-term control of transmission of Taenia solium in hyperendemic areas. Chemotherapeutic intervention also effectively promoted local preventive measures and contributed greatly to the elaboration of a long-term control programme. PMID:2805217

  12. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses. PMID:28074189

  13. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Jose Luis; Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  14. Chagas disease in Ecuador: a sylvatic focus in the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Amunárriz, M; Chico, M E; Guderian, R H

    1991-06-01

    A sylvatic focus of Chagas disease is reported in the Amazon region of Ecuador (provinces of Napo and Sucumbios). During 1987-1989, 10 cases of acute infection were diagnosed by direct visualization of Trypanosoma cruzi in peripheral blood smears during routine malaria checks. Also in that region, three triatomine bugs, Rhodnius pictipes, Rhodnius robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus were found naturally infected with T. cruzi suggesting that the human cases represent an autochthonous focus of active transmission.

  15. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  16. Sedimentary record of terminal Cretaceous accretions in Ecuador: The Yunguilla Group in the Cuenca area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bengtson, Peter; Ordoñez, Martha; Vaca, Wilmer; Dhondt, Annie; Suárez, Johnny; Toro, Jorge

    2008-03-01

    A reappraisal of the "Late Cretaceous Yunguilla Formation" of the Cuenca area enables the definition of four distinct formations, correlatable with those of southwestern Ecuador. A mid- to late-Campanian marine transgression (Jadán Formation) is overlain by quartz-rich conglomerates of fan-delta to turbiditic fan environment (Quimas Formation) of latest Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian age, which are interpreted as evidence of the accretion of a first oceanic terrane (San Juan). Disconformable, arkosic turbidites and cherts (Tabacay Formation) of early Maastrichtian age are thought to represent the erosion of the newly accreted oceanic terrane. A major unconformity of late Maastrichtian age, caused by the accretion of a second oceanic terrane (Guaranda), is followed by the deposition of quartz-rich micaceous shelf sandstones (Saquisilí Formation) of Paleocene age. A third accretion event (late Paleocene) is recorded in coastal Ecuador. Each accretion event correlates with the uplift and erosion of the Eastern Cordillera and with a sedimentary hiatus in the eastern areas. In Ecuador, accretion of oceanic terranes contributed to the build up of the Andes through tectonic underplating of low-density material, and the eastern areas did not behave as flexural foreland basins during late Cretaceous-Paleogene times.

  17. [Active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Acuña, Cecilia; Ríos, Paulina

    2017-06-08

    Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified. Of the pregnant women, 89% (13 875) had had at least one prenatal check-up, while 70% of postpartum women (4 014) had had at least one post-delivery or post-caesarean check-up. Potential risk was identified in 29% of pregnant women (4 601). Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces had the lowest percentages of pregnant women with at least one prenatal check-up and the lowest percentages of postpartum women with at least one postpartum checkup. A total of 3 951 brigades were formed at the national level for this activity. Active community case-finding was valuable in identifying pregnant and postpartum women who had not been captured by the health system, especially to detect their risk status, in addition to the advantages of participatory uptake, especially with support from universities with health majors. Low coverage for postpartum check-ups underscores the importance of learning why women do not receive this care. Similar experiences need to be systematized to improve the process.

  18. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    PubMed Central

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  19. Vitamin D Status among Older Adults Residing in the Littoral and Andes Mountains in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency prevalence rates were examined among participants in the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate demographic characteristics associated with 25(OH)D deficiency. Of 2,374 participants with a mean age of 71.0 (8.3) years, 25(OH)D insufficiency and deficiency were present in 67.8% (95% CI, 65.3-70.2) and 21.6% (95% CI, 19.5-23.7) of older adults in Ecuador, respectively. Women (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.15-3.22), self-reported race as Indigenous (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.70-2.80), and residents in rural (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 4.40-4.58) and urban (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.69-2.80) areas of the Andes Mountains region were variables significantly associated with 25(OH)D deficiency among older adults. Despite abundant sunlight throughout the year in Ecuador, 25(OH)D deficiency was significantly prevalent among older women, Indigenous subjects, and subjects residing in the Andes Mountains region of the country. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement policies of vitamin D supplementation among older adults at risk for this condition.

  20. Zika and Chikungunya Virus Detection in Naturally Infected Aedes aegypti in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cevallos, Varsovia; Ponce, Patricio; Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Coloma, Josefina; Quiroga, Cristina; Morales, Diego; Cárdenas, Maria José

    2017-10-02

    The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Household risk factors for Trypanosoma cruzi seropositivity in two geographic regions of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Black, Carla L; Ocaña, Sofia; Riner, Diana; Costales, Jaime A; Lascano, Mauricio S; Davila, Santiago; Arcos-Teran, Laura; Seed, J Richard; Grijalva, Mario J

    2007-02-01

    Few studies on the relationship between environmental factors and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission have been conducted in Ecuador. We conducted a cross-sectional study of household risk factors for T. cruzi seropositivity in 2 distinct geographical regions of Ecuador. Exposure information was collected via household surveys, and subjects were tested for serological evidence of T. cruzi infection. In total, 3,286 subjects from 997 households were included. In the coastal region, factors associated with seropositivity were living in a house with a palm roof (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval, [1.61. 4.27]), wood walls (OR = 5.75 [2.04, 16.18]), or cane walls (OR = 2.81 11.31, 6.04]), and the presence of firewood in the peridomicile (OR = 2.48 [1.54, 4.01]). Accumulation of trash outside the home was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity (OR = 0.25 [0.12, 0.51]). In the Andean region, living in a house with adobe walls was the only factor predictive of T. cruzi seropositivity. In conclusion, risk factors for T. cruzi transmission in Ecuador varied by geographic region, probably because of differing behavior of the triatomine vector species in each region. An understanding of the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi in a particular area is necessary for the development of effective Chagas disease control strategies in those areas.

  2. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Meekums, Hayley; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Sparks, Alexandra M; Oviedo, Yisela; Sandoval, Carlos; Chico, Martha E; Stothard, J Russell; Cooper, Philip J; Nejsum, Peter; Betson, Martha

    2015-03-19

    Since the nematodes Trichuris trichiura and T. suis are morphologically indistinguishable, genetic analysis is required to assess epidemiological cross-over between people and pigs. This study aimed to clarify the transmission biology of trichuriasis in Ecuador. Adult Trichuris worms were collected during a parasitological survey of 132 people and 46 pigs in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. Morphometric analysis of 49 pig worms and 64 human worms revealed significant variation. In discriminant analysis morphometric characteristics correctly classified male worms according to host species. In PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) and 18S DNA (59 pig worms and 82 human worms), nearly all Trichuris exhibited expected restriction patterns. However, two pig-derived worms showed a "heterozygous-type" ITS-2 pattern, with one also having a "heterozygous-type" 18S pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit partitioned worms by host species. Notably, some Ecuadorian T. suis clustered with porcine Trichuris from USA and Denmark and some with Chinese T. suis. This is the first study in Latin America to genetically analyse Trichuris parasites. Although T. trichiura does not appear to be zoonotic in Ecuador, there is evidence of genetic exchange between T. trichiura and T. suis warranting more detailed genetic sampling.

  3. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-06-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation.

  4. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy. PMID:25988312

  5. Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

    PubMed

    Lazo, R F; Hidalgo, E; Lazo, J E; Bermeo, A; Llaguno, M; Murillo, J; Teixeira, V P

    1999-03-01

    Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.

  6. New Proposal of Setal Homology in Schizomida and Revision of Surazomus (Hubbardiidae) from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The homology of three somatic systems in Schizomida is studied yielding the following results: (1) proposal of homology and chaetotaxy of abdominal setae in Surazomus; (2) revision of the cheliceral chaetotaxy in Schizomida, with suggestion of new homology scheme between Hubbardiidae and Protoschizomidae, description of a new group of setae in Hubbardiinae (G7), and division of setae group 5 in two subgroups, G5A and G5B; (3) proposal of segmental homology between trimerous and tetramerous female flagellum in Hubbardiinae with association of segment III of tri-segmented species to segments III + IV of tetra-segmented species. Considerations about the dorsal microsetae on the male flagellum are made. The genus Surazomus in Ecuador is revised. The sympatric species Surazomus palenque sp. nov. and S. kitu sp. nov. (Ecuador, Pichincha) are described and illustrated. The female of S. cuenca (Rowland and Reddell, 1979) is described, with two new distributional records for the species. Surazomus cumbalensis (Kraus, 1957) is recorded for the first time from Ecuador (Pichincha). PMID:26863017

  7. New Proposal of Setal Homology in Schizomida and Revision of Surazomus (Hubbardiidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, Osvaldo Villarreal; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão

    2016-01-01

    The homology of three somatic systems in Schizomida is studied yielding the following results: (1) proposal of homology and chaetotaxy of abdominal setae in Surazomus; (2) revision of the cheliceral chaetotaxy in Schizomida, with suggestion of new homology scheme between Hubbardiidae and Protoschizomidae, description of a new group of setae in Hubbardiinae (G7), and division of setae group 5 in two subgroups, G5A and G5B; (3) proposal of segmental homology between trimerous and tetramerous female flagellum in Hubbardiinae with association of segment III of tri-segmented species to segments III + IV of tetra-segmented species. Considerations about the dorsal microsetae on the male flagellum are made. The genus Surazomus in Ecuador is revised. The sympatric species Surazomus palenque sp. nov. and S. kitu sp. nov. (Ecuador, Pichincha) are described and illustrated. The female of S. cuenca (Rowland and Reddell, 1979) is described, with two new distributional records for the species. Surazomus cumbalensis (Kraus, 1957) is recorded for the first time from Ecuador (Pichincha).

  8. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-05-15

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  9. The Seismic Sequence of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Pedernales, Ecuador Sarthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, S.; Fuenzalida, A.; Bie, L.; Garth, T.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Holt, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Edwards, B.; Regnier, M. M.; Pernoud, M.; Mercerat, E. D.; Perrault, M.; Font, Y.; Alvarado, A. P.; Charvis, P.; Beck, S. L.; Meltzer, A.

    2016-12-01

    On the 16th April 2016, a Mw 7.8 mega-thrust earthquake occurred in Northern Ecuador, close to the city of Pedernales. The event ruptured an area of 120 x 60 km and was preceded by a Mw 5.0 foreshock, located only 15 km south of the epicentre, and registered 10 minutes before the main event.A few weeks after the main event a large array of instruments was deployed by a collaborative project between the Geophysical Institute of Ecuador (IGEPN), IRIS (USA), Géoazur (France) and the University of Liverpool (UK). This dense seismic network, with more than 70 stations, includes broadband, short period and strong motion instruments and is currently recording the aftershock activity of the earthquake. It is hoped that this data set will give further insights into the structure of the subduction zone mega thrust beneath Ecuador.Using data recorded both on the permanent and the recently deployed network we located and calculated the moment tensor solutions for the foreshock event, and the large aftershocks (M > 5). We analyse the spatial distribution of the seismicity and its relation with the co-seismic slip, estimated by inverting radar satellite interferometry data, and with previous models of inter-seismic coupling (e.g. Chlieh et al., 2014). It is possible to identify two lineations in the aftershock activity located to the north and south of the rupture. Moreover, the geodetic slip model shows that the boundaries of the maximum coseismic slip coincides with the observed lineaments in the aftershocks and with the rupture area of a previous Mw 7.8 event in 1942. This suggests that the features to the north and south may impose a barrier to rupture propagation, creating different segments in the subduction zone beneath Ecuador. In addition, we model the Coulomb stress change caused by the foreshock and mainshock in order to investigate whether this could explain the aftershock distribution and potential earthquake interactions. Previous activity has presented a

  10. Climatic variability related to El Niño in Ecuador - a historical background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, K.; Tutasi, P.; Jiménez, R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, during the period from the arrival of conquistadores in Ecuador in 1532 until the year 1900. A number of probable El Niño events and drought years can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall and drought in the equatorial region. The evidence of ENSO has been documented from early reports in the South America archives. A large number of books and articles have been reviewing from the Ecuadorian archives to obtain information on El Niño events that have occurred over the past centuries. This information is based on evidence obtained from the equatorial region, where strong and very strong El Niño events clearly separate the northern part of the Ecuadorian coast from the southern region, the normally rainy season specially from west-central to the south coast of Ecuador, as well as the drought years, reported in this region which is climatologically and oceanographically different from the moist Northern coast of Ecuador. Given the normal occurrence of rains in the southern coast of Ecuador, it is reasonable to expect that at least some of the major rainy seasons would be recorded in local chronicles and publications. This information has been compared with reports obtained from Peru. Relative strengths of events are based on such considerations as wind and current effects on travel times of ancient sailing ships, degree of physical damage and destruction, amounts of rainfall and flooding, human disease epidemic, mass mortality of endemic marine organism, rises in sea temperatures and sea levels, effects on coastal fisheries. This paper is the first survey of the historical sources concerned the rainfall and drought in Ecuador. In the course of this investigation we also noted some extended periods of time, near decadal or longer over the past records, when the amount and/or strength of El Niño and its resulting effects appeared to represent

  11. [Characteristics of the cholera epidemic of 1998 in Ecuador during El Niño].

    PubMed

    Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Pesantes, Carmen; Escalante, Santiago; Narváez, Yolanda; Vela, Enrique; García, Lidia; Zabala, Diana; Yadon, Zaida E

    2002-09-01

    To describe the outbreak of cholera that occurred in Ecuador in 1998 during the El Nino weather phenomenon, to present data on the resistance of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae to antimicrobial drugs, and to describe the preventive measures taken by health authorities in order to reduce the impact of the disease. The epidemiological data came from three sources: 1) the registry of the National Bureau of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador, 2) the registry of the National Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and 3) the final report of the Training Program for the Fight against Cholera and Diarrheal Diseases. Isolation, identification, and serotyping was done of V. cholerae in the feces samples from 10% of the suspected cholera cases that were identified between 1 January and 31 December 1998. The suspected cases were defined by the sudden appearance of watery diarrhea, with or without dehydration, in epidemic areas. The strains that were isolated were submitted to a standard antibiogram by the diffusion method, in which the following antibiotics were tested: amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, vibriostatic compound O/129, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and colistin. In 1998 there were 3 755 cases reported in 17 of the 21 provinces of the country. This corresponds to an incidence rate of 53.96 per 100 000 population. Thirty seven patients died, for a case fatality rate of 0.97%. A total of 301 strains of V. cholerae were isolated in the 637 suspected-cholera samples that were processed; all corresponded to V. cholerae O1, El Tor, subtype Ogawa. All of the strains were sensitive to tetracycline and to quinolones; 5.6% of the strains were resistant to erythromycin. The only strain resistant to amoxicillin was multiresistant. Officials in Ecuador implemented a series of preventive measures, and the surveillance system was strengthened in order to reduce

  12. Acrolophyses, a new seed bug genus and two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Myodochini) from forest-canopy fogging in Ecuador and Peru

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The new myodochine (Rhyparochromidae) genus Acrolophyses is described to accommodate the two new species A. aboricolous from Ecuador and Peru, designated as the type species, and A. hadros from Ecuador. The new species are diagnosed and described, and adult photographs, scanning electron photomicro...

  13. Genetic divergence in populations of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, in Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru.

  14. THE EFFECT OF P-NITROCHLOROBENZENE ON HOMEOSTASIS QUANTITATIVE PARAMETERS OF KARST CAVE CLAYS AND ECUADOR SOILS MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES.

    PubMed

    Tashyrev, O B; Suslova, O S; Rokitko, P V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it was given the effect of p-nitrochlorobenzene (NCB) on the homeostasis quantitative parameters of cave clays microbial communities from Western Ukraine and Abkhazia (Mushkarova Yama, Kuybushevskaya) and soils of Ecuador tropical ecosystems. For these microbial communities were determined maximum permissible concentrations and types of responses on xenobiotic. Microbial communities of Mushkarova Yama cave clays and rainforest soils of Ecuador were characterized by the first type of response. Microbial communities of Kuybushevskaya clays and mountain jungles of Ecuador were characterized by the second type of response. Maximum permissible concentration of NCB for Mushkarova Yama was 200 mg/l, for the other studied microbial communities--300 mg/l. It was shown, that microbial communities were not only highly resistant to NCB but also interacted with it by destroying this xenobiotic and decreasing its concentration in 4 times.

  15. Two new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of southern Ecuador and northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen; Bohs, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Ecuador and northern Peru are described here. Solanum rubicaule S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Torva and is characterized by a festooning, scandent growth form and fruits held horizontally on recurved pedicels. Solanum achorum S. Stern, sp. nov., is a member of sect. Erythrotrichum and is characterized by 4–12-flowered inflorescences, small seeds, and a small calyx. Both species are distributed in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone of the Andes in northern Peru and southern Ecuador. PMID:22171168

  16. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E.; Gritsun, Tamara S.; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. IMPORTANCE The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. PMID:26355096

  17. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Cigdem; Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E; Gritsun, Tamara S; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme; Charrel, Rémi N

    2015-12-01

    A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. Copyright © 2015 Alkan et al.

  18. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2009-02-01

    During the last decade, forest certification has gained momentum as a market-based conservation strategy in tropical forest countries. Certification has been promoted to enhance forest management in countries where governance capacities are insufficient to adequately manage natural resources and enforce pertinent regulations, given that certification relies largely on non-governmental organisations and private businesses. However, at present there are few tropical countries with large areas of certified forests. In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch from conventional to certified forestry operations. Bolivia has a much greater relative area under certified forest management than Ecuador and also significantly more certified producers. The difference in the success of certification between both countries is particularly notable because Bolivia is a poorer country with more widespread corruption, and is landlocked with less access to export routes. Despite these factors, several characteristics of the Bolivian forest industry contribute to lower additional costs of certified forest management compared to Ecuador. Bolivia has stronger government enforcement of forestry regulations a fact that increases the cost of illegal logging, management units are larger, and vertical integration in the process chain from timber extraction to markets is higher. Moreover, forestry laws in Bolivia are highly compatible with certification requirements, and the government provides significant tax benefits to certified producers. Results from this study suggest that certification can be successful in countries where governments have limited governance capacity. However, the economic incentives for certification do not only arise from favourable market conditions. Certification is likely to be more successful where governments enforce

  19. Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services in Ecuador: a realist evaluation approach

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach. In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers’ attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an ‘ordinary’ health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes. Results The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored. Conclusion The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process. Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and

  20. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  1. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age. In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively. This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Hunting in the Rainforest and Mayaro Virus Infection: An emerging Alphavirus in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Macaluso, Maurizio; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B; Guerra, Bolivar; Cruz, Ligia M; Galwankar, Sagar; Vermund, Sten H

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this report were to document the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and to examine potential risk factors for Mayaro virus infection among the personnel of a military garrison in the Amazonian rainforest. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of the personnel of a garrison located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews and seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to Mayaro virus infection was assessed by evaluating IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies using ELISA. Results: Of 338 subjects studied, 174 were from the Coastal zone of Ecuador, 73 from Andean zone, and 91 were native to the Amazonian rainforest. Seroprevalence of Mayaro virus infection was more than 20 times higher among Amazonian natives (46%) than among subjects born in other areas (2%). Conclusions: Age and hunting in the rainforest were significant predictors of Mayaro virus infection overall and among Amazonian natives. The results provide the first demonstration of the potential presence of Mayaro virus infection in Ecuador and a systematic evaluation of risk factors for the transmission of this alphavirus. The large difference in prevalence rates between Amazonian natives and other groups and between older and younger natives suggest that Mayaro virus is endemic and enzootic in the rainforest, with sporadic outbreaks that determine differences in risk between birth cohorts of natives. Deep forest hunting may selectively expose native men, descendants of the Shuar and Huaronai ethnic groups, to the arthropod vectors of Mayaro virus in areas close to primate reservoirs. PMID:22223990

  3. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund

    2009-02-01

    To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.

  4. Fish communities of a disturbed mangrove wetland and an adjacent tidal river in Palmar, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervette, V. R.; Aguirre, W. E.; Blacio, E.; Cevallos, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Pozo, Francisco; Gelwick, F.

    2007-03-01

    Coastal Ecuador has lost 20-30% of mangrove wetlands over the past 30 years. Such habitat loss can impair the ecological functions of wetlands. A paucity of information exists concerning mangrove fish communities of Ecuador. In this study we identify the fish community of the remaining mangrove wetland in Palmar, Ecuador. Fish were sampled in the dry season of 2003 and the wet season of 2004 by seining in mangrove creeks and Main channel of Rio Palmar. For comparison, an adjacent tidal river without mangroves, Rio Javita, was also sampled. We collected a total of 12,231 individuals comprising 36 species in 16 families from Rios Palmar and Javita. Gobiidae (7 species) was the most diverse family for mangrove sites followed by Gerreidae (5 species) and Engraulidae (4 species). A total of 34 species were collected in the mangrove wetland, 21 of which were exclusive to the mangroves including three species of juvenile snook (Centropomidae), indicating that the mangrove habitat of Palmar may provide nursery habitat for these economically valued species. In Rio Javita, Carangidae (3 species) was the most diverse family followed by Engraulidae and Gerreidae (2 species each). A total of 14 species were collected in the tidal river, only two of which were exclusive to the river. Multivariate analyses of fish community data indicated significant differences in community composition between the mangrove creeks and the tidal river and between seasons in both. Juvenile white mullet, Mugil curema, were collected in high relative abundance in both Rios Palmar and Javita, as was the tropical silverside Atherinella serrivomer an ecologically important species. Although Rios Palmar and Javita are characterized by relatively low fish species richness compared to other tropical estuarine systems, they appear to provide an important habitat for several economically and ecologically valued species.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674

  6. Vitamin D Status among Older Adults Residing in the Littoral and Andes Mountains in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency prevalence rates were examined among participants in the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate demographic characteristics associated with 25(OH)D deficiency. Results. Of 2,374 participants with a mean age of 71.0 (8.3) years, 25(OH)D insufficiency and deficiency were present in 67.8% (95% CI, 65.3–70.2) and 21.6% (95% CI, 19.5–23.7) of older adults in Ecuador, respectively. Women (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.15–3.22), self-reported race as Indigenous (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.70–2.80), and residents in rural (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 4.40–4.58) and urban (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.69–2.80) areas of the Andes Mountains region were variables significantly associated with 25(OH)D deficiency among older adults. Conclusions. Despite abundant sunlight throughout the year in Ecuador, 25(OH)D deficiency was significantly prevalent among older women, Indigenous subjects, and subjects residing in the Andes Mountains region of the country. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement policies of vitamin D supplementation among older adults at risk for this condition. PMID:26301259

  7. Predicting monthly precipitation along coastal Ecuador: ENSO and transfer function models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Guenni, Lelys B.; García, Mariangel; Muñoz, Ángel G.; Santos, José L.; Cedeño, Alexandra; Perugachi, Carlos; Castillo, José

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modifies precipitation patterns in several parts of the world. One of the most impacted areas is the western coast of South America, where Ecuador is located. El Niño events that occurred in 1982-1983, 1987-1988, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998 produced important positive rainfall anomalies in the coastal zone of Ecuador, bringing considerable damage to livelihoods, agriculture, and infrastructure. Operational climate forecasts in the region provide only seasonal scale (e.g., 3-month averages) information, but during ENSO events it is key for decision-makers to use reliable sub-seasonal scale forecasts, which at the present time are still non-existent in most parts of the world. This study analyzes the potential predictability of coastal Ecuador rainfall at monthly scale. Instead of the discrete approach that considers training models using only particular seasons, continuous (i.e., all available months are used) transfer function models are built using standard ENSO indices to explore rainfall forecast skill along the Ecuadorian coast and Galápagos Islands. The modeling approach considers a large-scale contribution, represented by the role of a sea-surface temperature index, and a local-scale contribution represented here via the use of previous precipitation observed in the same station. The study found that the Niño3 index is the best ENSO predictor of monthly coastal rainfall, with a lagged response varying from 0 months (simultaneous) for Galápagos up to 3 months for the continental locations considered. Model validation indicates that the skill is similar to the one obtained using principal component regression models for the same kind of experiments. It is suggested that the proposed approach could provide skillful rainfall forecasts at monthly scale for up to a few months in advance.

  8. Correlates of condom use in a sample of MSM in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Juan-Pablo; Molina-Yepez, Diana; Morrison, Ken; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2006-01-01

    Background In Ecuador, the prevalence of HIV in the general population is approximately 0.3%. However, up to 17% prevalence has been reported among specific groups of homosexual and bisexual men. The objective of this study is to explore correlates of condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) across eight cities in Ecuador. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A questionnaire including variables on sexual behaviour, demographics, and socio-economic characteristics was distributed to a sample of MSM in eight Ecuadorian cities. Results Information was obtained for 2,594 MSM across the eight cities. The largest subcategory of self-identification was active bisexuals (35%), followed by those who described themselves as "hombrados" (masculine gays, 22%). The mean age was 25 years, and the majority were unmarried (78%), with a median of 10 years of schooling (IQR 7 – 12). Regarding condom use, 55% of those interviewed had unprotected penetrative sex with each of their last three partners, and almost 25% had never used a condom. The most important correlates of condom use were single status, high life-skills rating, and high socio-economic status (RP 5.45, 95% CI 4.26 – 6.37; RP 1.84, 95% CI 1.79 – 1.86, and RP 1.20, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.31, respectively). Conclusion Our data illustrate the urgent need for targeted HIV-prevention programs for MSM populations in Ecuador. MSM have the highest HIV prevalence in the country, and condom use is extremely low. It is imperative that prevention strategies be re-evaluated and re-prioritized to more effectively respond to the Ecuadorian epidemic. PMID:16768794

  9. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    PubMed

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  10. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze-eczema-rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze-rhinitis-eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9-10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms.

  11. Hygiene, atopy and wheeze–eczema–rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-01-01

    Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783

  12. Risk Factors Associated With HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Isabel; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Johnson, Ayesha; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2016-05-08

    The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS estimates that between 0.3% and 0.7% of adults aged 15 to 49 years were living with HIV in Ecuador in 2013. However, very little is known about the HIV prevalence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in that country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS as well as to estimate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in one of the cities with high HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 307 adult MSM. An HIV prevalence of 10% was observed. Knowledge about HIV was high; 91% of participants could identify how HIV is transmitted. Although consistent condom use for anal sex was relatively high (89%) among participants who reported having pay-for-service clients, only 64% reported using a condom during oral sex with a client. Participants who had multiple male sexual partners (i.e., their stable male partners plus other partner[s]) had 3.7 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV compared with those who did not. They also had reduced odds of condom use. Participants who were forced to have anal receptive sex had 3 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Despite the finding that participants exhibited high knowledge about HIV/AIDS, a high prevalence rate of HIV was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. These data are consistent with MSM being one of the highest at-risk population groups for HIV in this region of Ecuador.

  13. Predicting monthly precipitation along coastal Ecuador: ENSO and transfer function models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Guenni, Lelys B.; García, Mariangel; Muñoz, Ángel G.; Santos, José L.; Cedeño, Alexandra; Perugachi, Carlos; Castillo, José

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modifies precipitation patterns in several parts of the world. One of the most impacted areas is the western coast of South America, where Ecuador is located. El Niño events that occurred in 1982-1983, 1987-1988, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998 produced important positive rainfall anomalies in the coastal zone of Ecuador, bringing considerable damage to livelihoods, agriculture, and infrastructure. Operational climate forecasts in the region provide only seasonal scale (e.g., 3-month averages) information, but during ENSO events it is key for decision-makers to use reliable sub-seasonal scale forecasts, which at the present time are still non-existent in most parts of the world. This study analyzes the potential predictability of coastal Ecuador rainfall at monthly scale. Instead of the discrete approach that considers training models using only particular seasons, continuous (i.e., all available months are used) transfer function models are built using standard ENSO indices to explore rainfall forecast skill along the Ecuadorian coast and Galápagos Islands. The modeling approach considers a large-scale contribution, represented by the role of a sea-surface temperature index, and a local-scale contribution represented here via the use of previous precipitation observed in the same station. The study found that the Niño3 index is the best ENSO predictor of monthly coastal rainfall, with a lagged response varying from 0 months (simultaneous) for Galápagos up to 3 months for the continental locations considered. Model validation indicates that the skill is similar to the one obtained using principal component regression models for the same kind of experiments. It is suggested that the proposed approach could provide skillful rainfall forecasts at monthly scale for up to a few months in advance.

  14. New records of Amblyomma multipunctum and Amblyomma naponense from Ecuador, with description of A. multipunctum nymph.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Nunes, Pablo H; Costa, Francisco B; Portero, Francisco; Venzal, Jose M

    2013-12-01

    We provide new data for the ticks Amblyomma multipunctum and Amblyomma naponense from Ecuador. In addition, we describe the nymph of A. multipunctum for the first time. During December 2012, ticks were collected by dragging in forest trails of 1 locality at Puyo, Pastaza Province (elevation 979 m), and another locality at Papallacta, Napo Province (3,474 m). A total of 10 adults of A. naponense were collected at Puyo, whereas 27 adults and 3 nymphs of A. multipunctum were collected at Papallacta. Compared to sequences of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of adult and nymphal ticks, the sequence of an Amblyomma nymph was identical to the sequences generated from the A. multipunctum adults. The 3 collected nymphs (including the 1 used for molecular analysis) had the same morphotype, and were used for the first morphological description of the nymphal stage of A. multipunctum. Sequences generated from the A. naponense specimens were closest (97% identity by BLAST) to a corresponding sequence of A. naponense from Brazil, whereas the A. multipunctum sequences were closer to (90-91% identity) several Neotropical Amblyomma species. Herein, we provide just the second record of A. naponense in Ecuador, more than 100 yr after this tick was reported in this country. Adults and nymphs of A. multipunctum were found in highland, humid montane forest areas, in agreement with the only 2 previous reports of A. multipunctum in Ecuador and Colombia. No genetic differences were found among A. multipunctum ticks that presented significant morphological differences, suggesting intraspecific polymorphism in the adult stages of this species.

  15. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. PMID:28664841

  16. New species of Rhachomyces from Ecuador, one of which is dimorphic.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Castro, A Carolina Proaño

    2009-01-01

    Six new species of Rhachomyces from Ecuador are described and illustrated. These are R. dimorphus, parasitic on Diploharpus rossii (Carabidae, Perigoninae); R. elsae, parasitic on Adelopsis carolinae (Cholevidae, Ptomaphaginae); R. falcatus, parasitic on Palaminus sp. (Staphylinidae, Paederinae); R. moreti, parasitic on Trechisibus calathiformis (Carabidae, Trechinae); R. otongaensis, parasitic on Perigona sp. (Carabidae, Perigoninae); and R. venustus, parasitic on Megalopinus robustus (Staphylinidae, Megalopsidiinae). Rhachomyces dimorphus is peculiar, displaying two different growth forms, one of which is found on the left foreleg of male host insects, the other on the inferior, posterior margin of the prothorax of females. Each of the other new species also displays one or more unusual features.

  17. Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

  18. [State of food and nutritional care in public hospitals of Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Espinosa, Sylvia; Nicolalde Cifuentes, Marcelo; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2014-10-03

    The ELAN Ecuadorian Study of Hospital Malnutrition returned a malnutrition rate of 37.1% in public hospitals of Ecuador [Gallegos Espinosa S, Nicolalde Cifuentes M, Santana Porbén S; para el Grupo Ecuatoriano de Estudio de la Desnutrición Hospitalaria. State of malnutrition in hospitals of Ecuador. Nutr Hosp (España) 2014;30:425-35]. Hospital malnutrition could be the result of institutional cultural practices affecting the patient's nutritional status. To present the current state of food and nutritional care provided to patients assisted in public hospitals of Ecuador. The state of food and nutritional care provided to 5,355 patients assisted in 36 hospitals of 23 provinces of the country was documented by means of the Hospital Nutrition Survey (HNS), conducted as part of the ELAN Study. HNS recorded the completion of nutritional assessment exercises, the use of food-bymouth, fasting, use of oral nutritional supplements, and implementation and conduction of Artificial nutritional schemes (Enteral/Parenteral); respectively. Less than 0.1% of clinical charts had a diagnosis of malnutrition included in the list of the patient's health problems. Less than half of the patients had been measured and weighted on admission. Serum Albumin values and Total Lymphocytes Counts were annotated on admission in only 13.5% and 59.2% of the instances, respectively. Current weight value was registered in only 59.4% of the patients with length of stay ³ 15 days. An oral nutritional supplement was prescribed in just 3.5% of non-malnourished patients in which significant metabolic stress and/or reduced food intakes concurred. Although up to 10 different indications for use of Artificial nutrition were identified in the sample study, any of these techniques was administered to just 2.5% (median of observed percentages; range: 1.3 - 11.9%) of surveyed patients. Currently, nutritional status of hospitalized patient is not included within therapeutic goals, nutritional assessment

  19. Larval and pupal descriptions of Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Valentina; Onore, Giovanni; Guidolin, Laura

    2017-02-02

    The third instars are described and illustrated for five Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador: Anomala balzapambae Ohaus, 1897, A. popayana Ohaus, 1897, A. valida Burmeister, 1844, Callistethus buchwaldianus (Ohaus, 1908), and C. levii (Blanchard, 1851). The pupae of three Ecuadorian species are also described and illustrated: A. discoidalis Bates, 1888, A. popayana, and C. levii. Diagnostic characters of the species are provided. A key to the known larvae of Anomalini from the New World is provided, which now includes five genera and 31 species.

  20. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella

    2014-08-06

    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  1. New findings of Pleistocene fossil turtles (Geoemydidae, Kinosternidae and Chelydridae) from Santa Elena Province, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Juan; Gregori, Maria D.

    2017-01-01

    New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province) are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron) fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires (“hidden-necked” turtles). The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species). Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species), and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species), in the entirety of Central and South America. PMID:28439472

  2. New findings of Pleistocene fossil turtles (Geoemydidae, Kinosternidae and Chelydridae) from Santa Elena Province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edwin A; Abella, Juan; Gregori, Maria D

    2017-01-01

    New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province) are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron) fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires ("hidden-necked" turtles). The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species). Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species), and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species), in the entirety of Central and South America.

  3. Cathorops festae (Boulenger 1898) (Siluriformes; Ariidae), a valid species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Marchena, José; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-09-22

    Over the past decade, the Sea Catfish (Ariidae) genus Cathorops has been the focus of a major taxonomic review, which has resulted in the revalidation of five synonymized nominal species, and the recognition of seven new species. With 21 valid species, Cathorops is currently the most species-rich genus of Ariidae in the New World. The principal lacuna in the taxonomic knowledge of genus species is the uncertain status of Arius festae Boulenger, 1898, described from Naranjal, in the Guayas River basin of Ecuador. In the present study Cathorops festae is redescribed as a valid species based on morphological and molecular data.

  4. Population data for 15 Y-chromosome STRs in a population sample from Quito (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Baeza, Carlos; Guzmán, Rodrigo; Tirado, Miriam; López-Parra, Ana María; Rodríguez, Tatiana; Mesa, María Soledad; Fernández, Eva; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo

    2007-12-20

    Population frequencies for the 9 Y-STR loci included in the "minimal haplotype" from Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), plus other 6 Y-STRs (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, GATA A7.2, GATA H4 and GATA A10) were obtained for a sample of 120 males from Quito (Ecuador). One hundred and sixteen unique haplotypes were identified within the sample. Haplotype diversity (0.9994) was among the highest in comparison to other populations from Iberia and South-America. Genetic distances were calculated and our sample presented significative differences with all other samples, the lowest values being with a Guinean sample.

  5. Re-awakening of a Volcano: The 3. November 2002 eruption of El Reventador, NE Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischmann, T.; Toulkeridis, T.; Aguillera, E.

    2003-04-01

    At 3 Nov 2002, 7.15 after a repose of 26 years "El Reventador" exploded unexpectedly forming a vulcanian type eruption with a volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4. Ecuador's easternmost and second most active continental volcano covered with a few million tons of ash a huge area of Ecuador, parts of Colombia, Peru and Brazil reaching even the islands of Galapagos. Reventador belongs to the few stratovolcanoes on the western edge of the Amazonian platform well east of the principal volcanic axis of the North Andean Volcanic Zone. The ca. 20.000 year old andesitic steep-sloping cone of the active volcano Reventador III is situated within the western end of an older steep-walled horse-shoe shaped caldera, which is open to the ESE. This caldera was formed by the previous volcanoes Reventador I and II, which reached an estimated height of ca. 600 m high above the actual edifice before their activities terminated in a sector collapse and lateral blast to the ESE. Lavas, pyroclastic flows, debris flows and lahars of Reventador III then filled the ca. 4 km wide caldera. In the morning of 3 Nov, unpredicted and within seconds, the volcano's WNW flank slided away in a large landslide against the western caldera wall, triggering a destructive, lateral blast of hot gas, steam, ash and rock debris that swept across the landscape. More than a third of the actual cone disappeared in Ecuador's biggest explosion of the last 120 years. Ongoing decompression of the magma caused the continuing eruption and the formation of an eruption column reaching 16 km height. A few hours later another ca. 12 km high eruption followed. Further minor eruptions generated lavas and pyroclasitic flows until the end of November while the emission of ash and gases (mainly H_2O and SO_2) continued until January. The porphyric volcanic rocks contain plag (An 40--70%), cpx, opx, occasionally amphibole and Fe-Ti oxides. Ash and rock fragments of the pyroclasitic flows have almost identical andesitic

  6. Transformation: A Model for Restructuring the Preparation of English Teachers in Ecuador (Un Modelo para Reestructurar la Formación de Profesores de Inglés en Ecuador)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, M. Elisabeth; Vizcaíno, Cristina G.; Cazco, Daniel; Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2015-01-01

    As English has become the language of business, the economy and social media around the world, it is more and more necessary to start teaching English in schools. Countries such as Ecuador have seen the immediate need to review how they prepare teachers of English to meet this new demand. This article shares a reflection on the process of moving…

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of dengue viruses isolated in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Regato, Mary; Recarey, Ricardo; Moratorio, Gonzalo; de Mora, Domenica; Garcia-Aguirre, Laura; Gónzalez, Manuel; Mosquera, Carlos; Alava, Aracely; Fajardo, Alvaro; Alvarez, Macarena; D' Andrea, Lucia; Dubra, Ana; Martínez, Mariela; Khan, Baldip; Cristina, Juan

    2008-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV causes a wide range of diseases in humans, from the acute febrile illness dengue fever (DF) to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). There is not knowledge of the genetic relations among DENV circulating in Ecuador. Given the emerging behaviour of DENV, a single tube RT-PCR assay using a pair of consensus primers to target the NS5 coding region has been recently validated for rapid detection of flaviviruses. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variation of DENV strains isolated in Ecuador, DENV NS5 sequences from 23 patients were obtained by direct sequencing of PCR fragments using the mentioned one step RT-PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis carried out using the 23 Ecuadorian DENV NS5 sequences, as well as 56 comparable sequences from DENV strains isolated elsewhere, revealed a close genetic relation among Ecuadorian strains and DENV isolates of Caribbean origin. The use of partial NS5 gene sequences may represent a useful alternative for a rapid phylogenetic analysis of DENV outbreaks.

  8. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  9. Assessment of areas at increased risk for poliovirus circulation in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Vinjé, Jan; Vásconez, Nancy; Cáceres, Víctor; Gregoricus, Nicole; Sobsey, Mark; Landaverde, Mauricio

    2004-10-01

    To assess areas at risk for poliovirus circulation in Ecuador, we first selected provinces at highest risk based on low immunization coverage with three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine, and a low number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Subsequently, we reviewed discharge data for the period 1996--2000 for diagnoses compatible with AFP in the only two national referral hospitals in Quito, and at least two main hospitals in each of the six selected provinces. Environmental samples from one or two cities/towns in each selected province were tested for poliovirus. Of the 14 identified AFP-compatible cases, 8 (57%) had been previously reported and investigated. We visited four out of the six unreported cases; none of those four had sequelae compatible with poliomyelitis. From the 14 environmental samples taken, we identified Sabin viruses in six of the samples; no vaccine-derived polioviruses were isolated. Using this methodology, we found no evidence of undetected poliovirus circulation in Ecuador.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a variant of maize-associated totivirus from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Quinto, Robert A; Espinoza-Lozano, Rodrigo F; Mora-Pinargote, Carlos A; Quito-Avila, Diego F

    2017-04-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a variant of the recently reported maize-associated totivirus (MATV) from China was obtained from commercial maize in Ecuador. The genome of MATV-Ec (Ecuador) (4,998 bp) is considerably longer than that of MATV-Ch (China) (3,956 bp), the main difference due to a ≈ 1-kb-long capsid-protein-encoding fragment that is completely absent from the Chinese genome. Sequence alignments between MATV-Ec and MATV-Ch showed an overall identity of 82% at the nucleotide level, whereas at the amino acid level, the viruses exhibited 95% and 94% identity for the putative capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral RdRp domain indicated that MATV-Ec and MATV-Ch share a common ancestor with other plant-associated totiviruses, with Panax notoginseng virus A as the closest relative. MATV-Ec was detected in 46% (n = 80) of maize plants tested in this study, but not in endophytic fungi isolated from plants positive for the virus.

  11. Symptomatic and subclinical infection with rotavirus P[8]G9, rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Endara, Pablo; Trueba, Gabriel; Solberg, Owen D; Bates, Sarah J; Ponce, Karina; Cevallos, William; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2007-04-01

    During the past decade, rotavirus genotype G9 has spread throughout the world, adding to and sometimes supplanting the common genotypes G1-G4. We report evidence of this spread in a population sample within rural Ecuador. A total of 1,656 stool samples were collected from both patients with diarrhea and from asymptomatic residents in 22 remote communities in northwestern Ecuador from August 2003 through February 2006. Rotavirus was detected in 23.4% of case-patients and 3.2% of controls. From these 136 rotavirus-positive samples, a subset of 47 were genotyped; 72% were of genotype G9, and 62% were genotype P[8]G9. As a comparison, 29 rotavirus-positive stool samples were collected from a hospital in Quito during March 2006 and genotyped; 86% were of genotype P[8]G9. Few countries have reported P[8]G9 rotavirus detection rates as high as those of the current study. This growing prevalence may require changes to current vaccination programs to include coverage for this genotype.

  12. Improving Preclinic Preparation for Patients with Chronic Conditions in Quito, Ecuador: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, K.; Kaselitz, E.; Wong, J.; Ligard, S.; Peck, D.; Hugo Mena, V.; Gordillo, F.; Serlin, D.; Heisler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. As in many settings, patients in community health centers in Ecuador do not complete previsit forms or receive assistance to identify questions and concerns they would like to address in brief clinic visits with physicians. We examined the comparative effectiveness of providing (1) a previsit form to complete; (2) a previsit form along with assistance in completing the form; and (3) usual care. Methods. Parallel, three-arm randomized controlled trial in two health centers serving indigent to low-income communities in Quito, Ecuador, among 199 adult patients who took medications for at least one chronic condition. Outcome measures were self-reported satisfaction with the visit, confidence in asking questions, and extent to which patients' objectives were met. Results. Patients who received assistance in completing a previsit form were more than twice as likely as participants in usual care to report achieving everything they wanted during their visit (AOR 2.2, P = 0.039). There were no differences in any outcomes between the groups who received the previsit form with no assistance and usual care. Conclusions. For high-quality patient-centered primary care, it is important to develop and test innovative and scalable interventions for patients and physicians to make the best use of limited clinic time. PMID:25883805

  13. A National Survey to Determine Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Pregnant Women in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Costales, Jaime A.; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C.; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A.; Jacobson, Jerry O.; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0–0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0–0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador. PMID:25667052

  14. Improving preclinic preparation for patients with chronic conditions in quito, ecuador: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Kaselitz, E; Wong, J; Ligard, S; Peck, D; Hugo Mena, V; Gordillo, F; Serlin, D; Heisler, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. As in many settings, patients in community health centers in Ecuador do not complete previsit forms or receive assistance to identify questions and concerns they would like to address in brief clinic visits with physicians. We examined the comparative effectiveness of providing (1) a previsit form to complete; (2) a previsit form along with assistance in completing the form; and (3) usual care. Methods. Parallel, three-arm randomized controlled trial in two health centers serving indigent to low-income communities in Quito, Ecuador, among 199 adult patients who took medications for at least one chronic condition. Outcome measures were self-reported satisfaction with the visit, confidence in asking questions, and extent to which patients' objectives were met. Results. Patients who received assistance in completing a previsit form were more than twice as likely as participants in usual care to report achieving everything they wanted during their visit (AOR 2.2, P = 0.039). There were no differences in any outcomes between the groups who received the previsit form with no assistance and usual care. Conclusions. For high-quality patient-centered primary care, it is important to develop and test innovative and scalable interventions for patients and physicians to make the best use of limited clinic time.

  15. Late Cretaceous marine transgressions in Ecuador and northern Peru: A refined stratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bengtson, Peter; Dhondt, Annie V.

    2005-08-01

    Study of ammonites and bivalves along selected sections on the Andean margin of northern Peru and Ecuador has made it possible to recognize correlatable marine transgressions and propose a refined stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous of the region. Six maximum flooding events are recognized: latest Turonian-early Coniacian (major event), late Coniacian-early Santonian, early Campanian, mid Campanian-early late Campanian (major event), early Maastrichtian (major event), and terminal early Maastrichtian. Most of these events can be correlated with global eustatic sea level rises, but their relative manifestations indicate that the Andean margin already was being deformed by the late Cretaceous 'Peruvian' tectonic events. The onset of fine-grained clastic sedimentation in the Oriente and East Peruvian basins in the mid Turonian-earliest Coniacian is taken as the first event of the 'Peruvian' phase. The Campanian regional transgression in the Peruvian-Ecuadorian forearc zones concealed the 'Peruvian' deformational event. The latter caused a paleogeographic upheaval, as indicated by the subsequent development of a NNE-trending forearc basin, which extended from Paita in northwestern Peru to northern Ecuador. In the forearc zones, only short-lived transgressions are recorded in the late Campanian and early Maastrichtian as a result of nearly continuous tectonic activity. This activity culminated with a significant tectonic event in the late Maastrichtian that caused a widespread hiatus.

  16. Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Ponce, Fernando; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kahn, Ted R.

    2009-07-01

    Ecuador's Yasuní Man and the Biosphere Reserve—located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator—is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The Yasuní Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting Yasuní more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the Yasuní region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, Yasuní National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative Yasuní-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  17. Perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Phoa, K Y N; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Wendte, J F; Ghiabi, S; Vrijkotte, T; Pinto, P

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia in Ecuador is an understudied subject since available epidemiological data are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe perinatal outcomes among singleton pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in a sample of low-income Ecuadorian women. Pregnant women complicated with preeclampsia (mild and severe) and eclampsia (defined according to criteria of the ACOG) delivering at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador were surveyed with a structured questionnaire containing maternal (socio-demographic) and neonatal data. Perinatal outcomes were compared according to severity of clinical presentation. A total of 163 women with preeclampsia [mild (23.9%), severe (68.7%) and eclampsia (7.4%)] were surveyed. Perinatal mortality and stillbirth rate was similar among studied groups (mild vs. severe preeclampsia/eclampsia cases). However, severe cases displayed higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes: lower birth Apgar scores, more preterm births, and more low birth weight and small for gestational age infants. Caesarean-section rate and the number of admissions to intensive or intermediate neonatal care were higher in severe cases. A similar trend was found when analysis excluded preterm gestations. In conclusion, in this specific low-income Ecuadorian population perinatal outcome was adverse in pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia/eclampsia.

  18. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J

    2008-04-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America.

  19. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  20. Species type controls root strength and influences slope stability in coastal Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, E.; Wray, M. E.; Knappe, E.; Ogasawara, T.; Tholt, A.; Cliffe, B.; Oshun, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tree roots, particular those of old growth trees, provide significant cohesive strength that can prevent shallow landslides. Little is known about the root strength of trees growing in dry tropical forests. In 1997, Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador experienced a large landslide, which may have been precipitated by massive deforestation along the Ecuadorian coast. We used a tensile spring apparatus combined with root maps to caclulate the cohesive strength of different native species of trees. Whereas the results show the previously reported power law relationship between root diameter and tensile strength, our data also reveals new contributions. First, we find that trees have far stronger and more abundant roots than neighboring bushes, and thus add far more cohesive strength to the hillslope. Furthermore, there is a wide range of tensile strength among the native trees measured, with algarrobo having the strongest roots, and ceibo gernally being weak rooted. Finally, we use a slope stability model to predict failure conditions considering the strength added to a hillslope if vegetation is predominantly composed of bushes, algarrobo, or ceibo. Our results, which are the first of their kind for the Ecuadorian dry tropical forest, will be used to guide the ongoing native reforestation efforts of Global Student Embassy. Our unique partnership with Global Student Embassy connects our field study to practical land use decisions that will lead to increased slope and decreased human danger along coastal Ecuador's dry tropical forest.

  1. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Waisbord, Silvio

    2010-03-01

    To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.

  2. Consequences of Out-Migration for Land Use in Rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    In rural Ecuador and elsewhere in Latin America, the departure of migrants and the receipt of migrant remittances have led to declining rural populations and increasing cash incomes. It is commonly assumed that these processes will lead to agricultural abandonment and the regrowth of native vegetation, thus undermining traditional livelihoods and providing a boon for biodiversity conservation. However, an increasing number of household-level studies have found mixed and complex effects of out-migration and remittances on agriculture. We advance this literature by using household survey data and satellite imagery from three study areas in rural Ecuador to investigate the effects of migration and remittances on agricultural land use. Multivariate methods are used to disaggregate the effects of migration and remittances, to account for other influences on land use and to correct for the potential endogeneity of migration and remittances. Contrary to common assumptions but consistent with previous studies, we find that migrant departure has a positive effect on agricultural activities that is offset by migrant remittances. These results suggest that rural out-migration alone is not likely to lead to a forest transition in the study areas.

  3. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  4. Women's reproductive rights in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: challenges for transforming policy into practice.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.

  5. Parents' education, mothers' vocabulary, and cognitive development in early childhood: longitudinal evidence from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Schady, Norbert

    2011-12-01

    I estimated the association between parents' education, mothers' vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents' education, mothers' vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise.

  6. Cretaceous and Tertiary terrane accretion in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard A.; Pilatasig, Luis F.

    2002-02-01

    New field, geochronological, geochemical and biostratigraphical data indicate that the central and northern parts of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of Ecuador comprise two terranes. The older (Pallatanga) terrane consists of an early to late (?) Cretaceous oceanic plateau suite, late Cretaceous marine turbidites derived from an unknown basaltic to andesitic volcanic source, and a tectonic mélange of probable late Cretaceous age. The younger (Macuchi) terrane consists of a volcanosedimentary island arc sequence, derived from a basaltic to andesitic source. A previously unidentified, regionally important dextral shear zone named the Chimbo-Toachi shear zone separates the two terranes. Regional evidence suggests that the Pallatanga terrane was accreted to the continental margin (the already accreted Cordillera Real) in Campanian times, producing a tectonic mélange in the suture zone. The Macuchi terrane was accreted to the Pallatanga terrane along the Chimbo-Toachi shear zone during the late Eocene, probably in a dextral shear regime. The correlation of Cretaceous rocks and accretionary events in the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador and Colombia remains problematical, but the late Eocene event is recognised along the northern Andean margin.

  7. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    San, S; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J; Stephens, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.
METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.
RESULTS—Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81).
CONCLUSIONS—The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.


Keywords: cancer; oil; Amazon; Ecuador PMID:11452046

  8. Reemergence of Measles in the Americas: The Genotype B3 2011-2012 Outbreak in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Le, Nicole K; Mhaskar, Rahul; Hoare, Ismael; Espinel, Mauricio; Fernanda Rivadeneira, María; Malavade, Sharad; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2017-06-02

    This study characterizes a measles outbreak which occurred in Ecuador in 2011-2012, analyzing data from 3700 suspected cases of measles reported to Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. The study population had a large age range and included 333 confirmed cases of measles. The greatest number of cases were found in the <1 year (32.43%, n = 108) and 1-4 year (30.03%, n = 100) age-groups. Compared to Mestizos, indigenous people had the highest number of cases (68.2%, n = 227), as well as a higher risk of infection (OR 7.278 (CI 5.251-10.087)). The greatest protection from measles was observed in individuals who received two doses of the measles vaccine. Residents of Pastaza (OR 6.645 CI (3.183-13.873)) and Tungurahua (OR 8.346 CI (5.570-12.507)) had a higher risk of infection than the other provinces. Of the 17 laboratory confirmed cases, all were identified as genotype B3. Age-group, ethnicity, measles vaccinations, and residence in Tungurahua and Pastaza were correlated with rates of measles infection in the outbreak. Tungurahua and Pastaza, where the outbreak originated, have large indigenous populations. Indigenous children <1 year of age showed the highest incidence. It is likely that indigenous women do not have immunity to the virus, and so are unable to confer measles resistance to their newborns.

  9. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lawson, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.

  10. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Daule aquifer, Ecuador, using the susceptibility index method.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luís; Pindo, Juan Carlos; Dominguez-Granda, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The Guayas region in Ecuador is economically very important, producing 68% of the national crops. The main agricultural activities threaten the groundwater therein with nitrate contamination given the large fertiliser and water needs. The present work tests the applicability of the susceptibility index assessment method in evaluating the impact of agricultural activities on groundwater quality, using as a case study an aquifer of the Guayas river basin in Ecuador. The index adapts four parameters of the DRASTIC method and incorporated a new land use parameter. Results show that the areas highly vulnerable to contamination are located in irrigation perimeters of dominant paddy fields associated with the high recharge rates in the alluvial deposits. Respectively, moderately vulnerable and low-vulnerability areas correspond to aquatic environments and forests, semi-natural zones and water bodies. One of the main contributions of the Daule aquifer vulnerability is likely its wide, flat topography. A great part of the aquifer is at high risk of contamination by nitrates if a code of good agricultural practices is not applied. Therefore the implementation of a monitoring network to control the nitrates concentrations is the first step to assure groundwater quality for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of hitherto unrecognized arboviruses from Ecuador: members of serogroups B, C, Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Gutierrez, E; Francy, D B; Alava, A; Muth, D J; Lazuick, J S

    1983-07-01

    Three hundred seventy-nine virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected and sentinel hamsters exposed in coastal Ecuador from 1974 to 1978. These included four alphaviruses [Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1B (1), Venezuelan equine encephalitis 1D (35), western equine encephalitis (1) and eastern equine encephalitis (4)]; two flaviviruses [St. Louis encephalitis (3) and Naranjal (6)]; 11 bunyaviruses [Maguari (243), Playas (3), Vinces (33), Turlock (2), Abras (5), Babahoyo (3), Acara (2), Guajara (3), San Juan (6), Pueblo Viejo (3), 18 unspecified Gamboa serogroup viruses, Palestina (7)]; and one vesiculovirus (vesicular stomatitis New Jersey). All but Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus were new to Ecuador, and Naranjal (serogroup B), Playas (Bunyamwera serogroup), Vinces (serogroup C), Abras and Babahoyo (Patois serogroup), San Juan and Pueblo Viejo (Gamboa serogroup) and Palestina (Minatitlan serogroup) are newly recognized viruses. These isolates have enabled us to 1) expand our knowledge of the geographic distribution of recognized viruses, 2) expand our knowledge of the members of certain serogroups and 3) establish two new serogroups (Gamboa and Minatitlan).

  12. [Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from HIV patients, Guayaquil, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sunny; Zambrano, Dolores; García, Maylen; Bedoya, César; Fernández, Carlos; Illnait-Zaragozí, María Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Neurocryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that represents a high cost in human lives and for the economy of countries. Its causative agent, the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex, has a sexual and an asexual phase, four major serotypes and seven molecular varieties with phenotypic, clinical-epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility differences. To characterize by molecular methods clinical isolates of C. neoformans from Guayaquil, Ecuador. We determined mating types, serotypes and molecular varieties by PCR and RFLP in 27 yeast isolates previously identified as C. neoformans by conventional methods. The isolates were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid of HIV seropositive patients with neurological syndrome admitted at "Dr. José Daniel Rodríguez Maridueña" Hospital from December, 2013, to January, 2015. We established a wide prevalence of C. neoformans serotype A, MATα and genotype VNI among the studied isolates. These data are similar to those obtained in other countries and the first identified by molecular characterization in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Therefore, they constitute an important contribution to the knowledge on cryptococcosis in this country.

  13. Consequences of Out-Migration for Land Use in Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Ecuador and elsewhere in Latin America, the departure of migrants and the receipt of migrant remittances have led to declining rural populations and increasing cash incomes. It is commonly assumed that these processes will lead to agricultural abandonment and the regrowth of native vegetation, thus undermining traditional livelihoods and providing a boon for biodiversity conservation. However, an increasing number of household-level studies have found mixed and complex effects of out-migration and remittances on agriculture. We advance this literature by using household survey data and satellite imagery from three study areas in rural Ecuador to investigate the effects of migration and remittances on agricultural land use. Multivariate methods are used to disaggregate the effects of migration and remittances, to account for other influences on land use and to correct for the potential endogeneity of migration and remittances. Contrary to common assumptions but consistent with previous studies, we find that migrant departure has a positive effect on agricultural activities that is offset by migrant remittances. These results suggest that rural out-migration alone is not likely to lead to a forest transition in the study areas. PMID:24187416

  14. Developing and sustaining adolescent-friendly health services: A multiple case study from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Coe, Anna-Britt; San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2016-01-08

    Adolescent-Friendly Health Services (AFHSs) are those that are accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective for different youth sub-populations. This study investigated the process through which four clinics in two countries - Peru and Ecuador - introduced, developed and sustained AFHSs. A multiple case study design was chosen, and data from each clinic were collected through document review, observations and informant interviews. National level data were also collected. Data were analysed following thematic analysis. The findings showed that the process of introducing, developing and sustaining AFHSs was long term, and required a creative team effort and collaboration between donors, public institutions and health providers. The motivation and external support was crucial to initiating and sustaining the implementation of AFHSs. Health facilities' transformation into AFHSs was linked to the broader organisation of country health systems, and the evolution of national adolescent health policies. In Peru, the centralised approach to AFHSs introduction facilitated the dissemination of a comprehensive national model to health facilities, but dependency on national directives made it more difficult to systemise them when ideological and organisational changes occurred. In Ecuador, a less centralised approach to introducing AFHSs made for easier integration of the AFHSs model.

  15. Assessment of areas at increased risk for poliovirus circulation in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Gustavo H.; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Vinjé, Jan; Vásconez, Nancy; Cáceres, Víctor; Gregoricus, Nicole; Sobsey, Mark; Landaverde, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    To assess areas at risk for poliovirus circulation in Ecuador, we first selected provinces at highest risk based on low immunization coverage with three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine, and a low number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Subsequently, we reviewed discharge data for the period 1996--2000 for diagnoses compatible with AFP in the only two national referral hospitals in Quito, and at least two main hospitals in each of the six selected provinces. Environmental samples from one or two cities/towns in each selected province were tested for poliovirus. Of the 14 identified AFP-compatible cases, 8 (57%) had been previously reported and investigated. We visited four out of the six unreported cases; none of those four had sequelae compatible with poliomyelitis. From the 14 environmental samples taken, we identified Sabin viruses in six of the samples; no vaccine-derived polioviruses were isolated. Using this methodology, we found no evidence of undetected poliovirus circulation in Ecuador. PMID:15473140

  16. Exploring climate changes in mountainous ecosystems in the Andes of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Campozano, Lenin; Celleri, Rollando; Bendix, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The Andes Mountains of Ecuador are one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world with high ecosystem diversity. Particularly the complex structure of the terrain causes a variety of ecosystems across small scales that are strongly related to zonal and altitudinal gradients in climate parameters. At the eastern slopes mountain rain forest dominate because extensive rain amounts occur due to impinging easterlies. They advance warm-moist air from the Amazon basin to the Andes and subsequently lead to an orographic enhancement of cloud and precipitation. In contrast, the western slopes are under the influence of a strong seasonality driven by the South American monsoon system leading to distinct rainy and dry periods which is reflected in the deciduous forest / dry forest. Additionally, as a result of the altitudinal gradient paramo ecosystem occurs above the timberline. In the light of recent and future climate changes as an indicator for loss of biodiversity these ecosystems are strongly endangered. Therefore the high resolution climate indicator system (hrCIS) for South Ecuador is developed to derive climate change indicators relevant for ecosystem research. The hrCIS is generated applying the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in a dynamical downscaling approach. It covers a time period 1995 to 2015 with a spatial and temporal resolution of 4 km and 1 hour, respectively, on the inner domain. On the basis of important climate change indicators, e.g. precipitation and temperature, their recent developments associated with the respective ecosystem are presented and discussed.

  17. Assessing the context of health care utilization in Ecuador: A spatial and multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few studies that have analyzed the context of health care utilization, particularly in Latin America. This study examines the context of utilization of health services in Ecuador; focusing on the relationship between provision of services and use of both preventive and curative services. Methods This study is cross-sectional and analyzes data from the 2004 National Demographic and Maternal & Child Health dataset. Provider variables come from the Ecuadorian System of Social Indicators (SIISE). Global Moran's I statistic is used to assess spatial autocorrelation of the provider variables. Multilevel modeling is used for the simultaneous analysis of provision of services at the province-level with use of services at the individual level. Results Spatial analysis indicates no significant differences in the density of health care providers among Ecuadorian provinces. After adjusting for various predisposing, enabling, need factors and interaction terms, density of public practice health personnel was positively associated with use of preventive care, particularly among rural households. On the other hand, density of private practice physicians was positively associated with use of curative care, particularly among urban households. Conclusions There are significant public/private, urban/rural gaps in provision of services in Ecuador; which in turn affect people's use of services. It is necessary to strengthen the public health care delivery system (which includes addressing distribution of health workers) and national health information systems. These efforts could improve access to health care, and inform the civil society and policymakers on the advances of health care reform. PMID:20222988

  18. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Raymond, J. Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J.

    2008-01-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study—and debate—of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until ≈4150–3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300–4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated ≈9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America. PMID:18362336

  19. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ben; Alava, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7%) was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae), including Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1842) and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla), Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), while Austromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata). These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0°) until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region.

  20. Diffuse and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis: clinical cases experienced in Ecuador and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo L; Kato, Hirotomo; Martini, Luiggi R; Velez, Lenin N; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    In Ecuador, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is prevalent countrywide, but only one case of diffuse-CL and two cases of disseminated-CL were experienced during our research activities more than 30 years from 1982 to date. These three patients suffered from multiple lesions distributed at a wide range of the body surface, revealing difficulty to clinically differentiate each other. There is a considerable confusion of the use and/or differentiation of the terminologies (terms) between the two disease forms, diffuse-CL and disseminated-CL. One of the aims of the present study is to clarify the difference between the two disease forms, mainly based on the cases experienced in Ecuador. The disseminated-CL case newly reported here was clinically very similar to the diffuse-CL case, but the former showed the following marked differences from the latter: (1) the organisms isolated were identified as the parasites of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis/panamensis, which are also known as the causative agents of disseminated-CL in different endemic countries of the New World; (2) the patient was sensitive against antimonials; and (3) mucosal involvement was observed, which is never observed in diffuse-CL. In the text, three clinical cases, one diffuse-CL and two disseminated-CL, were presented. Furthermore, a bibliographic comparison of the features between the two disease forms was made, and a brief comment was also given.

  1. Competing sovereignties: Oil extraction, corporate social responsibility, and indigenous subjectivity in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billo, Emily Ruth

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs developed in recent years as the business response to social and environmental criticism of corporate operations, and are most debated in those societies where neoliberalism emerged most prominently, the United States and the United Kingdom. My dissertation expands these debates investigating the CSR programs of a Spanish-owned multinational oil company, Repsol-YPF operating in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. It explores CSR programs as institutions that can facilitate ongoing resource extraction, and particular technologies of rule that serve to discipline indigenous peoples at the point of extraction. I conducted an institutional ethnography to examine the social relationships produced through CSR programs, and contend that the relationships formed within CSR programs enable ongoing resource extraction. This dissertation argues that CSR programs produce entanglements between state, corporate and indigenous actors that lead to competing and conflicting spaces of governance in Ecuador. These entanglements reflect the Ecuadorian state's attempts to 'erase' indigenous difference in the name of securing wealth and membership in the nation-state. In turn, CSR programs can both contain indigenous mobilization and resistance in Ecuador, but also highlight indigenous difference and rights and access to resources, predicated on membership in the nation-state. To that end, the dissertation is attentive to the ambivalence and uncertainty of indigenous actors produced through engagement with corporate capital, and suggests that ambivalence can also be a productive space.

  2. [Positioning Ecuador in the global health agenda as a result of sector reform].

    PubMed

    Luna, Cristina; Emanuele, Carlos Andrés; Torre, Daniel De La

    2017-06-08

    Analyze strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to position the country in the global health agenda during the period 2011-2015 as a result of health sector reform. Documentary review and interviews with stakeholders in national and international agencies with respect to positioning in the global health sphere during the study period. It was observed that the reform process produced a new framework to manage international health relations. The MPH implemented strategies and mechanisms to place national health priorities and interests on the global health agenda at bilateral, regional, and global levels. As a result, the country took a leadership role in certain processes and attained recognition at various international forums. The MPH reform process contributed to recognition and establishment of Ecuador's public policy priorities in the global health agenda through strategies such as giving importance to putting national priorities on the global health agenda, guiding the global health approach exercised by the highest health authority, developing technical capabilities and skills in the International Relations Office, and raising awareness in technical bodies.

  3. Unexpected distribution of qnrB gene in E. coli isolates from different origins in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Armas-Freire, Paulina I.; Trueba, Gabriel; Proaño-Bolaños, Carolina; Levy, Karen; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F.; Cevallos, William; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fluoroquinolone resistance can be conferred through chromosomal mutations or acquisition of plasmids that carry genes such as qnr. In this study 3,201 strains of commensal Escherichia coli were isolated from: 1) 2,374 (74%) strains from humans and chickens from rural northern coastal Ecuador, 2) 827 (26%) strains from chickens from an Ecuadorian industrial poultry operation. We also analyzed 114 fluoroquinolone resistant strains from patients with urinary infection attending three urban hospitals in Quito Ecuador. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility screening, and fluoroquinolone resistant isolates (FRIs) were screened for the presence of qnrB genes. We found significantly higher phenotypic resistance to fluoroquinolones in E. coli from chickens in both the rural area (22%) and from the industrial operation (10%) than those from humans in the rural communities (3%). However E. coli isolates from healthy humans in the rural communities had higher rates of qnrB genes (31%, 11 of 35 isolates) compared to chickens from industrial operations (6%, 3 of 81 isolates) and chickens from rural communities (2.8%, 7 of 251 isolates). In addition, human FRIs from urban hospitals had low occurrence of qnrB genes (0.87%, 1 of 114 isolates). These results suggest that the qnrB gene is more widely distributed in rural settings, where antibiotic usage is low, compared to urban hospital and industrial poultry settings. The role of qnrB genes in clinical resistance to fluoroquinolones is still unclear and requires more research. PMID:26496615

  4. The Immature Stages and Natural History of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Lthomiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Hill, Ryan I.; Rosendo Simbaña, Wilmer; Gentry, Grant

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and oviposition behavior of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) from northeastern Ecuador. An unidentified species of Solanum (Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on leaves, stems or epiphytes growing on the host. Veladyris pardalis has four larval stadia, and takes 64–70 days to mature from oviposition to adult. PMID:19619012

  5. The Life History and Shelter Building Behavior of Vettius Coryna Coryna Hewitson, 1866 in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901. PMID:19613868

  6. The Immature Stages and Shelter Building Behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Greeney, Harold F.; Warren, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic “neck” gland. Larvae are associated with moving water. PMID:19613872

  7. Development of an Educational Video to Improve HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Prevention among Company Workers in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…

  8. Collective Memory: The African Presence in Latin America. A Study Guide on the Maroon Community of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Allen; And Others

    In this brief study guide, the focus is on the "maroons," those Africans who bravely threw off the chains of slavery and established independent communities within colonial Latin America. The specific study is of the history and culture of Esmeraldas, a province in northwestern Ecuador and home to one of the most interesting maroon…

  9. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  10. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an Educational Video to Improve HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Prevention among Company Workers in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…

  12. The life history and shelter building behavior of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae).

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Warren, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass species (Poaceae). We provide brief observations on V. coryna adult behavior and a review of known life history information for other species of Vettius Godman, 1901.

  13. The immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae).

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Warren, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Larvae in all stadia build shelters and forcibly eject frass with the aid of an anal comb. Later instars possess an eversible prothoracic "neck" gland. Larvae are associated with moving water.

  14. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  15. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  16. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Saraguros: Medicinal Plants Used by Community Healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Lucero Mosquera, Hernán; Armijos, Chabaco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the use of medicinal plants by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, province of Loja, Ecuador. A particular ethnic group, the indigenous Saraguros, inhabits this region. This study reports 183 plant species used in 75 different curative therapies by the Saraguro healers. PMID:28744470

  17. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  18. 75 FR 30776 - Exemption of Foreign Air Carriers From Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Exemption of Foreign Air Carriers From Excise Taxes; Review of Finding of Reciprocity (Ecuador), 26 U.S.C. 4221 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of...

  19. A new nitrogen index for assessment of nitrogen management practices of Andean Mountain cropping systems of Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn (Zea mays L.) is the most important crop for food security in several regions of Ecuador. Small farmers are using nitrogen (N) fertilizer without technical advice based on soil, crop and climatological data. The scientific literature lacks studies where tools are validated that can be used to q...

  20. Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

  1. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  2. Seismic and Acoustic Array Monitoring of Signal from Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terbush, B. R.; Anthony, R. E.; Johnson, J. B.; Ruiz, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Tungurahua Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in Ecuador's eastern Cordillera. Since its most recent cycle of eruptive activity, beginning in 1999, it has produced both strombolian-to-vulcanian eruptions, and regular vapor emissions. Tungurahua is located above the city of Baños, so volcanic activity is well-monitored by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico Nacional with a seismic and infrasound network, and other surveillance tools. Toward better understanding of the complex seismic and acoustic signals associated with low-level Tungurahua activity, and which are often low in signal-to-noise, we deployed temporary seismo-acoustic arrays between June 9th and 20th in 2012. This deployment was part of a Field Volcano Geophysics class, a collaboration between New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the Escuela Politecnica Nacional's Instituto Geofísico in Ecuador. Two six-element arrays were deployed on the flank of the volcano. A seismo-acoustic array, which consisted of combined broadband seismic and infrasound sensors, possessed 100-meter spacing, and was deployed five kilometers north of the vent in an open field at 2700 m. The second array had only acoustic sensors with 30-meter spacing, and was deployed approximately six kilometers northwest of the vent, on an old pyroclastic flow deposit. The arrays picked up signals from four distinct explosion events, a number of diverse tremor signals, local volcano tectonic and long period earthquakes, and a regional tectonic event of magnitude 4.9. Coherency of both seismic and acoustic array data was quantified using Fisher Statistics, which was effective for identifying myriad signals. For most signals Fisher Statistics were particularly high in low frequency bands, between 0.5 and 2 Hz. Array analyses helped to filter out noise induced by cultural sources and livestock signals, which were particularly pronounced in the deployment site. Volcan Tungurahua sources were considered plane wave signals and could

  3. [Inconsistent condom use among sexual workers in Ecuador: results from a behavior survey].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Molina-Yépez, Diana; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano Michele

    2006-01-01

    Whilst existing data suggests that the HIV epidemic in Ecuador is concentrated amongst men who have sex with men (MSM), there is very little available information on the situation of key populations, i.e. those most at risk of HIV infection and/or transmitting the infection. In particular, there is very little known about sex workers (SWs), their rate of condom use and other behaviors and characteristics with respect to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study presents findings from a survey carried out with SWs in eight cities in Ecuador. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire focusing on behaviours, attitudes and socio-economic and demographic characteristics was administered to SWs in eight cities in Ecuador. These eight cities together account for the majority of the population in the country, and they were also identified as the locations with high reported levels of HIV. Information from a total of 2867 SWs was obtained, the majority were captured in their workplaces. Most of SWs interviewed carry out their activities in closed settings dedicated to sex work (i.e. not in the street). The average age of respondents was 28 (95%CI 27-29), and around half of them live with a male partner (married or not). The rate of condom use with the last client was 88% (82% consistently with the last three), whilst with regular partners it was 6%. A high index of life-skills, high socio-economic status and having an official document that allows them to work, were positively associated with condom use with clients (PR [CI95%] 1.40 [1.40-1.40], 1.37 [1.36-1.37], y 7.26 [6.87-7.46], respectively). Whilst condom use with clients amongst Ecuadorian SWs is high, this diminishes if one analyzes consistent condom use and is notably low with respect to regular partners. Condom use appears to be related to variables that can be linked to interventions, e.g. life-skills and official permission to carry out sex work. It is, therefore, important

  4. Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenning, Alexander; Muenchow, Jannes

    2016-04-01

    Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador A. Brenning (1), J. Muenchow (1) (1) Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena, Germany Mountain roads are affected by and also affect themselves landslide suceptibility. Especially in developing countries, inadequate drainage systems and mechanical destabilization of hillslopes by undercutting and overloading are known processes through which road construction and maintenance can enhance landslide activity within the immediate surroundings of road infrastructure. In the Andes of southern Ecuador, strong precipitation gradients as well as lithological differences provide an excellent study site in which the relationship between highways and landslide susceptibility and its regional differentiation can be studied. This study uses Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to investigate patterns of landslide susceptibility along two paved interurban highways in the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador. The relationship of landslides to distance from road is modeled while accounting for topographic, climatic and lithological predictors as possible confounders and modifiers, focusing on the odds ratio of landslide occurrence at 25 m versus 200 m distance from the highway. Spatial attention is given to uncertainties in estimated odds ratios of landslide occurrence using spatial block bootstrap techniques. The GAM is able to represent nonlinear additive terms as well as bivariate smooth interaction terms, providing a good tradeoff between model complexity and interpretability. The estimated odds of landslide occurrence were 18-21 times higher near the highway than at 200 m distance, based on different analyses, with lower 95% confidence limits always >13. (Semi-) parametric estimates confirmed this general range of values but suggests slightly higher odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 15.5-25.3). Highway-related effects were observed to

  5. K-Ar geochronology of basement rocks on the northern flank of the Huancabama deflection, Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feininger, Tomas; Silberman, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Huancabamba deflection, a major Andean orocline located at the Ecuador-Peru border, constitutes an important geologic boundary on the Pacific coast of South America. Crust to the north of the deflection is oceanic and the basement is composed of basic igneous rocks of Cretaceous age, whereas crust to the south is continental and felsic rocks of Precambrian to Cretaceous age make up the basement. The northern flank of the Huancabamba Deflection in El Oro Province, Ecuador, is underlain by Precambrian polymetamorphic basic rocks of the Piedras Group; shale, siltstone, sandstone, and their metamorphosed equivalents in the Tahuin Group (in part of Devonian age); concordant syntectonic granitic rocks; quartz diorite and alaskite of the Maroabeli pluton; a protrusion of serpentinized harzburgite that contains a large inclusion of blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks, the Raspas Formation, and metamorphic rocks north of the La Palma fault. Biotite from gneiss of the Tahuin Group yields a Late Triassic K-Ar age (210 ? 8 m.y.). This is interpreted as an uplift age and is consistent with a regional metamorphism of Paleozoic age. A nearby sample from the Piedras Group that yielded a hornblende K-Ar age of 196 ? 8 m.y. was affected by the same metamorphic event. Biotite from quartz diorite of the mesozonal Maroabeli pluton yields a Late Triassic age (214 ? 6 m.y.) which is interpreted as an uplift age which may be only slightly younger than the age of magmatic crystallization. Emplacement of the pluton may postdate regional metamorphism of the Tahuin Group. Phengite from politic schist of the Raspas Formation yields an Early Cretaceous K-Ar age (132 ? 5 m.y.). This age is believed to date the isostatic rise of the encasing serpentinized harzburgite as movement along a subjacent subduction zone ceased, and it is synchronous with the age of the youngest lavas of a coeval volcanic arc in eastern Ecuador. A Late Cretaceous K-Ar age (74.4 ? 1.1 m.y.) from hornblende in

  6. Tsunami source of the 2016 Muisne, Ecuador Earthquake inferred from tide gauge and DART records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriano, B.; Fujii, Y.; Koshimura, S.

    2016-12-01

    On April 16, 2016 an earthquake occurred in the central coast of Ecuador (0.382°N 79.922°W, Mw=7.8 at 23:58:36.980 UTC according to U.S. Geological Service). It was reported that widespread damage occurred at several towns of Monabi coastal province. According to reports from the Ecuador Government, more than 15,000 buildings were damaged. This earthquake generated a relatively small tsunami that was detected at several tide gauge station as well as offshore DARTs (Deep Ocean Tsunami Detection Buoys). This study aims to investigate the tsunami source of the 2016 Muisne Earthquake using inversion of recorded tsunami waveform signals. The INOCAR (Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada in Spanish) of the Ecuador provided the tide records of Esmeraldas, Manta, and La Libertad ports. In addition, the DIMAR (Dirección General Marítima in Spanish) of Colombia provided the tide record of Tumaco port. Finally, waveform signal from two DARTs were also employed. These waveform records usually include ocean tides, which we removed by applying a high-pass filter. To estimate the extent of the tsunami source and the slip distribution, we divide the tsunami source into 4 subfaults that covers the aftershock area during one month after the mainshock. The subfault size is 30 km x 60 km with a top depth of 10 km. The focal mechanisms for all the subfaults were taken form the USGS solution of the mainshock. The inversion result showed that the largest slip was located around the epicenter with a maximum value of 3.1 m. The estimated moment magnitude was calculated as Mw=7.78 (5.89E+20 N-m), which is slightly smaller than the proposed by USGS (Mw7.8, moment 7.05E+20 N-m). The estimated slip distribution suggested that the fault rupture started near the epicenter and propagated from north to south. This evidence is supported by the aftershock distribution, which is higher to the south of the epicenter with a main aftershock of Mw=6.0 on April 22.

  7. Gender and physician specialization and practice settings in Ecuador: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bedoya-Vaca, Rita; Derose, Kathryn P; Romero-Sandoval, Natalia

    2016-11-17

    The increasing proportion of women in the medical profession is a worldwide phenomenon often called the "feminization of medicine." However, it is understudied in low and middle-income countries, particularly in Latin America. Using a qualitative, descriptive design, we explored the influence of gender and other factors on physician career decision-making and experiences, including medical specialty and public vs. private practice, in Quito, Ecuador, through in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 31) in 2014. Theoretical sampling was used to obtain approximately equal numbers of women and men and a range of medical specialties and practice settings; data saturation was used to determine sample size. Transcripts were analyzed using content coding procedures to mark quotations related to major topics and sub-themes included in the interview guide and inductive (grounded theory) approaches to identify new themes and sub-themes. Gendered norms regarding women's primary role in childrearing, along with social class or economic resources, strongly influenced physicians' choice of medical specialty and practice settings. Women physicians, especially surgeons, have had to "pay the price" socially, often remaining single and/or childless, or ending up divorced; in addition, both women and men face limited opportunities for medical residency training in Ecuador, thus specialty is determined by economic resources and "opportunity." Women physicians often experience discrimination from patients, nurses, and, sometimes, other physicians, which has limited their mobility and ability to operate independently and in the private sector. The public sector, where patients cannot "choose" their doctors, offers women more opportunities for professional success and advancement, and the regular hours enable organizing work and family responsibilities. However, the public sector has generally much less flexibility than the private sector, making it more difficult to balance work

  8. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a) directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b) random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus) nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012). Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the

  9. A model for the Holocene extinction of the mammal megafauna in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficcarelli, G.; Coltorti, M.; Moreno-Espinosa, M.; Pieruccini, P. L.; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents the results of multidisciplinary research in the Ecuadorian coastal regions, with particular emphasis on the Santa Elena Peninsula. The new evidence, together with previous data gathered on the Ecuadorian cordillera during the last 12 years, allows us to formulate a model that accounts for most of the mammal megafauna extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. After the illustration of geomorphological and paleontological evidences of the area of the Santa Elena Peninsula (and other sites), and of a summary of the paleoclimatic data, the main results and conclusions of this work are: (1) Late Pleistocene mammal assemblages survived in the Ecuadorian coast until the Early Holocene sea level rise; (2) Prior to the extinction of most of the megafauna elements (mastodons, ground sloths, equids, sabre-tooth felids), the mammal communities at Santa Elena Peninsula comprise elements with differing habitat requirements, attesting conditions of high biological pressure; (3) At the El Cautivo site (Santa Elena Peninsula), we have discovered Holocene sediments containing the first known occurrences in Ecuador of lithic artifacts that are associated with mammal megafauna remains; (4) During the last 10,000 years, the coastal region of Ecuador underwent significant changes in vegetation cover. At the Pleistocene/Holocene transition the climate changed from very arid conditions to humid conditions. Our data indicates that the megafauna definitively abandoned the Cordillera areas around 12,000 yr BP due to t he increasing aridity, and subsequently migrated to coastal areas where ecological conditions still were suitable, Santa Elena Peninsula and mainly Amazonian areas being typical. We conclude that the unusual high faunal concentrations and the change to dense vegetation cover (due to a rapid increase in precipitation in the lower Holocene) at 8000-6000 yr BP, caused the final collapse and extinction of most elements of the mammal megafauna

  10. Partial self-reversal of TRM in baked soils and ceramics from Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Chauvin, Annick; Valdez, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Partial self-reversed thermoremanent magnetizations (SRTRMs) were observed in samples of baked soils, hearths and ceramics from the Rumipamba archeological site near Quito (Ecuador) and ceramics from sites near the town of Esmeraldas (Ecuador). The SRTRMs were recognized at room temperature on few samples but cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen enhanced the intensity of the SRTRM and measurement at 77°K enables its rapid detection in many samples from these sites. Alternating field demagnetization of the SRTRM indicate median destructive field of the order of 50 mT and thermal demagnetization give unblocking temperatures in the temperature range 280-380 °C. The magnetic carriers of the SRTRM are stable to heating in air or in vacuum up to 600 °C suggesting that titanomaghemite should not be the magnetic carrier of the SRTRM. The studied baked clays and ceramics contain detrital material of mainly volcanic origin. Ti-poor titanomagnetite is the main magnetic carrier identified by strong field data or susceptibility measurements versus temperature. Ilmeno-hematite grains were recognized with microscope observations under reflected light. Scanning electron microscope observations with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry indicate a Ti/Fe ratio corresponding to an ilmenite content of ˜0.55. We also compared the magnetic properties of the partially self-reversed baked clays with those of the self-reversed Pinatubo pumices. The SRTRMs were measured upon cooling from room temperature to 20°K with the MPMS. Upon cooling to 20°K the SRTRM show a nearly tenfold increase in intensity with respect to the room temperature measurement. The baked clay and ceramics from Ecuador carrying the SRTRM share similar magnetic properties with the Pinatubo pumices (unblocking temperatures, low temperature behavior) supporting the interpretation that detrital hemoilmenite originating from the Holocene activity of the numerous Ecuadorian volcanoes is the main carrier of the SRTRM in

  11. A new species of Oreodera Audinet-Serville, 1835 from Ecuador (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) and new geographical records.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Botero, Juan Pablo

    2016-11-23

    Oreodera antonkozlovi, new species from Ecuador is described and illustrated. A key to species of Oreodera, currently known from Ecuador, is provided. Moreover, the following new country records are reported in Oreodera: O. basicretata (Brazil); O. cretata (Peru); O. sororcula (Brazil); O. wappesi (Costa Rica and Guatemala). Additionally, new state records from Brazil are added: O. bituberculata (Goiás); O. griseozonata (Amapá); O. melzeri (Amazonas).

  12. Seroepidemiological Study of Chagas Disease in the Southern Amazon Region of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Angel G.; Atherton, Richard D.; Wauters, Michael A.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Nelson, Marcos; Prado, Jose; Kato, Hirotomo; Calvopiña, Manuel H.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    To determine the extent of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and/or transmission in the southern Amazon region of Ecuador, three indigenous communities in the provinces of Pastaza and Morona Santiago were serosurveyed. ChagatestTM, Immunocomb®II and immunofluorescent (IF) assays were used. Among the 385 inhabitants examined, nine (2.34%) were seropositive for T. cruzi infection. Of the nine positive sera, four (44.4%) fall in the 10–19, one each in the 20–29, 30–39 and 40–49, and two in the 50–59 age groups. These results suggested the possible existence of an autochthonous active T. cruzi transmission in the region and provide the first serological evidence for T. cruzi infection in the southern province of Morona Santiago bordering Peru. Further studies are needed in these Amazonian provinces to ascertain the spread of T. cruzi infection in the area. PMID:23532947

  13. Candida ecuadorensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in two separate regions of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    In the course of an on-going study aimed at cataloguing the natural yeast biodiversity found in Ecuador, two strains (CLQCA 13-025 and CLQCA 20-004(T)) were isolated from samples of cow manure and rotten wood collected in two separate provinces of the country (Orellana and Bolívar). These strains were found to represent a novel yeast species based on the sequences of their D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and their physiological characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis based on LSU D1/D2 sequences revealed this novel species to belong to the Metschnikowia clade and to be most closely related to Candida suratensis, a species recently discovered in a mangrove forest in Thailand. The species name of Candida ecuadorensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with strain CLQCA 20-004(T) (=CBS 12653(T) = NCYC 3782(T)) designated as the type strain.

  14. Saturnispora quitensis sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A; Cadet, Geneviève M; Barriga, Enrique Javier Carvajal; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2011-12-01

    A single strain, CLQCA-10-114(T), representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Saturnispora was isolated from the fruit of an unidentified species of bramble (Rubus sp.), collected from the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve, near Quito, in Ecuador. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to the recently described species Saturnispora gosingensis, isolated from the fruiting body of a mushroom collected in Taiwan, and Saturnispora hagleri, a Drosophila-associated yeast found in Brazil. The name Saturnispora quitensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this strain; the type strain is CLQCA-10-114(T) (=CBS 12184(T)=NCYC 3744(T)).

  15. New species of Laboulbenia from Ecuador, with evidence for host switch in the Laboulbeniales.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Ten new species of Laboulbenia from Ecuador are described. These are L. barraganii, parasitic on Platamops sp. (Salpingidae); L. biformis, parasitic on Diploharpus rossii Moret (Carabidae); L. davidsonii, parasitic on Odontocheila spp. (Carabidae); L. gregaria, parasitic on Philonthus sp. (Staphylinidae); L. micrandra, parasitic on Lobrathium sp. (Staphylinidae); L. mycotreti, parasitic on Mycotretus spp. (Erotylidae); L. opima, parasitic on Chrysodinopsis sp. (Chrysomelidae); L. otongaensis, parasitic on Diploharpus iridescens Moret (Carabidae); L. tapiae, parasitic on Priocera sp. (Cleridae); and L. trogacti, parasitic on Trogactus sp. (Staphylinidae). Laboulbenia barraganii is the first of the Laboulbeniales to be reported on beetles of the family Salpingidae. L. biformis displays a moderate dimorphism associated with the position on the host insect. L. davidsonii, which is very different from the other species of Laboulbenia reported so far on the Cicindelinae but similar to a group of species parasitic on Galerita spp., provides evidence for the occurrence of host switch in Laboulbeniales.

  16. Citizen Empowerment in Volcano Monitoring, Communication and Decision-Making at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, B.; Mothes, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Trained citizen volunteers called vigías have worked to help monitor and communicate warnings about Tungurahua volcano, in Ecuador, since the volcano reawoke in 1999. The network, organized by the scientists of Ecuacor's Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Geophysical Institute) and the personnel from the Secretaría Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos (Risk Management, initially the Civil Defense), has grown to well over 20 observers living around the volcano who communicate regularly via handheld two-way radios. Interviews with participants in 2010 indicate that the network enables direct communication between communities and authorities, engenders trust in scientists and emergency response personnel, builds community, and empowers communities to make decisions in times of crisis.

  17. The first ascent to the volcano Cotopaxi in Ecuador by Wilhelm Reiss (1838-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2014-06-01

    The volcano Cotopaxi in South America is 5,897 m high and is one of the highest active volcanoes of the world and the second highest volcano in the Andes after the Chimborazo (6,310 m). In Ecuador, there are more than 20 volcanoes contributing to the spectacular mountain range diving this country between the western and eastern lowlands. There have been more than 50 reports of volcanic activity at Cotopaxi since 1738, among which those from the years 1744, 1768, and 1877 are the largest. During the 1877 eruption, the whole summit glacier collapsed and a huge mudflow spread out for more than 100 km and flooded the city of Latacunga. Five years prior to this catastrophic event, the German geologist Wilhelm Reiss from the University of Heidelberg ascended Cotopaxi for the first time together with his supporter Angel M. Escobar from Columbia.

  18. An Intelligent Ecosystem for Providing Support in Prehospital Trauma Care in Cuenca, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Timbi-Sisalima, Cristian; Rodas, Edgar B; Salamea, Juan C; Sacoto, Hernán; Monje-Ortega, Diana; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    According to facts given by the World Health Organization, one in ten deaths worldwide is due to an external cause of injury. In the field of pre-hospital trauma care, adequate and timely treatment in the golden period can impact the survival of a patient. The aim of this paper is to show the design of a complete ecosystem proposed to support the evaluation and treatment of trauma victims, using standard tools and vocabulary such as OpenEHR, as well as mobile systems and expert systems to support decision-making. Preliminary results of the developed applications are presented, as well as trauma-related data from the city of Cuenca, Ecuador.

  19. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Santiago Formation, Oriente Basin, SE of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaibor, J.; Hochuli, J. P. A.; Winkler, W.; Toro, J.

    2008-03-01

    The Santiago Formation (Late Hettangian-Sinemurian), described in the area of Santiago in the Oriente Basin of eastern Ecuador, consists of three distinct sedimentary members. The Santiago River Member is composed of limestones and calcareous sandstones. The Yuquianza Member is a monotonous sequence of black shales. The Patuca Member consists of a sequence of sandstones, greywackes, and shales, intercalated with lava flows and dikes. The fine-grained sediments of the three members are characterized by a high content of particulate organic matter (POM). Palynofacies and rock-eval analyses indicate the predominance of kerogen types II and III, with HI values that indicate a moderate to low source potential. At the type locality, the organic matter is thermally mature and locally overmatures.

  20. Simple Bouguer gravity anomaly field and the inferred crustal structure of continental Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feininger, Tomas; Seguin, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The simple Bouguer gravity anomaly field of continental Ecuador corresponds closely to the physiographic provinces of the country. The Sierra, which includes the Andes and their foothills, is characterized by a pronounced low with values to -292 mgal, which reflects the deep Andean root. Bouguer anomalies over the Oriente become less negative away from the Sierra, chiefly in response to progressive thinning of continental crust eastward. The Costa, between the Sierra and the Pacific shore, in the north has the most positive on-land Bouguer anomalies (+162 mgal) so far known in the Western Hemisphere. This part of the Costa is underlain by an ancient oceanic plate now welded to the northwestern corner of the otherwise continental South American plate.

  1. Developing local health policy: Profiling needs and opportunities in the Municipality of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Roldós, Maria Isabel; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Sacoto, Fernando; Bustamante, Kathy

    2017-02-27

    We describe the steps taken and analysis applied in developing a local health policy agenda for the city of Quito, in Ecuador. In 2014, the Health Commissioner's Office of the Municipality of Quito analyzed the city's epidemiological health profiles, social determinants of health, the legal authority of the Municipality, and relevant literature to understand the city's health burden and develop a Ten-Year Health Plan (2015-2025). Results revealed that Quito's population suffered from noncommunicable chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) and identified the primary risk factors (poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and resulting overweight or obesity). Other common conditions included respiratory diseases, mental health conditions, deaths and injuries from motor vehicles, violence, and physical insecurity. The plan emphasized health promotion and disease prevention with the aim of transforming citizens' health perceptions with their active participation by fostering public and private intersectoral commitment to improve the quality of life of the population .

  2. The increasing number of women with postgraduate qualifications in physics in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitarra, Silvana; Niebeskikwiat, Dario; Paredes, Cecilia; Ayala, Paola

    2013-03-01

    Although the social reality in Ecuador is similar to that in most Latin American countries, support for research in fundamental and applied sciences has gained in importance in the last few years. An Ecuadorian team participated for the first time in the IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2005, when no woman in the country had yet earned a postgraduate degree. By the 2011 ICWIP Conference, the number of women with PhD degrees had increased five times, whereas the trend for men remained the same. This paper gives an overview on how the Ecuadorian research community has started to work together on a national initiative to improve the human and infrastructure capacity to develop science and technology, with support from the government and the science-related ministries.

  3. Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate harbouring the mcr-1 gene in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Paredes, D; Barba, P; Zurita, J

    2016-10-01

    Colistin resistance mediated by the mcr-1 gene has been reported worldwide, but to date not from the Andean region, South America. We report the first clinical isolate of Escherichia coli harbouring the mcr-1 gene in Ecuador. The strain was isolated from peritoneal fluid from a 14-year-old male with acute appendicitis, and subjected to molecular analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of colistin for the strain was 8 mg/ml and it was susceptible to carbapenems but resistant to tigecycline. The strain harboured mcr-1 and bla CTX-M-55 genes and was of sequence type 609. The recognition of an apparently commensal strain of E. coli harbouring mcr-1 serves as an alert to the presence in the region of this recently described resistance mechanism to one of the last line of drugs available for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  4. Severe Pleuropulmonary Paragonimiasis Caused by Paragonimus mexicanus Treated as Tuberculosis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Macias, Rubén; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2017-01-11

    A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Does money matter? The effects of cash transfers on child development in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research indicates that child development is sensitive to early-life environments, so that poor children are at higher risk for poor cognitive and behavioral outcomes. These developmental outcomes are important determinants of success in adulthood. Yet, remarkably little is known about whether poverty-alleviation programs improve children's developmental outcomes. We examine how a government-run cash transfer program for poor mothers in rural Ecuador influenced the development of young children. Random assignment at the parish level is used to identify program effects. Our data include a set of measures of cognitive ability that are not typically included in experimental or quasi-experimental studies of the impact of cash transfers on child well-being, as well as a set of physical health measures that may be related to developmental outcomes. The cash transfer program had positive, although modest, effects on the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development of the poorest children in our sample.

  6. Integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method into a family planning program in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wade, K B; Sevilla, F; Labbok, M H

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a 12-month implementation study documenting the process of integrating the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) into a multiple-method family planning service-delivery organization, the Céntro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF), in Ecuador. LAM was introduced as a family planning option in four CEMOPLAF clinics. LAM was accepted by 133 breastfeeding women during the program's first five months, representing about one-third of postpartum clients. Seventy-three percent of LAM acceptors were new to any family planning method. Follow-up interviews with a systematic sample of 67 LAM users revealed that the method was generally used correctly. Three pregnancies were reported, none by women who were following LAM as recommended. Service providers' knowledge of LAM resulted in earlier IUD insertions among breastfeeding women. Relationships with other maternal and child health organizations and programs were also established.

  7. Depth-dependent rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Acero, Wilson; Ponce, Gabriela; Vásconez, Freddy; Arrais, Santiago; Ruiz, Mario; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pedraza García, Patricia; Dionicio, Viviana; Chamorro, Orlando; Maeda, Yuta; Nakano, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    A large earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred on 16 April 2016 within the source region of the 1906 earthquake in the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone. The 1906 event has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942, 1958, and 1979 in this subduction. Our seismic analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks correlated with patches of high interplate coupling strength and was similar to those of the 1942 earthquake and its aftershocks, suggesting that the 2016 and 1942 earthquakes ruptured the same asperity. Our analysis of tsunami waveforms of the 1906 event indicated Mw around 8.4 and showed that large slip occurred near the trench off the source regions of the above three historical and the 2016 earthquakes, suggesting that a depth-dependent complex rupture mode exists along this subduction zone.

  8. Spatio-temporal clusters of incident human brucellosis cases in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ron, Lenin; Benitez, Washington; Speybroeck, Niko; Ron, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether variations in the incidence of reported cases of human brucellosis in Ecuador were clustered in space and time. In addition, the effects of cattle and small ruminant population density and other socio-economic factors on the incidence were investigated. Significant space-time clusters were found in the northern and southern highlands and parts of Ecuadorian Amazonia. Customs of people, cattle, goat and sheep population density appeared to influence the incidence of brucellosis. In this study, the incidence of reported cases of human brucellosis was found to be higher in the highlands (sierra) and in municipalities near Peru and Colombia. The results of this study highlight the need for prevention and control measures aimed at abating the incidence of brucellosis among livestock and humans.

  9. Sumakuru, a deeply-diverging new genus of lyssomanine jumping spiders from Ecuador (Araneae: Salticidae)

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Wayne P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lyssomanine jumping spider genus Sumakuru gen. n. is here described for Sumakuru bigal sp. n., from the Bigal River Biological Reserve in Ecuador. Known from a single male, the embolus of the palp takes the form of a smoothly arching curve, and appears fully mobile, being connected to the tegulum by a thin sclerite and a twisted hematodocha. Data from four gene regions (28S, 16SND1, CO1, wingless) indicate that Sumakuru is the sister group to all other sampled lyssomanines, diverging deeply on the stem lineage of the clade of other known lyssomanines. Unlike previous molecular results, the sampled species of Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845 are supported as monophyletic, with Chinoscopus Simon, 1900 as the sister to Lyssomanes. PMID:27667933

  10. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.

  11. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  12. [Macrophytes from some high Andean lakes of Ecuador and their low potential as bioindicators of eutrophication].

    PubMed

    Kiersch, Benjamin; Mühleck, Ralf; Gunkel, Günter

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of macrophyte in three high Andean lakes of Ecuador, Lago San Pablo, Laguna La Mica and Lago Cuicocha was recorded in 5-9 transects per lake. The first two lakes are eutrophic, the third is an extremely oligotrophic caldera lake. The dominant species in eutrophic lakes are Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum quitense, Polamogeton illinoensis, P. striatus and Elodea matthewsii. In the oligotrophic lake P. pectinatus, P. illinoensis, and the Characeae Chara rusbyana, Ch. globularis and Nitella acuminata occur. The maximum depth of the macrophyte's presence can be used as an indicator of the trophic state, ranging from about 5 m in Mica to 35 m in Cuicocha. The bioindication value of the macrophyte species in these high Andean lakes is low, because few species occur and because some of them are not specific to environmental conditions.

  13. Marine debris: Implications for conservation of rocky reefs in Manabi, Ecuador (Se Pacific Coast).

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Pico, Juan; Valle, David Mero-Del; Castillo-Ruperti, Ricardo; Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara

    2016-08-15

    Marine debris (MD) pollution is a problem of global concern because of its impact on marine ecosystems. The current extent of this problem and its implications concerning reef conservation are unknown in Ecuador. The composition and distribution of submerged MD was assessed on two reefs using underwater surveys of geomorphological areas: crest, slope and bottom. MD items were classified according to source and use. Plastic-derived debris represents >90% of total MD found on the reefs, principally composed by plastic containers and nets. 63% of the MD was associated to fishing activities. The composition showed differences between sites and geomorphological areas, monofilament nets were found on the crests, multifilament lines on the slopes and plastic containers on the bottom. MD disposal might be a result of the influx of visitors and fishing activities. Distribution is related to bottom type, level of boating/fishing activity and benthic features.

  14. An approximately 15,000-year record of El Nino-driven alluviation in southwestern ecuador

    PubMed

    Rodbell; Seltzer; Anderson; Abbott; Enfield; Newman

    1999-01-22

    Debris flows have deposited inorganic laminae in an alpine lake that is 75 kilometers east of the Pacific Ocean, in Ecuador. These storm-induced events were dated by radiocarbon, and the age of laminae that are less than 200 years old matches the historic record of El Nino events. From about 15,000 to about 7000 calendar years before the present, the periodicity of clastic deposition is greater than or equal to 15 years; thereafter, there is a progressive increase in frequency to periodicities of 2 to 8.5 years. This is the modern El Nino periodicity, which was established about 5000 calendar years before the present. This may reflect the onset of a steeper zonal sea surface temperature gradient, which was driven by enhanced trade winds.

  15. Ethnicity, development and gender: Tsáchila indigenous women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Sarah; Pequeño, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous populations have become the subjects and agents of development in national and international multicultural policy that acknowledges poverty among indigenous peoples and their historic marginalization from power over development. Although the impact of these legal and programmatic efforts is growing, one persistent axis of disadvantage, male–female difference, is rarely taken into account in ethno-development policy and practice. This article argues that assumptions that inform policy related to indigenous women fail to engage with indigenous women's development concerns. The institutional separation between gender and development policy (GAD) and multiculturalism means that provisions for gender in multicultural policies are inadequate, and ethnic rights in GAD policies are invisible. Drawing on post-colonial feminism, the paper examines ethnicity and gender as interlocking systems that structure indigenous women's development experiences. These arguments are illustrated in relation to the case of the Tsáchila ethno-cultural group in the South American country of Ecuador.

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Ecuador: A Pilot Study in Quito.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Laura M S; Groot, Norbert A; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P; Delfos, Martine F

    2015-12-01

    This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or its delegate. Results show an extremely low prevalence of 0.11 % of pupils with any ASD diagnosis; another 0.21 % were suspected to have ASD, but were without a diagnosis. This low prevalence suggests that children and adolescents with ASD are not included in regular education in Quito. These results are discussed in the light of low diagnostic identification of ASD and low inclusion tolerance.

  17. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador: Results of the SABE survey.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H; Gavilanez, Enrique Lopez

    2017-04-11

    To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance among non-diabetic participants. The National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates were used to examine the independent association of metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance in non-diabetic older adults. Of 2298 participants with a mean age of 71.6 (SD 8.1) years, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 66.0% (95% CI, 62.6%, 69.3%) in women and 47.1% (95% CI, 43.2%, 50.9) in men. However, even higher prevalence rates were seen among literate individuals, residents from urban areas of the coastal and Andes Mountains region, obese subjects, those diagnosed with diabetes, and participants with≥2 comorbidities. Overall, abdominal obesity followed by elevated blood pressure were the metabolic syndrome components more prevalent and associated with insulin resistance among older Ecuadorians. Moreover, after adjustment for covariates, older adults defined as having metabolic syndrome had a 3-fold higher odds of having insulin resistance as compared with those without. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of lifestyle and behavioral modification targeting older adults at increased risk for this cardio metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Luiz Max Fagundes; Santos, Leonardo Bacelar Lima; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Castro Silveira, Waldemir

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. In Ecuador, FMDV is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. To unravel the tempo and mode of FMDV spread within the country we conducted a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) to model the diffusion of FMDV between Ecuadorian provinces. We implement this framework through Markov chain Monte Carlo available in the BEAST package to study 90 FMDV serotype O isolates from 17 provinces in the period 2002-2010. The Bayesian approach also allowed us to test hypotheses on the mechanisms of viral spread by incorporating environmental and epidemiological data in our prior distributions and perform Bayesian model selection. Our analyses suggest an intense flow of viral strains throughout the country that is possibly coupled to animal movements and ecological factors, since most of inferred viral spread routes were in Coast and Highland regions. Moreover, our results suggest that both short- and long-range spread occur within Ecuador. The province of Esmeraldas, in the border with Colombia and where most animal commerce is done, was found to be the most probable origin of the circulating strains, pointing to a transboundary behavior of FMDV in South America. These findings suggest that uncontrolled animal movements can create a favorable environment for FMDV maintenance and pose a serious threat to control programmes. Also, we show that phylogeographic modeling can be a powerful tool in unraveling the spatial dynamics of viruses and potentially in controlling the spread of these pathogens.

  19. Sex, Subdivision, and Domestic Dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineage I in Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Costales, Jaime A.; Miles, Michael A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population. Conclusions/Significance These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease

  20. Land-use induced dynamics of C, N and P in mountain soils of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, U.; Potthast, K.; Makeschin, F.

    2009-04-01

    The mountain rainforest region in South Ecuador is characterised by sites subjected to forest clearing by slash burn for pasture production. Repeated burning of pastures is a common management practice in South Ecuador. With ongoing pasture age bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) outcompetes the pasture grass (Setaria sphacelata), pastures are abandoned and a vegetation succession develops. Along a land-use gradient (natural forest, young and old pasture, abandoned pasture with successional vegetation) the dynamics of C, N and P in the mountain soils were investigated. The study sites were located close to the "Estacion Científica San Francisco", about halfway between the province capitals Loja and Zamora, in the Cordillera Real, an eastern range of the South Ecuadorian Andes at about 2000 m above sea level. The mean annual air temperature is 15.3°C with an average annual rainfall of 2176 mm. The land-use change induced an increase of total P in the top soil (0-30 cm) of young and old pastures. An increase in SOC stocks in the top soil of the old pasture was combined with an increase in the proportion of NaOH extractable organic P. In the young pasture soil the mineralization of SOC and the amounts of microbial biomass C, N and P were highest. In 0-5 cm depth gross N mineralization and gross NH4 consumption rates were significantly higher in the young pasture compared to forest and abandoned pasture. Thus, the initial increase in microbial activity after forest to pasture conversion seems to slow down with increasing pasture age. Burning on the abandoned pasture site induced a short-term and short-lived increase in gross N mineralization rates. First results indicate that the land-use induced changes in mineralization rates were connected with changes in the microbial community structure.

  1. Structural styles of subandean fold and thrust belt of Peru and Southern Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Along-strike variations in structural styles of the east-verging Subandean fold and thrust belt (SAFTB) in Peru and southern Ecuador are controlled by the presence or absence of thick Late Permian to Jurassic evaporite sequences rather than changes in subducting plate geometries as has been suggested previously for the Andes. Salt distribution and thickness have not only controlled the styles and segmentation along the SAFTB but also have been important factors in strike variations across the belt. The southern Ecuador SAFTB lacks significant evaporite units and is characterized by thick-skinned deformation that encompasses high-angle reverse faults, and broad, low-amplitude folds. The style changes to thin-skinned deformation near 2S lat. and it is well illustrated in the Santiago and Huallaga basins where thick evaporite units are present. This segment is characterized by a major decollement on the salt, grabens formed by salt withdrawal from reactivation of thrust faults as listric normal faults, salt piercement at or near synclinal axes, and periclines and asymmetric folds. The frontal thrust of this thin-skinned segment consists of box, overturned and upright folds above shallow salt domes, and by a major backthrust at the mountain front. This segment extends to 1030'S lat., near Oxapampa, Peru, where the thin-skinned SAFTB is narrow and changes across strike to a thick-skinned deformation as the evaporite units thin and disappear eastward. South of 1030'S lat., a new thick-skinned deformation segment is present in southern Peru and characterizes most of the deformation in the SAFTB of the Ucayali and Madre De Dios basins.

  2. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Mario J.; Villacis, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A.; Moncayo, Ana L.; Baus, Esteban G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. Conclusions/Significance To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained

  3. Characterization of pesticide exposure in a sample of pregnant women in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Handal, Alexis J.; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Methods Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 non-agricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites (ethylene thiourea [ETU] and propylene thiourea [PTU]), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy], malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). Results We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, though the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. Conclusions The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  4. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Mario J; Villacis, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A; Moncayo, Ana L; Baus, Esteban G

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is coupled with

  5. Intralesional Infiltration with Meglumine Antimoniate for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis Recidiva Cutis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Paredes, Yolanda; Puebla, Edison; Flores, Jessica; Loor, Richard; Padilla, José

    2017-09-05

    Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), administered intramuscularly for 21 continuous days is the recommended treatment of leishmaniases in Ecuador. However, because of its toxicity and requirement for intramuscular injections, treatment is frequently abandoned before completion. In addition, therapeutic failure and reactivation are not uncommon. Here we evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA administered intralesionally (IL) in leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC). LRC is a special clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis, characterized by reactivation at the edges of a primary cured lesion, presenting with active papules around the scar. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. All were diagnosed parasitologically by one of three diagnostic methods (smear, culture, and Leishmanin skin test). Each patient received MA intralesionally weekly for 4 weeks. Each papule was infiltrated until complete saturation. On average, patients received 1 mL of MA per administration. The criterion of cure was the complete resolution of the papules. Follow up was performed at 30, 90, and 180 days after treatment. At day 30 after treatment, 19 (90.5%) of 21 patients were clinically cured. The two patients, who did not heal by the fourth application, were cured on the seventh and eighth dose, achieving a clinical cure of 100% without subsequent reactivation. Mild to moderate local pain during infiltration was the only adverse reaction experienced by 81% of patients. In one case, subsequent infiltrations were discontinued because of a local allergic reaction. Complete compliance of patients to treatment and the small volume of drug administered make this method of administering MA an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative. Consequently, IL could replace intramuscular administration in the treatment of LRC in Ecuador.

  6. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries—Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi—as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers. PMID:25798068

  7. Cost-effectiveness of routine and campaign vaccination strategies in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, D. S.; Robertson, R. L.; Cameron, C. S.; Saturno, P.; Pollack, M.; Manceau, J.; Martínez, P.; Meissner, P.; Perrone, J.

    1989-01-01

    A national household coverage survey of 3697 Ecuadorean children, carried out in July 1986, provided an opportunity for a cost-effectiveness analysis of (1) routine vaccination services based in fixed facilities and (2) mass immunization campaigns. A major purpose of the campaigns was to complement the routine services and to accelerate immunization activities. Based on the coverage survey, the Program for Reduction of Maternal and Childhood Illness (PREMI) and earlier campaigns increased the proportion of children under 5 years who were fully vaccinated from 43% to 64%. In one year, the PREMI campaign was responsible for fully vaccinating 11% of children under one year, 21% of 1-2-year-old children, and 13% of all children under 5 years. The campaign also helped ensure that vaccinations were completed when children were still very young and at greatest risk. The average cost per vaccination dose (in 1985 US$ prices) was approximately $0.29 for fixed facilities and $0.83 for the PREMI campaign. Total national costs were $675,000 and $1,665,000 for routine and campaign services respectively. The cost per fully vaccinated child (FVC) was $4.39 for routine vaccination services and $8.60 for the campaign. The cost per death averted was about $1900 for routine vaccination services, $4200 for the PREMI campaign, and $3200 for the combined programme. Because of Ecuador's lower mortality rates, the costs per death averted in Ecuador from both vaccination strategies are not as low as those from studies of vaccinations in Africa. The campaigns, though less cost-effective than routine services, significantly improved the vaccination coverage of younger children who had been missed by the routine services. The costs per FVC of both the campaign and the routine services compare favourably with such programmes in other countries. PMID:2517411

  8. Identification of the ground deformation associated with the earthquake of April 16 Pedernales - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, A. P.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M., Sr.; Espín, P.; Le Pennec, J. L.; Maria Jose, H.; Hollingsworth, J.; Champenois, J.; Aguilar, J.

    2016-12-01

    On April 16, 2016 a subduction seismic event (Mw 7.8) occurred near the city of Pedernales in Ecuador. This event was widely felt throughout the Ecuadorian territory. Due to the location and superficial damages of the event, the Instituto Geofisico de Quito (IG EPN), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and Geology Department of EPN immediately deployed a tectonic team to evaluate damages along the coastal region induced by this event. This work presents a detailed report of the tectonic features reactivated in the upper plate, which can be directly linked to the occurrence of the 20km deep subduction event. In this study, we review the tectonics of the region and identify the directions of the main reactivated features such as induced lateral spreading and landslides. Evidence for liquefaction will also be presented. Observations of coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the 2016 Mw = 7.8 Pedernales earthquake in Ecuador should provide constraints on the spatial heterogeneities of frictional properties along the subduction megathrust. We observed that the bulk of coseismic compressive deformation in the upper plate occurs at both ends of the identified rupture zone near Pedernales and Canoa. Additional compressional features and vertical displacements greater than 40 cm are mapped in Manta and Bahía de Caraquez, southward from the ruptured region. Given the observations, barrier effects may be attributed to locked patches and reactivated crustal faults. However, no large scale uplift has been observed along the coastline, suggesting that coseismic and postseismic deformation have not resulted in permanent strain in the forearc region.

  9. Abnormal high seismic moment release rate along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J. M.; Vallee, M.; Yepes, H. A.; Sladen, A.; Jarrin, P.; Rolandone, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone hosted a large seismic sequence that started with the great 1906 Mw8.8 earthquake, whose rupture area was then reactivated by large earthquakes with magnitude Mw 7.7-8.2. Unlike most subduction zones where the seismic budgets relies on historical records of past ruptures, suffering from large uncertainties, every event of the Ecuador-Colombia sequence since 1906 benefits from intensity, tsunami studies and global seismological records that enabled an epicenter location, fault parameters, aftershocks location and a moment magnitude to be derived. The 2016 earthquake further offers an opportunity to quantify the budgets of seismic moment versus plate motion and strain accumulation rates reliably estimated from GPS. The 2016 earthquake occurred in the same area as the 1942 event that had a similar size. In order to evaluate the level of overlap between the 1942 and 2016 ruptures, we carefully review every available observation. Despite the uncertainties inherent to the scarcity of records in 1942, we conclude to a significant overlap between the 2016 and 1942 earthquake slip distributions, suggesting the successive rupture of the same asperity. With co-seismic slip exceeding 6 m during the 2016 rupture, we find that the maximum slip largely overshoots the slip deficit accumulated since 1942 that is at most 3.2 m. Furthermore, regardless whether they broke the same asperity, both the 1942 and 2016 earthquakes had a moment exceeding significantly the moment accumulated since the previous earthquake. This characteristic is also shared by the Mw 7.7 1958 and Mw 8.2 1979 earthquakes, which had a seismic moment much larger than expected from the moment deficit accumulated from plate motion since 1906.These results have implications on the general description of the earthquake cycle but also call for a reappraisal seismic hazard assessment in the region on the short-term.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in elderly living in marginal peri-urban communities in Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Estrella, Bertha; Tucker, Katherine L.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Narvaez, Ximena; Sempértegui, Mercy; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Noel, Sabrina E.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Selhub, Jacob; Meydani, Simin N.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of Latin American population > 60 y is expected to double during the next few decades. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, little is known about MetS in Latin America in general, and in Ecuador in particular. Objective To examine the prevalence of MetS and its association with blood micronutrient, homocysteine (tHcy) and CRP concentrations in elderly living in a low-income urban area. Design We performed a cross-sectional study. MetS, using the International Diabetes Federation definition, dietary intake and plasma micronutrient, CRP and tHcy concentrations were assessed. Subjects 352 elderly (≥65 y) Setting Quito, Ecuador. Results MetS was prevalent (40 %)—considerably more so among women (81%) than men (19%) (X2 = 32.6, P<0.0001). Further, 53 % of those without MetS exhibited two or more of its components. Micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent including those of vitamin C, zinc, B12, and folate. Vitamin C and E concentrations were inversely (OR= 0.78, CI = 0.71 – 0.86; OR= 0.16, CI =0.03 – 0.81, respectively), and CRP (OR=1.79, CI =1.04 – 3.06) was positively associated with MetS. Conclusions The co-existence of MetS with micronutrient deficiencies suggests that elderly Ecuadorians suffer from the double burden of diseases that is increasingly observed in less-developed countries. More research is needed to determine causal factors, but results presented suggest that these older adults would benefit from interventions to reduce the risk factors for MetS, in particular, higher consumption of micronutrient-rich foods. PMID:20955641

  11. Short-Term Effects on Family Communication and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Familias Unidas in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Molleda, Lourdes; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Poma, Sofia; Terán, Ana M Quevedo; Tamayo, Cecilia Condo; Bahamon, Monica; Tapia, Maria I; Velázquez, Maria R; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-12-16

    Familias Unidas, a Hispanic/Latino-specific, parent-centered intervention, found to be efficacious in improving family functioning and reducing externalizing behaviors among youth in the USA, was recently adapted and tested for use in Ecuador. This study examined the short-term efficacy of Familias Unidas in Ecuador on parent-adolescent communication, parental monitoring of peers, and youth conduct problems. Two hundred thirty-nine youths (ages 12-14 years) and their primary care givers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed pre- and post-intervention. There was a significant difference between Familias Unidas and Community Practice in conduct problems at 3 months (standardized β = -.101, p = .001, effect size = .262). A significant indirect intervention effect was also detected, indicating that Familias Unidas predicted conduct problems at 3 months through parent-adolescent communication at 3 months (standardized β = -.036, p = .016, CI 95% [-.066, -.007], effect size = .265). Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing conduct problems through improved parent-adolescent communication, relative to Community Practice. Future assessments will determine whether Familias Unidas also has an impact on substance use and sexual risk behaviors at later time points, as demonstrated in past Familias Unidas trials. The short-term effects of the intervention, family engagement, and facilitator skill in the Ecuadorian adaptation of Familias Unidas are promising. This study implies that an intervention developed for Hispanics/Latinos in the USA and culturally adapted and implemented for use by Hispanics/Latinos in a Latin American country can be efficacious in improving family functioning and reducing youth conduct problems.

  12. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  13. Volcanic evolution in the Galápagos: The dissected shield of Volcan Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Dennis; White, William M.; Albarede, Francis; Harpp, Karen; Reynolds, Robert; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Kurz, Mark D.

    2002-10-01

    Volcan Ecuador, a young, active shield volcano at the northwest tip of Isabela Island, Galápagos, experienced at least one sector collapse event that removed its western half. The compositions of lavas exposed in the old caldera wall and fault scarps dissecting the outer shield together with young post-collapse lavas provide insights into the history of this volcano. 40Ar/39Ar and cosmogenic 3He dating reveal that sector collapse occurred at <100 Ka. Prior to sector collapse most magma erupted from circumferential dikes that fed the summit carapace and other dikes that fed vents on the caldera floor. Almost all of the erupted magmas cooled and underwent fractional crystallization in the lower crust or upper mantle, where clinopyroxene crystallization dominated. Magmas then rose to a small (˜0.1 km3), steady state, subcaldera magma chamber where plagioclase, along with lesser amounts of olivine and clinopyroxene, crystallized. Sector collapse perturbed the plumbing system in a way that now allows some magmas, particularly those erupted on the East Rift, to bypass the magma chamber. Sector collapse also opened new pathways to the surface that enabled magma to erupt at low elevation, effectively cutting the magma supply to the summit. The paucity of summit eruptions over the past 100,000 years accounts for the old, eroded appearance of the shield. Subtle variations in isotopic and trace element composition occurred over the past 100,000 years, with the net change being toward slightly more depleted compositions. These variations most likely reflect small-scale (<5 km) heterogeneity superimposed on more regular regional patterns of mantle composition beneath the Galápagos. Overall, however, the compositional variation at Volcan Ecuador has been minimal, suggesting that, unlike Hawaii, the compositions of magmas do not substantially change while the volcano is in its shield-building phase.

  14. Characterization of Pesticide Exposure in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Handal, Alexis J; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 nonagricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphatedialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites [ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU)], 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, although the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region.

  15. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F; Gonzales, Silvio V; Velez, Lenin N; Guevara, Angel G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador.

  16. Sending-country violence and receiving-country discrimination: effects on the health of Colombian refugees in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos U; Noboa, Hugo; Betancourt, Óscar

    2014-02-01

    This study explored factors affecting the health and well being of recent refugees from Colombia in Ecuador. Data collection focused on how sending-country violence and structural violence in a new environment affect immigrant health vulnerability and risk behaviors. A qualitative approach included ethnographic observation, media content analysis, focus groups, and individual interviews with refugees (N = 137). The focus groups (5) provided perspectives on the research domains by sex workers; drug users; male and female refugees; and service providers. Social and economic marginalization are impacting the health and well being of this growing refugee population. Data illustrate how stigma and discrimination affect food and housing security, employment and health services, and shape vulnerabilities and health risks in a new receiving environment. Widespread discrimination in Ecuador reflects fears, misunderstanding, and stereotypes about Colombian refugees. For this displaced population, the sequelae of violence, combined with survival needs and lack of support and protections, shape new risks to health and well-being.

  17. Zika Virus and Chikungunya Virus CoInfections: A Series of Three Cases from a Single Center in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Hector; Waggoner, Jesse J; Almeida, Cristina; Rivera, Lisette; Benjamin, Juan Quintana; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-10-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cocirculate throughout much of the tropical Western Hemisphere; however, few cases of coinfection with these two pathogens have been reported. Herein, we describe three cases of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfection detected at a single center in Ecuador: a patient who developed symptoms on postoperative day 5 from an orthopedic procedure, a woman who had traveled to Ecuador for fertility treatment, and a woman who was admitted for Guillain-Barré syndrome and had ZIKV and CHIKV detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. All cases were diagnosed using a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and ZIKV viremia was detected as late as 16 days after symptom onset. These cases demonstrate the varied clinical presentation of ZIKV-CHIKV coinfections as well as the importance of multiplexed arboviral testing for these pathogens. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Description of plastic remains found in the stomach contents of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas landed in Ecuador during 2014.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Luis, Rigoberto

    2016-12-15

    Squids are active and opportunistic predators that feed on a wide range of prey. Their active movements in the water column and their voracity promote a high consumption of food. In the pelagic environment off Ecuador, marine pollution is characterized by plastic debris with a mainland origin, including plastics trash of fishing gears. The objective of this work was to describe the presence of plastic remains in the stomach contents of Dosidicus gigas caught off the coast of Ecuador. Results demonstrated that 12% of the stomachs contained plastic remains. These plastics were identified as multifilament of polyethylene lines and polyvinyl chloride remains. Findings of this work could be related to an increase in the discharge of solid materials in the water column, increasing the probability to be ingested by the jumbo squid.

  19. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  20. Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2006. Ecuador: The Continuing Challenge of Democratic Consolidation and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    serious economic “meltdown” in 1999—causing serious social and political disruption. The banking system was intervened by the government, bank...personal power of Leon Febres Cordero, historic leader of the Social Christian Party and President from 1984 to 1988, looms large. He wields tremendous...Ecuador: Stability, Growth, and Social Equity (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2002). See especially 19-22. 3. Analisis Semanal, October 14, 2005

  1. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new view for the geodynamics of Ecuador: Implication in seismogenic source definition and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, Hugo; Audin, Laurence; Alvarado, Alexandra; Beauval, Céline; Aguilar, Jorge; Font, Yvonne; Cotton, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    A new view of Ecuador's complex geodynamics has been developed in the course of modeling seismic source zones for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. This study focuses on two aspects of the plates' interaction at a continental scale: (a) age-related differences in rheology between Farallon and Nazca plates—marked by the Grijalva rifted margin and its inland projection—as they subduct underneath central Ecuador, and (b) the rapidly changing convergence obliquity resulting from the convex shape of the South American northwestern continental margin. Both conditions satisfactorily explain several characteristics of the observed seismicity and of the interseismic coupling. Intermediate-depth seismicity reveals a severe flexure in the Farallon slab as it dips and contorts at depth, originating the El Puyo seismic cluster. The two slabs position and geometry below continental Ecuador also correlate with surface expressions observable in the local and regional geology and tectonics. The interseismic coupling is weak and shallow south of the Grijalva rifted margin and increases northward, with a heterogeneous pattern locally associated to the Carnegie ridge subduction. High convergence obliquity is responsible for the North Andean Block northeastward movement along localized fault systems. The Cosanga and Pallatanga fault segments of the North Andean Block-South American boundary concentrate most of the seismic moment release in continental Ecuador. Other inner block faults located along the western border of the inter-Andean Depression also show a high rate of moderate-size earthquake production. Finally, a total of 19 seismic source zones were modeled in accordance with the proposed geodynamic and neotectonic scheme.

  3. Malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the northern coast of Ecuador: high prevalence of asymptomatic infections.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Fabián E; Arévalo-Cortés, Andrea; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Vallejo, Andrés F; Castellanos, Angélica; Poveda-Loayza, Andrea C; Gutierrez, Juan B; Alvarez, Alvaro; Yan, Yi Heng; Benavides, Yoldy; Castro, Luis Enrique; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-07-26

    The recent scale-up in malaria control measures in Latin America has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of reported cases in several countries including Ecuador, where it presented a low malaria incidence in recent years (558 reported cases in 2015) with occasional outbreaks of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the coastal and Amazonian regions. This success in malaria control in recent years has led Ecuador to transition its malaria policy from control to elimination. This study evaluated the general knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) about malaria, as well as its prevalence in four communities of an endemic area in northwest Ecuador. A total of 258 interviews to assess KAP in the community indicated that most people in the study area have a basic knowledge about the disease but did not use to contribute to its control. Six hundred and forty-eight blood samples were collected and analysed by thick blood smear and real-time PCR. In addition, the distribution of the infections was mapped in the study communities. Although, no parasites were found by microscopy, by PCR the total malaria prevalence was 7.5% (6.9% P. vivax and 0.6% P. falciparum), much higher than expected and comparable to that reported in endemic areas of neighbouring countries with higher malaria transmission. Serology using ELISA and immunofluorescence indicated 27% respondents for P. vivax and 22% respondents for P. falciparum. Results suggest that despite a great malaria reduction in Ecuador, transition from control to elimination would demand further improvement in malaria diagnostics, including active case detection to identify and treat parasite asymptomatic carriers, as well as community participation in its elimination.

  4. High incidence of Zika virus infection detected in plasma and cervical cytology specimens from pregnant women in Guayaquil, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Hector; Waggoner, Jesse; León, Karina; Pinsky, Benjamin; Vera, Ketty; Schettino, Marissa; Rivera, Lisette; Landivar, José; Granda, María; Lee, Angela; Mor, Gil

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has been linked to severe birth defects, and the epidemiologic situation of the ZIKV epidemic in Ecuador is poorly understood. Guayaquil, Ecuador, has a tropical climate and experiences frequent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus, and in December 2015, ZIKV was identified. Given the well-documented effects of ZIKV in pregnancy, including microcephaly, we tested for the presence of ZIKV in both plasma and cervical cytology of pregnant women. We report the identification of a population of pregnant women with a high incidence of ZIKV infection detected in the plasma and lower reproductive tract. A case-control study was performed to determine the incidence of ZIKV infection among low-income, pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery compared to matched controls. Plasma and cervical cytology specimens were tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR. Fifty-nine pregnant women were enrolled. The incidence of ZIKV was 54% (32/59) overall: 18/31 (58.1%) in cases and 14/28 (50.0%) in controls. ZIKV detection in plasma and cervical cytology specimens demonstrated good agreement. Overall, outcomes for neonates born to ZIKV-positive and ZIKV-negative mothers were similar. However, two neonates were born with microcephaly to case mothers who were ZIKV positive. We report a high incidence of ZIKV infection (54%) in a distinctive population in Guayaquil, Ecuador. We identify ZIKV in cervical samples that correlates with ZIKV in the plasma. These data raise concerns regarding the breadth of the ZIKV epidemic in Ecuador and demonstrate the utility of cervical cytology specimens for ZIKV testing.

  5. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology.

  6. First report of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Trematoda: Digenea) in Machachi, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio, Angel; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho de

    2005-11-01

    We report the first finding of Lymnaea cousini naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica in Ecuador. A sample of 70 snails was collected in April 2005 from a wetland located in a valley at approximately 3000 m a.s.l., near the locality of Machachi, Pichincha Province. The prevalence of natural infection in L. cousini was 31.43%, which is the highest value ever recorded for naturally infected lymnaeid species.

  7. Treatment of snake bites by Bothrops species and Lachesis muta in Ecuador: laboratory screening of candidate antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Theakston, R D; Laing, G D; Fielding, C M; Lascano, A F; Touzet, J M; Vallejo, F; Guderian, R H; Nelson, S J; Wüster, W; Richards, A M

    1995-01-01

    Bothrops xanthogrammus/asper, B. atrox and Lachesis muta are probably responsible for most cases of severe envenoming in Ecuador. In recent years, the most widely used antivenom ('Myn' Ronti, imported from Mexico) has proved clinically ineffective. There is an urgent need to identify an effective alternative for clinical testing. Five antivenoms with activity against Bothrops venoms were compared using standard World Health Organization rodent and in vitro assays: (i) 'Myn', Ronti Mexico SA ('B. atrox', 'Crotalus terrificus'), (ii) Instituto Butantan (Bothrops polyvalent, Brazil), (iii) Instituto Nacional de Hygiene y Medicina Tropical (Bothrops polyvalent, Ecuador), (iv) Instituto Nacional de Salud (B. asper, C. durissus and Lachesis muta, Colombia), and (v) Laboratorios Probiol (Bothrops, Lachesis and Crotalus, Colombia). The venoms against which these antivenoms were tested were Ecuadorian B. atrox, B. asper and B. xanthogrammus. Brazilian antivenom proved to be the most effective, followed by the Ecudorian and Colombian antivenoms. Mexican antivenom was completely ineffective in neutralizing the lethal effects of Ecuadorian Bothrops venoms. Monospecific Brazilian L. muta antivenom (Instituto Butantan) proved effective against Ecuadorian L. muta venom, but the Colombian polyspecific antivenoms did not. Clinical trials of Brazilian and Ecuadorian antivenoms are planned in the Amazon region of Ecuador in the near future.

  8. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of carbetocin for the prevention of hemorrhage following cesarean delivery in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Trujillo, Aquiles Rodrigo; Lucio-Romero, Ruth Alicia; Bermúdez-Gallegos, Kerlly

    2017-09-01

    To compare the cost of carbetocin with that of oxytocin for the prevention and management of hemorrhage following cesarean delivery in Ecuador. We developed a decision tree based cost-effectiveness model to compare carbetocin with oxytocin in the prevention of hemorrhage following cesarean delivery in Ecuador. Our model was run from a third party payer perspective and was validated by local experts in the field. The efficacy of the interventions was determined based on a systematic review of the literature. Direct costs were calculated based on current National Health Service price lists and retail price. Since the period covered by the analysis was 1 year, costs and health effects were not discounted. The difference in costs between the interventions was US$16.26, with a difference in effectiveness of 0.0067 disability adjusted life years averted. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for carbetocin compared with oxytocin for prevention of hemorrhage following cesarean delivery was US$2432.89 per disability adjusted life year averted. Carbetocin is as efficacious and safe as oxytocin for primary prevention of hemorrhage in cesarean delivery in Ecuador. It is highly cost effective for reducing the need for additional uterotonic drugs in both emergency and elective cesarean delivery.

  9. Assessment of the in vitro bioactive properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native ecological niches of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Ana B; Ulcuango, Mario; Yépez, Lucía; Tenea, Gabriela N

    Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential. The isolates grew at 15°C and 45°C, survived at a pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 in the presence of 0.3% bile (>90%) and grew under sodium chloride conditions. All selected isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime and some showed resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. Moreover, the agar well diffusion assay showed that the supernatant of each strain at pH 3.0 and pH 4.0, but not at pH 7.0 exhibited increased antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >15mm) against two foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the antagonistic activity against two foodborne pathogens and the probiotic in vitro potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native biota of Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Bats, Trypanosomes, and Triatomines in Ecuador: New Insights into the Diversity, Transmission, and Origins of Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, C. Miguel; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Tapia, Elicio E.; Lobos, Simón E.; Zurita, Alejandra P.; Aguirre-Villacís, Fernanda; MacDonald, Amber; Villacís, Anita G.; Lima, Luciana; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Perkins, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The generalist parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has two phylogenetic lineages associated almost exclusively with bats—Trypanosoma cruzi Tcbat and the subspecies T. c. marinkellei. We present new information on the genetic variation, geographic distribution, host associations, and potential vectors of these lineages. We conducted field surveys of bats and triatomines in southern Ecuador, a country endemic for Chagas disease, and screened for trypanosomes by microscopy and PCR. We identified parasites at species and genotype levels through phylogenetic approaches based on 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes and conducted a comparison of nucleotide diversity of the cytb gene. We document for the first time T. cruzi Tcbat and T. c. marinkellei in Ecuador, expanding their distribution in South America to the western side of the Andes. In addition, we found the triatomines Cavernicola pilosa and Triatoma dispar sharing shelters with bats. The comparisons of nucleotide diversity revealed a higher diversity for T. c. marinkellei than any of the T. c. cruzi genotypes associated with Chagas disease. Findings from this study increased both the number of host species and known geographical ranges of both parasites and suggest potential vectors for these two trypanosomes associated with bats in rural areas of southern Ecuador. The higher nucleotide diversity of T. c. marinkellei supports a long evolutionary relationship between T. cruzi and bats, implying that bats are the original hosts of this important parasite. PMID:26465748

  11. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Juan Carlos; Cooper, Philip J; Lovato, Raquel; Mancero, Tamara; Rivera, Jorge; Proaño, Roberto; López, Andrea A; Guderian, Ronald H; Guzmán, José Rumbea

    2007-05-23

    Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Over the period 1990-2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round). Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries.

  12. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Juan Carlos; Cooper, Philip J; Lovato, Raquel; Mancero, Tamara; Rivera, Jorge; Proaño, Roberto; López, Andrea A; Guderian, Ronald H; Guzmán, José Rumbea

    2007-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority. Community-based treatment programs with ivermectin form the basis of control programs for the disease in Latin America. The long-term administration of ivermectin could eliminate Onchocerca volvulus infection from endemic areas in Latin America. Methods A strategy of annual to twice-annual treatments with ivermectin has been used for onchocerciasis in endemic communities in Ecuador for up to 14 years. The impact of ivermectin treatment on ocular morbidity, and O. volvulus infection and transmission was monitored in seven sentinel communities. Results Over the period 1990–2003, high rates of treatment coverage of the eligible population were maintained in endemic communities (mean 85.2% per treatment round). Ivermectin reduced the prevalence of anterior segment disease of the eye to 0% in sentinel communities and had a major impact on the prevalence and transmission of infection, with possible elimination of infection in some foci. Conclusion The distribution of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ecuador might have eliminated ocular morbidity and significant progress has been made towards elimination of the infection. A strategy of more frequent treatments with ivermectin may be required in communities where the infection persists to achieve the objective of elimination of the infection from Ecuador. The elimination of the infection from an endemic country in Latin America would be a major public health achievement and could stimulate the implementation of elimination strategies in other endemic countries. PMID:17521449

  13. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; Venegas, Pablo J; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000-1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543-1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122-1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported.

  14. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000–1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543–1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122–1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported. PMID:26798310

  15. Bats, Trypanosomes, and Triatomines in Ecuador: New Insights into the Diversity, Transmission, and Origins of Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Tapia, Elicio E; Lobos, Simón E; Zurita, Alejandra P; Aguirre-Villacís, Fernanda; MacDonald, Amber; Villacís, Anita G; Lima, Luciana; Teixeira, Marta M G; Grijalva, Mario J; Perkins, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The generalist parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has two phylogenetic lineages associated almost exclusively with bats-Trypanosoma cruzi Tcbat and the subspecies T. c. marinkellei. We present new information on the genetic variation, geographic distribution, host associations, and potential vectors of these lineages. We conducted field surveys of bats and triatomines in southern Ecuador, a country endemic for Chagas disease, and screened for trypanosomes by microscopy and PCR. We identified parasites at species and genotype levels through phylogenetic approaches based on 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes and conducted a comparison of nucleotide diversity of the cytb gene. We document for the first time T. cruzi Tcbat and T. c. marinkellei in Ecuador, expanding their distribution in South America to the western side of the Andes. In addition, we found the triatomines Cavernicola pilosa and Triatoma dispar sharing shelters with bats. The comparisons of nucleotide diversity revealed a higher diversity for T. c. marinkellei than any of the T. c. cruzi genotypes associated with Chagas disease. Findings from this study increased both the number of host species and known geographical ranges of both parasites and suggest potential vectors for these two trypanosomes associated with bats in rural areas of southern Ecuador. The higher nucleotide diversity of T. c. marinkellei supports a long evolutionary relationship between T. cruzi and bats, implying that bats are the original hosts of this important parasite.

  16. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  17. A checklist of the scorpions of Ecuador (Arachnida: Scorpiones), with notes on the distribution and medical significance of some species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Gabriel; Borges, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador harbors one of the most diverse Neotropical scorpion faunas, hereby updated to 47 species contained within eight genera and five families, which inhabits the "Costa" (n = 17), "Sierra" (n = 34), "Oriente" (n = 16) and "Insular" (n = 2) biogeographical regions, corresponding to the western coastal, Andean, Amazonian, and the Galápagos archipelago regions, respectively. The genus Tityus Koch, in the family Buthidae, responsible for severe/fatal accidents elsewhere in northern South America and the Amazonia, is represented in Ecuador by 16 species, including T. asthenes, which has caused fatalities in Colombia and Panama, and now in the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Sucumbíos. Underestimation of the medical significance of scorpion envenoming in Ecuador arises from the fact that Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais) (family Buthidae) and Teuthraustes atramentarius Simon (family Chactidae), whose venoms show low toxicity towards vertebrates, frequently envenom humans in the highly populated Guayas and Pichincha provinces. This work also updates the local scorpion faunal endemicity (74.5 %) and its geographical distribution, and reviews available medical/biochemical information on each species in the light of the increasing problem of scorpionism in the country. A proposal is hereby put forward to classify the Ecuadorian scorpions based on their potential medical importance.

  18. Accretion of a Small Continental Fragment to a Larger Continental Plate: Mesozoic Ecuador as a Case-Study Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, H.

    2013-05-01

    Only a few regions on Earth are appropriate to study processes that have happened in deeper crustal levels during the accretion of a microplate to a larger continental plate. Ecuador is one of these regions where in middle Mesozoic times a small continental fragment collided with the South-American plate. Along the suture between both plates, which occurs close to the present volcanic belt of Ecuador, high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks developed. These rocks, which are metapelites, metabasites, and metagranitoids, record processes during the microcontinent-continent collision (Massonne and Toulkeridis, 2012, Int. Geol. Rev. 54). The pressures, determined for the HP rocks, were as high as 14 kbar at temperatures somewhat above 500°C. The HP stage was followed by slight heating at the early exhumation. Peak temperatures up to 560°C were reached at pressures ≥10 kbar. This HP metamorphism was caused by the collision of the microplate with the South-American plate resulting in crustal thickening. The ascent of the HP rocks occurred in an exhumation channel. Before the collision, an oceanic basin existed between these plates. Probably, it was narrow as eclogite bodies are lacking in the N-S trending HP belt of Ecuador. Such bodies, especially if the eclogites had experienced pressures in excess of 20 kbar, are markers of a collision of major continental plates in Phanerozoic times with originally extended oceanic basins between these plates. In a more global context, the narrow ocean between the microplate and the South American continent is assumed to have been the westernmost portion of the Neo-Tethys which had extended to completely separate the two major fragments of former Pangaea before the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean. This opening caused the closure of the narrow Neo-Tethys segment between the colliding microplate and the South American plate. This segment was bordered by E-W trending transform faults. A fault system (La Palma - El Guayabo fault

  19. Modelling and monitoring vegetation and evapotranspiration on an anthropogenic grassland succession in the Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, B.; Bendix, J.

    2012-04-01

    In the eastern Andes of southern Ecuador the infestation of pasture (mostly C4-grass Setaria sphacelata) by the aggressive bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) still is an unsolved problem. Environmental and exogenous factors and direct plant competition have been hypothesized to drive bracken occurrence. Special attention is given to pasture burning, which stimulates bracken growth, and is common in the relative dry season (Oct-Dec). However, no knowledge is available for a quantitative hypothesis investigation on bracken occurrence under current and future local climate. In this work a modeling approach is presented, in which initial investigations support the application of a two-big-leaf model, and parameterization and model forcing are made with extensive data on physiological traits and on the physical environment. Our main aims here are (i) to show field investigations on a plant scale, which are the basis for a proper model parameterization; and (ii) to provide initialization data, which is based on estimation of green leaf area index from very-high and high resolution optical remote sensing (air-photos and Quickbird images); (iii) to simulate vegetation succession after burn on an experimental site, using in situ climate data and future climate-change scenarios. The modeling approach is based in the main on the vegetation dynamic model called Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo), which has been coupled to a hydrological model written on the catchment model framework (CMF), to simulate soil-vegetation dynamics. Main initialization variables are biochemical parameters (quantum and carboxylation efficiency) and the green leaf area index (green-LAI). Forcing data include soil, leaf and air temperature, soil and air humidity and radiation. The model has been developed and tested on the experimental site (2100 m asl) in the Rio San Francisco Valley, Ecuador. Simulation results on the burn experiment of 2009 showed that stimulation by fire could not boost fern

  20. International postseismic response after the Mw=7.8 April 16, 2016 Pedernales Earthquake in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Y.; Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Mercerat, D.; Beck, S. L.; Leon Rios, S.; Meltzer, A.; Charvis, P.; Regnier, M. M.; Jarrin, P.; Rietbrock, A.; Vasconez, F.; Dionicio, V.; Calvache, M. L.; Singaucho, J. C.; Pazmino, A.; Rolandone, F.; Mothes, P. A.; Nocquet, J. M.; Martin, X.; Viracucha, C.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M.; Laurendeau, A.; Perrault, M.; Garth, T.; Pernoud, M.; Barros, J. G.; Yates, B.; Malengros, D.; Oregioni, D.; Villegas Lanza, J. C.; Cisneros, D.; Gomez, J.; Montes, L.; Beauval, C. M.; Bertrand, E.; Delouis, B.; Ruiz Paspuel, A. G.; Freymueller, J. T.; Williams, K.; La Femina, P.; Fuenzalida, A.; Mariniere, J.; Cheze, J.; Gueguen, P.; Maron, C.; Michaud, F.; Yepes, H. A.; Palacios, P.; Vallee, M.; Deschamps, A.; Gabriela, P.; Ambrois, D.; Ramos, C.; Courboulex, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Pedernales earthquake is a large Mw7.8 subduction earthquake caused by the relative convergence between the Nazca and South American plates. It occured north of the city of Pedernales, at 21 km depth and struck the coastal and densely populated Manabi Province, causing many casualties, structural damages and widespread surficial deformation. The 2016 epicenter was located near the Mw 7.8 1942 epicenter. Both events are similar in size and probably ruptured the same segment, which also corresponds to the southern part of the 1906 Mw8.8 Ecuador-Colombia megathrust rupture zone. Immediately after the earthquake, an international team from Ecuador, France, Colombia, the United Kingdom, Peru and the United States coordinated a scientific response with the respective financial support of EPN, IRD and CNRS, SGC, NERC and NSF. Equipment was provided by IGEPN, IRD, CEREMA, SGC, LIVERPOOL, IRIS PASSCAL and UNAVCO. Within a 1.5 month, the team progressively deployed a temporary seismic network of about 70 accelerometer and seismic stations, and 17 continuous GPS stations, complementing the permanent seismic, accelerometer and geodetic network of the IG-EPN. The dense network covers the 300 x 150 km wide area affected by the earthquake, including a trench-parallel line of 10 ocean bottom seismometers deployed by the R/V Orion of INOCAR for 6 months, assuring a minimized azimuthal gap. Intense seismicity is observed up to 150 km N- and S-ward from the rupture zone aligning mainly along 3 seismic strips roughly perpendicular to the trench and also near the rupture area. Peak ground and spectral accelerations are compared with existing ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed for interface earthquakes. Different soil investigations were realized to highlight soil characteristics in cities. The geodetic observations captured the immediate afterslip and will help determining the time history of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation in response to this earthquake. A